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Sample records for s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase adometdc

  1. Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-25

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

  2. Novel protein–protein interaction between spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Arjun K.; Agnihotri, Pragati; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Pratap, J. Venkatesh

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • L. donovani spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase have been cloned and purified. • S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has autocatalytic property. • GST pull down assay shows the two proteins to form a metabolon. • Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that binding was exothermic having K{sub d} value of 0.4 μM. • Interaction confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. - Abstract: Polyamine biosynthesis pathway has long been considered an essential drug target for trypanosomatids including Leishmania. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDc) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) are enzymes of this pathway that catalyze successive steps, with the product of the former, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), acting as an aminopropyl donor for the latter enzyme. Here we have explored the possibility of and identified the protein–protein interaction between SpdSyn and AdoMetDc. The protein–protein interaction has been identified using GST pull down assay. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that the interaction is thermodynamically favorable. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies also confirms the interaction, with SpdSyn exhibiting a change in tertiary structure with increasing concentrations of AdoMetDc. Size exclusion chromatography suggests the presence of the complex as a hetero-oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzymes indeed form a heteromer. Computational analyses suggest that this complex differs significantly from the corresponding human complex, implying that this complex could be a better therapeutic target than the individual enzymes.

  3. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase overexpression inhibits mouse skin tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Feith, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Neoplastic growth is associated with increased polyamine biosynthetic activity and content. Tumor promoter treatment induces the rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), and targeted ODC overexpression is sufficient for tumor promotion in initiated mouse skin. We generated a mouse model with doxycycline (Dox)-regulated AdoMetDC expression to determine the impact of this second rate-limiting enzyme on epithelial carcinogenesis. TetOAdoMetDC (TAMD) transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice (K5-tTA) that express the tetracycline-regulated transcriptional activator within basal keratinocytes of the skin. Transgene expression in TAMD/K5-tTA mice was restricted to keratin 5 (K5) target tissues and silenced upon Dox treatment. AdoMetDC activity and its product, decarboxylated AdoMet, both increased approximately 8-fold in the skin. This enabled a redistribution of the polyamines that led to reduced putrescine, increased spermine, and an elevated spermine:spermidine ratio. Given the positive association between polyamine biosynthetic capacity and neoplastic growth, it was somewhat surprising to find that TAMD/K5-tTA mice developed significantly fewer tumors than controls in response to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate chemical carcinogenesis. Importantly, tumor counts in TAMD/K5-tTA mice rebounded to nearly equal the levels in the control group upon Dox-mediated transgene silencing at a late stage of tumor promotion, which indicates that latent viable initiated cells remain in AdoMetDC-expressing skin. These results underscore the complexity of polyamine modulation of tumor development and emphasize the critical role of putrescine in tumor promotion. AdoMetDC-expressing mice will enable more refined spatial and temporal manipulation of polyamine biosynthesis during tumorigenesis and in other models of human disease. PMID:22610166

  4. Novel protein-protein interaction between spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arjun K; Agnihotri, Pragati; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Pratap, J Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis pathway has long been considered an essential drug target for trypanosomatids including Leishmania. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDc) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) are enzymes of this pathway that catalyze successive steps, with the product of the former, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), acting as an aminopropyl donor for the latter enzyme. Here we have explored the possibility of and identified the protein-protein interaction between SpdSyn and AdoMetDc. The protein-protein interaction has been identified using GST pull down assay. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that the interaction is thermodynamically favorable. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies also confirms the interaction, with SpdSyn exhibiting a change in tertiary structure with increasing concentrations of AdoMetDc. Size exclusion chromatography suggests the presence of the complex as a hetero-oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzymes indeed form a heteromer. Computational analyses suggest that this complex differs significantly from the corresponding human complex, implying that this complex could be a better therapeutic target than the individual enzymes. PMID:25511700

  5. Product feedback regulation implicated in translational control of the Trypanosoma brucei S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase regulatory subunit prozyme

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanjing; Nguyen, Suong; Kim, Sok Ho; Volkov, Oleg A.; Tu, Benjamin P.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human African sleeping sickness (HAT) is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. Polyamine biosynthesis is an important drug target in the treatment of HAT. Previously we showed that trypanosomatid S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), a key enzyme for biosynthesis of the polyamine spermidine, is activated by heterodimer formation with an inactive paralog termed prozyme. Furthermore, prozyme protein levels were regulated in response reduced AdoMetDC activity. Herein we show that T. brucei encodes three prozyme transcripts. The 3’UTRs of these transcripts were mapped and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs were used to identify a 1.2 kb region that contained a 3’UTR prozyme regulatory element sufficient to up regulate CAT protein levels (but not RNA) upon AdoMetDC inhibition, supporting the hypothesis that prozyme expression is regulated translationally. To gain insight into trans-acting factors, genetic rescue of AdoMetDC RNAi knockdown lines with human AdoMetDC was performed leading to rescue of the cell growth block, and restoration of prozyme protein to wild-type levels. Polyamine and AdoMet metabolite analysis showed that prozyme protein levels were inversely proportional to intracellular levels of decarboxylated AdoMet (dcAdoMet). These data suggest that prozyme translation may be regulated by dcAdoMet, a metabolite not previously identified to play a regulatory role. PMID:23634831

  6. Trypanosoma brucei S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase N Terminus Is Essential for Allosteric Activation by the Regulatory Subunit Prozyme*

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Nahir; Brautigam, Chad A.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei. Polyamine biosynthesis is a clinically validated target for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Metabolic differences between the parasite and the human polyamine pathway are thought to contribute to species selectivity of pathway inhibitors. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) catalyzes a key step in the production of the polyamine spermidine. We previously showed that trypanosomatid AdoMetDC differs from other eukaryotic enzymes in that it is regulated by heterodimer formation with a catalytically dead paralog, designated prozyme, which binds with high affinity to the enzyme and increases its activity by up to 103-fold. Herein, we examine the role of specific residues involved in AdoMetDC activation by prozyme through deletion and site-directed mutagenesis. Results indicate that 12 key amino acids at the N terminus of AdoMetDC are essential for prozyme-mediated activation with Leu-8, Leu-10, Met-11, and Met-13 identified as the key residues. These N-terminal residues are fully conserved in the trypanosomatids but are absent from other eukaryotic homologs lacking the prozyme mechanism, suggesting co-evolution of these residues with the prozyme mechanism. Heterodimer formation between AdoMetDC and prozyme was not impaired by mutation of Leu-8 and Leu-10 to Ala, suggesting that these residues are involved in a conformational change that is essential for activation. Our findings provide the first insight into the mechanisms that influence catalytic regulation of AdoMetDC and may have potential implications for the development of new inhibitors against this enzyme. PMID:23288847

  7. New Insights into the Design of Inhibitors of Human S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: Studies of Adenine C[superscript 8] Substitution in Structural Analogues of S-Adenosylmethionine

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, Diane E.; Bale, Shridhar; Secrist, III, John A.; Tiwari, Anita; Moss, III, Thomas H.; Valiyaveettil, Jacob; Brooks, Wesley H.; Guida, Wayne C.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2009-04-02

    S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and depends on a pyruvoyl group for the decarboxylation process. The crystal structures of the enzyme with various inhibitors at the active site have shown that the adenine base of the ligands adopts an unusual syn conformation when bound to the enzyme. To determine whether compounds that favor the syn conformation in solution would be more potent AdoMetDC inhibitors, several series of AdoMet substrate analogues with a variety of substituents at the 8-position of adenine were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to inhibit hAdoMetDC. The biochemical analysis indicated that an 8-methyl substituent resulted in more potent inhibitors, yet most other 8-substitutions provided no benefit over the parent compound. To understand these results, we used computational modeling and X-ray crystallography to study C{sup 8}-substituted adenine analogues bound in the active site.

  8. Parasite-specific inserts in the bifunctional S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase/ornithine decarboxylase of Plasmodium falciparum modulate catalytic activities and domain interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Wrenger, Carsten; Joubert, Fourie; Wells, Gordon A; Walter, Rolf D; Louw, Abraham I

    2004-01-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is regulated by a single, hinge-linked bifunctional PfAdoMetDC/ODC [ P. falciparum AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase)/ODC (ornithine decarboxylase)] with a molecular mass of 330 kDa. The bifunctional nature of AdoMetDC/ODC is unique to Plasmodia and is shared by at least three species. The PfAdoMetDC/ODC contains four parasite-specific regions ranging in size from 39 to 274 residues. The significance of the parasite-specific inserts for activity and protein-protein interactions of the bifunctional protein was investigated by a single- and multiple-deletion strategy. Deletion of these inserts in the bifunctional protein diminished the corresponding enzyme activity and in some instances also decreased the activity of the neighbouring, non-mutated domain. Intermolecular interactions between AdoMetDC and ODC appear to be vital for optimal ODC activity. Similar results have been reported for the bifunctional P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase [Yuvaniyama, Chitnumsub, Kamchonwongpaisan, Vanichtanankul, Sirawaraporn, Taylor, Walkinshaw and Yuthavong (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 357-365]. Co-incubation of the monofunctional, heterotetrameric approximately 150 kDa AdoMetDC domain with the monofunctional, homodimeric ODC domain (approximately 180 kDa) produced an active hybrid complex of 330 kDa. The hinge region is required for bifunctional complex formation and only indirectly for enzyme activities. Deletion of the smallest, most structured and conserved insert in the ODC domain had the biggest impact on the activities of both decarboxylases, homodimeric ODC arrangement and hybrid complex formation. The remaining large inserts are predicted to be non-globular regions located on the surface of these proteins. The large insert in AdoMetDC in contrast is not implicated in hybrid complex formation even though distinct interactions between this insert and the two domains are inferred from the effect of its removal on both catalytic activities. Interference with essential protein-protein interactions mediated by parasite-specific regions therefore appears to be a viable strategy to aid the design of selective inhibitors of polyamine metabolism of P. falciparum. PMID:12974675

  9. Characterization of a Novel Putative S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase-Like Protein from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh Pratap; Agnihotri, Pragati; Pratap, J. Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AD) present in all organisms, trypanosomatids including Leishmania spp. possess an additional copy, annotated as the putative S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-like proenzyme (ADL). Phylogenetic analysis confirms that ADL is unique to trypanosomatids and has several unique features such as lack of autocatalytic cleavage and a distinct evolutionary lineage, even from trypanosomatid ADs. In Trypanosoma ADL was found to be enzymaticaly dead but plays an essential regulatory role by forming a heterodimer complex with AD. However, no structural or functional information is available about ADL from Leishmania spp. Here, in this study, we report the cloning, expression, purification, structural and functional characterization of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) ADL using biophysical, biochemical and computational techniques. Biophysical studies show that, L. donovani ADL binds S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and putrescine which are natural substrates of AD. Computational modeling and docking studies showed that in comparison to the ADs of other organisms including human, residues involved in putrescine binding are partially conserved while the SAM binding residues are significantly different. In silico protein-protein interaction study reveals that L. donovani ADL can interact with AD. These results indicate that L. donovani ADL posses a novel substrate binding property and may play an essential role in polyamine biosynthesis with a different mode of function from known proteins of the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase super family. PMID:23840377

  10. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  11. Overexpression of carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene generates a broad-spectrum tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Wi, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek; Park, Ky Young

    2006-10-01

    Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are present in all living organism and implicate in a wide range of cellular physiological processes. We have used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. Sense construct of full-length cDNA for S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in PA biosynthesis, from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Several transgenic lines overexpressing SAMDC gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter accumulated soluble total PAs by 2.2 (S16-S-4) to 3.1 (S16-S-1) times than wild-type plants. The transgenic tobacco did not show any difference in organ phenotype compared to the wild-type. The number and weight of seeds increased, and net photosynthetic rate also increased in transgenic plants. Stress-induced damage was attenuated in these transgenic plants, in the symptom of visible yellowing and chlorophyll degradation after all experienced stresses such as salt stress, cold stress, acidic stress, and abscisic acid treatment. H2O2-induced damage was attenuated by spermidine treatment. Transcripts for antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, manganase superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase) in transgenic plants and GUS activity transformed with SAMDC promoter::GUS fusion were induced more significantly by stress treatment, compared to control. These results that the transgenic plants with sense SAMDC cDNA are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than wild-type plants suggest that PAs may play an important role in contributing stress tolerance in plants. PMID:16642382

  12. Use of a Chimeric Hsp70 to Enhance the Quality of Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Protein Produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Makhoba, Xolani Henry; Burger, Adélle; Coertzen, Dina; Zininga, Tawanda; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Shonhai, Addmore

    2016-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (PfAdoMetDC) from Plasmodium falciparum is a prospective antimalarial drug target. The production of recombinant PfAdoMetDC for biochemical validation as a drug target is important. The production of PfAdoMetDC in Escherichia coli has been reported to result in unsatisfactory yields and poor quality product. The co-expression of recombinant proteins with molecular chaperones has been proposed as one way to improve the production of the former in E. coli. E. coli heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL-GroES and DnaJ have previously been used to enhance production of some recombinant proteins. However, the outcomes were inconsistent. An Hsp70 chimeric protein, KPf, which is made up of the ATPase domain of E. coli DnaK and the substrate binding domain of P. falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) has been previously shown to exhibit chaperone function when it was expressed in E. coli cells whose resident Hsp70 (DnaK) function was impaired. We proposed that because of its domain constitution, KPf would most likely be recognised by E. coli Hsp70 co-chaperones. Furthermore, because it possesses a substrate binding domain of plasmodial origin, KPf would be primed to recognise recombinant PfAdoMetDC expressed in E. coli. First, using site-directed mutagenesis, followed by complementation assays, we established that KPf with a mutation in the hydrophobic residue located in its substrate binding cavity was functionally compromised. We further co-expressed PfAdoMetDC with KPf, PfHsp70 and DnaK in E. coli cells either in the absence or presence of over-expressed GroEL-GroES chaperonin. The folded and functional status of the produced PfAdoMetDC was assessed using limited proteolysis and enzyme assays. PfAdoMetDC co-expressed with KPf and PfHsp70 exhibited improved activity compared to protein co-expressed with over-expressed DnaK. Our findings suggest that chimeric KPf may be an ideal Hsp70 co-expression partner for the production of recombinant plasmodial proteins in E. coli. PMID:27031344

  13. Inhibition of angiogenesis by S-adenosylmethionine

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Emel; Guemueslue, Saadet; Erdogan, Abdullah; Gueltekin, Meral

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) were investigated in endothelial cells. {yields} Our results showed that SAM decreased proliferation of endothelial cells. {yields} SAM influentially inhibited the percentage of cell migration. {yields} SAM probably stopped migration as independent from its effects on proliferation. {yields} SAM was shown to suppress in vitro angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Metastasis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer. One of the steps in metastasis process is the formation of new blood vessels. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are common in cancer cells. In recent studies, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is a DNA methylating agent, has been found to have inhibitory effects on some carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we have used SAM to investigate whether it is effective against angiogenesis in vitro. Our results have shown that SAM can reduce the formation and organization of capillary-like structures of endothelial cells in tumoral environment. Besides, we have found SAM can block endothelial cell proliferation and the migration of cells towards growth factors-rich media. In conclusion, our study suggests that SAM may be used against angiogenesis as a natural bio-product.

  14. Phytohormonal regulation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and S-adenosylmethionine levels in dwarf pea epicotyls.

    PubMed

    Mathur, M; Sachar, R C

    1991-08-01

    A significant stimulation (2- to 2.5-fold) of AdoMet synthetase was witnessed in glibberellicd acid (GA3, 1 microM)-treated epicotyls of the dwarf pea (Pisum sativum). This was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in the endogenous pool of S-adenosylmethionine. Both abscisic acid (10 microM) and cycloheximide (20 micrograms/ml) inhibited the GA3-mediated enhancement of AdoMet synthetase activity. Three isozymes of AdoMet synthetase were detected in GA3-treated epicotyls, whereas a single activity peak was observed in controls. Thus, GA3 seems to control the induction of two new isozymes of AdoMet synthetase in the dwarf pea. By contrast, the tall pea exhibited three isozymes of AdoMet synthetase even in the absence of GA3 treatment. High concentration of L-methionine (2 mM) mimicked the GA3-elicited induction of two new isozymes of AdoMet synthetase in dwarf pea epicotyls. PMID:1831767

  15. FERONIA receptor kinase interacts with S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and suppresses S-adenosylmethionine production and ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dandan; Yu, Feng; Li, Jian; Van de Poel, Bram; Tan, Dan; Li, Jianglin; Liu, Yanqionq; Li, Xiushang; Dong, Mengqiu; Chen, Liangbi; Li, Dongping; Luan, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Environmental inputs such as stress can modulate plant cell metabolism, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We report here that FERONIA (FER), a plasma membrane receptor-like kinase, may negatively regulate the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis by interacting with two S-adenosylmethionine synthases (SAM1 and SAM2). SAM participates in ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamine biosynthetic pathways and provides the methyl group for protein and DNA methylation reactions. The Arabidopsis fer mutants contained a higher level of SAM and ethylene in plant tissues and displayed a dwarf phenotype. Such phenotype in the fer mutants was mimicked by over-expressing the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in transgenic plants, whereas sam1/2 double mutant showed an opposite phenotype. We propose that FER receptor kinase, in response to environmental stress and plant hormones such as auxin and BR, interacts with SAM synthases and down-regulates ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:25988356

  16. S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff): purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Hugo, E R; Byers, T J

    1993-10-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) has been purified to near homogeneity from the Neff strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The holoenzyme molecular mass is 88.8 kDa, including two copies each of a 32.8 kDa alpha-subunit and a 10-15 kDa beta-subunit. The alpha-subunit contains the active site. It has an N-terminal pyruvoyl group, and the first 19 amino acids are 63 and 74% identical with comparable sequences from yeast and mammals, respectively. The apparent Km for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the presence of 2 mM putrescine was 30.0 microM. The enzyme was stimulated 2-fold by putrescine, but was unaffected by spermidine. It was inhibited by the following anti-metabolites, listed with their Ki values: Berenil (0.17 microM), pentamidine (19.4 microM), propamidine (334 microM), hydroxystilbamidine (357 microM), methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (604 microM) and ethidium bromide (1.3 mM). Activity of the enzyme fell to undetectable levels during cell differentiation (encystment). PMID:8216217

  17. Complex Biotransformations Catalyzed by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Wen

    2011-01-01

    The radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) superfamily currently comprises thousands of proteins that participate in numerous biochemical processes across all kingdoms of life. These proteins share a common mechanism to generate a powerful 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates a highly diverse array of biotransformations. Recent studies are beginning to reveal the role of radical AdoMet proteins in the catalysis of highly complex and chemically unusual transformations, e.g. the ThiC-catalyzed complex rearrangement reaction. The unique features and intriguing chemistries of these proteins thus demonstrate the remarkable versatility and sophistication of radical enzymology. PMID:21771780

  18. S-adenosylmethionine levels regulate the Schwann cell DNA methylome

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Rey, Marta; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Aransay, Ana María; Fernandez, Agustín F.; Lavin, José Luis; Mósen-Ansorena, David; Berdasco, María; Turmaine, Marc; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C.; Esteller, Manel; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R.; Fraga, Mario F.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Mato, José M.; Woodhoo, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Axonal myelination is essential for rapid saltatory impulse conduction in the nervous system, and malformation or destruction of myelin sheaths leads to motor and sensory disabilities. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification during mammalian development, yet its role in myelination remains obscure. Here, using high-resolution methylome maps, we show that DNA methylation could play a key gene regulatory role in peripheral nerve myelination and that S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor in cytosine methylation, regulates the methylome dynamics during this process. Our studies also point to a possible role of SAMe in establishing the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, implicating SAMe in the pathogenesis of this disease. These critical observations establish a link between SAMe and DNA methylation status in a defined biological system, and provides a novel mechanism that could direct methylation changes during cellular differentiation and in diverse pathological situations. PMID:24607226

  19. S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE IN LIVER HEALTH, INJURY, AND CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.

    2013-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet, also known as SAM and SAMe) is the principal biological methyl donor synthesized in all mammalian cells but most abundantly in the liver. Biosynthesis of AdoMet requires the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). In mammals, two genes, MAT1A that is largely expressed by normal liver and MAT2A that is expressed by all extrahepatic tissues, encode MAT. Patients with chronic liver disease have reduced MAT activity and AdoMet levels. Mice lacking Mat1a have reduced hepatic AdoMet levels and develop oxidative stress, steatohepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In these mice, several signaling pathways are abnormal that can contribute to HCC formation. However, injury and HCC also occur if hepatic AdoMet level is excessive chronically. This can result from inactive mutation of the enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT). Children with GNMT mutation have elevated liver transaminases, and Gnmt knockout mice develop liver injury, fibrosis, and HCC. Thus a normal hepatic AdoMet level is necessary to maintain liver health and prevent injury and HCC. AdoMet is effective in cholestasis of pregnancy, and its role in other human liver diseases remains to be better defined. In experimental models, it is effective as a chemopreventive agent in HCC and perhaps other forms of cancer as well. PMID:23073625

  20. The role of S-adenosylmethionine in the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine and L-{beta}-lysine. This study is divided into three parts. They are; the purification of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, the investigation of the role of the C-5{prime}-hydrogens of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, and the question of whether activation of enzyme by S-adenosylmethionine necessitates transformation of S-adenosylmethionine into a new form. To determine if the C-5{prime}-hydrogens of S-adenosylmethionine participate in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, enzyme is activated with S-(2,8,5{prime}-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine and the L-lysine and L-{beta}-lysine are analyzed for their tritium content. The tritium levels in the two isomers are significant and reflect the Keq for the reaction with (L-{beta}-lysine)/(L-lysine) = 5.3 {+-} 0.3 at a pH of 7.7 and 37{degree}C. When S-(2,8-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine or S-(methyl-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine serve as activators, no significant amount of tritium is found in L-{beta}-lysine and L-lysine. To test if S-adenosylmethionine is modified during activation of enzyme, lysine 2,3-aminomutase is activated with {sup 14}C-radiolabelled S-adenosylmethionine.

  1. Evaluation of chemical and diastereoisomeric stability of S-adenosylmethionine in aqueous solution by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Desiderio, Claudia; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; De Rossi, Antonella; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Fuso, Andrea; Scarpa, Sigfrido

    2005-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was used for monitoring the stability of S-adenosylmethionine in aqueous solution under different conditions of storage and incubation used for "in vitro" and "in vivo" experiments, by evaluating both the entity of degradation and the possibility of epimerization at the sulfonium group. The determination of S,S-S-adenosylmethionine in presence of its R,S-epimer and degradation products was performed in uncoated capillary of 50 microm ID using 150 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 2.5. The analyses were performed in short or long-end injection modes depending if a fast monitoring of the degradation products or the evaluation of the diastereoisomeric ratio were carried out, respectively. In the long-end injection mode the baseline separation of S-adenosylmethionine diastereoisomeric forms and degradation products was obtained in less than 10 min with efficiency values in the range of 172,520-311,439 number of theoretical plates per meter. The results showed that freezing was the optimum storage mode for S-adenosylmethionine aqueous solutions preserving from degradation and diastereoisomeric ratio alterations. Under incubation conditions at 38 degrees C during 14 days period S-adenosylmethionine showed a strong degradation and the formation of three main increasing degradation products. After 7 and 14 days only the 52% and 32% of the initial drug concentration were available and the active S,S-S-adenosylmethionine form was the most affected. PMID:15925246

  2. Paramagnetic intermediates generated by radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stich, Troy A; Myers, William K; Britt, R David

    2014-08-19

    A [4Fe-4S](+) cluster reduces a bound S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) molecule, cleaving it into methionine and a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical (5'-dA(•)). This step initiates the varied chemistry catalyzed by each of the so-called radical SAM enzymes. The strongly oxidizing 5'-dA(•) is quenched by abstracting a H-atom from a target species. In some cases, this species is an exogenous molecule of substrate, for example, L-tyrosine in the [FeFe] hydrogenase maturase, HydG. In other cases, the target is a proteinaceous residue as in all the glycyl radical forming enzymes. The generation of this initial radical species and the subsequent chemistry involving downstream radical intermediates is meticulously controlled by the enzyme so as to prevent unwanted reactions. But the manner in which this control is exerted is unknown. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has proven to be a valuable tool used to gain insight into these mechanisms. In this Account, we summarize efforts to trap such radical intermediates in radical SAM enzymes and highlight four examples in which EPR spectroscopic results have shed significant light on the corresponding mechanism. For lysine 2,3-aminomutase, nearly each possible intermediate, from an analogue of the initial 5'-dA(•) to the product radical L-β-lysine, has been explored. A paramagnetic intermediate observed in biotin synthase is shown to involve an auxiliary [FeS] cluster whose bridging sulfide is a co-substrate for the final step in the biosynthesis of vitamin B7. In HydG, the L-tyrosine substrate is converted in unprecedented fashion to a 4-oxidobenzyl radical on the way to generating CO and CN(-) ligands for the [FeFe] cluster of hydrogenase. And finally, EPR has confirmed a mechanistic proposal for the antibiotic resistance protein Cfr, which methylates the unactivated sp(2)-hybridized C8-carbon of an adenosine base of 23S ribosomal RNA. These four systems provide just a brief survey of the ever-growing set of radical SAM enzymes. The diverse chemistries catalyzed by these enzymes make them an intriguing target for continuing study, and EPR spectroscopy, in particular, seems ideally placed to contribute to our understanding. PMID:24991701

  3. Paramagnetic Intermediates Generated by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus A [4Fe–4S]+ cluster reduces a bound S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) molecule, cleaving it into methionine and a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical (5′-dA•). This step initiates the varied chemistry catalyzed by each of the so-called radical SAM enzymes. The strongly oxidizing 5′-dA• is quenched by abstracting a H-atom from a target species. In some cases, this species is an exogenous molecule of substrate, for example, l-tyrosine in the [FeFe] hydrogenase maturase, HydG. In other cases, the target is a proteinaceous residue as in all the glycyl radical forming enzymes. The generation of this initial radical species and the subsequent chemistry involving downstream radical intermediates is meticulously controlled by the enzyme so as to prevent unwanted reactions. But the manner in which this control is exerted is unknown. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has proven to be a valuable tool used to gain insight into these mechanisms. In this Account, we summarize efforts to trap such radical intermediates in radical SAM enzymes and highlight four examples in which EPR spectroscopic results have shed significant light on the corresponding mechanism. For lysine 2,3-aminomutase, nearly each possible intermediate, from an analogue of the initial 5′-dA• to the product radical l-β-lysine, has been explored. A paramagnetic intermediate observed in biotin synthase is shown to involve an auxiliary [FeS] cluster whose bridging sulfide is a co-substrate for the final step in the biosynthesis of vitamin B7. In HydG, the l-tyrosine substrate is converted in unprecedented fashion to a 4-oxidobenzyl radical on the way to generating CO and CN– ligands for the [FeFe] cluster of hydrogenase. And finally, EPR has confirmed a mechanistic proposal for the antibiotic resistance protein Cfr, which methylates the unactivated sp2-hybridized C8-carbon of an adenosine base of 23S ribosomal RNA. These four systems provide just a brief survey of the ever-growing set of radical SAM enzymes. The diverse chemistries catalyzed by these enzymes make them an intriguing target for continuing study, and EPR spectroscopy, in particular, seems ideally placed to contribute to our understanding. PMID:24991701

  4. S-adenosylmethionine metabolism and DNA methylation in hydrazine-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, L.R.; Shank, R.C.; Magee, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of rats with hepatotoxic doses of hydrazine (NH2-NH2) induces the rapid formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine in liver DNA. The methyl moiety in these reactions might be derived from the cellular S-adenosylmethionine pool because radioactivity administered to these rats as methionine rapidly appears in the DNA as methylated guanine. An increased incorporation of radioactivity into 5-methylcytosine was previously reported followed by subsequent suppression. This increased radiolabeling of 5-methylcytosine coincided with time of maximal DNA guanine methylation. To determine the nature of S-adenosylmethionine metabolism during the period of DNA methylation induced by hydrazine treatment, and to determine if the increased radiolabeling of 5-methylcytosine at this time reflected an actual increase in 5-methylcytosine synthesis, liver DNA synthesis and S-adenosylmethionine levels and turnover were assayed. Liver S-adenosylmethionine concentrations varied slightly between control rats and hydrazinetreated rats during the first five hours after hydrazine administration, and no difference was detectable in the incorporation of administered (3H)methionine into S-adenosylmethionine. Because S-adenosylmethionine specific radioactivity in hydrazine-treated rats was not different from control rats, the previously observed increased radiolabeling of 5-methylcytosine appeared to represent an actual increase in synthesis. This conclusion was supported by finding that incorporation of radioactive thymidine into DNA was also accelerated immediately following hydrazine administration, again followed by a decrease. 5-Methylcytosine sythesis, therefore, appears to follow DNA synthesis during hydrazine toxicity, and formation of 7-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine in liver DNA of hydrazine-treated rats occurs during a short period of increased DNA sythesis and 5-methylcytosine formation very early in hydrazine toxicity.

  5. S-adenosylmethionine lowers the inflammatory response in macrophages associated with changes in DNA methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the unique methyl donor in DNA methylation, has been shown to lower inflammation. We assessed whether epigenetic mechanisms mediate this effect. Human THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages and treated with 0 micromole/L, 500 micromole/L or 1000 micromole/L SAM ...

  6. Allosteric and catalytic binding of S-adenosylmethionine to Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase monitored by 3H NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Bergerat, A.; Guschlbauer, W.; Fazakerley, G.V. )

    1991-08-01

    Adenine methylation of GATC sequences in DNA is carried out by the DNA adenine methyltransferase with the methyl group source being the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine. The authors report 3H NMR studies on the interaction of DNA adenine methyltransferase with S-adenosylmethionine and the reaction when the ternary complex is formed with an oligonucleotide containing a GATC site. The methylation reaction was also studied in the presence of a competitive inhibitor and this showed two successive stages involved in the methylation and two sites of binding for S-adenosylmethionine.

  7. Marine-Derived Metabolites of S-Adenosylmethionine as Templates for New Anti-Infectives

    PubMed Central

    Sufrin, Janice R.; Finckbeiner, Steven; Oliver, Colin M.

    2009-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a key biochemical co-factor whose proximate metabolites include methylated macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids), methylated small molecules (e.g., sterols, biogenic amines), polyamines (e.g., spermidine, spermine), ethylene, and N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Marine organisms produce numerous AdoMet metabolites whose novel structures can be regarded as lead compounds for anti-infective drug design. PMID:19841722

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from Chorispora bungeana.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenchen; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yu; Liu, Sha; Yan, Kan; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Hua; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe; Chen, Shuyan

    2015-11-10

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which is a molecule essential for polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis, methylation modifications of protein, DNA and lipids. SAMS also plays an important role in abiotic stress response. Chorispora bungeana (C. bungeana) is an alpine subnival plant species which possesses strong tolerance to cold stress. Here, we cloned and characterized an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene, CbSAMS (C. bungeana S-adenosylmethionine synthetase), from C. bungeana, which encodes a protein of 393 amino acids containing a methionine binding motif GHPDK, an ATP binding motif GAGDQG and a phosphate binding motif GGGAFSGDK. Furthermore, an NES (nuclear export signal) peptide was identified through bioinformatics analysis. To explore the CbSAMS gene expression regulation, we isolated the promoter region of CbSAMS gene 1919bp upstream the ATG start codon, CbSAMSp, and analyzed its cis-acting elements by bioinformatics method. It was revealed that a transcription start site located at 320 bp upstream the ATG start codon and cis-acting elements related to light, ABA, auxin, ethylene, MeJA, low temperature and drought had been found in the CbSAMSp sequence. The gene expression pattern of CbSAMS was then analyzed by TR-qPCR and GUS assay method. The result showed that CbSAMS is expressed in all examined tissues including callus, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers with a significant higher expression level in roots and flowers. Furthermore, the expression level of CbSAMS was induced by low temperature, ethylene and NaCl. Subcellular localization revealed that CbSAMS was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus but has a significant higher level in the nucleus. These results indicated a potential role of CbSAMS in abiotic stresses and plant growth in C. bungeana. PMID:26205258

  9. Role of S-adenosylmethionine in the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, M.; Frey, P.A.

    1987-11-05

    The interconversion of L-lysine and L-3,6-diamino-hexanoate (L-beta-lysine) catalyzed by lysine 2,3-aminomutase is known to be stimulated by added S-adenosylmethionine. In this paper we show that enzyme activated by S-(2,8,5'-/sup 3/H)adenosylmethionine catalyzes the conversion of L-lysine to the equilibrium mixture of L-lysine and L-beta-lysine with incorporation of high levels of tritium into both isomers. The tritium levels in the isomers reflect the equilibrium constant for their interconversion, 84% in the L-beta-lysine and 16% in L-lysine compared with Keq = 5.3 +/- 0.3 in the direction of the formation of L-beta-lysine at pH 7.7 and 30 degrees C. No significant tritium is incorporated into lysine from S-(2,8-/sup 3/H)adenosylmethionine or S-adenosyl(methyl-/sup 3/H) methionine under comparable conditions. Therefore, the tritium incorporated into lysine in the former reaction arises from the 5'-position of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl group in S-adenosylmethionine. These experiments implicate the 5'-deoxyadenosyl portion of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of this reaction, perhaps in a role analogous to that played by the 5'-deoxyadenosyl moiety of deoxyadenosyl cobalamin in coenzyme B12-dependent rearrangements.

  10. ?-Lipoic Acid Induced Elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine and Depleted S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Stabler, Sally P.; Sekhar, Jeevan; Allen, Robert H.; O'Neill, Heidi C.; White, Carl W.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoic Acid is a disulfhydryl-containing compound used in clinical medicine and in experimental models as an antioxidant. We developed a stable isotope dilution capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry assay for lipoic acid. We assayed a panel of the metabolites of transmethylation and transsulfuration 30 minutes after injecting lipoic acid 100 mg/kg in a rat model. Lipoic acid values rose 1000-fold in serum and 10-fold in liver. A methylated metabolite of lipoic acid was also detected but not quantitated. Lipoic acid injection caused a massive increase in serum S-adenosylhomocysteine and marked depletion of liver S-adenosylmethionine. Serum total cysteine was depleted but liver cysteine and glutathione were maintained. Serum total homocysteine doubled with increases also in cystathionine, N, N-dimethylglycine and alpha-aminobutyric acid. In contrast, after injection of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA), serum total cysteine and homocysteine were markedly depleted and there were no effects on serum S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. We conclude that large doses of lipoic acid both displace sulfhydryls from binding sites resulting in depletion of serum cysteine but also pose a methylation burden with severe depletion of liver S-adenosylmethionine and massive release of S-adenosylhomocysteine. These changes may have previously unrecognized deleterious effects that should be investigated in both human disease and experimental models. PMID:19616616

  11. Mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine suppress position-effect variegation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J.; Rasmuson-Lestander, A.; Zhang, Jingpu

    1996-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the study of trans-acting modifier mutations of position-effect variegation and Polycomb group (Pc-G) genes have been useful tools to investigate genes involved in chromatin structure. We have cloned a modifier gene, Suppressor of zeste 5 (Su(z)5), which encodes S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and we present here molecular results and data concerning its expression in mutants and genetic interactions. The mutant alleles Su(z)5, l(2)R23 and l(2)M6 show suppression of w{sup m4} and also of two white mutants induced by roo element insertions in the regulatory region i.e., w{sup is} (in combination with z{sup 1}) and w{sup sp1}. Two of the Su(z)5 alleles, as well as a deletion of the gene, also act as enhancers of Polycomb by increasing the size of sex combes on midleg. The results suggest that Su(z)5 is connected with regulation of chromatin structure. The enzyme S-adenosylmethionine synthetase is involved in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a methyl group donor and also, after decarboxylation, a propylamino group donor in the biosynthesis of polyamines. Our results from HPLC analysis show that in ovaries from heterozygous Su(z)5 mutants the content of spermine is significantly reduced. Results presented here suggest that polyamines are an important molecule class in the regulation of chromatin structure. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Discovery of Novel Types of Inhibitors of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthesis by Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John C.; Bock, Charles W.; Takusagawa, Fusao; Markham, George D.

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) lies at an intersection of nucleotide and amino acid metabolism, and performs a multitude of metabolic functions. AdoMet formation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (ATP : L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT)) which is a target for development of anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents. High affinity MAT inhibitors have been found through computational docking of more than 200,000 compounds for predicted binding to the crystallographically-defined nucleotide binding region of the enzyme's active site. Two of the top scoring candidate compounds had IC50 values less than 10 nM,, more than 10,000-fold lower than the substrates' KM values. The compounds are structurally unrelated to the natural ligands of the enzyme. The enzyme is protected from inhibition by ATP, but not by methionine, consistent with binding at the adenosyl region of the active site. These results validate in silico screening as a robust approach to the discovery of inhibitors of this chemotherapeutically relevant enzyme. PMID:19739644

  13. SPASM and Twitch Domains in S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Radical Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Grell, Tsehai A. J.; Goldman, Peter J.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM, also known as AdoMet) radical enzymes use SAM and a [4Fe-4S] cluster to catalyze a diverse array of reactions. They adopt a partial triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold with N- and C-terminal extensions that tailor the structure of the enzyme to its specific function. One extension, termed a SPASM domain, binds two auxiliary [4Fe-4S] clusters and is present within peptide-modifying enzymes. The first structure of a SPASM-containing enzyme, anaerobic sulfatase-maturating enzyme (anSME), revealed unexpected similarities to two non-SPASM proteins, butirosin biosynthetic enzyme 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine dehydrogenase (BtrN) and molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic enzyme (MoaA). The latter two enzymes bind one auxiliary cluster and exhibit a partial SPASM motif, coined a Twitch domain. Here we review the structure and function of auxiliary cluster domains within the SAM radical enzyme superfamily. PMID:25477505

  14. Identification and functional reconstitution of yeast mitochondrial carrier for S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Marobbio, C.M.T.; Agrimi, G.; Lasorsa, F.M.; Palmieri, F.

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 35 members of the mitochondrial carrier protein family, most of which have not yet been functionally identified. Here the identification of the mitochondrial carrier for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) Sam5p is described. The corresponding gene has been overexpressed in bacteria and the protein has been reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and identified by its transport properties. In confirmation of its identity, (i) the Sam5p–GFP protein was found to be targeted to mitochondria; (ii) the cells lacking the gene for this carrier showed auxotrophy for biotin (which is synthesized in the mitochondria by the SAM-requiring Bio2p) on fermentable carbon sources and a petite phenotype on non-fermentable substrates; and (iii) both phenotypes of the knock-out mutant were overcome by expressing the cytosolic SAM synthetase (Sam1p) inside the mitochondria. PMID:14609944

  15. [Double-blind polycentric study of the action of S-adenosylmethionine in hepatic cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Labo, G; Miglio, F; D'Ambro, A; Bellobuono, A; Ideo, G; Dioguardi, N; Bernardi, M; Corazza, G R; Gasbarrini, G; Avogaro, P; Pasquino, M

    1975-05-01

    Two comparable groups of patients with hepatic cirrhosis of different genesis in a compensation phase have been treated for 30 days with S-adenosylmethionine and vitamine B-12 (28 cases) or with vitamine B-12 alone (25 cases). The drugs were given by slow intravenous route at the daily dose of 150 mg of SAMe and 2000 gamma of vit. B-12 or of 2000 gamma of vit. B-12 alone, in two adminstrations. An evaluation of the results was carried out mostly on the laboratory data testing the liver function. Only the group of patients who had received SAMe showed significant modifications of all the parameters considered. This is confirming SAMe ability to restore hepatocyte activity bringing also to normal the protein synthesis. PMID:1095964

  16. Boron Deprivation Decreases Liver S-Adenosylmethionine and Spermidine and Increases Plasma Homocysteine and Cysteine in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted with weanling Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether changes in S-adenosylmethionine utilization or metabolism contribute to the diverse responses to boron deprivation. In both experiments, four treatment groups of 15 male rats were fed ground corn-casein based diets...

  17. Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes in cofactor biosynthesis: a treasure trove of complex organic radical rearrangement reactions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Angad P; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Mahanta, Nilkamal; Fedoseyenko, Dmytro; Philmus, Benjamin; Cooper, Lisa E; Liu, Yiquan; Jhulki, Isita; Ealick, Steven E; Begley, Tadhg P

    2015-02-13

    In this minireview, we describe the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin, menaquinone, molybdopterin, coenzyme F420, and heme. Our focus is on the remarkably complex organic rearrangements involved, many of which have no precedent in organic or biological chemistry. PMID:25477515

  18. SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE AND S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE IN MOUSE AND RAT TISSUES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rat liver and kidney and mouse liver is described. The method can also be used to determine SAM in whole blood. The method provides rapid (approximately 16 min sample to sample)...

  19. [Phosphinic analog of methionine inhibits growth of leucosis cell L1210 and transforms to phosphinic analog of S-adenosylmethionine].

    PubMed

    Khomutov, R M; Zhukov, Iu N; Khomutov, A R; Khurs, E N; Kramer, D L; Miller, J T; Porter, C W

    2000-09-01

    A phosphinic analogue of methionine bearing a phosphinic H(OH)(O)P fragment in place of the carboxyl group inhibited the growth of the L1210 cells and was intracellularly transformed to the phosphinic analogue of S-adenosylmethionine. PMID:11036532

  20. Radical S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Enzymes in Cofactor Biosynthesis: A Treasure Trove of Complex Organic Radical Rearrangement Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Angad P.; Abdelwahed, Sameh H.; Mahanta, Nilkamal; Fedoseyenko, Dmytro; Philmus, Benjamin; Cooper, Lisa E.; Liu, Yiquan; Jhulki, Isita; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2015-01-01

    In this minireview, we describe the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin, menaquinone, molybdopterin, coenzyme F420, and heme. Our focus is on the remarkably complex organic rearrangements involved, many of which have no precedent in organic or biological chemistry. PMID:25477515

  1. Blocking S-Adenosylmethionine Synthesis in Yeast Allows Selenomethionine Incorporation And Multiwavelength Anomalous Dispersion Phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Malkowski, M.G.; Quartley, E.; Friedman, A.E.; Babulski, J.; Kon, Y.; Wolfley, J.; Said, M.; Luft, J.R.; Phizicky, E.M.; DeTitta, G.T.; Grayhack, E.J.

    2009-06-03

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal host from which to obtain high levels of posttranslationally modified eukaryotic proteins for x-ray crystallography. However, extensive replacement of methionine by selenomethionine for anomalous dispersion phasing has proven intractable in yeast. We report a general method to incorporate selenomethionine into proteins expressed in yeast based on manipulation of the appropriate metabolic pathways. sam1{sup -} sam2{sup -} mutants, in which the conversion of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine is blocked, exhibit reduced selenomethionine toxicity compared with wild-type yeast, increased production of protein during growth in selenomethionine, and efficient replacement of methionine by selenomethionine, based on quantitative mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography. The structure of yeast tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase was solved to 1.8 {angstrom} by using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with protein that was expressed and purified from the sam1{sup -} sam2{sup -} strain grown in selenomethionine. Six of eight selenium residues were located in the structure.

  2. S-adenosylmethionine-binding properties of a bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Meriyem; Gleichenhagen, Jan; Stoll, Raphael; Narberhaus, Franz

    2011-07-01

    The presence of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial membrane is critically important for many host-microbe interactions. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens catalyzes the formation of PC by a three-step methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine and dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine. The methyl group is provided by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) during transmethylation. Despite the biological importance of bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferases, little is known about amino acids critical for binding to SAM or phospholipids and catalysis. Alanine substitutions in the predicted SAM-binding residues E58, G60, G62, and E84 in A. tumefaciens PmtA dramatically reduced SAM-binding and enzyme activity. Homology modeling of PmtA satisfactorily explained the mutational results. The enzyme is predicted to exhibit a consensus topology of the SAM-binding fold consistent with cofactor interaction as seen with most structurally characterized SAM-methyltransferases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration experiments and (14)C-SAM-binding studies revealed binding constants for SAM and SAH in the low micromolar range. Our study provides first insights into structural features and SAM binding of a bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferase. PMID:21602340

  3. An Investigation of the Catalytic Mechanism of S-adenosylmethionine Synthetase by QM/MM Calculations†

    PubMed Central

    Markham, George D.; Takusagawa, Fusao; DiJulio, Anthony M.; Bock, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    Catalysis by S-adenosylmethionine synthetase has been investigated by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations, exploiting structures of the active crystalline enzyme. The transition state energy of +19.1 kcal/mol computed for a nucleophilic attack of the methionyl sulfur on carbon-5′ of the nucleotide was indistinguishable from the experimental (solution) value when the QM residues were an uncharged histidine that hydrogen bonds to the leaving oxygen-5′ and an aspartate that chelates a Mg2+ ion, and was similar (+18.8 kcal/mol) when the QM region also included the active site arginine and lysines. The computed energy difference between reactant and product was also consistent with their equimolar abundance in co-crystals. The calculated geometrical changes support catalysis of a SN2 reaction through hydrogen bonding of the liberated oxygen-5′ to the histidine, charge neutralization by the 2 Mg2+ ions, and stabilization of the product sulfonium cation through a close, non-bonded, contact between the sulfur and the ribose 4′-oxygen. PMID:19699176

  4. Mechanistic diversity of radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylation.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, Matthew R; Schwalm, Erica L; Booker, Squire J

    2015-02-13

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use the oxidizing power of a 5'-deoxyadenosyl 5'-radical to initiate an amazing array of transformations, usually through the abstraction of a target substrate hydrogen atom. A common reaction of radical SAM (RS) enzymes is the methylation of unactivated carbon or phosphorous atoms found in numerous primary and secondary metabolites, as well as in proteins, sugars, lipids, and RNA. However, neither the chemical mechanisms by which these unactivated atoms obtain methyl groups nor the actual methyl donors are conserved. In fact, RS methylases have been grouped into three classes based on protein architecture, cofactor requirement, and predicted mechanism of catalysis. Class A methylases use two cysteine residues to methylate sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers. Class B methylases require a cobalamin cofactor to methylate both sp(2)-hybridized and sp(3)-hybridized carbon centers as well as phosphinate phosphorous atoms. Class C methylases share significant sequence homology with the RS enzyme, HemN, and may bind two SAM molecules simultaneously to methylate sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers. Lastly, we describe a new class of recently discovered RS methylases. These Class D methylases, unlike Class A, B, and C enzymes, which use SAM as the source of the donated methyl carbon, are proposed to methylate sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers using methylenetetrahydrofolate as the source of the appended methyl carbon. PMID:25477520

  5. Arsenic Methylation and Volatilization by Arsenite S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase in Pseudomonas alcaligenes NBRC14159

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Tingting; Tang, Zhu; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is highly toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Inorganic As can be transformed by microbial methylation, which constitutes an important part of the As biogeochemical cycle. In this study, we investigated As biotransformation by Pseudomonas alcaligenes NBRC14159. P. alcaligenes was able to methylate arsenite [As(III)] rapidly to dimethylarsenate and small amounts of trimethylarsenic oxide. An arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase, PaArsM, was identified and functionally characterized. PaArsM shares low similarities with other reported ArsM enzymes (<55%). When P. alcaligenes arsM gene (PaarsM) was disrupted, the mutant lost As methylation ability and became more sensitive to As(III). PaarsM was expressed in the absence of As(III) and the expression was further enhanced by As(III) exposure. Heterologous expression of PaarsM in an As-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli conferred As(III) resistance. Purified PaArsM protein methylated As(III) to dimethylarsenate as the main product in the medium and also produced dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine gases. We propose that PaArsM plays a role in As methylation and detoxification of As(III) and could be exploited in bioremediation of As-contaminated environments. PMID:25681184

  6. Consecutive radical S-adenosylmethionine methylations form the ethyl side chain in thienamycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marous, Daniel R.; Lloyd, Evan P.; Buller, Andrew R.; Moshos, Kristos A.; Grove, Tyler L.; Blaszczyk, Anthony J.; Booker, Squire J.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their broad anti-infective utility, the biosynthesis of the paradigm carbapenem antibiotic, thienamycin, remains largely unknown. Apart from the first two steps shared with a simple carbapenem, the pathway sharply diverges to the more structurally complex members of this class of β-lactam antibiotics, such as thienamycin. Existing evidence points to three putative cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymes, ThnK, ThnL, and ThnP, as potentially being responsible for assembly of the ethyl side chain at C6, bridgehead epimerization at C5, installation of the C2-thioether side chain, and C2/3 desaturation. The C2 substituent has been demonstrated to be derived by stepwise truncation of CoA, but the timing of these events with respect to C2–S bond formation is not known. We show that ThnK of the three apparent cobalamin-dependent RS enzymes performs sequential methylations to build out the C6-ethyl side chain in a stereocontrolled manner. This enzymatic reaction was found to produce expected RS methylase coproducts S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5′-deoxyadenosine, and to require cobalamin. For double methylation to occur, the carbapenam substrate must bear a CoA-derived C2-thioether side chain, implying the activity of a previous sulfur insertion by an as-yet unidentified enzyme. These insights allow refinement of the central steps in complex carbapenem biosynthesis. PMID:26240322

  7. Consecutive radical S-adenosylmethionine methylations form the ethyl side chain in thienamycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Marous, Daniel R; Lloyd, Evan P; Buller, Andrew R; Moshos, Kristos A; Grove, Tyler L; Blaszczyk, Anthony J; Booker, Squire J; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-08-18

    Despite their broad anti-infective utility, the biosynthesis of the paradigm carbapenem antibiotic, thienamycin, remains largely unknown. Apart from the first two steps shared with a simple carbapenem, the pathway sharply diverges to the more structurally complex members of this class of β-lactam antibiotics, such as thienamycin. Existing evidence points to three putative cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymes, ThnK, ThnL, and ThnP, as potentially being responsible for assembly of the ethyl side chain at C6, bridgehead epimerization at C5, installation of the C2-thioether side chain, and C2/3 desaturation. The C2 substituent has been demonstrated to be derived by stepwise truncation of CoA, but the timing of these events with respect to C2-S bond formation is not known. We show that ThnK of the three apparent cobalamin-dependent RS enzymes performs sequential methylations to build out the C6-ethyl side chain in a stereocontrolled manner. This enzymatic reaction was found to produce expected RS methylase coproducts S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5'-deoxyadenosine, and to require cobalamin. For double methylation to occur, the carbapenam substrate must bear a CoA-derived C2-thioether side chain, implying the activity of a previous sulfur insertion by an as-yet unidentified enzyme. These insights allow refinement of the central steps in complex carbapenem biosynthesis. PMID:26240322

  8. Functional proteomics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mitochondrial proteins as targets of S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, Enrique; Avila, Matías A.; Latasa, M. Ujue; Rubio, Angel; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work shows that S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) helps maintain normal liver function as chronic hepatic deficiency results in spontaneous development of steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms by which these nontraditional functions of AdoMet occur are unknown. Here, we use knockout mice deficient in hepatic AdoMet synthesis (MAT1A−/−) to study the proteome of the liver during the development of steatohepatitis. One hundred and seventeen protein spots, differentially expressed during the development of steatohepatitis, were selected and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Among them, 12 proteins were found to be affected from birth, when MAT1A−/− expression is switched on in WT mouse liver, to the rise of histological lesions, which occurs at ≈8 months. Of the 12 proteins, 4 [prohibitin 1 (PHB1), cytochrome c oxidase I and II, and ATPase β-subunit] have known roles in mitochondrial function. We show that the alteration in expression of PHB1 correlates with a loss of mitochondrial function. Experiments in isolated rat hepatocytes indicate that AdoMet regulates PHB1 content, thus suggesting ways by which steatohepatitis may be induced. Importantly, we found the expression of these mitochondrial proteins was abnormal in ob/ob mice and obese patients who are at risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:12631701

  9. Automethylation of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) Regulates Activity by Impeding S-Adenosylmethionine Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Myles B. C.; Rust, Heather L.; Thompson, Paul R.; Mowen, Kerri A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 8 is unique among the PRMTs, as it has a highly restricted tissue expression pattern and an N terminus that contains two automethylation sites and a myristoylation site. PRMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a peptidylarginine on a protein substrate. Currently, the physiological roles, regulation, and cellular substrates of PRMT8 are poorly understood. However, a thorough understanding of PRMT8 kinetics should provide insights into each of these areas, thereby enhancing our understanding of this unique enzyme. In this study, we determined how automethylation regulates the enzymatic activity of PRMT8. We found that preventing automethylation with lysine mutations (preserving the positive charge of the residue) increased the turnover rate and decreased the Km of AdoMet but did not affect the Km of the protein substrate. In contrast, mimicking automethylation with phenylalanine (i.e. mimicking the increased hydrophobicity) decreased the turnover rate. The inhibitory effect of the PRMT8 N terminus could be transferred to PRMT1 by creating a chimeric protein containing the N terminus of PRMT8 fused to PRMT1. Thus, automethylation of the N terminus likely regulates PRMT8 activity by decreasing the affinity of the enzyme for AdoMet. PMID:23946480

  10. S-Adenosylmethionine-Binding Properties of a Bacterial Phospholipid N-Methyltransferase▿†

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Meriyem; Gleichenhagen, Jan; Stoll, Raphael; Narberhaus, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial membrane is critically important for many host-microbe interactions. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens catalyzes the formation of PC by a three-step methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine and dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine. The methyl group is provided by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) during transmethylation. Despite the biological importance of bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferases, little is known about amino acids critical for binding to SAM or phospholipids and catalysis. Alanine substitutions in the predicted SAM-binding residues E58, G60, G62, and E84 in A. tumefaciens PmtA dramatically reduced SAM-binding and enzyme activity. Homology modeling of PmtA satisfactorily explained the mutational results. The enzyme is predicted to exhibit a consensus topology of the SAM-binding fold consistent with cofactor interaction as seen with most structurally characterized SAM-methyltransferases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration experiments and 14C-SAM-binding studies revealed binding constants for SAM and SAH in the low micromolar range. Our study provides first insights into structural features and SAM binding of a bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferase. PMID:21602340

  11. Mechanistic Diversity of Radical S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent Methylation*

    PubMed Central

    Bauerle, Matthew R.; Schwalm, Erica L.; Booker, Squire J.

    2015-01-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use the oxidizing power of a 5′-deoxyadenosyl 5′-radical to initiate an amazing array of transformations, usually through the abstraction of a target substrate hydrogen atom. A common reaction of radical SAM (RS) enzymes is the methylation of unactivated carbon or phosphorous atoms found in numerous primary and secondary metabolites, as well as in proteins, sugars, lipids, and RNA. However, neither the chemical mechanisms by which these unactivated atoms obtain methyl groups nor the actual methyl donors are conserved. In fact, RS methylases have been grouped into three classes based on protein architecture, cofactor requirement, and predicted mechanism of catalysis. Class A methylases use two cysteine residues to methylate sp2-hybridized carbon centers. Class B methylases require a cobalamin cofactor to methylate both sp2-hybridized and sp3-hybridized carbon centers as well as phosphinate phosphorous atoms. Class C methylases share significant sequence homology with the RS enzyme, HemN, and may bind two SAM molecules simultaneously to methylate sp2-hybridized carbon centers. Lastly, we describe a new class of recently discovered RS methylases. These Class D methylases, unlike Class A, B, and C enzymes, which use SAM as the source of the donated methyl carbon, are proposed to methylate sp2-hybridized carbon centers using methylenetetrahydrofolate as the source of the appended methyl carbon. PMID:25477520

  12. An enzyme-coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay for S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Kathleen M; Wooderchak, Whitney L; Wynn, Donraphael P; Karschner, Erin L; Alfaro, Joshua F; Cui, Yinqiu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Hevel, Joan M

    2006-03-15

    Modification of small molecules and proteins by methyltransferases affects a wide range of biological processes. Here, we report an enzyme-coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay to quantitatively characterize S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet/SAM)-dependent methyltransferase activity. In this assay, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy/SAH), the transmethylation product of AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, is hydrolyzed to S-ribosylhomocysteine and adenine by recombinant S-adenosylhomocysteine/5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (SAHN/MTAN, EC 3.2.2.9). Subsequently, adenine generated from AdoHcy is further hydrolyzed to hypoxanthine and ammonia by recombinant adenine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.2). This deamination is associated with a decrease in absorbance at 265 nm that can be monitored continuously. Coupling enzymes are recombinant and easily purified. The utility of this assay was shown using recombinant rat protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1, EC 2.1.1.125), which catalyzes the mono- and dimethylation of guanidino nitrogens of arginine residues in select proteins. Using this assay, the kinetic parameters of PRMT1 with three synthetic peptides were determined. An advantage of this assay is the destruction of AdoHcy by AdoHcy nucleosidase, which alleviates AdoHcy product feedback inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. Finally, this method may be used to assay other enzymes that produce AdoHcy, 5'-methylthioadenosine, or compounds that can be cleaved by AdoHcy nucleosidase. PMID:16460659

  13. Essential roles of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine in the autarkic lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Michael; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Chen, Mei; Kim, John; Wang, Jingxin; Harris, David; Parkhill, Julian; Chan, John; Wang, Feng; Jacobs, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance, strong side effects, and compliance problems in TB chemotherapy mandate new ways to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here we show that deletion of the gene encoding homoserine transacetylase (metA) inactivates methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) biosynthesis in Mtb and renders this pathogen exquisitely sensitive to killing in immunocompetent or immunocompromised mice, leading to rapid clearance from host tissues. Mtb ΔmetA is unable to proliferate in primary human macrophages, and in vitro starvation leads to extraordinarily rapid killing with no appearance of suppressor mutants. Cell death of Mtb ΔmetA is faster than that of other auxotrophic mutants (i.e., tryptophan, pantothenate, leucine, biotin), suggesting a particularly potent mechanism of killing. Time-course metabolomics showed complete depletion of intracellular methionine and SAM. SAM depletion was consistent with a significant decrease in methylation at the DNA level (measured by single-molecule real-time sequencing) and with the induction of several essential methyltransferases involved in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis, both of which are vital biological processes and validated targets of antimycobacterial drugs. Mtb ΔmetA could be partially rescued by biotin supplementation, confirming a multitarget cell death mechanism. The work presented here uncovers a previously unidentified vulnerability of Mtb—the incapacity to scavenge intermediates of SAM and methionine biosynthesis from the host. This vulnerability unveils an entirely new drug target space with the promise of rapid killing of the tubercle bacillus by a new mechanism of action. PMID:26221021

  14. Essential roles of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine in the autarkic lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Chen, Mei; Kim, John; Wang, Jingxin; Harris, David; Parkhill, Julian; Chan, John; Wang, Feng; Jacobs, William R

    2015-08-11

    Multidrug resistance, strong side effects, and compliance problems in TB chemotherapy mandate new ways to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here we show that deletion of the gene encoding homoserine transacetylase (metA) inactivates methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) biosynthesis in Mtb and renders this pathogen exquisitely sensitive to killing in immunocompetent or immunocompromised mice, leading to rapid clearance from host tissues. Mtb ΔmetA is unable to proliferate in primary human macrophages, and in vitro starvation leads to extraordinarily rapid killing with no appearance of suppressor mutants. Cell death of Mtb ΔmetA is faster than that of other auxotrophic mutants (i.e., tryptophan, pantothenate, leucine, biotin), suggesting a particularly potent mechanism of killing. Time-course metabolomics showed complete depletion of intracellular methionine and SAM. SAM depletion was consistent with a significant decrease in methylation at the DNA level (measured by single-molecule real-time sequencing) and with the induction of several essential methyltransferases involved in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis, both of which are vital biological processes and validated targets of antimycobacterial drugs. Mtb ΔmetA could be partially rescued by biotin supplementation, confirming a multitarget cell death mechanism. The work presented here uncovers a previously unidentified vulnerability of Mtb-the incapacity to scavenge intermediates of SAM and methionine biosynthesis from the host. This vulnerability unveils an entirely new drug target space with the promise of rapid killing of the tubercle bacillus by a new mechanism of action. PMID:26221021

  15. Serum S-adenosylmethionine, but not methionine, increases in response to overfeeding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Elshorbagy, A K; Jernerén, F; Samocha-Bonet, D; Refsum, H; Heilbronn, L K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentration of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is linearly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass. As SAM is a high-energy compound and a sensor of cellular nutrient status, we hypothesized that SAM would increase with overfeeding. Methods: Forty normal to overweight men and women were overfed by 1250 kcal per day for 28 days. Results: Serum SAM increased from 106 to 130 nmol/l (P=0.006). In stratified analysis, only those with weight gain above the median (high-weight gainers; average weight gain 3.9±0.3 kg) had increased SAM (+42%, P=0.001), whereas low-weight gainers (weight gain 1.5±0.2 kg) did not (Pinteraction=0.018). Overfeeding did not alter serum concentrations of the SAM precursor, methionine or the products, S-adenosyl-homocysteine and homocysteine. The SAM/SAH (S-adenosylhomocysteine) ratio was unchanged in the total population, but increased in high-weight gainers (+52%, P=0.006, Pinteraction =0.005). Change in SAM correlated positively with change in weight (r=0.33, P=0.041) and fat mass (r=0.44, P=0.009), but not with change in protein intake or plasma methionine, glucose, insulin or low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Conclusion: Overfeeding raised serum SAM in proportion to the fat mass gained. The increase in SAM may help stabilize methionine levels, and denotes a responsiveness of SAM to nutrient state in humans. The role of SAM in human energy metabolism deserves further attention. PMID:26807510

  16. Inhibition of human betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase expression by S-adenosylmethionine and methylthioadenosine

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaopeng; Yang, Heping; Ramani, Komal; Ara, Ainhoa Iglesias; Chen, Hui; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2006-01-01

    BHMT (betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase) remethylates homocysteine to form methionine. SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) inhibits BHMT activity, but whether SAM modulates BHMT gene expression is unknown. Transcriptional regulation of the human BHMT is also unknown. The present study examined regulation of the human BHMT gene by SAM and its metabolite, MTA (5′-methylthioadenosine). To facilitate these studies, we cloned the 2.7 kb 5′-flanking region of the human BHMT gene (GenBank® accession number AY325901). Both SAM and MTA treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in BHMT mRNA levels, which paralleled their effects on the BHMT promoter activity. Maximal suppression was observed with the BHMT promoter construct −347/+33, which contains a number of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) binding sites. SAM and MTA treatment increased NF-κB nuclear binding and NF-κB-driven luciferase activities, and increased nuclear binding activity of multiple histone deacetylase co-repressors to the NF-κB sites. Overexpression of p50 and p65 decreased BHMT promoter activity, while blocking NF-κB activation increased BHMT expression and promoter activity, and prevented SAM but not MTA's ability to inhibit BHMT expression. The NF-κB binding site at −301 is responsible, at least in part, for this effect. Lower BHMT expression can impair homocysteine metabolism, which can induce ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress. Indeed, MTA treatment resulted in increased expression ER stress markers. In conclusion, SAM and MTA down-regulate BHMT expression in HepG2 cells in part by inducing NF-κB, which acts as a repressor for the human BHMT gene. While SAM's mechanism is NF-κB-dependent, MTA has both NF-κB-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:16953798

  17. Identification and Characterization of the Chlamydia trachomatis L2 S-Adenosylmethionine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Binet, Rachel; Fernandez, Reinaldo E.; Fisher, Derek J.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Methylation is essential to the physiology of all cells, including the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. Nevertheless, the methylation cycle is under strong reductive evolutionary pressure in Chlamydia. Only Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila genome sequences harbor homologs to metK, encoding the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase required for synthesis of SAM, and to sahH, which encodes the S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase required for detoxification of SAH formed after the transfer of the methyl group from SAM to the methylation substrate. Transformation of a conditional-lethal ΔmetK mutant of Escherichia coli with a genomic library of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 identified CTL843 as a putative SAM transporter based on its ability to allow the mutant to survive metK deficiency only in the presence of extracellular SAM. CTL843 belongs to the drug/metabolite superfamily of transporters and allowed E. coli to transport S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-14C]methionine with an apparent Km of 5.9 µM and a Vmax of 32 pmol min−1 mg−1. Moreover, CTL843 conferred a growth advantage to a Δpfs E. coli mutant that lost the ability to detoxify SAH, while competition and back-transport experiments further implied that SAH was an additional substrate for CTL843. We propose that CTL843 acts as a SAM/SAH transporter (SAMHT) serving a dual function by allowing Chlamydia to acquire SAM from the host cell and excrete the toxic by-product SAH. The demonstration of a functional SAMHT provides further insight into the reductive evolution associated with the obligate intracellular lifestyle of Chlamydia and identifies an excellent chemotherapeutic target. PMID:21558433

  18. A disulfide-bond cascade mechanism for arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Packianathan, Charles; Ajees, A. Abdul; Dheeman, Dharmendra S.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kandavelu, Palani; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of the toxic metalloid arsenic is widespread in nature. Members of every kingdom have arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferase enzymes, which are termed ArsM in microbes and AS3MT in animals, including humans. Trivalent arsenic(III) is methylated up to three times to form methylarsenite [MAs(III)], dimethylarsenite [DMAs(III)] and the volatile trimethylarsine [TMAs(III)]. In microbes, arsenic methylation is a detoxification process. In humans, MAs(III) and DMAs(III) are more toxic and carcinogenic than either inorganic arsenate or arsenite. Here, new crystal structures are reported of ArsM from the thermophilic eukaryotic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508 (CmArsM) with the bound aromatic arsenicals phenylarsenite [PhAs(III)] at 1.80 Å resolution and reduced roxarsone [Rox(III)] at 2.25 Å resolution. These organoarsenicals are bound to two of four conserved cysteine residues: Cys174 and Cys224. The electron density extends the structure to include a newly identified conserved cysteine residue, Cys44, which is disulfide-bonded to the fourth conserved cysteine residue, Cys72. A second disulfide bond between Cys72 and Cys174 had been observed previously in a structure with bound SAM. The loop containing Cys44 and Cys72 shifts by nearly 6.5 Å in the arsenic(III)-bound structures compared with the SAM-bound structure, which suggests that this movement leads to formation of the Cys72–Cys174 disulfide bond. A model is proposed for the catalytic mechanism of arsenic(III) SAM methyltransferases in which a disulfide-bond cascade maintains the products in the trivalent state. PMID:25760600

  19. S-adenosylmethionine increases circulating very-low density lipoprotein clearance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Una, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mestre, Daniela; Fernandez-Ares, Larraitz; Fresnedo, Olatz; Fernandez-Ramos, David; Juan, Virginia Gutierrez-de; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad, Africa; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C; Garcia-Monzon, Carmelo; Finnell, Richard H; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Buque, Xabier; Martinez-Chantar, M. Luz; Mato, Jose M.; Aspichueta, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Very-low density-lipoproteins (VLDL) export lipids from liver to peripheral tissues and are the precursors of low-density-lipoproteins. Low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) decrease triglyceride (TG) secretion in VLDL contributing to hepatosteatosis in methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice but nothing is known about the effect of SAMe over circulating VLDL metabolism. Objective We wanted to investigate whether excess SAMe could disrupt VLDL plasma metabolism and unravel the mechanisms involved. Methods Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout (KO), GNMT-PLIN2-KO and their respective wild types (WT) were used. A high fat diet (HFD) or a methionine deficient diet (MDD) was administrated to exacerbate or recover VLDL metabolism, respectively. Finally, 33 patients with nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD); 11 with hypertriglyceridemia and 22 with normal lipidemia were used in this study. Results We found that excess SAMe increases turnover of hepatic TG stores for secretion in VLDL in GNMT-KO mice, a model of NAFLD with high SAMe levels. The disrupted VLDL assembly resulted in the secretion of enlarged, phosphatidylethanolamine-poor, TG-and apoE-enriched VLDL-particles; special features that lead to increased VLDL clearance and decreased serum TG levels. Re-establishing normal SAMe levels restore VLDL secretion, features and metabolism. In NAFLD patients, serum TG levels are lower when hepatic GNMT-protein expression is decreased. Conclusion Excess hepatic SAMe levels disrupt VLDL assembly and features and increase circulating VLDL clearance which will cause increased VLDL-lipid supply to tissues and might contribute to the extrahepatic complications of NAFLD. Electronic word count: 235 PMID:25457203

  20. Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.

    PubMed

    Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2002-07-01

    Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening. PMID:12083877

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Update on pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and the role of S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Noureddin, Mazen; Mato, José M; Lu, Shelly C

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common liver disease worldwide affecting over one-third of the population in the U.S. It has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance and is initiated by the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes. Isolated hepatic steatosis (IHS) remains a benign process, while a subset develops superimposed inflammatory activity and progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying NAFLD progression are not completely understood. Liver biopsy is still required to differentiate IHS from NASH as easily accessible noninvasive biomarkers are lacking. In terms of treatments for NASH, pioglitazone, vitamin E, and obeticholic acid have shown some benefit. All of these agents have potential complications associated with long-term use. Nowadays, a complex hypothesis suggests that multiple parallel hits are involved in NASH development. However, the ‘key switch’ between IHS and NASH remains to be discovered. We have recently shown that knocking out enzymes involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) metabolism, the main biological methyl donor in humans that is abundant in the liver, will lead to NASH development in mice. This could be due to the fact that a normal SAMe level is required to establish the proper ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine that has been found to be important in NAFLD progression. New data from humans have also suggested that these enzymes play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and that some of SAMe cycle metabolites may serve as noninvasive biomarkers of NASH. In this review, we discuss the evidence of the role of SAMe in animal models and humans with NAFLD and how studying this area may lead to the discovery of new noninvasive biomarkers and possibly personalized treatment for NASH. PMID:25873078

  2. Associations between S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and colorectal adenoma risk are modified by sex.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Wagner, Conrad; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Hou, Lifang; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Methionine metabolism is an important component of one-carbon metabolism. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for nearly all methylation reactions, is irreversibly converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), an inhibitor of methyltransferases, some of which are key enzymes for methylation. Changes in DNA methylation are common in colorectal cancers. We evaluated plasma SAM and SAH with colorectal adenoma risk in a matched case-control study conducted among individuals undergoing routine colonoscopy. 216 cases were individually matched to polyp-free controls in a 1:1 ratio on age (± 5 years), sex, race (white/non-white), study site (academic medical center/VA hospital) and date of sample collection (± 60 days). Sex-specific quantiles were evaluated based on the control distribution due to vastly different metabolite levels by sex. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among males, both higher SAM (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18-0.77, p for trend = 0.007) and higher SAH (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.91, p for trend = 0.02) were associated with statistically significantly decreased risks of colorectal adenoma in comparison to lowest plasma SAM or SAH tertile. Conversely, among females, both higher SAM and higher SAH were associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma, which was statistically significant for SAH (OR = 5.18, 95% CI: 1.09-24.62, p for trend = 0.04). The difference in these associations between men and women was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The ratio of SAM/SAH was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk among males or females. These findings suggest SAM and SAH may be involved in the development of colorectal adenoma and the association may be modified by sex. PMID:25628954

  3. LINE-1 hypomethylation induced by reactive oxygen species is mediated via depletion of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Kloypan, Chiraphat; Srisa-art, Monpicha; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Boonla, Chanchai

    2015-08-01

    Whether long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was mediated through the depletion of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was investigated. Bladder cancer (UM-UC-3 and TCCSUP) and human kidney (HK-2) cell lines were exposed to 20 μM H2O2 for 72 h to induce oxidative stress. Level of LINE-1 methylation, SAM and homocysteine (Hcy) was measured in the H2O2 -exposed cells. Effects of α-tocopheryl acetate (TA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), methionine, SAM and folic acid on oxidative stress and LINE-1 methylation in the H2O2 -treated cells were explored. Viabilities of cells treated with H2O2 were not significantly changed. Intracellular ROS production and protein carbonyl content were significantly increased, but LINE-1 methylation was significantly decreased in the H2O2 -treated cells. LINE-1 methylation was restored by TA, NAC, methionine, SAM and folic acid. SAM level in H2O2 -treated cells was significantly decreased, while total glutathione was significantly increased. SAM level in H2O2 -treated cells was restored by NAC, methionine, SAM and folic acid; while, total glutathione level was normalized by TA and NAC. Hcy was significantly decreased in the H2O2 -treated cells and subsequently restored by NAC. In conclusion, in bladder cancer and normal kidney cells exposed to H2O2 , SAM and Hcy were decreased, but total glutathione was increased. Treatments with antioxidants (TA and NAC) and one-carbon metabolites (SAM, methionine and folic acid) restored these changes. This pioneer finding suggests that exposure of cells to ROS activates glutathione synthesis via the transsulfuration pathway leading to deficiency of Hcy, which consequently causes SAM depletion and eventual hypomethylation of LINE-1. PMID:26178977

  4. Novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase inhibitors as potent antiproliferative agents against intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasites☆

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Dina; Burger, Pieter B.; Niemand, Jandeli; Grobler, Anne; Urbán, Patricia; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Barker, Robert H.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; I. Louw, Abraham; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2013-01-01

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway has been identified as a suitable drug target in Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which causes the most lethal form of malaria. Derivatives of an irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme, 5′-{[(Z)-4-amino-2-butenyl]methylamino}-5′-deoxyadenosine (MDL73811), have been developed with improved pharmacokinetic profiles and activity against related parasites, Trypanosoma brucei. Here, these derivatives were assayed for inhibition of AdoMetDC from P. falciparum parasites and the methylated derivative, 8-methyl-5′-{[(Z)-4-aminobut-2-enyl]methylamino}-5′-deoxyadenosine (Genz-644131) was shown to be the most active. The in vitro efficacy of Genz-644131 was markedly increased by nanoencapsulation in immunoliposomes, which specifically targeted intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites. PMID:24596666

  5. Novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase inhibitors as potent antiproliferative agents against intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Dina; Burger, Pieter B; Niemand, Jandeli; Grobler, Anne; Urbán, Patricia; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Barker, Robert H; Serrano, Adelfa E; I Louw, Abraham; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2014-04-01

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway has been identified as a suitable drug target in Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which causes the most lethal form of malaria. Derivatives of an irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme, 5'-{[(Z)-4-amino-2-butenyl]methylamino}-5'-deoxyadenosine (MDL73811), have been developed with improved pharmacokinetic profiles and activity against related parasites, Trypanosoma brucei. Here, these derivatives were assayed for inhibition of AdoMetDC from P. falciparum parasites and the methylated derivative, 8-methyl-5'-{[(Z)-4-aminobut-2-enyl]methylamino}-5'-deoxyadenosine (Genz-644131) was shown to be the most active. The in vitro efficacy of Genz-644131 was markedly increased by nanoencapsulation in immunoliposomes, which specifically targeted intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites. PMID:24596666

  6. Overexpression of arginine decarboxylase in transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Burtin, D; Michael, A J

    1997-01-01

    The activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), a key enzyme in plant polyamine biosynthesis, was manipulated in two generations of transgenic tobacco plants. Second-generation transgenic plants overexpressing an oat ADC cDNA contained high levels of oat ADC transcript relative to tobacco ADC, possessed elevated ADC enzyme activity and accumulated 10-20-fold more agmatine, the direct product of ADC. In the presence of high levels of the precursor agmatine, no increase in the levels of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine was detected in the transgenic plants. Similarly, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were unchanged. No diversion of polyamine metabolism into the hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine conjugate pool or into the tobacco alkaloid nicotine was detected. Activity of the catabolic enzyme diamine oxidase was the same in transgenic and control plants. The elevated ADC activity and agmatine production were subjected to a metabolic/physical block preventing increased, i.e. deregulated, polyamine accumulation. Overaccumulation of agmatine in the transgenic plants did not affect morphological development. PMID:9230111

  7. S-adenosylmethionine limitation induces p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and triggers cell cycle arrest in G1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Da-Wei; Chung, Benjamin P.; Kaiser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The primary methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is important for a plethora of cellular pathways including methylation of nucleic acids, proteins, and the 5? cap structure of mRNAs, as well as biosynthesis of phospholipids and polyamines. In addition, because it is the cofactor for chromatin methylation, SAM is an important metabolite for the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic marks. Here, we demonstrate that cells halt proliferation when SAM levels become low. Cell cycle arrest occurs primarily in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and is accompanied by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPK14) and subsequent phosphorylation of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2). Surprisingly, Cdk4 activity remains high during cell cycle arrest, whereas Cdk2 activity decreases concomitantly with cyclin E levels. Cell cycle arrest was induced by both pharmacological and genetic manipulation of SAM synthesis through inhibition or downregulation of methionine adenosyltransferase, respectively. Depletion of methionine, the precursor of SAM, from the growth medium induced a similar cell cycle arrest. Unexpectedly, neither methionine depletion nor inhibition of methionine adenosyltransferase significantly affected mTORC1 activity, suggesting that the cellular response to SAM limitation is independent from this major nutrient-sensing pathway. These results demonstrate a G1 cell cycle checkpoint that responds to limiting levels of the principal cellular methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. This metabolic checkpoint might play important roles in maintenance of epigenetic stability and general cellular integrity. PMID:24155332

  8. Strong cellular preference in the expression of a housekeeping gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encoding S-adenosylmethionine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Peleman, J; Boerjan, W; Engler, G; Seurinck, J; Botterman, J; Alliotte, T; Van Montagu, M; Inz, D

    1989-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine serves as a methyl group donor in numerous transmethylation reactions and plays a role in the biosynthesis of polyamines and ethylene. We have cloned and sequenced an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (sam-1) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The deduced polypeptide sequence of the enzyme has extensive homology with the corresponding enzymes of Escherichia coli and yeast. Genomic hybridization indicates the presence of two adenosylmethionine synthetase genes per haploid Arabidopsis genome. RNA gel blot analysis shows that adenosylmethionine synthetase mRNA levels are high in stems and roots, correlating well with the higher enzyme activity in stems, compared with leaves. Histochemical analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with a chimeric beta-glucuronidase gene, under the control of 748-base pair 5' sequences of the sam-1 gene, demonstrates that the gene is expressed primarily in vascular tissues. In addition, high expression was observed in sclerenchyma and in the root cortex. A hypothesis for the strong cellular preference in the expression of the sam-1 gene is presented. PMID:2535470

  9. Differential transcriptional regulation of two distinct S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes (SAM1 and SAM2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kodaki, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Shinji; Otani, Naoko; Yamamoto, Daihei; Rao, Kota Sreenivasa; Watanabe, Seiya; Tsukatsune, Masahiro; Makino, Keisuke

    2003-01-01

    Expression of a number of genes encoding enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be repressed on the addition of myo-inositol and choline to the culture medium (inositol-choline regulation). All genes subject to this inositol-choline regulation have an octamer sequence 5'-CATRTGAA-3' in their upstream regions and those octamer sequences play an important role in this regulation. To confirm the role of the octamer sequence further, we studied the transcriptional regulation of two distinct S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes (SAM1 and SAM2) of S. cerevisiae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that only the SAM2 gene was subject to the inositol-choline regulation, consistent with the fact that only the SAM2 gene has two octamer sequences in its upstream region. Furthermore, functional promoter analysis revealed that the proximal octamer sequence of the SAM2 gene has an essential role for this regulation. PMID:14510501

  10. Analysis of S-methylmethionine and S-adenosylmethionine in plant tissue by a dansylation, Dual-isotope method

    SciTech Connect

    Macnicol, P.K.

    1986-10-01

    A method is presented for determining the levels of S-methylmethionine (MeMet) and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the same plant tissue sample, utilizing readily available equipment. The bottom limit of sensitivity, ca. 100 pmol, can be lowered if required. A trichloracetic acid homogenate of the tissue is supplemented with (carboxyl-/sup 14/C)MeMet and (carboxyl-/sup 14/C)AdoMet. After separation of MeMet and AdoMet from each other and from endogenous homoserine on a phosphocellulose column, the two fractions are heat treated at appropriate pH values to liberate (/sup 14/C)homoserine. Quantitation is via the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio of (/sup 3/H)dansyl-(/sup 14/C)homoserine isolated by thin-layer chromatography. The method is validated with pea cotyledon, corn root, and cauliflower leaf.

  11. Structure and Function of 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate Decarboxylase and Its Cognate Activating Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Brinda; Buckel, Wolfgang; Golding, Bernard T; Ullmann, G Matthias; Martins, Berta M

    2016-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (4Hpad) is the prototype of a new class of Fe-S cluster-dependent glycyl radical enzymes (Fe-S GREs) acting on aromatic compounds. The two-enzyme component system comprises a decarboxylase responsible for substrate conversion and a dedicated activating enzyme (4Hpad-AE). The decarboxylase uses a glycyl/thiyl radical dyad to convert 4-hydroxyphenylacetate into p-cresol (4-methylphenol) by a biologically unprecedented Kolbe-type decarboxylation. In addition to the radical dyad prosthetic group, the decarboxylase unit contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters coordinated by an extra small subunit of unknown function. 4Hpad-AE reductively cleaves S-adenosylmethionine (SAM or AdoMet) at a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster (RS cluster) generating a transient 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical that produces a stable glycyl radical in the decarboxylase by the abstraction of a hydrogen atom. 4Hpad-AE binds up to two auxiliary [4Fe-4S] clusters coordinated by a ferredoxin-like insert that is C-terminal to the RS cluster-binding motif. The ferredoxin-like domain with its two auxiliary clusters is not vital for SAM-dependent glycyl radical formation in the decarboxylase, but facilitates a longer lifetime for the radical. This review describes the 4Hpad and cognate AE families and focuses on the recent advances and open questions concerning the structure, function and mechanism of this novel Fe-S-dependent class of GREs. PMID:26959876

  12. Identification of the human mitochondrial S-adenosylmethionine transporter: bacterial expression, reconstitution, functional characterization and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Agrimi, G; Di Noia, M A; Marobbio, C M T; Fiermonte, G; Lasorsa, F M; Palmieri, F

    2004-04-01

    The mitochondrial carriers are a family of transport proteins that, with a few exceptions, are found in the inner membranes of mitochondria. They shuttle metabolites and cofactors through this membrane, and connect cytoplasmic functions with others in the matrix. SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) has to be transported into the mitochondria where it is converted into S-adenosylhomocysteine in methylation reactions of DNA, RNA and proteins. The transport of SAM has been investigated in rat liver mitochondria, but no protein has ever been associated with this activity. By using information derived from the phylogenetically distant yeast mitochondrial carrier for SAM and from related human expressed sequence tags, a human cDNA sequence was completed. This sequence was overexpressed in bacteria, and its product was purified, reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and identified from its transport properties as the human mitochondrial SAM carrier (SAMC). Unlike the yeast orthologue, SAMC catalysed virtually only countertransport, exhibited a higher transport affinity for SAM and was strongly inhibited by tannic acid and Bromocresol Purple. SAMC was found to be expressed in all human tissues examined and was localized to the mitochondria. The physiological role of SAMC is probably to exchange cytosolic SAM for mitochondrial S-adenosylhomocysteine. This is the first report describing the identification and characterization of the human SAMC and its gene. PMID:14674884

  13. The Endosymbiont Amoebophilus asiaticus Encodes an S-Adenosylmethionine Carrier That Compensates for Its Missing Methylation Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Haferkamp, Ilka; Penz, Thomas; Geier, Melanie; Ast, Michelle; Mushak, Tanja; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    All organisms require S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl group donor and cofactor for various biologically important processes. However, certain obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria and also the amoeba symbiont Amoebophilus asiaticus have lost the capacity to synthesize this cofactor and hence rely on its uptake from host cells. Genome analyses revealed that A. asiaticus encodes a putative SAM transporter. The corresponding protein was functionally characterized in Escherichia coli: import studies demonstrated that it is specific for SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the end product of methylation. SAM transport activity was shown to be highly dependent on the presence of a membrane potential, and by targeted analyses, we obtained direct evidence for a proton-driven SAM/SAH antiport mechanism. Sequence analyses suggest that SAM carriers from Rickettsiales might operate in a similar way, in contrast to chlamydial SAM transporters. SAM/SAH antiport is of high physiological importance, as it allows for compensation for the missing methylation cycle. The identification of a SAM transporter in A. asiaticus belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum demonstrates that SAM transport is more widely spread than previously assumed and occurs in bacteria belonging to three different phyla (Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, and Bacteroidetes). PMID:23667233

  14. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase (AS3MT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin and carcinogen. Long-term exposure to arsenic is associated with human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Human As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases (hAS3MT) methylates As(III) to trivalent mono- and dimethyl species that are more toxic and potentially more carcinogenic than inorganic arsenic. Modulators of hAS3MT activity may be useful for the prevention or treatment of arsenic-related diseases. Using a newly developed high-throughput assay for hAS3MT activity, we identified 10 novel noncompetitive small molecule inhibitors. In silico docking analysis with the crystal structure of an AS3MT orthologue suggests that the inhibitors bind in a cleft between domains that is distant from either the As(III) or SAM binding sites. This suggests the presence of a possible allosteric and regulatory site in the enzyme. These inhibitors may be useful tools for future research in arsenic metabolism and are the starting-point for the development of drugs against hAS3MT. PMID:26577531

  15. The Elongator subunit Elp3 contains a Fe4S4 cluster and binds S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Christina; Fairhurst, Shirley A; Lowe, David J; Brick, Peter; Onesti, Silvia

    2006-02-01

    The Elp3 subunit of the Elongator complex is highly conserved from archaea to humans and contains a well-characterized C-terminal histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain. The central region of Elp3 shares significant sequence homology to the Radical SAM superfamily. Members of this large family of bacterial proteins contain a FeS cluster and use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to catalyse a variety of radical reactions. To biochemically characterize this domain we have expressed and purified the corresponding fragment of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Elp3 protein. The presence of a Fe4S4 cluster has been confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the Fe content determined by both a colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The cysteine residues involved in cluster formation have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis. The protein binds SAM and the binding alters the EPR spectrum of the FeS cluster. Our results provide biochemical support to the hypothesis that Elp3 does indeed contain the Fe4S4 cluster which characterizes the Radical SAM superfamily and binds SAM, suggesting that Elp3, in addition to its HAT activity, has a second as yet uncharacterized catalytic function. We also present preliminary data to show that the protein cleaves SAM. PMID:16420352

  16. Coproporphyrin Excretion and Low Thiol Levels Caused by Point Mutation in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase Gene ?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaty, Monique; Adryanczyk, Graldine; Roustan, Chlo; Cuin, Stephan; Lamouroux, Christine; Pignol, David

    2010-01-01

    A spontaneous mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans IL-106 was found to excrete a large amount of a red compound identified as coproporphyrin III, an intermediate in bacteriochlorophyll and heme synthesis. The mutant, named PORF, is able to grow under phototrophic conditions but has low levels of intracellular cysteine and glutathione and overexpresses the cysteine synthase CysK. The expression of molybdoenzymes such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and nitrate reductases is also affected under certain growth conditions. Excretion of coproporphyrin and overexpression of CysK are not directly related but were both found to be consequences of a diminished synthesis of the key metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The wild-type phenotype is restored when the gene metK encoding SAM synthetase is supplied in trans. The metK gene in the mutant strain has a mutation leading to a single amino acid change (H145Y) in the encoded protein. This point mutation is responsible for a 70% decrease in intracellular SAM content which probably affects the activities of numerous SAM-dependent enzymes such as coproporphyrinogen oxidase (HemN); uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase (CobA), which is involved in siroheme synthesis; and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein A (MoaA). We propose a model showing that the attenuation of the activities of SAM-dependent enzymes in the mutant could be responsible for the coproporphyrin excretion, the low cysteine and glutathione contents, and the decrease in DMSO and nitrate reductase activities. PMID:20038586

  17. Effect of Nifedipine and S-Adenosylmethionine in the liver of rats treated with CCl[sub 4] and ethanol for one month

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrin, C.; Menino, J.M.; Otero, X.; Miguez, J.; Perez-becerra, E.; Barrio, E. )

    1992-01-01

    An experimental model of toxic liver injury in rats was employed to assay the effect of Nifedipine (a calcium antagonist blocker) and S-Adenosylmethionine. An important decrease in both perivenular fibrosis and cirrhosis was found. Furthermore, a significant decrease in lactic acid levels was found in the group of animals treated with pharmacologic therapy, although no correlation was seen between lactic acid levels and the different degrees of perivenular fibrosis. No significant variations in ALT and AST enzymes were observed between both groups, as opposed to a significant decrease in LDH enzyme in the Nifedipine+S-Adenosylmethionine group. The results indicate an improvement in the histologic picture of the liver in rats treated by means of pharmacological association, without any change in inflammatory infiltrate and with a slight decrease in necrosis, indicating an action mechanism via creeping fibrosis.

  18. Quantitation of S-Adenosylmethionine and S-Adenosylhomocysteine in Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate determination of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in plasma as a diagnostic test. SAM and SAH are key metabolic intermediates of methionine metabolism and the methylation cycle. Determination of SAM and SAH in plasma was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Calibrators (SAM and SAH) and internal standards ((2)H3-SAM and (2)H4-SAH) were included in each analytical run for calibration. Sample preparation involved combining 20 μL sample with 180 μL of internal standard solution consisting of heavy isotope labeled internal standards in mobile phase A and filtering by ultracentrifugation through a 10 kd MW cutoff membrane. Sample filtrate (3 μL) was injected by a Shimadzu Nexera LC System interfaced with a 5500 QTRAP(®) (AB Sciex). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 250 mm × 2.0 mm EA:faast column from Phenomenex. Samples were eluted at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min with a binary gradient with a total run time of 10 min. The source operated in positive ion mode at an ion spray voltage of +5000 V. SAM and SAH resolved by a gradient to 100 % methanol with retention times of 6.0 and 5.7 min, respectively. The observed m/z values of the fragment ions were m/z 399 → 250 for SAM, m/z 385 → 136 for SAH, m/z 402 → 250 for (2)H3-SAM, m/z 203 → 46. The calibration curve was linear over the ranges of 12.5-5000 nmol/L for SAM and SAH. PMID:26602137

  19. Two patients with hepatic mtDNA depletion syndromes and marked elevations of S-adenosylmethionine and methionine

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S. Harvey; Wagner, Conrad; Luka, Zigmund; Stabler, Sally P.; Allen, Robert H.; Schroer, Richard; Wood, Timothy; Wang, Jing; Wong, Lee-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports studies of two patients proven by a variety of studies to have mitochondrial depletion syndromes due to mutations in either their MPV17 or DGUOK genes. Each was initially investigated metabolically because of plasma methionine concentrations as high as 1521-fold above the upper limit of the reference range, then found also to have plasma levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) 4.48.6-fold above the upper limit of the reference range. Assays of S-adenosylhomocysteine, total homocysteine, cystathionine, sarcosine, and other relevant metabolites and studies of their gene encoding glycine N-methyltransferase produced evidence suggesting they had none of the known causes of elevated methionine with or without elevated AdoMet. Patient 1 grew slowly and intermittently, but was cognitively normal. At age 7 years he was found to have hepatocellular carcinoma, underwent a liver transplant and died of progressive liver and renal failure at age almost 9 years. Patient 2 had a clinical course typical of DGUOK deficiency and died at age 8 months. Although each patient had liver abnormalities, evidence is presented that such abnormalities are very unlikely to explain their elevations of AdoMet or the extent of their hypermethioninemias. A working hypothesis is presented suggesting that with mitochondrial depletion the normal usage of AdoMet by mitochondria is impaired, AdoMet accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected cells poor in glycine N-methyltransferase activity, the accumulated AdoMet causes methionine to accumulate by inhibiting activity of methionine adenosyltransferase II, and that both AdoMet and methionine consequently leak abnormally into the plasma. PMID:22137549

  20. The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

  1. Effect of l-Methionine and S-Adenosylmethionine on Growth of an Adenine Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yall, Irving; Norrell, Stephen A.; Joseph, Ronald; Knudsen, Richard C.

    1967-01-01

    A pink, adenine-requiring yeast utilized adenine, hypoxanthine, or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), in quantities up to 3 μmoles per 100 ml of medium, as equivalent sources of purine for cell growth, but not methylthioadenosine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. Utilization of SAM for growth was inhibited by the presence of l-methionine in quantities greater than 0.6 μmole per 100 ml of medium. However, 6 μmoles of l-methionine had no effect on growth when adenine or hypoxanthine was the source of purine. These sources also reversed the inhibitory effects of 6 μmoles of the amino acid on the utilization of SAM. The presence of 400 μmoles of the amino acid resulted in some inhibition of growth when the organisms were grown with adenine, hypoxanthine, or adenine plus SAM but had no effect on the total uptake of adenine-8-14C. Studies on the uptake of radioactivity from a mixture of SAM-adenine-8-14C and 3H-labeled SAM-methyl indicated that these components were taken into the cells at different rates which were altered by the presence of l-methionine. The fixation of 35S from 35S-labeled adenosylmethionine into the cells was inhibited by the presence of the amino acid. The cells synthesized and accumulated SAM in the presence of 400 μmoles of l-methionine plus adenine even when exogenous SAM was supplied. Approximately 47% of radioactivity fixed from exogenous SAM-adenine-8-14C and 12% from 3H-labeled SAM-methyl were found in reisolated SAM. PMID:6025443

  2. Plasma S-adenosylmethionine, DNMT polymorphisms, and peripheral blood LINE-1 methylation among healthy Chinese adults in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global hypomethylation of repetitive DNA sequences is believed to occur early in tumorigenesis. There is a great interest in identifying factors that contribute to global DNA hypomethylation and associated cancer risk. We tested the hypothesis that plasma S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) level alone or in combination with genetic variation in DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) was associated with global DNA methylation extent at long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) sequences. Methods Plasma SAM level and LINE-1 DNA methylation index were measured using stored blood samples collected from 440 healthy Singaporean Chinese adults during 1994-1999. Genetic polymorphisms of 13 loci in DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B were determined. Results LINE-1 methylation index was significantly higher in men than in women (p = 0.001). LINE-1 methylation index was positively associated with plasma SAM levels (p ≤ 0.01), with a plateau at approximately 78% of LINE-1 methylation index (55 nmol/L plasma SAM) in men and 77% methylation index (50 nmol/L plasma SAM) in women. In men only, the T allele of DNMT1 rs21124724 was associated with a statistically significantly higher LINE-1 methylation index (ptrend = 0.001). The DNMT1 rs2114724 genotype modified the association between plasma SAM and LINE-1 methylation index at low levels of plasma SAM in men. Conclusions Circulating SAM level was associated with LINE-1 methylation status among healthy Chinese adults. The DNMT1 genetic polymorphism may exert a modifying effect on the association between SAM and LINE-1 methylation status in men, especially when plasma SAM level is low. Our findings support a link between plasma SAM and global DNA methylation status at LINE-1 sequences. PMID:23957506

  3. Residues in Human Arsenic (+3 Oxidation State) Methyltransferase Forming Potential Hydrogen Bond Network around S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangli; Cao, Jing; Wang, Shuping; Geng, Zhirong; Song, Xiaoli; Hu, Xin; Wang, Zhilin

    2013-01-01

    Residues Tyr59, Gly78, Ser79, Met103, Gln107, Ile136 and Glu137 in human arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (hAS3MT) were deduced to form a potential hydrogen bond network around S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) from the sequence alignment between Cyanidioschyzon merolae arsenite S-adenosylmethyltransferase (CmArsM) and hAS3MT. Herein, seven mutants Y59A, G78A, S79A, M103A, Q107A, I136A and E137A were obtained. Their catalytic activities and conformations were characterized and models were built. Y59A and G78A were completely inactive. Only 7.0%, 10.6% and 13.8% inorganic arsenic (iAs) was transformed to monomethylated arsenicals (MMA) when M103A, Q107A and I136A were used as the enzyme. The Vmax (the maximal velocity of the reaction) values of M103A, Q107A, I136A and E137A were decreased to 8%, 22%, 15% and 50% of that of WT-hAS3MT, respectively. The KM(SAM) (the Michaelis constant for SAM) values of mutants M103A, I136A and E137A were 15.7, 8.9 and 5.1 fold higher than that of WT-hAS3MT, respectively, indicating that their affinities for SAM were weakened. The altered microenvironment of SAM and the reduced capacity of binding arsenic deduced from KM(As) (the Michaelis constant for iAs) value probably synergetically reduced the catalytic activity of Q107A. The catalytic activity of S79A was higher than that of WT despite of the higher KM(SAM), suggesting that Ser79 did not impact the catalytic activity of hAS3MT. In short, residues Tyr59 and Gly78 significantly influenced the catalytic activity of hAS3MT as well as Met103, Ile136 and Glu137 because they were closely associated with SAM-binding, while residue Gln107 did not affect SAM-binding regardless of affecting the catalytic activity of hAS3MT. Modeling and our experimental results suggest that the adenine ring of SAM is sandwiched between Ile136 and Met103, the amide group of SAM is hydrogen bonded to Gly78 in hAS3MT and SAM is bonded to Tyr59 with van der Waals, cation-π and hydrogen bonding contacts. PMID:24124590

  4. Folate and Cobalamin Modify Associations between S-adenosylmethionine and Methylated Arsenic Metabolites in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Caitlin G.; Niedzwiecki, Megan M.; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Alam, Shafiul; Siddique, Abu B.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) through drinking water is a major problem worldwide. InAs undergoes hepatic methylation to form mono- and dimethyl arsenical species (MMA and DMA, respectively), facilitating arsenic elimination. Both reactions are catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor, yielding the methylated product and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent product-inhibitor of AS3MT. SAM biosynthesis depends on folate- and cobalamin-dependent one-carbon metabolism. With the use of samples from 353 participants in the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, our objective was to test the hypotheses that blood SAM and SAH concentrations are associated with arsenic methylation and that these associations differ by folate and cobalamin nutritional status. Blood SAM and SAH were measured by HPLC. Arsenic metabolites in blood and urine were measured by HPLC coupled to dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma MS. In linear regression analyses, SAH was not associated with any of the arsenic metabolites. However, log(SAM) was negatively associated with log(% urinary InAs) (β: −0.11; 95% CI: −0.19, −0.02; P = 0.01), and folate and cobalamin nutritional status significantly modified associations between SAM and percentage of blood MMA (%bMMA) and percentage of blood DMA (%bDMA) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). In folate- and cobalamin-deficient individuals, log(SAM) was positively associated with %bMMA (β: 6.96; 95% CI: 1.86, 12.05; P < 0.01) and negatively associated with %bDMA (β: −6.19; 95% CI: −12.71, 0.32; P = 0.06). These findings suggest that when exposure to InAs is high, and methyl groups are limiting, SAM is used primarily for MMA synthesis rather than for DMA synthesis, contributing additional evidence that nutritional status may explain some of the interindividual differences in arsenic metabolism and, consequently, susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. PMID:24598884

  5. Polyamine and amino acid content, and activity of polyamine-synthesizing decarboxylases, in liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, Margaret E.; Roebothan, Barbara V.; Hall, Douglas E.

    1980-01-01

    1. Concentrations of polyamines, amino acids, glycogen, nucleic acids and protein, and activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, were measured in livers from control, streptozotocin-diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats. 2. Total DNA per liver and protein per mg of DNA were unaffected by diabetes, whereas RNA per mg of DNA and glycogen per g of liver were decreased. Insulin treatment of diabetic rats induced both hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as indicated by an increase in all four of these constituents to or above control values. 3. Spermidine content was increased in the livers of diabetic rats, despite the decrease in RNA, but it was further increased by insulin treatment. Spermine content was decreased by diabetes, but was unchanged by insulin treatment. Thus the ratio spermidine/spermine in the adult diabetic rat was more typical of that seen in younger rats, whereas insulin treatment resulted in a ratio similar to that seen in rapidly growing tissues. 4. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was variable in the diabetic rat, showing a positive correlation with endogenous ornithine concentrations. This correlation was not seen in control or insulin-treated rats. Insulin caused a significant increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity relative to control or diabetic rats. 5. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity was increased approx. 2-fold by diabetes and was not further affected by insulin. 6. Hepatic concentrations of the glucogenic amino acids, alanine, glutamine and glycine were decreased by diabetes. Their concentrations and that of glutamate were increased by injection of insulin. Concentrations of ornithine, proline, leucine, isoleucine and valine were increased in livers of diabetic rats and were decreased by insulin. Diabetes caused a decrease in hepatic concentration of serine, threonine, lysine and histidine. Insulin had no effect on serine, lysine and histidine, but caused a further fall in the concentration of threonine. PMID:6162456

  6. Polyamine homoeostasis as a drug target in pathogenic protozoa: peculiarities and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Williams, Marni; Niemand, Jandeli; Louw, AbrahamI.; Persson, Lo; Heby, Olle

    2011-01-01

    New drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of tropical and subtropical parasitic diseases, such as African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis and malaria. Enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis and thiol metabolism, as well as polyamine transporters, are potential drug targets within these organisms. In the present review, the current knowledge of unique properties of polyamine metabolism in these parasites is outlined. These properties include prozyme regulation of AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) activity in trypanosomatids, co-expression of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) and AdoMetDC activities in a single protein in plasmodia, and formation of trypanothione, a unique compound linking polyamine and thiol metabolism in trypanosomatids. Particularly interesting features within polyamine metabolism in these parasites are highlighted for their potential in selective therapeutic strategies. PMID:21834794

  7. Reprogramming of gene expression during compression wood formation in pine: Coordinated modulation of S-adenosylmethionine, lignin and lignan related genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcript profiling of differentiating secondary xylem has allowed us to draw a general picture of the genes involved in wood formation. However, our knowledge is still limited about the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate and modulate the different pathways providing substrates during xylogenesis. The development of compression wood in conifers constitutes an exceptional model for these studies. Although differential expression of a few genes in differentiating compression wood compared to normal or opposite wood has been reported, the broad range of features that distinguish this reaction wood suggest that the expression of a larger set of genes would be modified. Results By combining the construction of different cDNA libraries with microarray analyses we have identified a total of 496 genes in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, Ait.) that change in expression during differentiation of compression wood (331 up-regulated and 165 down-regulated compared to opposite wood). Samples from different provenances collected in different years and geographic locations were integrated into the analyses to mitigate the effects of multiple sources of variability. This strategy allowed us to define a group of genes that are consistently associated with compression wood formation. Correlating with the deposition of a thicker secondary cell wall that characterizes compression wood development, the expression of a number of genes involved in synthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and lignans was up-regulated. Further analysis of a set of these genes involved in S-adenosylmethionine metabolism, ammonium recycling, and lignin and lignans biosynthesis showed changes in expression levels in parallel to the levels of lignin accumulation in cells undergoing xylogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions The comparative transcriptomic analysis reported here have revealed a broad spectrum of coordinated transcriptional modulation of genes involved in biosynthesis of different cell wall polymers associated with within-tree variations in pine wood structure and composition. In particular, we demonstrate the coordinated modulation at transcriptional level of a gene set involved in S-adenosylmethionine synthesis and ammonium assimilation with increased demand for coniferyl alcohol for lignin and lignan synthesis, enabling a better understanding of the metabolic requirements in cells undergoing lignification. PMID:22747794

  8. Natural variability in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent riboswitches: S-box elements in bacillus subtilis exhibit differential sensitivity to SAM In vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Jerneja; McDaniel, Brooke A; Grundy, Frank J; Henkin, Tina M

    2008-02-01

    Riboswitches are regulatory systems in which changes in structural elements in the 5' region of the nascent RNA transcript (the "leader region") control expression of the downstream coding sequence in response to a regulatory signal in the absence of a trans-acting protein factor. The S-box riboswitch, found primarily in low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, is the paradigm for riboswitches that sense S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Genes in the S-box family are involved in methionine metabolism, and their expression is induced in response to starvation for methionine. S-box genes exhibit conserved primary sequence and secondary structural elements in their leader regions. We previously demonstrated that SAM binds directly to S-box leader RNA, causing a structural rearrangement that results in premature termination of transcription at S-box leader region terminators. S-box genes have a variety of physiological roles, and natural variability in S-box structure and regulatory response could provide additional insight into the role of conserved S-box leader elements in SAM-directed transcription termination. In the current study, in vivo and in vitro assays were employed to analyze the differential regulation of S-box genes in response to SAM. A wide range of responses to SAM were observed for the 11 S-box-regulated transcriptional units in Bacillus subtilis, demonstrating that S-box riboswitches can be calibrated to different physiological requirements. PMID:18039762

  9. S-Adenosylmethionine suppresses the expression of Smad3/4 in activated human hepatic stellate cells via Rac1 promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, KANGQI; ZHANG, FENG; WANG, TINGTING; ZOU, XIAOPING; DUAN, XUHONG; CHEN, GUANGXIA; ZHUGE, YUZHENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was able to suppress activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Human LX-2 HSCs were cultured with SAM or NSC23766, and were transfected with plasmids encoding ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) protein or an empty expression vector. Cell proliferation was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8. Cell migration and invasion were determined using the Transwell assay. The expression levels of Rac1 and Smad3/4 were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or western blotting. The methylation status of Rac1 promoters was measured by methylation-specific PCR. The results demonstrated that SAM and NSC23766 suppressed the expression of Smad3/4 in LX-2 cells. The overexpression of Rac1 enhanced the proliferation, migration and invasion of LX-2 cells. In addition, compared with the control groups, a marked increase was observed in the protein expression levels of Smad3/4 in the LX-2 cells transfected with Rac1 plasmids. The methylation-specific PCR findings showed that SAM increased the methylation of Rac1 promoters. The results of the present study suggested that Rac1 enhanced the expression of Smad3/4 in activated HSCs; however, this increase may be suppressed by SAM-induced methylation of Rac1 promoters. PMID:26986629

  10. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  11. Twenty-four-hour changes of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine adenosine and their metabolizing enzymes in rat liver; possible physiological significance in phospholipid methylation.

    PubMed

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; Sánchez, L; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Suárez, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The metabolic control of adenosine concentration in the rat liver through the 24-hr cycle is related to the activity of adenosine-metabolizing enzymes [5'-nucleotidase (5'N), adenosine deaminase (A.D.), adenosine kinase (A.K.) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAH-H)]. 2. Two peaks of adenosine were observed, one at 12:00 hr caused by high activity of 5'N and SAH-H, and the other at 02:00 hr, caused by a decrease in purine catabolism and purine utilization, low activity of SAH-H and de novo purine formation. 3. The similarity of the adenosine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) profiles through the 24-hr cycle suggests a role of adenosine in transmethylation reactions, because, during the night (02:00 hr), the metabolic conditions favor the formation and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), with consequent inhibition of transmethylation reactions. 4. In the 24-hr variation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the lowest ratio of PC/PE was observed at 24:00-02:00 hr when SAH concentration is high, whereas the highest PC/PE ratio occurs at the same time as one of the SAM/SAH ratio maxima. PMID:1761153

  12. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III: Characterization of DDX3X as a target of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Schrder, Paul C; Fernndez-Irigoyen, Joaqun; Bigaud, Emilie; Serna, Antonio; Renndez-Alcoceba, Rubn; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, Jos M; Prieto, Jess; Corrales, Fernando J

    2012-06-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in quiescent hepatocytes. Its activity is compromised in most liver diseases including liver cancer. Since SAM is a driver of hepatocytes fate we have studied the effect of re-expressing MAT1A in hepatoma Huh7 cells using proteomics. MAT1A expression leads to SAM levels close to those found in quiescent hepatocytes and induced apoptosis. Normalization of intracellular SAM induced alteration of 128 proteins identified by 2D-DIGE and gel-free methods, accounting for deregulation of central cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. Human Dead-box protein 3 (DDX3X), a RNA helicase regulating RNA splicing, export, transcription and translation was down-regulated upon MAT1A expression. Our data support the regulation of DDX3X levels by SAM in a concentration and time dependent manner. Consistently, DDX3X arises as a primary target of SAM and a principal intermediate of its antitumoral effect. Based on the parallelism between SAM and DDX3X along the progression of liver disorders, and the results reported here, it is tempting to suggest that reduced SAM in the liver may lead to DDX3X up-regulation contributing to the pathogenic process and that replenishment of SAM might prove to have beneficial effects, at least in part by reducing DDX3X levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. PMID:22270009

  13. COMMUNICATION: Folate and S-adenosylmethionine modulate synaptic activity in cultured cortical neurons: acute differential impact on normal and apolipoprotein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Michael; Chan, Amy; Dubey, Maya; Gilman, Vladimir; Shea, Thomas B.

    2008-12-01

    Folate deficiency is accompanied by a decline in the cognitive neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a decline in cognitive performance in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/- mice), a low-density lipoprotein that regulates aspects of lipid metabolism. One direct consequence of folate deficiency is a decline in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Since dietary SAM supplementation maintains acetylcholine levels and cognitive performance in the absence of folate, we examined herein the impact of folate and SAM on neuronal synaptic activity. Embryonic cortical neurons from mice expressing or lacking ApoE (ApoE+/+ or -/-, respectively) were cultured for 1 month on multi-electrode arrays, and signaling was recorded. ApoE+/+ cultures displayed significantly more frequent spontaneous signals than ApoE-/- cultures. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM (not normally present in culture medium) increased signal frequency and decreased signal amplitude in ApoE+/+ cultures. SAM also increased the frequency of tightly clustered signal bursts. Folate deprivation reversibly reduced signal frequency in ApoE+/+ cultures; SAM supplementation maintained signal frequency despite folate deprivation. These findings support the importance of dietary supplementation with folate and SAM on neuronal health. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM did not alter signaling in ApoE-/- cultures, which may be a reflection of the reduced SAM levels in ApoE-/- mice. The differential impact of SAM on ApoE+/+ and -/- neurons underscores the combined impact of nutritional and genetic deficiencies on neuronal homeostasis.

  14. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  15. 5-Methyl-Tetrahydrofolate and the S-Adenosylmethionine Cycle in C57BL/6J Mouse Tissues: Gender Differences and Effects of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase-1 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Witham, Katey L.; Butcher, Neville J.; Sugamori, Kim S.; Brenneman, Debbie; Grant, Denis M.; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2013-01-01

    Folate catabolism involves cleavage of the C9-N10 bond to form p-aminobenzoylgluamate (PABG) and pterin. PABG is then acetylated by human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) before excretion in the urine. Mice null for the murine NAT1 homolog (Nat2) show several phenotypes consistent with altered folate homeostasis. However, the exact role of Nat2 in the folate pathway in vivo has not been reported. Here, we examined the effects of Nat2 deletion in male and female mice on the tissue levels of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and the methionine-S-adenosylmethionine cycle. We found significant gender differences in hepatic and renal homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine and methionine levels consistent with a more active methionine-S-adenosylmethionine cycle in female tissues. In addition, methionine levels were significantly higher in female liver and kidney. PABG was higher in female liver tissue but lower in kidney compared to male tissues. In addition, qPCR of mRNA extracted from liver tissue suggested a significantly lower level of Nat2 expression in female animals. Deletion of Nat2 affected liver 5- methyl-tetrahydrofolate in female mice but had little effect on other components of the methionine-S-adenosylmethionine cycle. No N-acetyl-PABG was observed in any tissues in Nat2 null mice, consistent with the role of Nat2 in PABG acetylation. Surprisingly, tissue PABG levels were similar between wild type and Nat2 null mice. These results show that Nat2 is not required to maintain tissue PABG homeostasis in vivo under normal conditions. PMID:24205029

  16. S-adenosylmethionine blocks osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo: therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Surabhi; Cheishvili, David; Arakelian, Ani; Hussain, Zahid; Tanvir, Imrana; Khan, Haseeb Ahmed; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic form of primary bone cancer affecting young children and adults. Previous studies have shown that hypomethylation of critical genes is driving metastasis. Here, we examine whether hypermethylation treatment can block OS growth and pulmonary metastasis. Human OS cells LM-7 and MG-63 were treated with the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or its inactive analog S-adenosylhomocystine (SAH) as control. Treatment with SAM resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, cell migration, and cell cycle characteristics. Inoculation of cells treated with 150 μmol/L SAM for 6 days into tibia or via intravenous route into Fox Chase severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice resulted in the development of significantly smaller skeletal lesions and a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis as compared to control groups. Epigenome wide association studies (EWAS) showed differential methylation of several genes involved in OS progression and prominent signaling pathways implicated in bone formation, wound healing, and tumor progression in SAM-treated LM-7 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis confirmed that SAM treatment blocked the expression of several prometastatic genes and additional genes identified by EWAS analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human bone and tissue array from OS patients showed significantly high levels of expression of one of the identified gene platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA). These studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of DNA demethylation in the development and metastasis of OS to provide a rationale for the use of hypermethylation therapy for OS patients and identify new targets for monitoring OS development and progression. PMID:25619880

  17. The mthA mutation conferring low-level resistance to streptomycin enhances antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis by increasing the S-adenosylmethionine pool size.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Shigeo; Kim, Ji-Yun; Tanaka, Yukinori; Inaoka, Takashi; Hiraga, Yoshikazu; Ochi, Kozo

    2014-04-01

    Certain Str(r) mutations that confer low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis. Using comparative genome-sequencing analysis, we successfully identified this novel mutation in B. subtilis as being located in the mthA gene, which encodes S-adenosylhomocysteine/methylthioadenosine nucleosidase, an enzyme involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-recycling pathways. Transformation experiments showed that this mthA mutation was responsible for the acquisition of low-level streptomycin resistance and overproduction of bacilysin. The mthA mutant had an elevated level of intracellular SAM, apparently acquired by arresting SAM-recycling pathways. This increase in the SAM level was directly responsible for bacilysin overproduction, as confirmed by forced expression of the metK gene encoding SAM synthetase. The mthA mutation fully exerted its effect on antibiotic overproduction in the genetic background of rel(+) but not the rel mutant, as demonstrated using an mthA relA double mutant. Strikingly, the mthA mutation activated, at the transcription level, even the dormant ability to produce another antibiotic, neotrehalosadiamine, at concentrations of 150 to 200 ?g/ml, an antibiotic not produced (<1 ?g/ml) by the wild-type strain. These findings establish the significance of SAM in initiating bacterial secondary metabolism. They also suggest a feasible methodology to enhance or activate antibiotic production, by introducing either the rsmG mutation to Streptomyces or the mthA mutation to eubacteria, since many eubacteria have mthA homologues. PMID:24509311

  18. The Combination of S-adenosylmethionine and Dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine Attenuates Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis Produced in Rats by a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Charles S.; Leo, Maria A.; Cao, Qi; Mak, Ki M.; Ren, Chaoling; Ponomarenko, Anatoly; Wang, Xiaolei; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    2007-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), oxidative stress resulting from free radicals generated by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) plays a major role suggesting the importance of antioxidants. The objective of this study was to assess in a high-fat diet (HF) rat model the effects of the combination of s-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) plus dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) in the treatment of NASH. To test the hypothesis that these two antioxidants are beneficial in NASH, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed five different diets for six weeks: control, HF diet and HF plus SAMe and DLPC or their combination. As expected, the HF diet significantly increased hepatic triacylglycerols and CYP2E1 levels. However, only the combination diet opposed this effect, consistent with different actions of the two antioxidants. Next, 24 additional rats divided in two groups were fed the HF or the HF+SAMe+DLPC diets for 3 weeks. Dietary intake was similar, but liver triacylglycerols dropped from 76.1±6.8 to 49.4±3.5 mg/g (p=0.002) and hepatic CYP2E1 mRNA decreased after treatment (p=0.01) with a trend for less CYP2E1 protein. This was accompanied by a 41% reduction of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (p=0.008), reflecting control of oxidative stress. Furthermore, the hepatic inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and TNF-α protein decreased (p=0.05 and p=0.01 respectively) with attenuation of α1(I) procollagen mRNA and type I collagen levels (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). We concluded that the combination SAMe+DLPC might be beneficial in NASH by reducing oxidative stress and associated liver injury. PMID:18769506

  19. Binding of 5-GTP to the C-terminal FeS Cluster of the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzyme MoaA Provides Insights into its Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Haenzelmann,P.; Schindelin, H.

    2006-01-01

    The first step in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, the conversion of 5'-GTP to precursor Z, an oxygen-sensitive tetrahydropyranopterin is catalyzed by the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent enzyme MoaA and the accessory protein MoaC. This reaction involves the radical-initiated intramolecular rearrangement of the guanine C8 atom. MoaA harbors an N-terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is involved in the reductive cleavage of SAM and generates a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical (5'-dA), and a C-terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster presumably involved in substrate binding and/or activation. Biochemical studies identified residues involved in 5'-GTP binding and the determinants of nucleotide specificity. The crystal structure of MoaA in complex with 5'-GTP confirms the biochemical data and provides valuable insights into the subsequent radical reaction. MoaA binds 5'-GTP with high affinity and interacts through its C-terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster with the guanine N1 and N2 atoms, in a yet uncharacterized binding mode. The tightly anchored triphosphate moiety prevents the escape of radical intermediates. This structure also visualizes the L-Met and 5'-dA cleavage products of SAM. Rotation of the 5'-dA ribose and/or conformational changes of the guanosine are proposed to bring the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical into close proximity of either the ribose C2' and C3' or the guanine C8 carbon atoms leading to hydrogen abstraction.

  20. S-adenosylmethionine blocks osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo: therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Surabhi; Cheishvili, David; Arakelian, Ani; Hussain, Zahid; Tanvir, Imrana; Khan, Haseeb Ahmed; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2015-05-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic form of primary bone cancer affecting young children and adults. Previous studies have shown that hypomethylation of critical genes is driving metastasis. Here, we examine whether hypermethylation treatment can block OS growth and pulmonary metastasis. Human OS cells LM-7 and MG-63 were treated with the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or its inactive analog S-adenosylhomocystine (SAH) as control. Treatment with SAM resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, cell migration, and cell cycle characteristics. Inoculation of cells treated with 150 μmol/L SAM for 6 days into tibia or via intravenous route into Fox Chase severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice resulted in the development of significantly smaller skeletal lesions and a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis as compared to control groups. Epigenome wide association studies (EWAS) showed differential methylation of several genes involved in OS progression and prominent signaling pathways implicated in bone formation, wound healing, and tumor progression in SAM-treated LM-7 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis confirmed that SAM treatment blocked the expression of several prometastatic genes and additional genes identified by EWAS analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human bone and tissue array from OS patients showed significantly high levels of expression of one of the identified gene platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA). These studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of DNA demethylation in the development and metastasis of OS to provide a rationale for the use of hypermethylation therapy for OS patients and identify new targets for monitoring OS development and progression. PMID:25619880

  1. The mthA Mutation Conferring Low-Level Resistance to Streptomycin Enhances Antibiotic Production in Bacillus subtilis by Increasing the S-Adenosylmethionine Pool Size

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Shigeo; Kim, Ji-Yun; Tanaka, Yukinori; Inaoka, Takashi; Hiraga, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Certain Strr mutations that confer low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis. Using comparative genome-sequencing analysis, we successfully identified this novel mutation in B. subtilis as being located in the mthA gene, which encodes S-adenosylhomocysteine/methylthioadenosine nucleosidase, an enzyme involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-recycling pathways. Transformation experiments showed that this mthA mutation was responsible for the acquisition of low-level streptomycin resistance and overproduction of bacilysin. The mthA mutant had an elevated level of intracellular SAM, apparently acquired by arresting SAM-recycling pathways. This increase in the SAM level was directly responsible for bacilysin overproduction, as confirmed by forced expression of the metK gene encoding SAM synthetase. The mthA mutation fully exerted its effect on antibiotic overproduction in the genetic background of rel+ but not the rel mutant, as demonstrated using an mthA relA double mutant. Strikingly, the mthA mutation activated, at the transcription level, even the dormant ability to produce another antibiotic, neotrehalosadiamine, at concentrations of 150 to 200 μg/ml, an antibiotic not produced (<1 μg/ml) by the wild-type strain. These findings establish the significance of SAM in initiating bacterial secondary metabolism. They also suggest a feasible methodology to enhance or activate antibiotic production, by introducing either the rsmG mutation to Streptomyces or the mthA mutation to eubacteria, since many eubacteria have mthA homologues. PMID:24509311

  2. The crystal structure of M. leprae ML2640c defines a large family of putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Graña, Martin; Haouz, Ahmed; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Miras, Isabelle; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Bondet, Vincent; Shepard, William; Schaeffer, Francis; Cole, Stewart T; Alzari, Pedro M

    2007-09-01

    Mycobacterium leprae protein ML2640c belongs to a large family of conserved hypothetical proteins predominantly found in mycobacteria, some of them predicted as putative S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase). As part of a Structural Genomics initiative on conserved hypothetical proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria, we have determined the structure of ML2640c in two distinct crystal forms. As expected, ML2640c has a typical MTase core domain and binds the methyl donor substrate AdoMet in a manner consistent with other known members of this structural family. The putative acceptor substrate-binding site of ML2640c is a large internal cavity, mostly lined by aromatic and aliphatic side-chain residues, suggesting that a lipid-like molecule might be targeted for catalysis. A flap segment (residues 222-256), which isolates the binding site from the bulk solvent and is highly mobile in the crystal structures, could serve as a gateway to allow substrate entry and product release. The multiple sequence alignment of ML2640c-like proteins revealed that the central alpha/beta core and the AdoMet-binding site are very well conserved within the family. However, the amino acid positions defining the binding site for the acceptor substrate display a higher variability, suggestive of distinct acceptor substrate specificities. The ML2640c crystal structures offer the first structural glimpses at this important family of mycobacterial proteins and lend strong support to their functional assignment as AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. PMID:17660248

  3. The crystal structure of M. leprae ML2640c defines a large family of putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Graña, Martin; Haouz, Ahmed; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Miras, Isabelle; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Bondet, Vincent; Shepard, William; Schaeffer, Francis; Cole, Stewart T.; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae protein ML2640c belongs to a large family of conserved hypothetical proteins predominantly found in mycobacteria, some of them predicted as putative S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTase). As part of a Structural Genomics initiative on conserved hypothetical proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria, we have determined the structure of ML2640c in two distinct crystal forms. As expected, ML2640c has a typical MTase core domain and binds the methyl donor substrate AdoMet in a manner consistent with other known members of this structural family. The putative acceptor substrate-binding site of ML2640c is a large internal cavity, mostly lined by aromatic and aliphatic side-chain residues, suggesting that a lipid-like molecule might be targeted for catalysis. A flap segment (residues 222–256), which isolates the binding site from the bulk solvent and is highly mobile in the crystal structures, could serve as a gateway to allow substrate entry and product release. The multiple sequence alignment of ML2640c-like proteins revealed that the central α/β core and the AdoMet-binding site are very well conserved within the family. However, the amino acid positions defining the binding site for the acceptor substrate display a higher variability, suggestive of distinct acceptor substrate specificities. The ML2640c crystal structures offer the first structural glimpses at this important family of mycobacterial proteins and lend strong support to their functional assignment as AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. PMID:17660248

  4. One-carbon metabolism nutrient status and plasma S-adenosylmethionine concentrations in middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Nelson, Heather H; Robien, Kim; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a primary methyl donor for the methylation of many molecules including DNA. DNA methylation is believed to play an important role in functions of cells and genes. Dietary, genetic and metabolic factors that influence systematic SAM levels are not fully understood. We conducted cross-sectional analysis to evaluate associations between plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and metabolites and plasma SAM concentrations using healthy individuals within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Plasma SAM, betaine, choline, folate, total homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 concentrations were quantified. Genotypes of methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT1A, MAT2A and MAT2B) were also determined. Linear regression and path analysis were performed to depict the directed dependencies in one-carbon metabolism. Age and body mass index were positively associated while cigarette smoking were inversely associated with plasma SAM concentrations. Plasma choline, methionine and SAH were positively and strongly associated with plasma SAM after adjustment for confounders. Plasma betaine and folate were positively associated with plasma SAM only in men. Men carrying the variant MAT1A genotypes had lower plasma SAM concentrations than men carrying the wild type genotype (p for gene x gender interaction = 0.02). This effect modification by gender was restricted to individuals with low plasma methionine. In conclusion, plasma choline, methionine and SAH were strongly associated with plasma SAM concentrations. The MAT1A genetic polymorphism may impact plasma SAM concentrations in men with low plasma methionine concentrations. PMID:22724053

  5. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by S-adenosylmethionine and cynarin in multidrug-resistant human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5 cells.

    PubMed

    Angelini, A; Di Pietro, R; Centurione, L; Castellani, M L; Conti, P; Porreca, E; Cuccurullo, F

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer chemotherapy is often mediated by the overexpression of the plasma membrane drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) encoded by multidrug resistance gene (MDR1). Various chemosensitizing agents are able to inhibit Pgp activity but their clinical application is limited by their toxicity. Furthermore, hepatotoxicity related to chemotherapy causes delays of treatment in cancer patients and often requires supplementation of anti-tumour therapy with hepatoprotective agents. In this in vitro study, we investigated the effectiveness of an endogenous hepatoprotective agent, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), and a natural hepatoprotective compound, Cynarin (Cyn), to inhibit Pgp activity in order to evaluate their potential use as chemosensitizing agents. Human doxorubicin (doxo) resistant uterine sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx5) expressing high levels of Pgp were treated with two hepatoprotectors at various concentrations (1, 5 and 10 microM) that are clinically achievable, in the presence or absence of three different concentrations of doxo (2, 4 and 8 microM). In order to evaluate the effects of both hepatoprotectors, we measured the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxo, the cellular GSH level, ROS production and catalase (CAT) activity. We found that treatment with 2, 4 and 8 microM doxo in the presence of SAMe or Cyn significantly increased the doxo accumulation and cytotoxicity on MES-SA/Dx5 cells, when compared to control cells receiving doxo alone. Moreover, treatment with SAMe or Cyn significantly increased GSH content, greater than 80 percent and 60 percent, respectively) and CAT activity greater than 60 and 150 percent, respectively) in resistant cancer cells, while ROS production was below the values of corresponding untreated control cells. Our in vitro findings provide a rationale for the potential clinical use of these hepatoprotectors both as chemosensitizing agents, to reverse Pgp-mediated MDR, and as antioxidants to protect normal cells from chemotherapy-induced cytotoxixity. PMID:23034269

  6. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Characterization of the Iron-Sulfur and Cobalamin Cofactors of TsrM, an Unusual Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Methylase.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Anthony J; Silakov, Alexey; Zhang, Bo; Maiocco, Stephanie J; Lanz, Nicholas D; Kelly, Wendy L; Elliott, Sean J; Krebs, Carsten; Booker, Squire J

    2016-03-16

    TsrM, an annotated radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme, catalyzes the methylation of carbon 2 of the indole ring of l-tryptophan. Its reaction is the first step in the biosynthesis of the unique quinaldic acid moiety of thiostrepton A, a thiopeptide antibiotic. The appended methyl group derives from SAM; however, the enzyme also requires cobalamin and iron-sulfur cluster cofactors for turnover. In this work we report the overproduction and purification of TsrM and the characterization of its metallocofactors by UV-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE), and Mössbauer spectroscopies as well as protein-film electrochemistry (PFE). The enzyme contains 1 equiv of its cobalamin cofactor in its as-isolated state and can be reconstituted with iron and sulfide to contain one [4Fe-4S] cluster with a site-differentiated Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) pair. Our spectroscopic studies suggest that TsrM binds cobalamin in an uncharacteristic five-coordinate base-off/His-off conformation, whereby the dimethylbenzimidazole group is replaced by a non-nitrogenous ligand, which is likely a water molecule. Electrochemical analysis of the protein by PFE indicates a one-electron redox feature with a midpoint potential of -550 mV, which is assigned to a [4Fe-4S](2+)/[4Fe-4S](+) redox couple. Analysis of TsrM by Mössbauer and HYSCORE spectroscopies suggests that SAM does not bind to the unique iron site of the cluster in the same manner as in other radical SAM (RS) enzymes, yet its binding still perturbs the electronic configuration of both the Fe/S cluster and the cob(II)alamin cofactors. These biophysical studies suggest that TsrM is an atypical RS enzyme, consistent with its reported inability to catalyze formation of a 5'-deoxyadenosyl 5'-radical. PMID:26841310

  7. Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins: Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a Radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Arragain, S.; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; Hunt, J; Mulliez, E; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

  8. Post-translational Modification of Ribosomal Proteins - Structural and Functional Characterization of RimO from Thermotoga Maritima, A Radiacal S-Adenosylmethionine Methylthiotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Arragain, S.; Garcia-Serres, R; Blondin, G; Douki, T; Clemancey, M; Latour, J; Forouhar, F; Neely, H; Montelione, G; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family.

  9. Different polyamine pathways from bacteria have replaced eukaryotic spermidine biosynthesis in ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetaurelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sok Ho; Zhang, Yang; Hanfrey, Colin C; Elliott, Katherine A; Ealick, Steven E; Michael, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    The polyamine spermidine is absolutely required for growth and cell proliferation in eukaryotes, due to its role in post-translational modification of essential translation elongation factor eIF5A, mediated by deoxyhypusine synthase. We have found that free-living ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium lost the eukaryotic genes encoding spermidine biosynthesis: S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn). In Tetrahymena, they were replaced by a gene encoding a fusion protein of bacterial AdoMetDC and SpdSyn, present as three copies. In Paramecium, a bacterial homospermidine synthase replaced the eukaryotic genes. Individual AdoMetDC-SpdSyn fusion protein paralogues from Tetrahymena exhibit undetectable AdoMetDC activity; however, when two paralogous fusion proteins are mixed, AdoMetDC activity is restored and spermidine is synthesized. Structural modelling indicates a functional active site is reconstituted by sharing critical residues from two defective protomers across the heteromer interface. Paramecium was found to accumulate homospermidine, suggesting it replaces spermidine for growth. To test this concept, a budding yeast spermidine auxotrophic strain was found to grow almost normally with homospermidine instead of spermidine. Biosynthesis of spermidine analogue aminopropylcadaverine, but not exogenously provided norspermidine, correlated with some growth. Finally, we found that diverse single-celled eukaryotic parasites and multicellular metazoan Schistosoma worms have lost the spermidine biosynthetic pathway but retain deoxyhypusine synthase. PMID:25994085

  10. Demonstration That the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Enzyme PqqE Catalyzes de Novo Carbon-Carbon Cross-linking within a Peptide Substrate PqqA in the Presence of the Peptide Chaperone PqqD.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ian; Latham, John A; Iavarone, Anthony T; Chantarojsiri, Teera; Hwang, Jennifer D; Klinman, Judith P

    2016-04-22

    The radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) protein PqqE is predicted to function in the pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) biosynthetic pathway via catalysis of carbon-carbon bond formation between a glutamate and tyrosine side chain within the small peptide substrate PqqA. We report here that PqqE activity is dependent on the accessory protein PqqD, which was recently shown to bind PqqA tightly. In addition, PqqE activity in vitro requires the presence of a flavodoxin- and flavodoxin reductase-based reduction system, with other reductants leading to an uncoupled cleavage of the co-substrate SAM. These results indicate that PqqE, in conjunction with PqqD, carries out the first step in PQQ biosynthesis: a radical-mediated formation of a new carbon-carbon bond between two amino acid side chains on PqqA. PMID:26961875

  11. Histidine Decarboxylase in Enterobacteriaceae Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Georges; Avesani, Véronique; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2004-01-01

    With a modification of Taylor's decarboxylation broth, histidine decarboxylase was detected in Enterobacter aerogenes, Morganella morganii, Raoultella ornithinolytica, and some strains of Citrobacter youngae and Raoultella planticola. This method provides a useful confirmatory test for identification of E. aerogenes strains. PMID:15583342

  12. C3'-Deoxygenation of Paromamine Catalyzed by a Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzyme: Characterization of the Enzyme AprD4 and Its Reductase Partner AprD3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Joong; LeVieux, Jake; Yeh, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2016-03-01

    C3'-deoxygenation of aminoglycosides results in their decreased susceptibility to phosphorylation thereby increasing their efficacy as antibiotics. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of C3'-deoxygenation is unknown. To address this issue, aprD4 and aprD3 genes from the apramycin gene cluster in Streptomyces tenebrarius were expressed in E.?coli and the resulting gene products were characterized in?vitro. AprD4 is shown to be a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme, catalyzing homolysis of SAM to 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-dAdo) in the presence of paromamine. [4'-(2) H]-Paromamine was prepared and used to show that its C4'-H is transferred to 5'-dAdo by AprD4, during which the substrate is dehydrated to a product consistent with 4'-oxolividamine. In contrast, paromamine is reduced to a deoxy product when incubated with AprD4/AprD3/NADPH. These results show that AprD4 is the first radical SAM diol-dehydratase and, along with AprD3, is responsible for 3'-deoxygenation in aminoglycoside biosynthesis. PMID:26879038

  13. Protective Effect of Tyrosol and S-Adenosylmethionine against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress of Hepg2 Cells Involves Sirtuin 1, P53 and Erk1/2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Stiuso, Paola; Bagarolo, Maria Libera; Ilisso, Concetta Paola; Vanacore, Daniela; Martino, Elisa; Caraglia, Michele; Porcelli, Marina; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in ethanol-induced liver damage, and agents with antioxidant properties are promising as therapeutic opportunities in alcoholic liver disease. In the present work, we investigated the effect of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), Tyrosol (Tyr), and their combination on HepG2 cells exposed to ethanol exploring the potential molecular mechanisms. We exposed HepG2 cells to 1 M ethanol for 4 and 48 h; thereafter, we recorded a decreased cell viability, increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid accumulation, and the release into culture medium of markers of liver disease such as triacylglycerol, cholesterol, transaminases, albumin, ferritin, and homocysteine. On the other hand, AdoMet and Tyrosol were able to attenuate or antagonize these adverse changes induced by acute exposure to ethanol. The protective effects were paralleled by increased Sirtuin 1 protein expression and nuclear translocation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that were both responsible for the protection of cells from apoptosis. Moreover, AdoMet increased p53 and p21 expression, while Tyrosol reduced p21 expression and enhanced the expression of uncleaved caspase 3 and 9, suggesting that its protective effect may be related to the inhibition of the apoptotic machinery. Altogether, our data show that AdoMet and Tyrosol exert beneficial effects in ethanol-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and provide a rationale for their potential use in combination in the prevention of ethanol-induced liver damage. PMID:27128904

  14. Protective Effect of Tyrosol and S-Adenosylmethionine against Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress of Hepg2 Cells Involves Sirtuin 1, P53 and Erk1/2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stiuso, Paola; Bagarolo, Maria Libera; Ilisso, Concetta Paola; Vanacore, Daniela; Martino, Elisa; Caraglia, Michele; Porcelli, Marina; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in ethanol-induced liver damage, and agents with antioxidant properties are promising as therapeutic opportunities in alcoholic liver disease. In the present work, we investigated the effect of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), Tyrosol (Tyr), and their combination on HepG2 cells exposed to ethanol exploring the potential molecular mechanisms. We exposed HepG2 cells to 1 M ethanol for 4 and 48 h; thereafter, we recorded a decreased cell viability, increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid accumulation, and the release into culture medium of markers of liver disease such as triacylglycerol, cholesterol, transaminases, albumin, ferritin, and homocysteine. On the other hand, AdoMet and Tyrosol were able to attenuate or antagonize these adverse changes induced by acute exposure to ethanol. The protective effects were paralleled by increased Sirtuin 1 protein expression and nuclear translocation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation that were both responsible for the protection of cells from apoptosis. Moreover, AdoMet increased p53 and p21 expression, while Tyrosol reduced p21 expression and enhanced the expression of uncleaved caspase 3 and 9, suggesting that its protective effect may be related to the inhibition of the apoptotic machinery. Altogether, our data show that AdoMet and Tyrosol exert beneficial effects in ethanol-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and provide a rationale for their potential use in combination in the prevention of ethanol-induced liver damage. PMID:27128904

  15. PqqD is a novel peptide chaperone that forms a ternary complex with the radical S-adenosylmethionine protein PqqE in the pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Latham, John A; Iavarone, Anthony T; Barr, Ian; Juthani, Prerak V; Klinman, Judith P

    2015-05-15

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a product of a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified pathway consisting of five conserved genes, pqqA-E. PqqE is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) protein with a C-terminal SPASM domain, and is proposed to catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon bond between the glutamate and tyrosine side chains of the peptide substrate PqqA. PqqD is a 10-kDa protein with an unknown function, but is essential for PQQ production. Recently, in Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp), PqqD and PqqE were shown to interact; however, the stoichiometry and KD were not obtained. Here, we show that the PqqE and PqqD interaction transcends species, also occurring in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 (Me). The stoichiometry of the MePqqD and MePqqE interaction is 1:1 and the KD, determined by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), was found to be ∼12 μm. Moreover, using SPR and isothermal calorimetry techniques, we establish for the first time that MePqqD binds MePqqA tightly (KD ∼200 nm). The formation of a ternary MePqqA-D-E complex was captured by native mass spectrometry and the KD for the MePqqAD-MePqqE interaction was found to be ∼5 μm. Finally, using a bioinformatic analysis, we found that PqqD orthologues are associated with the RS-SPASM family of proteins (subtilosin, pyrroloquinoline quinone, anaerobic sulfatase maturating enzyme, and mycofactocin), all of which modify either peptides or proteins. In conclusion, we propose that PqqD is a novel peptide chaperone and that PqqD orthologues may play a similar role in peptide modification pathways that use an RS-SPASM protein. PMID:25817994

  16. PqqD Is a Novel Peptide Chaperone That Forms a Ternary Complex with the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Protein PqqE in the Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Biosynthetic Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Barr, Ian; Juthani, Prerak V.; Klinman, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a product of a ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified pathway consisting of five conserved genes, pqqA-E. PqqE is a radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) protein with a C-terminal SPASM domain, and is proposed to catalyze the formation of a carbon-carbon bond between the glutamate and tyrosine side chains of the peptide substrate PqqA. PqqD is a 10-kDa protein with an unknown function, but is essential for PQQ production. Recently, in Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp), PqqD and PqqE were shown to interact; however, the stoichiometry and KD were not obtained. Here, we show that the PqqE and PqqD interaction transcends species, also occurring in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 (Me). The stoichiometry of the MePqqD and MePqqE interaction is 1:1 and the KD, determined by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), was found to be ∼12 μm. Moreover, using SPR and isothermal calorimetry techniques, we establish for the first time that MePqqD binds MePqqA tightly (KD ∼200 nm). The formation of a ternary MePqqA-D-E complex was captured by native mass spectrometry and the KD for the MePqqAD-MePqqE interaction was found to be ∼5 μm. Finally, using a bioinformatic analysis, we found that PqqD orthologues are associated with the RS-SPASM family of proteins (subtilosin, pyrroloquinoline quinone, anaerobic sulfatase maturating enzyme, and mycofactocin), all of which modify either peptides or proteins. In conclusion, we propose that PqqD is a novel peptide chaperone and that PqqD orthologues may play a similar role in peptide modification pathways that use an RS-SPASM protein. PMID:25817994

  17. Reactions of site-differentiated [Fe4S4]2+, 1+ clusters with sulfonium cations: reactivity analogues of biotin synthase and other members of the S-adenosylmethionine enzyme family.

    PubMed

    Daley, Christopher J A; Holm, R H

    2003-11-01

    The first examples of reduced 3:1 site-differentiated Fe(4)S(4) clusters have been synthesized as [Fe(4)S(4)(LS(3))(SR')](3-) (R=Et, Ph) by chemical reduction of previously reported [Fe(4)S(4)(LS(3))(SR')](2-) clusters, and isolated as NBu(4)(+) salts. The reduced clusters were characterized by electrochemistry and EPR, 1H NMR, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. The reaction of oxidized clusters with the sulfonium ions [PhMeSCH(2)R](+) (R=COPh, p-C(6)H(4)CN) in acetonitrile results in electrophilic attack on coordinated thiolate and production of PhSMe and R'SCH(2)R when the reaction occurs at the unique cluster site. The reactions of reduced clusters with these substrates were examined in relation to the reductive cleavage of the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine, the first step in the catalytic cycle of biotin synthase. Product analysis indicated a approximately 4:1 ratio of reductive cleavage to electrophilic attack. The cleavage products are PhSMe, R'SCH(2)R, and RCH(3) for both clusters, and also PhMeS=CHR and RCH(2)CH(2)R from secondary reactions when the sulfonium cation is [PhMeSCH(2)COPh](+) and [PhMeSCH(2)-p-C(6)H(4)CN](+), respectively. Reaction schemes for reductive cleavage based on product distributions are presented. These results parallel those previously reported for homoleptic [Fe(4)S(4)(SR')(4)](2-,3-) clusters and demonstrate that site-differentiated clusters sustain a high percentage of reductive cleavage, a necessary result in the context of biotin synthase activity preceding an investigation of the mode of binding of sulfonium substrates and inhibitors at the unique iron site. [LS(3)=1,3,5-tris[(4,6-dimethyl-3-mercaptophenyl)thio]-2,4,6-tris(p-tolylthio)benzene(3-)]. PMID:14511891

  18. A study of potential histidine decarboxylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, D.; Shepherd, D. M.

    1960-01-01

    A series of compounds has been examined for ability to inhibit histidine decarboxylase. Histidine analogues having substituents in the imidazole ring showed a wide variation in potency, but these were all much less active than α-methyldopa [β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-α-methylalanine], the most potent known inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase. Some tentative conclusions are drawn regarding the relationship between chemical structure and inhibitory activity. PMID:13764874

  19. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuya; Toda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Michiko; Negishi, Takashi; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT) was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-), bisulfide ([SH]-), and thiocyanate ([SCN]-) ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions. A survey of biogenic emissions of methyl halides strongly suggests that the HTM/HTMT reaction is the key to understanding the biogenesis of methyl halides and methylated sulfur compounds in nature. PMID:19723322

  20. ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In rat liver, allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) treatment strongly induced (25-fold) the activity of rat hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). y either the oral or the subcutaneous routes, AIA produced a long-lasting induction (30 to 4O hours) of hepatic ODC activity. hree analogs o...

  1. Structures of Bacterial Biosynthetic Arginine Decarboxylases

    SciTech Connect

    F Forouhar; S Lew; J Seetharaman; R Xiao; T Acton; G Montelione; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC; also known as SpeA) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of polyamines from arginine in bacteria and plants. SpeA is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and shares weak sequence homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases. Here, the crystal structure of PLP-bound SpeA from Campylobacter jejuni is reported at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution and that of Escherichia coli SpeA in complex with a sulfate ion is reported at 3.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of the SpeA monomer contains two large domains, an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain followed by a {beta}-sandwich domain, as well as two smaller helical domains. The TIM-barrel and {beta}-sandwich domains share structural homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases, even though the sequence conservation among these enzymes is less than 25%. A similar tetramer is observed for both C. jejuni and E. coli SpeA, composed of two dimers of tightly associated monomers. The active site of SpeA is located at the interface of this dimer and is formed by residues from the TIM-barrel domain of one monomer and a highly conserved loop in the {beta}-sandwich domain of the other monomer. The PLP cofactor is recognized by hydrogen-bonding, {pi}-stacking and van der Waals interactions.

  2. Sequence of ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a.

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, M L; Carroll, D W; Davidson, L; Kim, S O; Momany, C; Vaaler, G L; Zhang, L

    1994-01-01

    A gene encoding biodegradative ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a was isolated from a genomic DNA library and sequenced. Primer extension analysis revealed two transcription initiation sites. The deduced amino acid sequence is compared with the amino acid sequences of five previously reported bacterial decarboxylases, and conserved pyridoxal phosphate motif residues are identified. PMID:7961515

  3. GLUTAMIC DECARBOXYLASE OF ERGOT, CLAVICEPS PURPUREA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John A.; Cheldelin, Vernon H.; King, Tsoo E.

    1961-01-01

    Anderson, John A. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), Vernon H. Cheldelin, and Tsoo E. King. Glutamic decarboxylase of ergot, Claviceps purpurea. J. Bacteriol. 82:354–358. 1961.—l-Glutamic acid is the only naturally occurring amino acid which can be decarboxylated by cell-free extracts of Claviceps purpurea. This decarboxylase was partially purified and the properties of the enzyme studied. The specific activity of the purified preparation was 111 μliters per 10 min per mg of protein. The products formed, stability, inhibition, stimulation of activity with pyridoxal phosphate, and pH activity curve were typical of l-glutamic decarboxylase in Escherichia coli and other microorganisms. The substrate constants at pH 4.6, 5.25, and 5.65 were 0.0169 m, 0.0174 m, and 0.0139 m, respectively. The respective maximal velocities at these pH values were 104, 104, and 90 μliters per 10 min. The pH optimum was 4.8 to 5.2. The enzyme was unstable below pH 4.5 and it was suggested that the fall in activity at the lower end of the pH curve was due to inactivation of the enzyme. The decrease in activity above pH 5.2 did not appear to be due to a change in affinity of enzyme for substrate but to a change of the enzyme-substrate complex into an inactive form. PMID:13683214

  4. l-Histidine Decarboxylase and Tourette's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Stillman, Althea A.; Ghosh, Ananda K.; Bilguvar, Kaya; O'Roak, Brian J.; Mason, Christopher E.; Abbott, Thomas; Gupta, Abha; King, Robert A.; Pauls, David L.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Heiman, Gary A.; Singer, Harvey S.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Morgan, Thomas M.; Loring, Erin; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Fernandez, Thomas; Sanders, Stephan; Louvi, Angeliki; Cho, Judy H.; Mane, Shrikant; Colangelo, Christopher M.; Biederer, Thomas; Lifton, Richard P.; Gunel, Murat; State, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Tourette's syndrome is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Despite a strong genetic contribution, inheritance is complex, and risk alleles have proven difficult to identify. Here, we describe an analysis of linkage in a two-generation pedigree leading to the identification of a rare functional mutation in the HDC gene encoding l-histidine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in histamine biosynthesis. Our findings, together with previously published data from model systems, point to a role for histaminergic neurotransmission in the mechanism and modulation of Tourette's syndrome and tics. PMID:20445167

  5. Hydrazine stress in the diabetic: ornithine decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K S; Chan, W; Higgins, E S

    1988-08-01

    Streptozotocin-induced diabetes of 7 weeks duration increased male Sprague-Dawley rat kidney ornithine decarboxylase activity by 4.8-fold but did not affect the liver enzyme. Hydrazine treatment of 4 hr duration stimulated equally kidney ornithine decarboxylase activities of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Hydrazine treatment increased liver ornithine decarboxylase activity in the nondiabetic rat but did not increase it in the diabetic rat. Since hydrazine stimulates ornithine decarboxylase activity prior to polyamine and protein syntheses, we speculate that the lack of hydrazine stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase in the diabetic liver may be related in part to the unrestrained gluconeogenesis and depressed Kreb's cycle activity: the latter being required for protein synthesis. PMID:3219230

  6. Dopa decarboxylase activity of the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gjedde, A.; Reith, J.; Dyve, S.; Leger, G.; Guttman, M.; Diksic, M.; Evans, A.; Kuwabara, H. )

    1991-04-01

    Monoaminergic neurons use dopa decarboxylase to form dopamine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). We measured regional dopa decarboxylase activity in brains of six healthy volunteers with 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa and positron emission tomography. We calculated the enzyme activity, relative to its Km, with a kinetic model that yielded the relative rate of conversion of 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa to ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine. Regional values of relative dopa decarboxylase activity ranged from nil in occipital cortex to 1.9 h-1 in caudate nucleus and putamen, in agreement with values obtained in vitro.

  7. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by {beta}-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, {beta}-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours.

  8. Functional analysis of human ornithine decarboxylase alleles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Harris, R B; Rosson, D; Boorman, D; O'Brien, T G

    2000-11-15

    It has been known for > 10 years that there are two alleles of the human ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene, defined by a polymorphic PstI RFLP in intron 1. We have sequenced a large portion of each of the two alleles, including some of the 5' promoter region, exon 1, intron 1, and exon 2, and determined that a single nucleotide polymorphism at base +317 (relative to transcription start site) is responsible for the presence or absence of the PstI restriction site. We have developed two genotyping assays, a PCR-RFLP assay and a high-throughput TaqMan-based method, and determined the ODC genotype distribution in >900 North American DNA samples. On the basis of its location between two closely spaced Myc/Max binding sites (E-boxes), we speculated that the single nucleotide polymorphism at base +317 could have functional significance. Results of transfection assays with allele-specific reporter constructs support this hypothesis. The promoter/regulatory region derived from the minor ODC allele (A allele) was more effective in driving luciferase expression in these assays than the identical region from the major allele (G allele). Our results suggest that individuals homozygous for the A allele may be capable of greater ODC expression after environmental exposures, especially those that up-regulate c-MYC expression. PMID:11103791

  9. A Porphodimethene Chemical Inhibitor of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Kenneth W.; Zhang, Zhan; Sakemura-Nakatsugawa, Noriko; Huang, Jui-Wen; Vu, Nhu Mai; Chiang, Yi-Kun; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Jennifer Y. Y.; Yue, Shijun; Jitkova, Yulia; To, Terence; Zahedi, Payam; Pai, Emil F.; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) catalyzes the conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen during heme biosynthesis. This enzyme was recently identified as a potential anticancer target; its inhibition leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species, likely mediated by the Fenton reaction, thereby decreasing cancer cell viability and working in cooperation with radiation and/or cisplatin. Because there is no known chemical UROD inhibitor suitable for use in translational studies, we aimed to design, synthesize, and characterize such a compound. Initial in silico-based design and docking analyses identified a potential porphyrin analogue that was subsequently synthesized. This species, a porphodimethene (named PI-16), was found to inhibit UROD in an enzymatic assay (IC50 = 9.9 µM), but did not affect porphobilinogen deaminase (at 62.5 µM), thereby exhibiting specificity. In cellular assays, PI-16 reduced the viability of FaDu and ME-180 cancer cells with half maximal effective concentrations of 22.7 µM and 26.9 µM, respectively, and only minimally affected normal oral epithelial (NOE) cells. PI-16 also combined effectively with radiation and cisplatin, with potent synergy being observed in the case of cisplatin in FaDu cells (Chou-Talalay combination index <1). This work presents the first known synthetic UROD inhibitor, and sets the foundation for the design, synthesis, and characterization of higher affinity and more effective UROD inhibitors. PMID:24587102

  10. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase in rat brain and liver: distinction from ornithine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Regunathan, S; Reis, D J

    2000-05-01

    We compared the properties of mammalian arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in rat liver and brain. Mammalian ADC is thermally unstable and associated with mitochondrial membranes. ADC decarboxylates both arginine (Km = 0.75 mM) and ornithine (Km = 0.25 mM), a reaction not inhibited by the specific ODC inhibitor, difluoromethylomithine. ADC activity is inhibited by Ca2+, Co2+, and polyamines, is present in many organs being highest in aorta and lowest in testis, and is not recognized by a specific monoclonal antibody to ODC. In contrast, ODC is thermally stable, cytosolic, and mitochondrial and is expressed at low levels in most organs except testis. Although ADC and ODC are expressed in cultured rat C6 glioma cells, the patterns of expression during growth and confluence are very different. We conclude that mammalian ADC differs from ADC isoforms expressed in plants, bacteria, or Caenorhabditis elegans and is distinct from ODC. ADC serves to synthesize agmatine in proximity to mitochondria, an organelle also harboring agmatine's degradative enzyme, agmatinase, and a class of imidazoline receptor (I2) to which agmatine binds with high affinity. PMID:10800966

  11. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Kojima, H; Tanaka, T; Takatsuka, Y; Kamio, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the existence of a new gene for lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli K-12. The hybridization experiments with a cadA probe at low stringency showed that the homologous region of cadA was located in lambda Kohara phage clone 6F5 at 4.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. We cloned the 5.0-kb HindIII fragment of this phage clone and sequenced the homologous region of cadA. This region contained a 2,139-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 713-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 80,589. Overexpression of the protein and determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence defined the translational start site of this gene. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69.4% identity to that of lysine decarboxylase encoded by cadA at 93.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. In addition, the level of lysine decarboxylase activity increased in strains carrying multiple copies of the gene. Therefore, the gene encoding this lysine decarboxylase was designated Idc. Analysis of the lysine decarboxylase activity of strains containing cadA, ldc, or cadA ldc mutations indicated that ldc was weakly expressed under various conditions but is a functional gene in E. coli. PMID:9226257

  12. Ornithine Decarboxylase, Polyamines, and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Senecio and Crotalaria

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Birecki, Mieczyslaw; Cohen, Eric J.; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here—using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors—endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence—with relatively very high levels of these compounds—in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence. PMID:16665870

  13. [Catalytic properties of alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase from bovine brain].

    PubMed

    Snechkute, M A; Glemzha, A A

    1976-03-01

    Investigation of the effect of different buffer systems on the rate of alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase reaction have shown that the pH optimum is 6.8 in tris-maleic, tris-H3PO4 and KH2PO4-KOH buffers, and it is 7.5 in imidazole buffer. The highest reaction rate was observed when using phosphate containing buffers. The increase of phosphate concentration increased considerably the rate of alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase reaction. Mg2+ and Ca2+ were shown to affect slightly the reaction rate. Co2+ and Ag+ slightly inactivated the enzyme. Cu2+ turned to be a very efficient inhibitor of alpha-ketoglutarate decarboxylase reaction. Apparent Mikhaelis constants are determined to be 1.6-10(-3) M for alpha-ketoglutaric acid and 1.7-10(-2)M for 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol. PMID:6080

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis: characterization of ornithine decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Yarlett, N; Goldberg, B; Moharrami, M A; Bacchi, C J

    1993-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the lead enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was partially purified from Trichomonas vaginalis and its kinetic properties were studied. The enzyme appears to be of special significance in this anaerobic parasite, since the arginine dihydrolase pathway generates ATP as well as putrescine from arginine. ODC from T. vaginalis had a broad substrate specificity, decarboxylating ornithine (100%), lysine (1.0%) and arginine (0.1%). The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6.5, a temperature optimum of 37 degrees C and was pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent. Attempts to separate ornithine- from lysine-decarboxylating activity by thermal-stability and pH-optima curves were not successful. Although Km values for ornithine and lysine were 109 and 91 microM respectively, and the Vmax values for these substrates were 1282 and 13 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively, the most important intracellular substrate is ornithine, since intracellular ornithine levels are 3.5 times those of lysine and extracellular putrescine levels are 7.5 times those of cadaverine. Ornithine was also an effective inhibitor of lysine-decarboxylating activity (Ki 150 microM), whereas lysine was relatively ineffective as inhibitor of ornithine-decarboxylating activity (Ki 14.5 mM). Crude ODC activity was localized (86%) in the 43,000 g supernatant and 3303-fold purification was obtained by (NH4)2SO4 salting and DEAE-Sephacel, agarose-gel and hydroxyapatite chromatography steps. The enzyme bound difluoro[3H]methylornithine ([3H]DFMO) with a ratio of drug bound to activity of 2500 fmol/unit, where 1 unit corresponds to 1 nmol of CO2 released from ornithine/min. The enzyme had a native M(r) of 210000 (gel filtration), with a subunit M(r) of 55,000 (by SDS/PAGE), suggesting that the trichomonad enzyme is a tetramer. From the subunit M(r) and binding ratio of DFMO, there is about 137 ng of ODC per mg of T. vaginalis protein (0.013%). The significant amount of ODC protein present supports the view that putrescine synthesis in T. vaginalis plays an important role in the metabolism of the parasite. Images Figure 4 PMID:8343128

  15. ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) did not cause DNA damage in rat liver. The porphyrinogenic research drug did strongly induce the activity (25-fold) of rat hepatic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). By either the oral or the subcutaneous route AIA produced a long lasting inductio...

  16. RAPID GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid test procedure for the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase was developed for the detection of Escherichia coli. he assay procedure was able to confirm the presence of E. coli in enteric broth cultures with a 95 percent specificity for both pure cultures and environmental sampl...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... features of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Neurology. 2010 Jul 6;75(1):64-71. doi: ... WNL.0b013e3181e620ae. Epub 2010 May 26. Erratum in: Neurology. 2010 Aug 10;75(6):576. Dosage error ...

  18. Arginine decarboxylase as the source of putrescine for tobacco alkaloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The putrescine which forms a part of nicotine and other pyrrolidine alkaloids is generally assumed to arise through the action of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, we have previously noted that changes in the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), an alternate source of putrescine, parallel changes in tissue alkaloids, while changes in ODC activity do not. This led us to undertake experiments to permit discrimination between ADC and ODC as enzymatic sources of putrescine destined for alkaloids. Two kinds of evidence presented here support a major role for ADC in the generation of putrescine going into alkaloids: (a) A specific 'suicide inhibitor' of ADC effectively inhibits the biosynthesis of nicotine and nornicotine in tobacco callus, while the analogous inhibitor of ODC is less effective, and (b) the flow of 14C from uniformly labelled arginine into nicotine is much more efficient than that from ornithine.

  19. Tryptophan Decarboxylase, Tryptamine, and Reproduction of the Whitefly.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. C.; Adams, D. G.; Nessler, C. L.; Brown, J. K.; Bohnert, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) from Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) converts tryptophan to the indole-alkaloid tryptamine. When the TDC gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco, the 55-kD TDC enzyme and tryptamine accumulated. Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) reproduction on transgenic plants decreased up to 97% relative to controls. Production of tryptamine, its derivatives, or other products resulting from TDC activity may discourage whitefly reproduction and provide a single-gene-based plant protection strategy. PMID:12228625

  20. Molecular and functional analyses of amino acid decarboxylases involved in cuticle tanning in Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) provide b–alanine and dopamine used in insect cuticle tanning. Beta-alanine is conjugated with dopamine to yield N-b-alanyldopamine (NBAD), a substrate for the phenoloxidase laccase that catalyzes the synthesis of cuticle protein cross-li...

  1. Vector-mediated chromosomal integration of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrative vector pINTRS was used to transfer glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity to Streptococcus thermophilus ST128, thus allowing for the production of '-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In pINTRS, the gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was flanked by DNA fragments homologous to a S. ...

  2. Tyrosine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis: soluble expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Ni, Ye

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC, EC 4.1.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-tyrosine to produce tyramine and CO2. In this study, a 1881-bp tdc gene from Lactobacillus brevis was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Glucose was discovered to play an important role in the soluble expression of rLbTDC. After optimization, recombinant TDC (rLbTDC) was achieved in excellent solubility and a yield of 224mg rLbTDC/L broth. The C-terminal His-Tagged rLbTDC was one-step purified with 90% recovery. Based on SDS-PAGE and gel filtration analysis, rLbTDC is a dimer composed of two identical subunits of approximately 70kDa. Using l-tyrosine as substrate, the specific activity of rLbTDC was determined to be 133.5U/mg in the presence of 0.2mM pyridoxal-5'-phosphate at 40°C and pH 5.0. The Km and Vmax values of rLbTDC were 0.59mM and 147.1μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively. In addition to l-tyrosine, rLbTDC also exhibited decarboxylase activity towards l-DOPA. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, the soluble expression of tdc gene from L. brevis in heterologous host. PMID:24211777

  3. Crystallographic snapshots of oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase give insights into catalysis by nonoxidative ThDP-dependent decarboxylases.

    PubMed

    Berthold, Catrine L; Toyota, Cory G; Moussatche, Patricia; Wood, Martin D; Leeper, Finian; Richards, Nigel G J; Lindqvist, Ylva

    2007-07-01

    Despite more than five decades of extensive studies of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) enzymes, there remain many uncertainties as to how these enzymes achieve their rate enhancements. Here, we present a clear picture of catalysis for the simple nonoxidative decarboxylase, oxalyl-coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase, based on crystallographic snapshots along the catalytic cycle and kinetic data on active site mutants. First, we provide crystallographic evidence that, upon binding of oxalyl-CoA, the C-terminal 13 residues fold over the substrate, aligning the substrate alpha-carbon for attack by the ThDP-C2 atom. The second structure presented shows a covalent reaction intermediate after decarboxylation, interpreted as being nonplanar. Finally, the structure of a product complex is presented. In accordance with mutagenesis data, no side chains of the enzyme are implied to directly participate in proton transfer except the glutamic acid (Glu-56), which promotes formation of the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomer of ThDP needed for activation. PMID:17637344

  4. Activities of Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases in Various Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1985-01-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to Vmax, ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. α-Difluoromethylornithine and α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species. No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed. In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum. PMID:16664442

  5. Uncovering the Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Gallate Decarboxylase Involved in Tannin Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Natalia; Curiel, José Antonio; Reverón, Inés; de las Rivas, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium able to degrade tannins by the subsequent action of tannase and gallate decarboxylase enzymes. The gene encoding tannase had previously been identified, whereas the gene encoding gallate decarboxylase is unknown. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of gallic-acid induced L. plantarum extracts showed a 54-kDa protein which was absent in the uninduced cells. This protein was identified as Lp_2945, putatively annotated UbiD. Homology searches identified ubiD-like genes located within three-gene operons which encoded the three subunits of nonoxidative aromatic acid decarboxylases. L. plantarum is the only bacterium in which the lpdC (lp_2945) gene and the lpdB and lpdD (lp_0271 and lp_0272) genes are separated in the chromosome. Combination of extracts from recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the lpdB, lpdC, and lpdC genes demonstrated that LpdC is the only protein required to yield gallate decarboxylase activity. However, the disruption of these genes in L. plantarum revealed that the lpdB and lpdC gene products are essential for gallate decarboxylase activity. Similar to L. plantarum tannase, which exhibited activity only in esters derived from gallic and protocatechuic acids, purified His6-LpdC protein from E. coli showed decarboxylase activity against gallic and protocatechuic acids. In contrast to the tannase activity, gallate decarboxylase activity is widely present among lactic acid bacteria. This study constitutes the first genetic characterization of a gallate decarboxylase enzyme and provides new insights into the role of the different subunits of bacterial nonoxidative aromatic acid decarboxylases. PMID:23645198

  6. Stereospecificity of sodium borohydride reduction of pig kidney dopa decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Dominici, P; Tancini, B; Voltattorni, C B

    1986-12-01

    Sodium boro[3H]hydride reduction of pig kidney 3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase followed by complete hydrolysis of the enzyme produced epsilon-[3H]pyridoxyllysine. Degradation of this material to 4'-[3H]pyridoxamine and stereochemical analysis with apoaspartate aminotransferase showed that the re side at C-4' of the coenzyme is exposed to solvent. In order to determine the face exposed to the solvent in the external Schiff's base, attempts to trap reaction intermediates were made by reduction with sodium boro [3H]hydride of the holoenzyme in the presence of various substrates or substrate analogs. In all cases, covalently bound radioactive material was found which was identified as epsilon-N-pyridoxyllysine. These results suggest that the internal Schiff's base is in mobile equilibrium with the external Schiff's base and that sodium borohydride reduction displaces this equilibrium, resulting in complete reduction of the internal Schiff's base. PMID:3099646

  7. Dopa decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase gene variants in suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Giegling, Ina; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Rujescu, Dan; Schneider, Barbara; Hartmann, Annette M; Schnabel, Axel; Maurer, Konrad; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Serretti, Alessandro

    2008-04-01

    The dopaminergic system has been previously associated to behavioral facilitation and aggression, hence making the pathway a good candidate for suicidal behavior. We studied gene variants in the tyrosine hydroxylase (rs3842727, rs6356) and DOPA decarboxylase (rs1451371, rs1470750, rs998850) genes in a sample of 571 individuals consisting of 167 German suicide attempters (affective spectrum n = 107, schizophrenia spectrum n = 35, borderline personality disorder n = 25), 92 Caucasian individuals who committed suicide and 312 German control subjects. TH variants were not associated with suicide (uncorrected P = 0.023) and related traits. Some marginal associations could be observed for DDC with suicide, violence, anger, and aggression. In conclusion, our study does not support the involvement of TH gene variants as major contributors to suicide, whereas DDC variants could mediate some features related to suicide and be involved in violent suicidal behavior. PMID:17948905

  8. Altered subcellular localization of ornithine decarboxylase in Alzheimer's disease brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Tatjana . E-mail: Tatjana.Nilsson@ki.se; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Volkman, Inga; Winblad, Bengt; Folkesson, Ronnie; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2006-06-02

    The amyloid precursor protein can through ligand-mimicking induce expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. We report here the regional distribution and cellular localization of ODC immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. In frontal cortex and hippocampus of control cases, the most pronounced ODC immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus. In possible and definite AD the immunoreactivity had shifted to the cytoplasm. In cerebellum of control cases, ODC staining was found in a small portion of Purkinje cells, mostly in the nucleus. In AD, both possible and definite, the number of stained Purkinje cells increased significantly and immunoreactivity was shifted to the cytoplasm, even though it was still prominent in the nucleus. In conclusion, our study reveals an early shift of the ODC immunoreactivity in AD from the nuclear compartment towards the cytoplasm.

  9. An endosymbiont positively modulates ornithine decarboxylase in host trypanosomatids

    SciTech Connect

    Frossard, Mariana Lins; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Matta, Renato Augusto da; Souza, Wanderley de; Garcia de Mello, Fernando; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado . E-mail: motta@biof.ufrj.br

    2006-05-05

    Summary: Some trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia deanei, are endosymbiont-containing species. Aposymbiotic strains are obtained after antibiotic treatment, revealing interesting aspects of this symbiotic association. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promotes polyamine biosynthesis and contributes to cell proliferation. Here, we show that ODC activity is higher in endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids than in aposymbiotic cells, but isolated endosymbionts did not display this enzyme activity. Intriguingly, expressed levels of ODC were similar in both strains, suggesting that ODC is positively modulated in endosymbiont-bearing cells. When the aposymbiotic strain was grown in conditioned medium, obtained after cultivation of the endosymbiont-bearing strain, cellular proliferation as well as ODC activity and localization were similar to that observed in the endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids. Furthermore, dialyzed-heated medium and trypsin treatment reduced ODC activity of the aposymbiont strain. Taken together, these data indicate that the endosymbiont can enhance the protozoan ODC activity by providing factors of protein nature, which increase the host polyamine metabolism.

  10. Spermine synthase overexpression in vivo does not increase susceptibility to DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis or Min-Apc intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Patricia A.; Sass-Kuhn, Suzanne; Prakashagowda, Chethana; McCloskey, Diane E.; Feith, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between elevated polyamine biosynthesis and neoplastic growth, but the specific contribution of spermine synthase to epithelial tumor development has never been explored in vivo. Mice with widespread overexpression of spermine synthase (CAG-SpmS) exhibit decreased spermidine levels, increased spermine and a significant rise in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio. We characterized the response of CAG-SpmS mice to two-stage skin chemical carcinogenesis as well as spontaneous intestinal carcinogenesis induced by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor in ApcMin/+ (Min) mice. CAG-SpmS mice maintained the canonical increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, polyamine content and epidermal thickness in response to tumor promoter treatment of the skin. The induction of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity and its product decarboxylated AdoMet were impaired in CAG-SpmS mice, and the spermine:spermidine ratio was increased 3-fold in both untreated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/TPA skin carcinogenesis was not altered in CAG-SpmS mice, and SpmS overexpression did not modify the previously described tumor resistance of mice with targeted antizyme expression or the enhanced tumor response in mice with targeted spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase expression. CAG-SpmS/Min mice also exhibited elevated spermine:spermidine ratios in the small intestine and colon, yet their tumor multiplicity and size was similar to Min mice. Therefore, studies in two of the most widely used tumorigenesis models demonstrate that increased spermine synthase activity and the resulting elevation of the spermine:spermidine ratio does not alter susceptibility to tumor development initiated by c-Ha-Ras mutation or Apc loss. PMID:22258329

  11. A Liquid-Based Colorimetric Assay of Lysine Decarboxylase and Its Application to Enzymatic Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Kim, Hyun Joong; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Yun-Gon; Park, Kyungmoon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-12-28

    A liquid-based colorimetric assay using a pH indicator was introduced for high-throughput monitoring of lysine decarboxylase activity. The assay is based on the color change of bromocresol purple, measured at 595 nm in liquid reaction mixture, due to an increase of pH by the production of cadaverine. Bromocresol purple was selected as the indicator because it has higher sensitivity than bromothymol blue and pheonol red within a broad range and shows good linearity within the applied pH. We applied this for simple determination of lysine decarboxylase reusability using 96-well plates, and optimization of conditions for enzyme overexpression with different concentrations of IPTG on lysine decarboxylase. This assay is expected to be applied for monitoring and quantifying the liquid-based enzyme reaction in biotransformation of decarboxylase in a high-throughput way. PMID:26282689

  12. Effect of oxythiamin on growth rate, survival ability and pyruvate decarboxylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tylicki, Adam; Łempicka, Anna; Romaniuk-Demonchaux, Katarzyna; Czerniecki, Jan; Dobrzyń, Paweł; Strumiło, Sławomir

    2003-01-01

    Oxythiamin is one of the antivitamin derivatives of thiamin which, after phosphorylation, can be bound to the catalytic centre of thiamin-dependent enzymes and inhibit these enzymes. In this work the influence of oxythiamin on the growth rate, survival and the activity of pyruvate decarboxylase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (s288c) was investigated. Oxythiamin decreased both the growth rate and survival ability of yeast cells. Moreover, in three-day-old cultures on a medium with oxythiamin, an increase of pyruvate decarboxylase activity was observed. This unusual effect may be in response to the earlier inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase. A high concentration of pyruvate in the cell extracts taken from the medium with oxythiamin was found. This accumulation of pyruvate could provide for enhanced biosynthesis of the pyruvate decarboxylase apoform and an increase of enzyme activity. PMID:14625902

  13. Induction of de-novo synthesis of tryptophan decarboxylase in cell suspensions of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Noé, W; Berlin, J

    1985-12-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (EC 4.2.1.27) is synthesized de-novo by Catharanthus roseus cells shortly after the cells have been transferred into culture medium in which monoterpenoid indole alkaloids are formed. The enzyme production, monitored by in-vivo labelling with [(35)S]methionine and immunoprecipitation, precedes the apparent maximal enzyme activity by 10-12 h. From the time course of the descending enzyme activity after induction, a half-life of 21 h for tryptophan decarboxylase in C. roseus cell suspensions is calculated. A comparison of the polyadenylated-RNA preparations from C. roseus cells indicates that mRNA activity for tryptophan decarboxylase is only detected in cells grown in the production medium. The importance of tryptophan decarboxylase induction with respect to the accumulation of th corresponding alkaloids is discussed. PMID:24241615

  14. Nature of the increase in renal ornithine decarboxylase activity after cycloheximide administration in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, J H; Nicholson, W E; Orth, D N

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the increase in rat renal ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) activity after cycloheximide administration was a primary effect on the kidney or was a secondary effect of adrenal or pituitary hormones released in response to the drug. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity was reduced approximately 70% 1 hr after intraperitoneal administration of doses of cycloheximide that also inhibited renal protein synthesis by 68-95% within 1 hr. Protein synthesis began to recover by the second hour, accompanied by a rise in decarboxylase activity that reached a peak about six times greater than pretreatment values at 8 hr, then gradually declined to preinjection levels by 16 hr. Peak ornithine decarboxylase activity was directly proportional to cycloheximide doses up to 250 mug; larger doses, which almost abolished protein synthesis for 8 hr, where inhibitory. Plasma corticosterone rose rapidly after cycloheximide, reached a peak at 2 hr, then fell to baseline by 8 hr. Corticosterone response was also dose-dependent up to 250 mug, but larger doses were inhibitorymadrenalectomy did not reduce decarboxylase activity response to cycloheximide, nor did cortisol administration enhance it. Hypophysectomy greatly reduced baseline renal decarboxylase activity within 9 hr and all but abolished the increase in enzyme activity normally seen after cycloheximide administration to the intact rat. The hypophysectomized animal exhibited apparent increased sensitivity to cycloheximide, since a smaller dose of the drug caused a reduction in renal protein synthesis similar to that seen with a larger dose in the intact rat. As protein synthesis was recovering in the hypophysectomized animals, renal decarboxylase activity responded adequately to the injection of a crude pituitary extract. These data suggest that renal ornithine decarboxylase turnover is rapid, that baseline activity is.maintained by new protein synthesis, and that the increase in renal enzyme activity after cycloheximide is in larger part dependent upon pituitary hormone action. PMID:806079

  15. Functional roles of the hexamer organization of plant glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Astegno, Alessandra; Capitani, Guido; Dominici, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the α-decarboxylation of glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate. A unique feature of plant GAD is the presence of a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain at its C-terminus. In plants, transient elevation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ in response to different types of stress is responsible for GAD activation via CaM. The crystal structure of GAD isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGAD1) shows that the enzyme is a hexamer composed of a trimer of dimers. Herein, we show that in solution AtGAD1 is in a dimer-hexamer equilibrium and estimate the dissociation constant (Kd) for the hexamer under different conditions. The association of dimers into hexamers is promoted by several conditions, including high protein concentrations and low pH. Notably, binding of Ca²⁺/CaM1 abolishes the dissociation of the AtGAD1 oligomer. The AtGAD1 N-terminal domain is critical for maintaining the oligomeric state as removal of the first 24 N-terminal residues dramatically affects oligomerization by producing a dimeric enzyme. The deleted mutant retains decarboxylase activity, highlighting the dimeric nature of the basic structural unit of AtGAD1. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Arg24 in the N-terminal domain as a key residue since its mutation to Ala prevents hexamer formation in solution. Both dimeric mutant enzymes form a stable hexamer in the presence of Ca²⁺/CaM1. Our data clearly reveal that the oligomeric state of AtGAD1 is highly responsive to a number of experimental parameters and may have functional relevance in vivo in the light of the biphasic regulation of AtGAD1 activity by pH and Ca²⁺/CaM1 in plant cells. This article is part of a special issue titled "Cofactor-Dependent Proteins: Evolution, Chemical Diversity and Bio-applications." PMID:25614413

  16. Induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity by growth and differentiation factors in FRTL-5 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eggo, M. C.; Higgins, B. P.; Tam, D.; Bachrach, L. K.; Burrow, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Induction of ornithine decarboxylase has been correlated with the onset of cellular proliferation and cAMP production. Whether the resulting increases in polyamine levels are essential mediators of growth and/or differentiation or are merely incidental remains controversial. We have used FRTL-5 thyroid cells in culture to study the effects of three growth factors on ornithine decarboxylase activity. These factors [TSH, bovine calf serum, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)] are thought to act through different intracellular pathways. TSH stimulates cAMP production in thyroid cells, calf serum acts through ill-defined pathways to stimulate growth, and TPA is known to activate protein kinase C. Bovine calf serum and TSH acted synergistically to induce ornithine decarboxylase activity. Activity was maximal when the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, methyl isobutyl xanthine, was included. Individually, neither serum nor TSH was a potent stimulator of the enzyme. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA was apparent on Northern blots as a doublet following one hour of exposure to these agents. TPA did not stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity and had an inhibitory effect on enzyme induction by TSH and serum. Difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, inhibited growth induced by both TPA and TSH in putrescine-free medium. This effect was not apparent in medium containing 10(-5) M putrescine. The data indicate that, although intracellular levels of cyclic AMP regulate ornithine decarboxylase activity, a component in serum is necessary for significant induction of this enzyme. Factors stimulating growth by non-cyclic AMP-dependent pathways may act without apparently stimulating this enzyme, although polyamines appear to be essential for their growth stimulatory effects. PMID:2483473

  17. Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Manal; Machavoine, François; Rignault, Rachel; Dam, Julie; Dy, Michel; Thieblemont, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the role of histamine in inflammation. Since this monoamine has also been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes, we assessed its effect in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. To this end, we used mice (inactivated) knocked out for the gene encoding histidine decarboxylase, the unique histamine-forming enzyme, backcrossed on a NOD genetic background. We found that the lack of endogenous histamine in NOD HDC−/− mice decreased the incidence of diabetes in relation to their wild-type counterpart. Whereas the proportion of regulatory T and myeloid-derived suppressive cells was similar in both strains, histamine deficiency was associated with increased levels of immature macrophages, as compared with wild-type NOD mice. Concerning the cytokine pattern, we found a decrease in circulating IL-12 and IFN-γ in HDC−/− mice, while IL-6 or leptin remained unchanged, suggesting that histamine primarily modulates the inflammatory environment. Paradoxically, exogenous histamine given to NOD HDC−/− mice provided also protection against T1D. Our study supports the notion that histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, thus providing additional evidence for its role in the regulation of the immune response. PMID:26090474

  18. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 haplodeficiency impairs social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, K V; Lang, D; Müller, B; Nullmeier, S; Yanagawa, Y; Schwegler, H; Stork, O

    2014-04-01

    Reduced glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 expression may be causally involved in the development of social withdrawal in neuropsychiatric states such as autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this study, we report disturbance of social behavior in male GAD67 haplodeficient mice. GAD67(+/-) mice, compared to GAD67(+/+) littermates, show reduced sociability and decreased intermale aggression, but normal nest building and urine marking behavior, as well as unchanged locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, the mutants display a reduced sensitivity to both social and non-social odors, indicating a disturbance in the detection and/or processing of socially relevant olfactory stimuli. Indeed, we observed reduced activation of the lateral septum, medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and cortical amygdala upon exposure of GAD67(+/-) mice to social interaction paradigm, as indicated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These data suggest a disturbance of stimulus processing in the brain circuitry controlling social behavior in GAD67(+/-) mice, which may provide a useful model for studying the impact of a reduced GAD67 expression on alterations of social behavior related to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24612522

  19. The Origin of the electrostatic Perturbation in Acetoacetate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Menetret, J; Tsuruta, H; Allen, K

    2009-01-01

    Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AADase) has long been cited as the prototypical example of the marked shifts in the pKa values of ionizable groups that can occur in an enzyme active site. In 1966, it was hypothesized that in AADase the origin of the large pKa perturbation (-4.5 log units) observed in the nucleophilic Lys 115 results from the proximity of Lys 116, marking the first proposal of microenvironment effects in enzymology. The electrostatic perturbation hypothesis has been demonstrated in a number of enzymes, but never for the enzyme that inspired its conception, owing to the lack of a three-dimensional structure. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of AADase and of the enamine adduct with the substrate analogue 2,4-pentanedione. Surprisingly, the shift of the pKa of Lys 115 is not due to the proximity of Lys 116, the side chain of which is oriented away from the active site. Instead, Lys 116 participates in the structural anchoring of Lys 115 in a long, hydrophobic funnel provided by the novel fold of the enzyme. Thus, AADase perturbs the pKa of the nucleophile by means of a desolvation effect by placement of the side chain into the protein core while enforcing the proximity of polar residues, which facilitate decarboxylation through electrostatic and steric effects.

  20. Multiple roles of the active site lysine of Dopa decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Mariarita; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2009-08-15

    The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent-enzyme Dopa decarboxylase, responsible for the irreversible conversion of l-Dopa to dopamine, is an attractive drug target. The contribution of the pyridoxal-Lys303 to the catalytic mechanisms of decarboxylation and oxidative deamination is analyzed. The K303A variant binds the coenzyme with a 100-fold decreased apparent equilibrium binding affinity with respect to the wild-type enzyme. Unlike the wild-type, K303A in the presence of l-Dopa displays a parallel progress course of formation of both dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (plus ammonia) with a burst followed by a linear phase. Moreover, the finding that the catalytic efficiencies of decarboxylation and of oxidative deamination display a decrease of 1500- and 17-fold, respectively, with respect to the wild-type, is indicative of a different impact of Lys303 mutation on these reactions. Kinetic analyses reveal that Lys303 is involved in external aldimine formation and hydrolysis as well as in product release which affects the rate-determining step of decarboxylation. PMID:19580779

  1. Dimerization of Bacterial Diaminopimelate Decarboxylase Is Essential for Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Peverelli, Martin G; Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Kirby, Nigel; Perugini, Matthew A

    2016-04-29

    Diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DAPDC) catalyzes the final step in the diaminopimelate biosynthesis pathway of bacteria. The product of the reaction is the essential amino acid l-lysine, which is an important precursor for the synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall, housekeeping proteins, and virulence factors of bacteria. Accordingly, the enzyme is a promising antibacterial target. Previous structural studies demonstrate that DAPDC exists as monomers, dimers, and tetramers in the crystal state. However, the active oligomeric form has not yet been determined. We show using analytical ultracentrifugation, small angle x-ray scattering, and enzyme kinetic analyses in solution that the active form of DAPDC from Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Vibrio cholerae is a dimer. The importance of dimerization was probed further by generating dimerization interface mutants (N381A and R385A) of V. cholerae DAPDC. Our studies indicate that N381A and R385A are significantly attenuated in catalytic activity, thus confirming that dimerization of DAPDC is essential for function. These findings provide scope for the development of new antibacterial agents that prevent DAPDC dimerization. PMID:26921318

  2. An optimized coupled assay for quantifying diaminopimelate decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Peverelli, Martin G; Perugini, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    Diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DAPDC) catalyzes the conversion of meso-DAP to lysine and carbon dioxide in the final step of the diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway in plants and bacteria. Given its absence in humans, DAPDC is a promising antibacterial target, particularly considering the rise in drug-resistant strains from pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we report the optimization of a simple quantitative assay for measuring DAPDC catalytic activity using saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) as the coupling enzyme. Our results show that SDH has optimal activity at 37 °C, pH 8.0, and in Tris buffer. These conditions were subsequently employed to quantitate the enzyme kinetic properties of DAPDC from three bacterial species. We show that DAPDC from E. coli and M. tuberculosis have [Formula: see text] of 0.97 mM and 1.62 mM and a kcat of 55 s(-1) and 28 s(-1), respectively, which agree well with previous studies using more labor-intensive assays. We subsequently employed the optimized coupled assay to show for the first time that DAPDC from Bacillus anthracis possesses a [Formula: see text] of 0.68 mM and a kcat of 58 s(-1). This optimized coupled assay offers excellent scope to be employed in high throughput drug discovery screens targeting DAPDC from bacterial pathogens. PMID:25986217

  3. Bovine ornithine decarboxylase gene: cloning, structure and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Zadworny, D; Aggrey, S E; Kühnlein, U; Hayes, J F

    1998-03-01

    Bovine ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) genomic clones were isolated from a bacteriophage lambda DASH genomic library. A total of 9452 bp sequence was determined which covers the entire sequence of the bovine ODC gene. Sequence analysis showed that the bovine ODC gene consisted of 12 exons which encode a protein identical to that inferred from a bovine ODC cDNA. Comparison of the structure and nucleotide sequence of the bovine, human and mouse ODC genes revealed that the gene was highly conserved. Primer extension analysis demonstrated that the transcription start point of bovine ODC mRNA was located 378 bp upstream from the A residue in the translation initiation codon. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of ODC mRNA was highly G + C rich, particularly in its 5'-most portion, and computer predictions suggested a very stable secondary structure for this region, with an overall free energy of formation of -134.4 kcal/mol. Conserved sequences and potential promoter elements including a TATA box, a possible CCAAT element, SP1 ranscription factor binding sites (GC boxes) and cAMP response elements (CRE) were identified in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. Two polymorphic restriction sites, a TaqI and a MspI, were mapped to the ODC gene and PCR-based methods for detection of the 2 polymorphisms were developed. PMID:10520448

  4. Histamine synthesis by mouse T lymphocytes through induced histidine decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, R; Nakashima, I; Kitamura, Y; Asai, H; Nakano, K

    1989-01-01

    When spleen cells of C57BL/6 mice or mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice were cultured, their histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity increased with increases in the histamine concentration in the cells and the medium. Addition of concanavalin A (Con A) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced the increase. The removal of adherent cells reduced both the control HDC activity and the response to the mitogens. Purified T lymphocytes responded to Con A but not to LPS. Neither Con A nor LPS had any effect on B lymphocytes. Treatment of T cells with anti-Thy-1.2 and complement completely abrogated the induction of HDC. Histamine synthesis dependent on Con A by T cells was stimulated by the addition of conditioned medium from peritoneal adherent cells activated with LPS. The addition of recombinant interleukin-1 (rIL-1) or peritoneal adherent cells fixed with paraformaldehyde significantly enhanced HDC induction dependent on Con A in T cells. These results suggest that histamine is synthesized by T lymphocytes through HDC and that the reaction was enhanced by a soluble factor(s) released from macrophages. PMID:2784410

  5. Cysteine-dependent inactivation of hepatic ornithine decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Kameji, T; Hayashi, S

    1984-01-01

    When rat liver homogenate or its postmitochondrial supernatant was incubated with L-cysteine, but not D-cysteine, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) lost more than half of its catalytic activity within 30 min and, at a slower rate, its immunoreactivity. The inactivation correlated with production of H2S during the incubation. These changes did not occur in liver homogenates from vitamin B6-deficient rats. A heat-stable inactivating factor was found in both dialysed cytosol and washed microsomes obtained from the postmitochondrial supernatant incubated with cysteine. The microsomal inactivating factor was solubilized into Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.4, containing dithiothreitol. Its absorption spectrum in the visible region resembled that of Fe2+ X dithiothreitol in Tris/HCl buffer. On the other hand FeSO4 inactivated partially purified ODC in a similar manner to the present inactivating factor. During the incubation of postmitochondrial supernatant with cysteine, there was a marked increase in the contents of Fe2+ loosely bound to cytosolic and microsomal macromolecules. Furthermore, the content of such reactive iron in the inactivating factor preparations was enough to account for their inactivating activity. These data suggested that H2S produced from cysteine by some vitamin B6-dependent enzyme(s) converted cytosolic and microsomal iron into a reactive loosely bound form that inactivated ODC. PMID:6696745

  6. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T.; Baeck, Nils; Andersson, Leif C.; Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  7. Substrate binding induces domain movements in orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Harris, Pernille; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Larsen, Sine

    2002-05-10

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyses the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate to uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP). We have earlier determined the structure of ODCase from Escherichia coli complexed with the inhibitor 1-(5'-phospho-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)barbituric acid (BMP); here we present the 2.5 A structure of the uncomplexed apo enzyme, determined from twinned crystals. A structural analysis and comparison of the two structures of the E. coli enzyme show that binding of the inhibitor is accompanied by significant domain movements of approximately 12 degrees around a hinge that crosses the active site. Hence, the ODCase dimer, which contains two active sites, may be divided in three domains: a central domain that is fixed, and two lids which independently move 12 degrees upon binding. Corresponding analyses, presented herein, of the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae ODCase structures (with and without BMP) and the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ODCase structures (with and without 6-aza UMP) show very similar, but somewhat smaller domain movements. The domain movements seem to be initiated by the phosphoryl binding to the enzyme and can explain why the binding of the phosphoryl group is essential for the catalytic function. PMID:12054799

  8. Screening method for detection of immediate amino acid decarboxylases--producing bacteria implicated in food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Husniza; Mohd Fuat, A R; Vimala, B; Ghazali, H M

    2011-08-01

    Assessment of amino acid decarboxylase activity can be conducted using tubed broth or plated agar. In this study, the test was carried out in microtitre plates containing lysine, ornithine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine or histidine as biogenic amine precursors. Møller decarboxylase base broth (MDB) with or without 1% of a known amino acid were added to wells of a 96 well-microtitre plate. The wells were inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter anitratus or Staphylococcus aureus to the final concentration of 6.0 x 10(7) cfu/ml and incubated at 35ºC. The absorbance of the culture broth was read at 570 nm at 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 hour. Comparison of means of A'(570) between 0 hour and a specified incubation time was determined statistically. Positive decarboxylase activities were detected in the media inoculated with E. coli and K. pneumoniae in less than 6 hours. The current method is suitable for immediate producers of amino acid decarboxylase enzymes. It costs less as it uses less amino acid and it has the potential to be used for screening aliquots of food materials for amino acid decarboxylase activities. PMID:22041756

  9. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the Enterobacter aerogenes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene in brewer's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sone, H; Fujii, T; Kondo, K; Shimizu, F; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 1.4-kilobase DNA fragment containing the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene of Enterobacter aerogenes was determined. The sequence contains an entire protein-coding region of 780 nucleotides which encodes an alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase of 260 amino acids. The DNA sequence coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase was placed under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase I promoter of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a plasmid capable of autonomous replication in both S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Brewer's yeast cells transformed by this plasmid showed alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase activity and were used in laboratory-scale fermentation experiments. These experiments revealed that the diacetyl concentration in wort fermented by the plasmid-containing yeast strain was significantly lower than that in wort fermented by the parental strain. These results indicated that the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase activity produced by brewer's yeast cells degraded alpha-acetolactate and that this degradation caused a decrease in diacetyl production. PMID:3278689

  10. A new case of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency with mild clinical features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Tan, Dongqiong; Han, Lianshu; Ye, Jun; Qiu, Wenjuan; Gu, Xuefan; Zhang, Huiwen

    2016-05-01

    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive inborn error of fatty acid metabolism. It usually follows a severe disease course and presents poor prognosis without treatment. Here, we report an affected female juvenile with a mild clinical and biochemical phenotype who mainly featured poor schooling without cardiomyopathy and metabolic acidosis. She was suspected of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency due to a 57-kb deletion in 16q23.3 encompassing the MLCYD gene revealed by chromosome microarray. Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency was then confirmed by acylcarnitine analysis and organic acid analysis. Real-time PCR analysis of the patient revealed the first three exon deletion of the MLYCD gene, which was maternally inherited. DNA sequencing of the MLYCD gene of the patient identified a novel heterozygous mutation (c.911G>A, p.G304E) in exon 4 that was paternally inherited. The patient urine malonic acid dissolved and had a better school record in 6 month after initiation of fat-limited diet. At 1 year post treatment, the blood malonylcarnitine level decreased remarkably. Our result expands the phenotype of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency and suggests attentions should be paid to the mild form of disorders, for example, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, which usually present a severe disease course. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26858006

  11. Stimulation of Lysine Decarboxylase Production in Escherichia coli by Amino Acids and Peptides1

    PubMed Central

    Cascieri, T.; Mallette, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    A commercial hydrolysate of casein stimulated production of lysine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.18) by Escherichia coli B. Cellulose and gel chromatography of this hydrolysate yielded peptides which were variably effective in this stimulation. Replacement of individual, stimulatory peptides by equivalent amino acids duplicated the enzyme levels attained with those peptides. There was no indication of specific stimulation by any peptide. The peptides were probably taken up by the oligopeptide transport system of E. coli and hydrolyzed intracellularly by peptidases to their constituent amino acids for use in enzyme synthesis. Single omission of amino acids from mixtures was used to screen them for their relative lysine decarboxylase stimulating abilities. Over 100 different mixtures were evaluated in establishing the total amino acid requirements for maximal synthesis of lysine decarboxylase by E. coli B. A mixture containing all of the common amino acids except glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine increased lysine decarboxylase threefold over an equivalent weight of casein hydrolysate. The nine most stimulatory amino acids were methionine, arginine, cystine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamine, threonine, tyrosine, and asparagine. Methionine and arginine quantitatively were the most important. A mixture of these nine was 87% as effective as the complete mixture. Several amino acids were inhibitory at moderate concentrations, and alanine (2.53 mM) was the most effective. Added pyridoxine increased lysine decarboxylase activity 30%, whereas other B vitamins and cyclic adenosine 5′-monophosphate had no effect. PMID:4588201

  12. Structural and degradative aspects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lambertos, Ana; Lopez-Contreras, Andrés J.; Kasprzak, Joanna M.; Czerwoniec, Anna; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism. PMID:24967154

  13. Theoretical study of the reaction mechanism of phenolic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiang; Lind, Maria E S; Himo, Fahmi

    2015-12-01

    The cofactor-free phenolic acid decarboxylases (PADs) catalyze the non-oxidative decarboxylation of phenolic acids to their corresponding p-vinyl derivatives. Phenolic acids are toxic to some organisms, and a number of them have evolved the ability to transform these compounds, including PAD-catalyzed reactions. Since the vinyl derivative products can be used as polymer precursors and are also of interest in the food-processing industry, PADs might have potential applications as biocatalysts. We have investigated the detailed reaction mechanism of PAD from Bacillus subtilis using quantum chemical methodology. A number of different mechanistic scenarios have been considered and evaluated on the basis of their energy profiles. The calculations support a mechanism in which a quinone methide intermediate is formed by protonation of the substrate double bond, followed by C-C bond cleavage. A different substrate orientation in the active site is suggested compared to the literature proposal. This suggestion is analogous to other enzymes with p-hydroxylated aromatic compounds as substrates, such as hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-lyase and vanillyl alcohol oxidase. Furthermore, on the basis of the calculations, a different active site residue compared to previous proposals is suggested to act as the general acid in the reaction. The mechanism put forward here is consistent with the available mutagenesis experiments and the calculated energy barrier is in agreement with measured rate constants. The detailed mechanistic understanding developed here might be extended to other members of the family of PAD-type enzymes. It could also be useful to rationalize the recently developed alternative promiscuous reactivities of these enzymes. PMID:26408050

  14. Structural and degradative aspects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lambertos, Ana; Lopez-Contreras, Andrés J; Kasprzak, Joanna M; Czerwoniec, Anna; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism. PMID:24967154

  15. Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase induction by potato glycoalkaloids in rats.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, K A; Grosjean, O K; Henika, P R; Friedman, M

    1991-08-01

    The induction of hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in rat livers by the potato glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, and their aglycone solanidine, has been studied. Ip administration of alpha-solanine at 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight produced markedly elevated enzyme activity at 4 hr after treatment, with a linear dose response. The increase was four-fold at the lowest dose administered to 12-fold at the highest. ODC activity was measured at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24hr after alpha-solanine was given. A statistically significant increase in enzyme activity was evident at 3 hr after treatment; maximal activity occurred at 5 hr and was approximately 12 times greater than the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control level. Elevated activities persisted for several hours, decreasing to about one-third of the maximal level at 8 hr. The relative effects of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine and solanidine on ODC activities were studied at 4 hr using an equimolar dose of 17 mM/kg body weight. ODC activity induced by alpha-chaconine was higher than that induced by alpha-solanine; the latter activity was two-thirds that of the former. The aglycone solanidine did not induce any increase in activity compared with the DMSO control. ODC activity with dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, at 4 mg/kg body weight, followed a pattern similar to that of alpha-solanine. However, maximal activity occurred slightly earlier at 4 hr after treatment. The results show that the extent of induced ODC activity depends on the structure of the potato alkaloid. PMID:1894219

  16. Ultraviolet radiation induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, C.F.; Gajic, D.; Drucker, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    UV radiation plays an important role in the induction of cutaneous malignancy, including basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanoma. In addition to its effects on DNA damage and repair mechanisms, UV radiation has been shown to modulate the expression of specific genes, altering the levels of their mRNAs and the synthesis of their corresponding proteins. In order to gain further information about the molecular effects of UV radiation, we have studied the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene expression in response to UVB radiation. ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is involved in growth and differentiation, and has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Keratinocytes grown in culture were either sham-irradiated or exposed to increasing doses of UVB (1-5 mJ/cm2). Northern blot analysis of keratinocyte RNA under basal conditions demonstrated the presence of two ODC mRNA transcripts. Increasing exposure to UVB resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the levels of both ODC mRNA transcripts. The induction of ODC gene expression following UVB was noted 2 h after UVB exposure, and ODC mRNA levels continued to increase up to 24 h after UVB exposure. The UVB-induced increase in ODC gene expression was not serum dependent, despite the ability of serum alone to induce ODC gene expression. The mRNA transcripts for actin and hexosaminidase A were not induced after UVB exposure. These studies show that the UVB-induced increase in ODC activity is due, at least in part, to an increase in ODC gene expression and they provide a useful model for the analysis of the molecular effects of UVB radiation.

  17. A porphomethene inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase causes porphyria cutanea tarda

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John D.; Bergonia, Hector A.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Franklin, Michael R.; Kushner, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), the most common form of porphyria in humans, is due to reduced activity of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) in the liver. Previous studies have demonstrated that protein levels of URO-D do not change when catalytic activity is reduced, suggesting that an inhibitor of URO-D is generated in hepatocytes. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of an inhibitor of URO-D in liver cytosolic extracts from two murine models of PCT: wild-type mice treated with iron, δ-aminolevulinic acid, and polychlorinated biphenyls; and mice with one null allele of Uro-d and two null alleles of the hemochromatosis gene (Uro-d+/−, Hfe−/−) that develop PCT with no treatments. In both models, we identified an inhibitor of recombinant human URO-D (rhURO-D). The inhibitor was characterized by solid-phase extraction, chromatography, UV-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy and proved to be uroporphomethene, a compound in which one bridge carbon in the uroporphyrinogen macrocycle is oxidized. We synthesized uroporphomethene by photooxidation of enzymatically generated uroporphyrinogen I or III. Both uroporphomethenes inhibited rhURO-D, but the III isomer porphomethene was a more potent inhibitor. Finally, we detected an inhibitor of rhURO-D in cytosolic extracts of liver biopsy samples of patients with PCT. These studies define the mechanism underlying clinical expression of the PCT phenotype, namely oxidation of uroporphyrinogen to uroporphomethene, a competitive inhibitor of URO-D. The oxidation reaction is iron-dependent. PMID:17360334

  18. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Gamat, Melissa; Malinowski, Rita L.; Parkhurst, Linnea J.; Steinke, Laura M.; Marker, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating prostatic bud induction, and are required for the expression of a subset of prostatic developmental regulatory genes including Notch1 and Nkx3.1. PMID:26426536

  19. Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A [Gainesville, FL; Talarico, Lee Ann [Gainesville, FL; Raj, Krishnan Chandra [Tamil Nadu, IN; Ingram, Lonnie O [Gainesville, FL

    2008-02-05

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

  20. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ariño, Helena; Höftberger, Romana; Gresa-Arribas, Nuria; Martínez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Armangue, Thaís; Kruer, Michael C.; Arpa, Javier; Domingo, Julio; Rojc, Bojan; Bataller, Luis; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Little is known of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-abs) in the paraneoplastic context. Clinical recognition of such cases will lead to prompt tumor diagnosis and appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE To report the clinical and immunological features of patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and GAD-abs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective case series study and immunological investigations conducted in February 2014 in a center for autoimmune neurological disorders. Fifteen cases with GAD65-abs evaluated between 1995 and 2013 who fulfilled criteria of definite or possible PNS without concomitant onconeural antibodies were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Analysis of the clinical records of 15 patients and review of 19 previously reported cases. Indirect immunofluorescence with rat hippocampal neuronal cultures and cell-based assays with known neuronal cell-surface antigens were used. One hundred six patients with GAD65-abs and no cancer served as control individuals. RESULTS Eight of the 15 patients with cancer presented as classic paraneoplastic syndromes (5 limbic encephalitis, 1 paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis, 1 paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, and 1 opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome). When compared with the 106 non-PNS cases, those with PNS were older (median age, 60 years vs 48 years; P = .03), more frequently male (60% vs 13%; P < .001), and had more often coexisting neuronal cell-surface antibodies, mainly against γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (53%vs 11%; P < .001). The tumors more frequently involved were lung (n = 6) and thymic neoplasms (n = 4). The risk for an underlying tumor was higher if the presentation was a classic PNS, if it was different from stiff-person syndrome or cerebellar ataxia (odds ratio, 10.5; 95%CI, 3.2–34.5), or if the patient had coexisting neuronal cell-surface antibodies (odds ratio, 6.8; 95%CI, 1.1–40.5). Compared with the current series, the 19 previously reported cases had more frequent stiff-person syndrome (74%vs 13%; P = .001) and better responses to treatment (79% vs 27%; P = .005). Predictors of improvement in the 34 patients (current and previously reported) included presentation with stiff-person syndrome and the presence of a thymic tumor. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patients with GAD-abs must be screened for an underlying cancer if they have clinical presentations different from those typically associated with this autoimmunity or develop classic PNS. The risk for cancer increases with age, male sex, and the presence of coexisting neuronal cell-surface antibodies. PMID:26099072

  1. Inhibition of human ornithine decarboxylase activity by enantiomers of difluoromethylornithine.

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ning; Ignatenko, Natalia A; Yamauchi, Phillip; Stringer, David E; Levenson, Corey; Shannon, Patrick; Perrin, Scott; Gerner, Eugene W

    2003-01-01

    Racemic difluoromethylornithine (D/L-DFMO) is an inhibitor of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase), the first enzyme in eukaryotic polyamine biosynthesis. D/L-DFMO is an effective anti-parasitic agent and inhibitor of mammalian cell growth and development. Purified human ODC-catalysed ornithine decarboxylation is highly stereospecific. However, both DFMO enantiomers suppressed ODC activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. ODC activity failed to recover after treatment with either L- or D-DFMO and dialysis to remove free inhibitor. The inhibitor dissociation constant (K(D)) values for the formation of enzyme-inhibitor complexes were 28.3+/-3.4, 1.3+/-0.3 and 2.2+/-0.4 microM respectively for D-, L- and D/L-DFMO. The differences in these K(D) values were statistically significant ( P <0.05). The inhibitor inactivation constants (K(inact)) for the irreversible step were 0.25+/-0.03, 0.15+/-0.03 and 0.15+/-0.03 min(-1) respectively for D-, L- and D/L-DFMO. These latter values were not statistically significantly different ( P >0.1). D-DFMO was a more potent inhibitor (IC50 approximately 7.5 microM) when compared with D-ornithine (IC50 approximately 1.5 mM) of ODC-catalysed L-ornithine decarboxylation. Treatment of human colon tumour-derived HCT116 cells with either L- or D-DFMO decreased the cellular polyamine contents in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that both enantiomers of DFMO irreversibly inactivate ODC and suggest that this inactivation occurs by a common mechanism. Both enantiomers form enzyme-inhibitor complexes with ODC, but the probability of formation of these complexes is 20 times greater for L-DFMO when compared with D-DFMO. The rate of the irreversible reaction in ODC inactivation is similar for the L- and D-enantiomer. This unexpected similarity between DFMO enantiomers, in contrast with the high degree of stereospecificity of the substrate ornithine, appears to be due to the alpha-substituent of the inhibitor. The D-enantiomer may have advantages, such as decreased normal tissue toxicity, over L- or D/L-DFMO in some clinical applications. PMID:12859253

  2. Crystal structures of isoorotate decarboxylases reveal a novel catalytic mechanism of 5-carboxyl-uracil decarboxylation and shed light on the search for DNA decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shutong; Li, Wenjing; Zhu, Junjun; Wang, Rong; Li, Zheng; Xu, Guo-Liang; Ding, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation regulate many crucial biological processes in mammals and are linked to many diseases. Active DNA demethylation is believed to be catalyzed by TET proteins and a putative DNA decarboxylase that may share some similarities in sequence, structure and catalytic mechanism with isoorotate decarboxylase (IDCase) that catalyzes decarboxylation of 5caU to U in fungi. We report here the structures of wild-type and mutant IDCases from Cordyceps militaris and Metarhizium anisopliae in apo form or in complexes with 5caU, U, and an inhibitor 5-nitro-uracil. IDCases adopt a typical (β/α)8 barrel fold of the amidohydrolase superfamily and function as dimers. A Zn2+ is bound at the active site and coordinated by four strictly conserved residues, one Asp and three His. The substrate is recognized by several strictly conserved residues. The functional roles of the key residues at the active site are validated by mutagenesis and biochemical studies. Based on the structural and biochemical data, we present for the first time a novel catalytic mechanism of decarboxylation for IDCases, which might also apply to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. In addition, our biochemical data show that IDCases can catalyze decarboxylation of 5caC to C albeit with weak activity, which is the first in vitro evidence for direct decarboxylation of 5caC to C by an enzyme. These findings are valuable in the identification of potential DNA decarboxylase in mammals. PMID:23917530

  3. Crystal structures of isoorotate decarboxylases reveal a novel catalytic mechanism of 5-carboxyl-uracil decarboxylation and shed light on the search for DNA decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shutong; Li, Wenjing; Zhu, Junjun; Wang, Rong; Li, Zheng; Xu, Guo-Liang; Ding, Jianping

    2013-11-01

    DNA methylation and demethylation regulate many crucial biological processes in mammals and are linked to many diseases. Active DNA demethylation is believed to be catalyzed by TET proteins and a putative DNA decarboxylase that may share some similarities in sequence, structure and catalytic mechanism with isoorotate decarboxylase (IDCase) that catalyzes decarboxylation of 5caU to U in fungi. We report here the structures of wild-type and mutant IDCases from Cordyceps militaris and Metarhizium anisopliae in apo form or in complexes with 5caU, U, and an inhibitor 5-nitro-uracil. IDCases adopt a typical (β/α)8 barrel fold of the amidohydrolase superfamily and function as dimers. A Zn(2+) is bound at the active site and coordinated by four strictly conserved residues, one Asp and three His. The substrate is recognized by several strictly conserved residues. The functional roles of the key residues at the active site are validated by mutagenesis and biochemical studies. Based on the structural and biochemical data, we present for the first time a novel catalytic mechanism of decarboxylation for IDCases, which might also apply to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. In addition, our biochemical data show that IDCases can catalyze decarboxylation of 5caC to C albeit with weak activity, which is the first in vitro evidence for direct decarboxylation of 5caC to C by an enzyme. These findings are valuable in the identification of potential DNA decarboxylase in mammals. PMID:23917530

  4. Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-11-12

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

  5. Coexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Lactobacillus brevis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 is able to metabolize xylose into lactate and acetate but not ethanol. In an attempt to transform L. brevis into an ethanologen that uses xylose, a Gram-positive gene for pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvat...

  6. Molecular analysis of the glutamate decarboxylase locus in Streptococcus thermophilus ST110

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GABA ('-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermented da...

  7. The ornithine decarboxylase gene of Caenorhabditis elegans: Cloning, mapping and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Macrae, M.; Coffino, P.; Plasterk, R.H.A.

    1995-06-01

    The gene (odc-1) encoding ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was cloned and characterized. Two introns interrupt the coding sequence of the gene. The deduced protein contains 442 amino acids and is homologous to ornithine decarboxylases of other eukaryotic species. In vitro translation of a transcript of the cDNA yielded an enzymatically active product. The mRNA is 1.5 kb in size and is formed by trans-splicing to SL1, a common 5{prime} RNA segment. odc-1 maps to the middle of LG V, between dpy-11 and unc-42 and near a breakpoint of the nDf32 deficiency strain. Enzymatic activity is low in starved 1 (L1) larva and, after feeding, rises progressively as the worms develop. Targeted gene disruption was used to create a null allele. Homozygous mutants are normally viable and show no apparent defects, with the exception of a somewhat reduced brood size. In vitro assays for ornithine decarboxylase activity, however, show no detectable enzymatic activity, suggesting that ornithine decarboxylase is dispensible for nematode growth in the laboratory. 37 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cyclic AMP-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase of glioma and neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, U

    1975-01-01

    The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase) of C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells increases significantly when confluent cultures are treated with compounds that increase cellular cAMP levels. These include norepinephrine or isoproterenol, and prostaglandin E1 or adenosine, which stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity in C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells, respectively. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is also elevated in confluent C6-BU-1 glioma cells treated with dibutyrylcAMP and theophylline, or after the glioma cells are fed with a serum-depleted medium in the presence of catecholamines and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The activity of the enzyme increases 500- to 1000-fold, 2-6 hr after stationary-phase N115 neuroblastoma cells are fed with a serum-free medium, supplemented with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenosine, or prostaglandin E1. This stimulation is antagonized by carbamoyl choline and is blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. These results suggest that the synthesis of ornithine decarboxylase of C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells is controlled by cAMP. PMID:171652

  9. [Porphyria cutanea tarda in a 4-year-old child with uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Cotton, J B; Abeille, A; Jeune, R; Ladreyt-Ponchon, J P; Grenier, J L

    1986-12-01

    A 4 years old girl presents a typical case of patent form of cutaneous late porphyria with a reduced activity of the erythrocyte, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) genetically transmitted over 3 generations; a multifactor inheritance (HLA A3, a normal phenotype of alpha 1 antitrypsin, exogenous toxins, or viral infections) is discussed. PMID:3575073

  10. The Degradation of 14C-Glutamic Acid by L-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Charles M; Dayan, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Describes procedures and semi-micro reaction apparatus (carbon dioxide trap) to demonstrate how a particular enzyme (L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase) may be used to determine the site or sites of labeling in its substrate (carbon-14 labeled glutamic acid). Includes calculations, solutions, and reagents used. (Author/SK)

  11. Putrescine and spermidine control degradation and synthesis of ornithine decarboxylase in Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, G.R.; Seyfzadeh, M.; Davis, R.H.

    1988-07-15

    Neurospora crassa mycelia, when starved for polyamines, have 50-70-fold more ornithine decarboxylase activity and enzyme protein than unstarved mycelia. Using isotopic labeling and immunoprecipitation, we determined the half-life and the synthetic rate of the enzyme in mycelia differing in the rates of synthesis of putrescine, the product of ornithine decarboxylase, and spermidine, the main end-product of the polyamine pathway. When the pathway was blocked between putrescine and spermidine, ornithine decarboxylase synthesis rose 4-5-fold, regardless of the accumulation of putrescine. This indicates that spermidine is a specific signal for the repression of enzyme synthesis. When both putrescine and spermidine synthesis were reduced, the half-life of the enzyme rapidly increased 10-fold. The presence of either putrescine or spermidine restored the normal enzyme half-life of 55 min. Tests for an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitory protein (antizyme) were negative. The regulatory mechanisms activated by putrescine and spermidine account for most or all of the regulatory amplitude of this enzyme in N. crassa.

  12. Detection and transfer of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermen...

  13. Activity of two histidine decarboxylases from Photobacterium phosphoreum at different temperatures, pHs, and NaCl concentrations.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hideaki; Kasama, Kentaro

    2004-08-01

    The major causative agent of scombroid poisoning is histamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of histidine. The authors reported previously that histamine was exclusively formed by the psychrotrophic halophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum in scombroid fish during storage at or below 10 degrees C. Moreover, histamine-forming ability was affected by two histidine decarboxylases: constitutive and inducible enzymes. This article reports the effect of various growth and reaction conditions, such as temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration, on the activity of two histidine decarboxylases that were isolated and separated by gel chromatography from cell-free extracts of P. phosphoreum. The histidine decarboxylase activity of the cell-free extracts was highest in 7 degrees C culture; in 5% NaCl, culture growth was inhibited, and growth was best in the culture grown at pH 6.0. Moreover, percent activity of the constitutive and inducible enzymes was highest for the inducible enzyme in cultures grown at 7 degrees C and pH 7.5 and in 5% NaCl. The temperature and pH dependences of histidine decarboxylase differed between the constitutive and inducible enzymes; that is, the activity of histidine decarboxylases was optimum at 30 degrees C and pH 6.5 for the inducible enzyme and 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 for the constitutive enzyme. The differences in the temperature and pH dependences between the two enzymes extended the activity range of histidine decarboxylase under reaction conditions. On the other hand, histidine decarboxylase activity was optimum in 0% NaCl for the two enzymes. Additionally, the effects of reaction temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration on the constitutive enzyme activity of the cell-free extracts were almost the same as those on the whole histidine decarboxylase activity of the cell-free extracts, suggesting that the constitutive enzyme activity reflected the whole histidine decarboxylase activity. PMID:15330542

  14. Characterization of transgenic mice with overexpression of spermidine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chenxu; Welsh, Patricia A.; Sass-Kuhn, Suzanne; Wang, Xiaojing; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Feith, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A composite cytomegalovirus-immediate early gene enhancer/chicken ?-actin promoter (CAG) was utilized to generate transgenic mice that overexpress human spermidine synthase (SpdS) in order to determine the impact of elevated spermidine synthase activity on murine development and physiology. CAG-SpdS mice were viable and fertile and tissue SpdS activity was increased up to 9-fold. This increased SpdS activity did not result in a dramatic elevation of spermidine or spermine levels but did lead to a 1.5 to 2-fold reduction in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio in heart, muscle and liver tissues with the highest levels of SpdS activity. This new mouse model enabled simultaneous overexpression of SpdS and other polyamine biosynthetic enzymes by combining transgenic animals. The combined overexpression of both SpdS and spermine synthase (SpmS) in CAG-SpdS/CAG-SpmS bitransgenic mice did not impair viability or lead to overt developmental abnormalities but instead normalized the elevated tissue spermine:spermidine ratios of CAG-SpmS mice. The CAG-SpdS mice were bred to MHC-AdoMetDC mice with a >100-fold increase in cardiac S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity to determine if elevated dcAdoMet would facilitate greater spermidine accumulation in mice with SpdS overexpression. CAG-SpdS/MHC-AdoMetDC bitransgenic animals were produced at the expected frequency and exhibited cardiac polyamine levels comparable to MHC-AdoMetDC littermates. Taken together these results indicate that SpdS levels are not rate limiting in vivo for polyamine biosynthesis and are unlikely to exert significant regulatory effects on cellular polyamine content and function. PMID:21809077

  15. An inherited enzymatic defect in porphyria cutanea tarda: decreased uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, J P; Barbuto, A J; Lee, G R

    1976-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity was measured in liver and erythrocytes of normal subjects and in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda and their relatives. In patients with porphyria cutanea tarda, hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity was significantly reduced (mean 0.43 U/mg protein; range 0.25-0.99) as compared to normal subjects (mean 1.61 U/mg protein; range 1.27-2.42). Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase was also decreased in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda. The mean erythrocyte enzymatic activity in male patients was 0.23 U/mg Hb (range 0.16-0.30) and in female patients was 0.17 U/mg Hb (range 0.15-0.18) as compared with mean values in normal subjects of 0.38 U/mg Hb (range 0.33-0.45) in men and 0.26 U/mg Hb (range 0.18-0.36) in women. With the erythrocyte assay, multiple examples of decreased uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity were detected in members of three families of patients with porphyria cutanea tarda. In two of these families subclinical porphyria was also recognized. The inheritance pattern was consistant with an autosomal dominant trait. The difference in erythrocyte enzymatic activity between men and women was not explained but could have been due to estrogens. This possibility was supported by the observation that men under therapy with estrogens for carcinoma of the prostate had values in the normal female range. It is proposed that porphyria cutanea tarda results from the combination of an inherited defect in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and an acquired factor, usually siderosis associated with alcoholic liver disease. PMID:993332

  16. Substrate Specificity of Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxo-Acid Decarboxylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Kötter, Peter; Pronk, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Fusel alcohols are precursors and contributors to flavor and aroma compounds in fermented beverages, and some are under investigation as biofuels. The decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids is a key step in the Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five genes share sequence similarity with genes encoding thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases (2ODCs). PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6 encode differentially regulated pyruvate decarboxylase isoenzymes; ARO10 encodes a 2-oxo-acid decarboxylase with broad substrate specificity, and THI3 has not yet been shown to encode an active decarboxylase. Despite the importance of fusel alcohol production in S. cerevisiae, the substrate specificities of these five 2ODCs have not been systematically compared. When the five 2ODCs were individually overexpressed in a pdc1Δ pdc5Δ pdc6Δ aro10Δ thi3Δ strain, only Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the linear-chain 2-oxo acids pyruvate, 2-oxo-butanoate, and 2-oxo-pentanoate in cell extracts. The presence of a Pdc isoenzyme was also required for the production of n-propanol and n-butanol in cultures grown on threonine and norvaline, respectively, as nitrogen sources. These results demonstrate the importance of pyruvate decarboxylases in the natural production of n-propanol and n-butanol by S. cerevisiae. No decarboxylation activity was found for Thi3 with any of the substrates tested. Only Aro10 and Pdc5 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the aromatic substrate phenylpyruvate, with Aro10 showing superior kinetic properties. Aro10, Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 exhibited activity with all branched-chain and sulfur-containing 2-oxo acids tested but with markedly different decarboxylation kinetics. The high affinity of Aro10 identified it as a key contributor to the production of branched-chain and sulfur-containing fusel alcohols. PMID:22904058

  17. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Castellan Baldan, Lissandra; Williams, Kyle A; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Pogorelov, Vladimir; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Ercan-Sencicek, A Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H; Hughes, Zoë A; Krystal, John H; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W; Pittenger, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal DA levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. DA D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm histidine decarboxylase deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify HA-DA interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  18. Unusual space-group pseudo symmetry in crystals of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) decarboxylase is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A and catalyzes the decarboxylation of PPC to phosphopantetheine. Human PPC decarboxylase has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The Laue class of the diffraction data appears to be {bar 3}m, suggesting space group R32 with two monomers per asymmetric unit. However, the crystals belong to the space group R3 and the asymmetric unit contains four monomers. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement and refined to a current R factor of 29%. The crystal packing can be considered as two interlaced lattices, each consistent with space group R32 and with the corresponding twofold axes parallel to each other but separated along the threefold axis. Thus, the true space group is R3 with four monomers per asymmetric unit.

  19. The induction of ornithine decarboxylase by L-asparagine and intracellular alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Fong, W F; Law, C L

    1988-02-01

    The uptake of transport systems A and N amino acids, most noticeably L-asparagine, is essential for the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxylase, EC 4.1.1.17) in cultured cells and we have proposed that the uptake-associated pH and ionic changes might constitute part of the cell activation signal (1). In the present study, it was shown that extracellular L-asparagine caused an immediate and transient increase in intracellular pH which was continuously monitored by the fluorescence probe BCECF (2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein). NH4Cl and NH4OH which caused intracellular alkalinization also caused ornithine decarboxylase activity to increase. PMID:2835049

  20. Retinal GABA neurons: localization in vertebrate species using an antiserum to rabbit brain glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Brandon, C

    1985-10-01

    Retinal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons have been localized immunocytochemically using a new antiserum against rabbit brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The animals examined were: dogfish, ratfish, goldfish, catfish, turtle, chick, mouse, rat, pig, rabbit, cat and New World monkey. GAD-containing processes, observed as punctate deposits of immunochemical reaction product, formed discrete bands within the inner plexiform layers of all retinas examined. Immunoreactive, and therefore presumably GABAergic, amacrine cells were observed in all species. Displaced GABAergic amacrine cells were observed in the retinas of goldfish, catfish, turtle and chick, and sparsely in the rabbit as well. GABAergic horizontal cells were detected in catfish, goldfish, chick and turtle. Interplexiform cells in the cat and the rat were clearly immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase; this is the first report of GABAergic interplexiform cells in the rat. PMID:2994837

  1. Functional plasticity and allosteric regulation of α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase in central mycobacterial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tristan; Bellinzoni, Marco; Wehenkel, Annemarie; O'Hare, Helen M; Alzari, Pedro M

    2011-08-26

    The α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KDH) complex is a major regulatory point of aerobic energy metabolism. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was reported to lack KDH activity, and the putative KDH E1o component, α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase (KGD), was instead assigned as a decarboxylase or carboligase. Here, we show that this protein does in fact sustain KDH activity, as well as the additional two reactions, and these multifunctional properties are shared by the Escherichia coli homolog, SucA. We also show that the mycobacterial enzyme is finely regulated by an additional acyltransferase-like domain and by the action of acetyl-CoA, a powerful allosteric activator able to enhance the concerted protein motions observed during catalysis. Our results uncover the functional plasticity of a crucial node in bacterial metabolism, which may be important for M. tuberculosis during host infection. PMID:21867916

  2. Observation of Superoxide Production During Catalysis of Bacillus subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase at pH4

    PubMed Central

    Twahir, Umar T.; Stedwell, Corey N.; Lee, Cory T.; Richards, Nigel G. J.; Polfer, Nicolas C.; Angerhofer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trapping of the hydroperoxyl radical at a pH of 4 during turnover of wild-type oxalate decarboxylase and its T165V mutant using the spin trap BMPO. Radicals were detected and identified by a combination of EPR and mass spectrometry. Superoxide, or its conjugate acid, the hydroperoxyl radical, is expected as an intermediate in the decarboxylation and oxidation reactions of the oxalate monoanion both of which are promoted by oxalate decarboxylase. Another intermediate, the carbon dioxide radical anion was also observed. The quantitative yields of superoxide trapping is similar in the wild type and the mutant while it is significantly different for the trapping of the carbon dioxide radical anion. This suggests that the two radicals are released from different sites of the protein. PMID:25526893

  3. [Histidine decarboxylase activity and free histidine and histamine levels in fish meat].

    PubMed

    Ganowiak, Z; Gajewska, R; Lipka, E

    1990-01-01

    The activity of histidine decarboxylase was determined in the meat of fresh fish (mackerel, herring, sprat) and in fish stored for 48 hours at +4 degrees C and +18 degrees C. The activity was determined measuring the increase of histamine released from a controlled amount of histidine. A rise was demonstrated in the activity of these enzymes in the meat of fish stored for 48 hours at +18 degrees C. As a result of this activity the histamine level increased considerably, particularly in the meat of these fish species in which the free histidine content exceeds 100 mg/100 g of tissue. The mean activity of histidine decarboxylase obtained in the meat of frozen and fresh fish expressed in nmol of histamine/min/mg of protein was 0.11 +/- 0.06 for mackerel meat, 0.10 +/- 0.04 for herring, and 0.08 +/- 0.04 for sprat. PMID:2244173

  4. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in chick duodenum induced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

    PubMed Central

    Shinki, T; Takahashi, N; Miyaura, C; Samejima, K; Nishii, Y; Suda, T

    1981-01-01

    The effect of cholecalciferol and its metabolites on ornithine decarboxylase activity was investigated in the duodenal mucosa of vitamin D-deficient chicks. The duodenal ornithine decarboxylase activity decreased in animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet and its retarded activity was increased dose-dependently by a single injection of cholecalciferol. Among various metabolites of cholecalciferol tested, 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [ 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3] was the most potent stimulator. Stimulation of the enzyme activity was detected as early as 2h after intravenous administration of 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 and a maximal value was attained at 6 h. The maximal value was 27 times higher than the control. In addition, treatment with 1 alpha 25 (OH)2D3 affected the duodenal content of polyamines. The content of putrescine increased to a value of three times that of the control 6 h after the hormone administration. The spermidine content did not change appreciably. The enhancement of duodenal ornithine decarboxylase activity by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 occurred in parallel with the enhancement of calcium absorption, which was first detected 3 h after the hormone administration. The enhancement appeared to be tissue-specific. It was observed in every intestinal segment, but was highest in the duodenum. Enzyme activity in other tissues was not influenced appreciably by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3. These results clearly indicate that the duodenal biosynthesis of polyamines is regulated by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3, suggesting the possibility that duodenal ornithine decarboxylase may be involved in the calcium absorption mechanism. PMID:6895593

  5. Arginine and lysine decarboxylases and the acid tolerance response of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium CECT 443 inactivation at pH 2.5 in Mineral Medium (MM) and MM supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) arginine, lysine or glutamic acid was studied using stationary-phase cells grown in buffered BHI pH 7.0 (non-acid adapted cells) and acidified BHI up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic and hydrochloric acids (acid adapted cells). In all cases, acid adapted cells, with D-values ranging from 23.34 to 86.90 min, showed a significantly higher acid resistance than non-acid adapted cells, with D-values between 8.90 and 10.29 min. Whereas the conditions used for acid adaptation did not exert a significant effect on the acid resistance of the S. Typhimurium CECT 443 resulting cells, the inclusion of lysine and arginine in the challenge medium protected them against acid inactivation, reaching D-values of about 2 and 3 times higher, respectively, than those found in MM or MM supplemented with glutamic acid. None of these three amino acids significantly modified the acid resistance of non-acid adapted cells. The relative expression level of adiA (encoding the arginine decarboxylase), adiY (encoding the transcriptional activator of adiA), cadA (encoding the lysine decarboxylase) and cadB (encoding the lysine/cadaverine transport protein) was examined by quantitative PCR. Acid adapted cells showed higher relative expression levels for both systems, arginine decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase, which demonstrates that the induction of specialized pH-homeostatic systems plays an important role in S. Typhimurium CECT 443 protection against acid stress. However, the increased acid resistance showed by acid adapted cells challenged in MM arginine or lysine free suggests the existence of other microbial survival strategies. PMID:19864032

  6. Perturbation of the Monomer-Monomer Interfaces of the Benzoylformate Decarboxylase Tetramer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Forest H.; Rogers, Megan P.; Paul, Lake N.; McLeish, Michael J.

    2014-08-14

    The X-ray structure of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 shows it to be a tetramer. This was believed to be typical of all thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases until recently when the structure of KdcA, a branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis, showed it to be a homodimer. This lent credence to earlier unfolding experiments on pyruvate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that indicated that it might be active as a dimer. To investigate this possibility in BFDC, we sought to shift the equilibrium toward dimer formation. Point mutations were made in the noncatalytic monomer–monomer interfaces, but these had a minimal effect on both tetramer formation and catalytic activity. Subsequently, the R141E/Y288A/A306F variant was shown by analytical ultracentrifugation to be partially dimeric. It was also found to be catalytically inactive. Further experiments revealed that just two mutations, R141E and A306F, were sufficient to markedly alter the dimer–tetramer equilibrium and to provide an ~450-fold decrease in kcat. Equilibrium denaturation studies suggested that the residual activity was possibly due to the presence of residual tetramer. The structures of the R141E and A306F variants, determined to <1.5 Å resolution, hinted that disruption of the monomer interfaces will be accompanied by movement of a loop containing Leu109 and Leu110. As these residues contribute to the hydrophobicity of the active site and the correct positioning of the substrate, it seems that tetramer formation may well be critical to the catalytic activity of BFDC.

  7. Rat malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; cloning, expression in E. coli and its biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gha Young; Bahk, Young Yil; Kim, Yu Sam

    2002-03-31

    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (E.C.4.1.1.9) catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. Although the metabolic role of this enzyme has not been fully defined, it has been reported that its deficiency is associated with mild mental retardation, seizures, hypotonia, cadiomyopathy, developmental delay, vomiting, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and malonic aciduria. Here, we isolated a cDNA clone for malonyl CoA decarboxylase from a rat brain cDNA library, expressed it in E. coli, and characterized its biochemical properties. The full-length cDNA contained a single open-reading frame that encoded 491 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 54, 762 Da. Its deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 65.6% identity to that from the goose uropigial gland. The sequence of the first 38 amino acids represents a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence, and the last 3 amino acid sequences (SKL) represent peroxisomal targeting ones. The expression of malonyl CoA decarboxylase was observed over a wide range of tissues as a single transcript of 2.0 kb in size. The recombinant protein that was expressed in E. coli was used to characterize the biochemical properties, which showed a typical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation pattern. The Km and Vmax were calculated to be 68 microM and 42.6 micromol/min/mg, respectively. PMID:12297032

  8. Different mRNAs code for dopa decarboxylase in tissues of neuronal and nonneuronal origin

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, M.; Coge, F.; Gros, F.; Thibault, J. )

    1991-03-15

    A cDNA clone for dopa decarboxylase has been isolated from a rat pheochromocytoma cDNA library and the cDNA sequence has been determined. It corresponds to an mRNA of 2094 nucleotides. The length of the mRNA was measured by primer-extension of rat pheochromocytoma RNA and the 5{prime} end of the sequence of the mRNA was confirmed by the PCR. A probe spanning the translation initiation site of the mRNA was used to hybridize with mRNAs from various organs of the rat. S1 nuclease digestion of the mRNAs annealed with this probe revealed two classes of mRNAs. The comparison of the cDNA sequence and published sequences for rat liver, human pheochromocytoma, and Droxophila dopa decarboxylase supported the conclusion that two mRNAs are produced: one is specific for tissue of neuronal origin and the other is specific for tissues of nonneuronal (mesodermal or endodermal) origin. The neuronal mRNA contains a 5{prime} untranslated sequence that is highly conserved between human and rat pheochromocytoma including a GA stretch. The coding sequence and the 3{prime} untranslated sequence of mRNAs from rat liver and pheochromocytoma are identical. The rat mRNA differs only in the 5{prime} untranslated region. Thus a unique gene codes for dopa decarboxylase and this gene gives rise to at least two transcripts presumably in response to different signals during development.

  9. Rapid method for simultaneous detection of the arginine dihydrolase system and amino acid decarboxylases in microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K C; Culbertson, N J; Knapp, J S; Kenny, G E; Holmes, K K

    1982-01-01

    A specific procedure has been developed for the detection of the first two enzymes involved in the arginine dihydrolase system and the detection of the decarboxylases of arginine, glutamic acid, histidine, lysine, ornithine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine. A loopful of growth of each organism from dihydrolase-decarboxylase induction agar medium (or broth) was washed and incubated separately with 0.2-ml samples of three test media supplemented with different amino acids. Each spent test medium was dansylated, and the dansyl derivatives were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on polyamide sheets. The end products (citrulline, ornithine, gamma-amino-n-butyric acid, and amines) produced during incubation were estimated by comparing the fluorescent intensities of end products from the spent test media and of the corresponding parent amino acids from test medium controls after thin-layer chromatography. The method is reproducible, requiring incubation of an organism in three test media for 1 h for simultaneous detection of the first two enzymes involved in the arginine dihydrolase system and of eight amino acid decarboxylases. This method has been successfully applied to gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms and also to Mycoplasmatales. It could simplify and improve the accuracy of the corresponding biochemical tests performed in clinical laboratories for the identification and differentiation of microorganisms, and it may prove particularly useful for the differentiation of species of Pseudomonas and Mycoplasma. Images PMID:7153341

  10. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) decarboxylase activity in the arthropod nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, L. L.; Wirtz, R. A.; Köhler, G.

    1973-01-01

    1. When homogenates of brains from mature adult locusts (Locusta migratoria) were incubated with l-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)[3-14C]alanine the major radioactive metabolite was dopamine, suggesting the presence of a dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) decarboxylase. 2. Decarboxylation of l-dopa by this tissue, measured under optimum conditions by a radiochemical method, was 21μmol of CO2/h per g wet wt. Apparent decarboxylation of l-tyrosine proceeded at 0.34μmol of CO2/h per g wet wt. There was no detectable decarboxylation of l-tryptophan, l-histidine or l-phenylalanine. 3. Dopa decarboxylase activity was found in all major regions of the ventral nerve cord of the mature locust (range: 4–7μmol of CO2/h per g wet wt.) but was low or absent in thoracic peripheral nerve. 4. Marked decarboxylation of l-dopa was found in homogenates of brains of four other species of insects, and in brain and ventral nerve cord, but not in the claw nerve, of the crayfish. 5. The activity of the locust brain enzyme may be slightly lower at the time of imaginal ecdysis than during the mature period. By contrast, the dopa decarboxylase that produces dopamine as an intermediate in cuticle biosynthesis is known to be high in activity at the time of ecdysis and low in activity during the intermoult stages. PMID:4721604

  11. On the mechanism of sodium ion translocation by oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Dimroth, P; Thomer, A

    1993-02-23

    Proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae catalyzed the uptake of Na+ ions upon oxaloacetate decarboxylation. The degree of coupling between the chemical and the vectorial reaction is dependent on the reconstitution conditions, and with the best preparations approaches a stoichiometry of two Na+ ions per decarboxylation of one oxaloacetate. This coupling ratio is observed only in the absence of a delta mu Na+, immediately after oxaloacetate addition. The ratio gradually declines during development of the electrochemical Na+ ion gradient and becomes zero in the steady state. The Na+ pump, however, continued to decarboxylate oxaloacetate and to catalyze Na+ influx at the apparent stoichiometry of two Na+ ions per decarboxylation event. During the steady state, this influx must be compensated by Na+ efflux of the same size. The efflux is catalyzed by the Na+ pump upon oxaloacetate decarboxylation, because in the absence of the substrate the efflux rate dropped to less than 10%. Proteoliposomes loaded with Na2SO4 catalyzed a bicarbonate-dependent uptake of 22Na+ that was completely abolished after incubation with avidin. These results suggest coupling of Na+ translocation to the carboxylation/decarboxylation of the biotin prosthetic group without the requirement for the oxaloacetate/pyruvate interconversion. The oxaloacetate-dependent transport of Na+ into proteoliposomes was inhibited by the additional presence of the beta + gamma subunits of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. A model of Na+ translocation by oxaloacetate decarboxylase based on these experimental results is proposed. PMID:8382519

  12. Overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase increases myogenic potential of H9c2 rat myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marco; Bonavita, Francesca; Shantz, Lisa M; Guarnieri, Carlo; Giordano, Emanuele

    2010-02-01

    Myoblast differentiation into multinuclear myotubes implies the slow-down of their proliferative drive and the expression of myogenin, an early marker of myogenic differentiation. Natural polyamines-such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine-are low molecular weight organic polycations, well known as mediators involved in cell homeostasis. Many evidences in the literature point to their role in driving cellular differentiation processes. Here, we studied how polyamines may affect the differentiation of the myogenic cell line H9c2 into the muscle phenotype. Cell cultures were committed via a 7-day treatment with insulin which induced increase in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase, the first enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, consistent with myogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of polyamines in the differentiation process, cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing a stable ornithine decarboxylase, under control of a constitutive promoter. Overexpressing cells spontaneously differentiate into myotubes, without the need for induction with insulin; multinuclear myotubes and myogenin expression were apparent within 2 days of confluency of cultures. Polyamine depletion-by means of alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase-abolished the differentiation process. These observations support the evidence that polyamines are a key step involved in differentiation of muscle cells. PMID:20013009

  13. An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with less than 14% identity. The C. guilliermondii phenolic acid decarboxylase converted the main substrates ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to the respective corresponding products. Surprisingly, the ultrafiltrate (Mr 10,000-cut-off) of the cell-free extract of C. guilliermondii remarkably activated the ferulic acid decarboxylation by the purified enzyme, whereas it was almost without effect on the p-coumaric acid decarboxylation. Gel-filtration chromatography of the ultrafiltrate suggested that an endogenous amino thiol-like compound with a molecular weight greater than Mr 1,400 was responsible for the activation. PMID:22217315

  14. Characterization and immunolocalization of mutated ornithine decarboxylase antizyme from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Qian; Yang, Xiao; Wu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Dongjing; He, Ai; Zhan, Ximei

    2013-08-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), a prominent regulator of cell proliferation, DNA/RNA transformation and tumorigenesis, can bind to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and facilitate its degradation. Expression of OAZ requires a unique ribosomal frame shift that is regulated by levels of polyamine in the cell. In this study, we cloned an OAZ gene with the +1 ribosomal frame-shift from a fourth-stage larvae cDNA library of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We removed one nucleotide to express the gene without polyamine. The sequence analysis showed that the deleted-mutation ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (DM-AcOAZ) contained a conservative domain related to other species OAZ. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DM-AcOAZ was expressed in L3 and L4 stages and adult female worms. More notably the expression level is the highest in the adult female stage. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that DM-AcOAZ was specifically localized in the uterus, oocyte and intestine in adult female worms. MTT assays showed that in DM-AcOAZ transfected HeLa cells, cell proliferation is inhibited. In conclusion, DM-AcOAZ may be a female-enriched protein and may involved in the cell proliferation in A. cantonensis. PMID:23816446

  15. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from L. plantarum has been recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. The structure has been solved at 2.04 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism.

  16. A surprising range of modified-methionyl S-adenosylmethionine analogues support bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mojun; Wijayasinghe, Yasanandana S; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E; Blumenthal, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) is an essential metabolite, serving in a very wide variety of metabolic reactions. The enzyme that produces AdoMet from l-methionine and ATP (methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT) is thus an attractive target for antimicrobial agents. We previously showed that a variety of methionine analogues are MAT substrates, yielding AdoMet analogues that function in specific methyltransfer reactions. However, this left open the question of whether the modified AdoMet molecules could support bacterial growth, meaning that they functioned in the full range of essential AdoMet-dependent reactions. The answer matters both for insight into the functional flexibility of key metabolic enzymes, and for drug design strategies for both MAT inhibitors and selectively toxic MAT substrates. In this study, methionine analogues were converted in vitro into AdoMet analogues, and tested with an Escherichia coli strain lacking MAT (?metK) but that produces a heterologous AdoMet transporter. Growth that yields viable, morphologically normal cells provides exceptionally robust evidence that the analogue functions in every essential reaction in which AdoMet participates. Overall, the S-adenosylated derivatives of all tested l-methionine analogues modified at the carboxyl moiety, and some others as well, showed in vivo functionality sufficient to allow good growth in both rich and minimal media, with high viability and morphological normality. As the analogues were chosen based on incompatibility with the reactions via which AdoMet is used to produce acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) for quorum sensing, these results support the possibility of using this route to selectively interfere with AHL biosynthesis without inhibiting bacterial growth. PMID:25717169

  17. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and ethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Prud'homme, M.P.; Moore, T.S. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by castor bean endosperm have been studied. Endosperm halves were incubated with tracer concentrations of (2-{sup 14}C) ethanolamine or ({sup 14}C)S-adenosyl-L-methionine for 10 or 30 minutes, respectively. The kinetics of appearance were followed in methyl- and dimethylethanolamine, choline, and their phospho-, CDP-, and phosphatidyl-derivatives. Methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine rapidly labeled the three methylated-ethanolamine derivatives. Radioactivity then decreased in these compounds and accumulated in phosphatidylcholine. The initial methylation utilized ethanolamine as a substrate to form methyl-ethanolamine, which was partially converted to dimethyl-ethanolamine, choline, and phosphomethylethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occurred at both phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Experiments with ethanolamine confirmed these results.

  18. Crystal structure of biotin synthase, an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent radical enzyme.

    PubMed

    Berkovitch, Frederick; Nicolet, Yvain; Wan, Jason T; Jarrett, Joseph T; Drennan, Catherine L

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of biotin synthase from Escherichia coli in complex with S-adenosyl-L-methionine and dethiobiotin has been determined to 3.4 angstrom resolution. This structure addresses how "AdoMet radical" or "radical SAM" enzymes use Fe4S4 clusters and S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate organic radicals. Biotin synthase catalyzes the radical-mediated insertion of sulfur into dethiobiotin to form biotin. The structure places the substrates between the Fe4S4 cluster, essential for radical generation, and the Fe2S2 cluster, postulated to be the source of sulfur, with both clusters in unprecedented coordination environments. PMID:14704425

  19. Identification of an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent arsenic methyltransferase in Danio rerio

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Mohamad; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Packianathan, Charles; Qin, Jie; Hallauer, Janell; McDermott, Joseph R.; Yang, Hung-Chi; Tsai, Kan-Jen; Liu, Zijuan

    2012-07-15

    Arsenic methylation is an important cellular metabolic process that modulates arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Biomethylation of arsenic produces a series of mono-, di- and tri-methylated arsenic metabolites that can be detected in tissues and excretions. Here we report that zebrafish exposed to arsenite (As{sup III}) produces organic arsenicals, including MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V} with characteristic tissue ratios, demonstrating that an arsenic methylation pathway exists in zebrafish. In mammals, cellular inorganic arsenic is methylated by a SAM-dependent arsenic methyltransferase, AS3MT. A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase homolog, As3mt, was identified by sequence alignment. Western blotting analysis showed that As3mt was universally expressed in zebrafish tissues. Prominent expression in liver and intestine correlated with methylated arsenic metabolites detected in those tissues. As3mt was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli for in vitro functional studies. Our results demonstrated that As3mt methylated As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} as an end product and produced MMA{sup III} and MMA{sup V} as intermediates. The activity of As3mt was inhibited by elevated concentrations of the substrate As{sup III} as well as the metalloid selenite, which is a well-known antagonistic micronutrient of arsenic toxicity. The activity As3mt was abolished by substitution of either Cys160 or Cys210, which corresponds to conserved cysteine residues in AS3MT homologs, suggesting that they are involved in catalysis. Expression in zebrafish of an enzyme that has a similar function to human and rodent orthologs in catalyzing intracellular arsenic biomethylation validates the applicability of zebrafish as a valuable vertebrate model for understanding arsenic-associated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Zebrafish methylated As{sup III} to MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V}. ► A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase (As3mt) was purified in E. coli. ► As3mt catalyzed biomethylation of As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} and produced toxic intermediates. ► As3mt activity is inhibited by elevated substrate concentrations and selenite. ► C160 and C165 are predicted as As{sup III} binding sites.

  20. A surprising range of modified-methionyl S-adenosylmethionine analogues support bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mojun; Wijayasinghe, Yasanandana S.; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) is an essential metabolite, serving in a very wide variety of metabolic reactions. The enzyme that produces AdoMet from l-methionine and ATP (methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT) is thus an attractive target for antimicrobial agents. We previously showed that a variety of methionine analogues are MAT substrates, yielding AdoMet analogues that function in specific methyltransfer reactions. However, this left open the question of whether the modified AdoMet molecules could support bacterial growth, meaning that they functioned in the full range of essential AdoMet-dependent reactions. The answer matters both for insight into the functional flexibility of key metabolic enzymes, and for drug design strategies for both MAT inhibitors and selectively toxic MAT substrates. In this study, methionine analogues were converted in vitro into AdoMet analogues, and tested with an Escherichia coli strain lacking MAT (?metK) but that produces a heterologous AdoMet transporter. Growth that yields viable, morphologically normal cells provides exceptionally robust evidence that the analogue functions in every essential reaction in which AdoMet participates. Overall, the S-adenosylated derivatives of all tested l-methionine analogues modified at the carboxyl moiety, and some others as well, showed in vivo functionality sufficient to allow good growth in both rich and minimal media, with high viability and morphological normality. As the analogues were chosen based on incompatibility with the reactions via which AdoMet is used to produce acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) for quorum sensing, these results support the possibility of using this route to selectively interfere with AHL biosynthesis without inhibiting bacterial growth. PMID:25717169

  1. Enhancing muconic acid production from glucose and lignin-derived aromatic compounds via increased protocatechuate decarboxylase activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Salvachua, Davinia; Khanna, Payal; Smith, Holly; Peterson, Darren J.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-04-22

    The conversion of biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules to cis,cis-muconic acid (referred to hereafter as muconic acid or muconate) has been of recent interest owing to its facile conversion to adipic acid, an important commodity chemical. Metabolic routes to produce muconate from both sugars and many lignin-derived aromatic compounds require the use of a decarboxylase to convert protocatechuate (PCA, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), two central aromatic intermediates in this pathway. Several studies have identified the PCA decarboxylase as a metabolic bottleneck, causing an accumulation of PCA that subsequently reduces muconate production. A recent study showed that activity of the PCAmore » decarboxylase is enhanced by co-expression of two genetically associated proteins, one of which likely produces a flavin-derived cofactor utilized by the decarboxylase. Using entirely genome-integrated gene expression, we have engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440-derived strains to produce muconate from either aromatic molecules or sugars and demonstrate in both cases that co-expression of these decarboxylase associated proteins reduces PCA accumulation and enhances muconate production relative to strains expressing the PCA decarboxylase alone. In bioreactor experiments, co-expression increased the specific productivity (mg/g cells/h) of muconate from the aromatic lignin monomer p-coumarate by 50% and resulted in a titer of >15 g/L. In strains engineered to produce muconate from glucose, co-expression more than tripled the titer, yield, productivity, and specific productivity, with the best strain producing 4.92+/-0.48 g/L muconate. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that overcoming the PCA decarboxylase bottleneck can increase muconate yields from biomass-derived sugars and aromatic molecules in industrially relevant strains and cultivation conditions.« less

  2. Application of a ribosomal DNA integration vector in the construction of a brewer's yeast having alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, T; Kondo, K; Shimizu, F; Sone, H; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

    1990-01-01

    An integration plasmid, pIARL28, containing the ribosomal DNA gene as a homologous recombination sequence was constructed for introduction of the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene into brewer's yeast. The transformation efficiency of pIARL28 was 20- to 50-fold higher than those of the other YIp vectors, as yeast cells had approximately 140 copies of the ribosomal DNA gene. All transformants showed very high alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase activity due to the multiple integrated copies of the plasmid. The transformants were grown in nonselective conditions, and segregants which had maintained the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase expression cassette but no other vector sequences were isolated. Southern analysis showed that these marker-excised segregants contained more than 20 copies of the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene and were stably maintained under nonselective conditions. Fermentation tests confirmed that the diacetyl concentration was considerably reduced in wort fermented by these marker-excised segregants. The degree of reduction was related to the copy number of the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene. Images PMID:2187408

  3. Carbon Dioxide Effects on Ethanol Production, Pyruvate Decarboxylase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities in Anaerobic Sweet Potato Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling A.; Hammett, Larry K.; Pharr, David M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varied anaerobic atmospheres on the metabolism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) roots was studied. The internal gas atmospheres of storage roots changed rapidly when the roots were submerged under water. O2 and N2 gases disappeared quickly and were replaced by CO2. There were no appreciable differences in gas composition among the four cultivars that were studied. Under different anaerobic conditions, ethanol concentration in the roots was highest in a CO2 environment, followed by submergence and a N2 environment in all the cultivars except one. A positive relationship was found between ethanol production and pyruvate decarboxylase activity from both 100% CO2-treated and 100% N2-treated roots. CO2 atmospheres also resulted in higher pyruvate decarboxylase activity than did N2 atmospheres. Concentrations of CO2 were higher within anaerobic roots than those in the ambient anaerobic atmosphere. The level of pyruvate decarboxylase and ethanol in anaerobic roots was proportional to the ambient CO2 concentration. The measurable activity of pyruvate decarboxylase that was present in the roots was about 100 times less than that of alcohol dehydrogenase. Considering these observations, it is suggested that the rate-limiting enzyme for ethanol biosynthesis in sweet potato storage roots under anoxia is likely to be pyruvate decarboxylase rather than alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:16662798

  4. Structural Insight into DFMO Resistant Ornithine Decarboxylase from Entamoeba histolytica: An Inkling to Adaptive Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Preeti; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pravindra; Madhubala, Rentala; Tomar, Shailly

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyamine biosynthetic pathway is a validated therapeutic target for large number of infectious diseases including cancer, giardiasis and African sleeping sickness, etc. α-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a potent drug used for the treatment of African sleeping sickness is an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first rate limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. The enzyme ODC of E. histolytica (EhODC) has been reported to exhibit resistance towards DFMO. Methodology/Principal Finding The basis for insensitivity towards DFMO was investigated by structural analysis of EhODC and conformational modifications at the active site. Here, we report cloning, purification and crystal structure determination of C-terminal truncated Entamoeba histolytica ornithine decarboxylase (EhODCΔ15). Structure was determined by molecular replacement method and refined to 2.8 Å resolution. The orthorhombic crystal exhibits P212121 symmetry with unit cell parameters a = 76.66, b = 119.28, c = 179.28 Å. Functional as well as evolutionary relations of EhODC with other ODC homologs were predicted on the basis of sequence analysis, phylogeny and structure. Conclusions/Significance We determined the tetrameric crystal structure of EhODCΔ15, which exists as a dimer in solution. Insensitivity towards DFMO is due to substitution of key substrate binding residues in active site pocket. Additionally, a few more substitutions similar to antizyme inhibitor (AZI), a non-functional homologue of ODCs, were identified in the active site. Here, we establish the fact that EhODC sequence has conserved PLP binding residues; in contrast few substrate binding residues are mutated similar to AZI. Further sequence analysis and structural studies revealed that EhODC may represent as an evolutionary bridge between active decarboxylase and inactive AZI. PMID:23326423

  5. Combination treatment for allergic conjunctivitis - Plant derived histidine decarboxylase inhibitor and H1 antihistaminic drug.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2015-08-01

    Aim of present investigation was to study the effect of catechin and the combination of catechin and cetirizine in ovalbumin induced animal model of allergic conjunctivitis. Guinea pigs were divided into 5 groups: normal control, disease control, disease treated with catechin 100 mg/kg, disease treated with cetirizine 10 mg/kg, disease treated with combination of catechin and cetirizine, 50 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg respectively. Sensitization was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin for the period of 14 day. Simultaneously, catechin was administered orally for 14 days while, cetirizine was administered at the day of experiment. Determination of clinical scoring, mast cell and blood histamine content, histidine decarboxylase activity from stomach was carried out. Vascular permeability was measured by dye leakage after secondary challenge of allergen and conjunctival tissues were subjected for histopathological examinations. Treatment with catechin, cetirizine and combination showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in clinical scoring and vascular permeability. While, catechin 100 mg/kg and catechin 50 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in histamine content in mast and blood. The treatment also showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the histidine decarboxylase enzyme activity. However, cetirizine group did not show any difference in enzyme activity as well as histamine content. Histopathological examination also showed improvement in ulceration and decrease in edema and inflammation in all treatment groups. From the present study, we can conclude that catechin exhibits potent anti-allergic activity by histidine decarboxylase enzyme inhibition and combination shown significant anti-allergic activity at reduced dose by both enzyme inhibition as well as inhibition of histamine receptors. PMID:26028180

  6. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%. PMID:21971608

  7. Cloning of aldB, which encodes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, an exoenzyme from Bacillus brevis.

    PubMed Central

    Diderichsen, B; Wedsted, U; Hedegaard, L; Jensen, B R; Sjøholm, C

    1990-01-01

    A gene for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) was cloned from Bacillus brevis in Escherichia coli and in Bacillus subtilis. The 1.3-kilobase-pair nucleotide sequence of the gene, aldB, encoding ALDC and its flanking regions was determined. An open reading frame of 285 amino acids included a typical N-terminal signal peptide of 24 or 27 amino acids. A B. subtilis strain harboring the aldB gene on a recombinant plasmid processed and secreted ALDC. In contrast, a similar enzyme from Enterobacter aerogenes is intracellular. Images PMID:2198252

  8. The nucleotide sequence and initial characterization of pyruvate decarboxylase from the yeast Hanseniaspora uvarum.

    PubMed

    Holloway, P; Subden, R E

    1994-12-01

    We have isolated a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene from the yeast Hanseniaspora uvarum using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDC1 gene as a probe. The nucleotide sequence of this gene was determined and compared to PDC genes from yeast and other organisms. The H. uvarum PDC gene is more than 70% identical to the S. cerevisiae PDC isozymes and possesses a putative thiamine diphosphate binding site. The PDC enzyme was purified and partially characterized. The H. uvarum PDC was very similar to other known PDCs; the Km for pyruvate was 0.75 mM, and the enzyme is a homotetramer with subunits of M(r) = 57,000. PMID:7725793

  9. Targeting Ornithine Decarboxylase for the Prevention of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Bailey et al. report in this issue of the journal (beginning on page XXX) one of the first successful trials of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) prevention. Oral -difluoromethyl-dl-ornithine (DFMO) reduced new BCCs in patients with a prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer. DFMO is an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. This perspective on Bailey et al. discusses our knowledge of the contribution of polyamines to BCC pathogenesis, how this knowledge advanced the development of a new method to prevent BCCs, and prospects for future studies of DFMO in BCC prevention. PMID:20051367

  10. Apraxia in anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-associated stiff person syndrome: link to corticobasal degeneration?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lauren N; Subramony, S H; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is associated with asymmetrical rigidity as well as asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is characterized by muscle stiffness and gait difficulties. Whereas patients with CBS have several forms of pathology, many patients with SPS have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-ab), but these 2 disorders have not been reported to coexist. We report 2 patients with GAD-ab-positive SPS who also had signs suggestive of CBS, including asymmetrical limb rigidity associated with both asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Future studies should evaluate patients with CBS for GAD-ab and people with SPS for signs of CBS. PMID:25100431

  11. Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus.

    PubMed

    Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    1983-02-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1), l-arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and agmatine amidinohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.11) activities spontaneously decay in Evernia prunastri thalli incubated on 40 millimolar l-arginine used as inducer of the three enzymes if dithiothreitol is not added to the media. Lichen thalli accumulate both chloroatranorin and evernic acid in parallel to the loss of activity. These substances behave as inactivators of the enzymes at a range of concentrations between 2 and 20 micromolar, whereas several concentrations of dithiothreitol reverse, to some extent, the in vitro inactivation. PMID:16662821

  12. Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus 1

    PubMed Central

    Legaz, María Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    1983-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1), l-arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and agmatine amidinohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.11) activities spontaneously decay in Evernia prunastri thalli incubated on 40 millimolar l-arginine used as inducer of the three enzymes if dithiothreitol is not added to the media. Lichen thalli accumulate both chloroatranorin and evernic acid in parallel to the loss of activity. These substances behave as inactivators of the enzymes at a range of concentrations between 2 and 20 micromolar, whereas several concentrations of dithiothreitol reverse, to some extent, the in vitro inactivation. PMID:16662821

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of the ornithine decarboxylase gene from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rishikesh; Rafia, Sheikh; Saran, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a rate limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to form the diamine putrescine. We report here the isolation, expression and characterization of a homolog of ODC from Dictyostelium discoideum. DdODC is conserved and shows sequence and structural homology with that from human. Both ODC transcript and protein are expressed at all stages of development and show high expression in prestalk/stalk cells. It is cytosolic and predominantly perinuclear in localization. Both overexpression of DdODC and putrescine treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation. PMID:25896203

  14. Expression of rice glutamate decarboxylase in Bifidobacterium longum enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid production.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Bum; Ji, Geun-Eog; Park, Myeong-Soo; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2005-11-01

    Bifidobacteria are important for the production of fermented dairy products and probiotic formulas but have a low capacity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production. To develop a Bifidobacterium strain with an enhanced GABA production, we transformed Bifidobacterium longum with a rice glutamate decarboxylase (OsGADC(-)) gene by electroporation. When the transformed strain was cultured in medium containing monosodium glutamate, the amount of GABA increased significantly compared with those of untransformed Bifidobacterium. Thus, by introducing a plant derived GAD gene, a Bifidobacterium strain has been genetically engineered to produce high levels of GABA from glutamate. PMID:16247674

  15. Study of pyruvate decarboxylase and thiamine kinase from brewer's yeast by SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskevich, Sergei A.; Chernikevich, Ivan P.; Gachko, Gennedy A.; Kivach, Leonid N.; Strekal, Nataliya D.

    1993-06-01

    The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of holopyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and thiamine kinase (ThK) adsorbed on silver electrode were obtained. In contrast to the Raman, the SERS spectrum of PDC contained no modes of tryptophan residues, it indicates a removal of this moiety from the surface. In the SERS spectrum of ThK the bands belonging to ligands bound to the protein were observed. A correlation between the SERS signal intensity and the enzymatic activity of the ThK separate fraction and found. The influence of amino acids on SERS spectra of thiamine (Th) was studied to determine the possible composition on microsurrounding of coenzyme.

  16. Arginase and Arginine Decarboxylase – Where Do the Putative Gate Keepers of Polyamine Synthesis Reside in Rat Brain?

    PubMed Central

    Langnaese, Kristina; Derst, Christian; Madai, Vince I.; Krauss, Michael; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Veh, Rüdiger W.; Laube, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Polyamines are important regulators of basal cellular functions but also subserve highly specific tasks in the mammalian brain. With this respect, polyamines and the synthesizing and degrading enzymes are clearly differentially distributed in neurons versus glial cells and also in different brain areas. The synthesis of the diamine putrescine may be driven via two different pathways. In the “classical” pathway urea and carbon dioxide are removed from arginine by arginase and ornithine decarboxylase. The alternative pathway, first removing carbon dioxide by arginine decarboxlyase and then urea by agmatinase, may serve the same purpose. Furthermore, the intermediate product of the alternative pathway, agmatine, is an endogenous ligand for imidazoline receptors and may serve as a neurotransmitter. In order to evaluate and compare the expression patterns of the two gate keeper enzymes arginase and arginine decarboxylase, we generated polyclonal, monospecific antibodies against arginase-1 and arginine decarboxylase. Using these tools, we immunocytochemically screened the rat brain and compared the expression patterns of both enzymes in several brain areas on the regional, cellular and subcellular level. In contrast to other enzymes of the polyamine pathway, arginine decarboxylase and arginase are both constitutively and widely expressed in rat brain neurons. In cerebral cortex and hippocampus, principal neurons and putative interneurons were clearly labeled for both enzymes. Labeling, however, was strikingly different in these neurons with respect to the subcellular localization of the enzymes. While with antibodies against arginine decarboxylase the immunosignal was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, arginase-like immunoreactivity was preferentially localized to Golgi stacks. Given the apparent congruence of arginase and arginine decarboxylase distribution with respect to certain cell populations, it seems likely that the synthesis of agmatine rather than putrescine may be the main purpose of the alternative pathway of polyamine synthesis, while the classical pathway supplies putrescine and spermidine/spermine in these neurons. PMID:23840524

  17. Polyamine formation by arginine decarboxylase as a transducer of hormonal, environmental and stress stimuli in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Flores, H. E.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates polyamines including putrescine in the regulation of such diverse plant processes as cell division, embryogenesis and senescence. We find that the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, which controls the rate of putrescine formation in some plant systems, is activated by light acting through P(r) phytochrome as a receptor, by the plant hormone gibberellic acid, by osmotic shock and by other stress stimuli. We therefore propose arginine decarboxylase as a possible transducer of the various initially received tropistic stimuli in plants. The putrescine formed could act by affecting cytoskeletal components.

  18. Subcellular localization of tryptophan decarboxylase, strictosidine synthase and strictosidine glucosidase in suspension cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus and Tabernaemontana divaricata.

    PubMed

    Stevens, L H; Blom, T J; Verpoorte, R

    1993-08-01

    The subcellular localization of tryptophan decarboxylase, strictosidine synthase and strictosidine glucosidase in suspension cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don and Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. ex Roem. et Schult, was investigated. It was found that tryptophan decarboxylase is an extra-vacuolar enzyme, whereas strictosidine synthase is active inside the vacuole. Strong indications were obtained for the localization of strictosidine glucosidase on the outside of the tonoplast. The results suggest that tryptamine is transported into the vacuole where it is condensed with secologanin to form strictosidine, and that strictosidine passes the tonoplast and is subsequently hydrolysed outside the vacuole. PMID:24201788

  19. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  20. Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid decarboxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1994-01-01

    A ferulic acid decarboxylase enzyme which catalyzes the decarboxylation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene was purified from Pseudomonas fluorescens UI 670. The enzyme requires no cofactors and contains no prosthetic groups. Gel filtration estimated an apparent molecular mass of 40.4 (+/- 6%) kDa, whereas sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a molecular mass of 20.4 kDa, indicating that ferulic acid decarboxylase is a homodimer in solution. The purified enzyme displayed an optimum temperature range of 27 to 30 degrees C, exhibited an optimum pH of 7.3 in potassium phosphate buffer, and had a Km of 7.9 mM for ferulic acid. This enzyme also decarboxylated 4-hydroxycinnamic acid but not 2- or 3-hydroxycinnamic acid, indicating that a hydroxy group para to the carboxylic acid-containing side chain is required for the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme was inactivated by Hg2+, Cu2+, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are necessary for enzyme activity. Diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine-specific inhibitor, did not affect enzyme activity. Images PMID:7928951

  1. Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Is Crucial for Brain Development and Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shih, De-Fen; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Min, Ming-Yuan; Lai, Wen-Sung; Yang, Chianne-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Lee, Shyh-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase (ddc), in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Ddc by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) reduced brain volume and body length. We observed increased brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons in ddc morphants (ddc MO-injected embryos). Seizure-like activity was also detected in ddc morphants in a dose-dependent manner. ddc morphants had less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that could be rescued by injection of ddc plasmids. In addition, eye movement was also significantly impaired in ddc morphants. Collectively, loss of Ddc appears to result in similar phenotypes as that of ADCC deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of AADC deficiency in children. PMID:23940784

  2. Genetic and molecular identification of a Drosophila histidine decarboxylase gene required in photoreceptor transmitter synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Burg, M G; Sarthy, P V; Koliantz, G; Pak, W L

    1993-01-01

    Drosophila mutants of a single complementation group with defective on-/off-transients of the electroretinogram (ERG) were found to be deficient in synthesis of the photoreceptor transmitter, histamine, in a gene-dosage dependent manner, suggesting that the gene identified by the mutants (hdc) might be the structural gene for Drosophila histidine decarboxylase (HDC). A rat HDC cDNA was used to isolate a Drosophila homolog which shows approximately 60% sequence identity with mammalian HDCs over a region of 476 amino acids. In RNA blots, the Drosophila homolog detects four transcripts that are expressed primarily in the eye and are severely reduced in hdc mutants. The cloned Drosophila cDNA hybridizes to the 46F region of the chromosome, to which hdc mutations have been mapped, and rescues the hdc mutant phenotype in transgenic flies generated by P element-mediated germline transformation. The results thus show that the Drosophila homolog corresponds to the histidine decarboxylase gene, identified by the hdc mutants, and that mutations in the gene disrupt photoreceptor synaptic transmission. Images PMID:8096176

  3. Dual role of alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Goupil-Feuillerat, N; Cocaign-Bousquet, M; Godon, J J; Ehrlich, S D; Renault, P

    1997-01-01

    The alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene aldB is clustered with the genes for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. It can be transcribed with BCAA genes under isoleucine regulation or independently of BCAA synthesis under the control of its own promoter. The product of aldB is responsible for leucine sensibility under valine starvation. In the presence of more than 10 microM leucine, the alpha-acetolactate produced by the biosynthetic acetohydroxy acid synthase IlvBN is transformed to acetoin by AldB and, consequently, is not available for valine synthesis. AldB is also involved in acetoin formation in the 2,3-butanediol pathway, initiated by the catabolic acetolactate synthase, AlsS. The differences in the genetic organization, the expression, and the kinetics parameters of these enzymes between L. lactis and Klebsiella terrigena, Bacillus subtilis, or Leuconostoc oenos suggest that this pathway plays a different role in the metabolism in these bacteria. Thus, the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase from L. lactis plays a dual role in the cell: (i) as key regulator of valine and leucine biosynthesis, by controlling the acetolactate flux by a shift to catabolism; and (ii) as an enzyme catalyzing the second step of the 2,3-butanediol pathway. PMID:9335274

  4. Molecular cloning, characterization, and function analysis of a mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Qin, Lei; Xu, Yingjie; Ren, Ang; Fang, Xing; Mu, Dashuai; Tan, Qi; Zhao, Mingwen

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the role of the mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene in the triterpene biosynthetic pathway of Ganoderma lucidum. The mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene (mvd) was isolated using a degenerate primer-PCR technique. An analysis of the Gl-mvd transcription profile revealed a positive correlation between the expression of the Gl-mvd gene and triterpene content changes in G. lucidum during development. Furthermore, a promoter deletion analysis was conducted in G. lucidum to investigate the promoter activity and the role of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) responsive elements in the mvd promoter under the MeJA elicitor. The overexpression of Gl-mvd increased triterpene accumulation compared with the wild-type strain and increased the expression of several genes involved in the triterpene biosynthetic pathway. The findings of this study suggest that mvd may play an important role in triterpene biosynthesis regulation. Moreover, there may be the interactions among the genes involved in the triterpene biosynthetic pathway in the G. lucidum. Additionally, this study provides an approach for improving triterpene content through the overexpression of a key gene. PMID:22203490

  5. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  6. Characterization of Plasmodium phosphatidylserine decarboxylase expressed in yeast and application for inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Yeon; Kumar, Vidya; Pachikara, Niseema; Garg, Aprajita; Lawres, Lauren; Toh, Justin Y; Voelker, Dennis R; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipid biosynthesis is critical for the development, differentiation and pathogenesis of several eukaryotic pathogens. Genetic studies have validated the pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis from phosphatidylserine catalyzed by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase enzymes (PSD) as a suitable target for development of antimicrobials; however no inhibitors of this class of enzymes have been discovered. We show that the Plasmodium falciparum PSD can restore the essential function of the yeast gene in strains requiring PSD for growth. Genetic, biochemical and metabolic analyses demonstrate that amino acids between positions 40 and 70 of the parasite enzyme are critical for proenzyme processing and decarboxylase activity. We used the essential role of Plasmodium PSD in yeast as a tool for screening a library of anti-malarials. One of these compounds is 7-chloro-N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-quinolinamine, an inhibitor with potent activity against P. falciparum, and low toxicity toward mammalian cells. We synthesized an analog of this compound and showed that it inhibits PfPSD activity and eliminates Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice. These results highlight the importance of 4-quinolinamines as a novel class of drugs targeting membrane biogenesis via inhibition of PSD activity. PMID:26585333

  7. A preliminary crystallographic analysis of the putative mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Byres, Emma; Martin, David M. A.; Hunter, William N.

    2005-06-01

    The gene encoding the putative mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, an enzyme from the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis, has been cloned from T. brucei. Recombinant protein has been expressed, purified and highly ordered crystals obtained and characterized to aid the structure–function analysis of this enzyme. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase catalyses the last and least well characterized step in the mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, an isoprenoid precursor. A gene predicted to encode the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei has been cloned, a highly efficient expression system established and a purification protocol determined. The enzyme gives monoclinic crystals in space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.5, b = 168.7, c = 54.9 Å, β = 118.8°. A Matthews coefficient V{sub M} of 2.5 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} corresponds to two monomers, each approximately 42 kDa (385 residues), in the asymmetric unit with 50% solvent content. These crystals are well ordered and data to high resolution have been recorded using synchrotron radiation.

  8. Glutamate decarboxylase from barley embryos and roots. General properties and the occurrence of three enzymic forms.

    PubMed Central

    Inatomi, K; Slaughter, J C

    1975-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase in extracts of barley has a Km value for L-glutamate of 22 mM and is activated by the addition of pyridoxal phosphate by up to 3.5 times. Sucrose-density-gradient experiments indicate the presence of two enzyme forms with molecular weights 256000 and 120000. The lower-molecular-weight form appears to be relatively inactive and spontaneously associates to the higher-molecular-weight form on storage. The enzyme is inhibited by thiol reagents and the distribution of activity on density gradients is altered in favour of the lower-molecular-weight form by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. After removal of the 2-mercaptoethanol spontaneous association to the higher-molecular-weight form occurs. The presence of oxygen in the extraction buffer and in the water during imbibition leads to a relative increase in the higher-molecular-weight form compared with situations where oxygen is excluded. In contrast, glutamate decarboxylase in extracts of 3-day-old barley roots has a Km value for L-glutamate of 3.1 mM and is activated up to 10% by addition of pyridoxal phosphate. The root enzyme occurs as a single species with molecular weight 310000 and this is unaffected by 2-mercaptoethanol although thiol reagents do act as weak inhibitors. The molecular weight is also unaffected by the presence or absence of oxygen in the extraction buffers. PMID:1167156

  9. Structural analysis of mevalonate-3-kinase provides insight into the mechanisms of isoprenoid pathway decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Vinokur, Jeffrey M; Korman, Tyler P; Sawaya, Michael R; Collazo, Michael; Cascio, Duillio; Bowie, James U

    2015-01-01

    In animals, cholesterol is made from 5-carbon building blocks produced by the mevalonate pathway. Drugs that inhibit the mevalonate pathway such as atorvastatin (lipitor) have led to successful treatments for high cholesterol in humans. Another potential target for the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis is mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of (R)-mevalonate diphosphate, followed by decarboxylation to yield isopentenyl pyrophosphate. We recently discovered an MDD homolog, mevalonate-3-kinase (M3K) from Thermoplasma acidophilum, which catalyzes the identical phosphorylation of (R)-mevalonate, but without concomitant decarboxylation. Thus, M3K catalyzes half the reaction of the decarboxylase, allowing us to separate features of the active site that are required for decarboxylation from features required for phosphorylation. Here we determine the crystal structure of M3K in the apo form, and with bound substrates, and compare it to MDD structures. Structural and mutagenic analysis reveals modifications that allow M3K to bind mevalonate rather than mevalonate diphosphate. Comparison to homologous MDD structures show that both enzymes employ analogous Arg or Lys residues to catalyze phosphate transfer. However, an invariant active site Asp/Lys pair of MDD previously thought to play a role in phosphorylation is missing in M3K with no functional replacement. Thus, we suggest that the invariant Asp/Lys pair in MDD may be critical for decarboxylation rather than phosphorylation. PMID:25422158

  10. Indiscriminate Binding by OMP Decarboxylase of UMP Derivatives with Bulky Anionic C6-Substituents†

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Charles A.; Wolfenden, Richard

    2008-01-01

    OMP decarboxylase appears to act upon its substrate without the intervention of metals or other cofactors and without the formation of covalent bonds between the enzyme and the substrate. Crystallographic information indicates that substrate binding forces the substrate’s scissile carboxylate group into the neighborhood of several charged groups at the active site. It has been proposed that binding might result in electrostatic stress at the substrate’s C6 carboxylate group in such a way as to promote decarboxylation by destabilizing the enzyme-substrate complex in its ground state. If that were the case, one would expect UMP derivatives with bulky anionic substituents at C6 to be bound weakly compared with UMP, which is unsubstituted at C6. Here, we describe the formation of anionic 5,6-dihydro-6-sulfonyl derivatives by spontaneous addition of sulfite to UMP and to OMP. These sulfite addition reactions, which are slowly reversible and are not catalyzed by the enzyme, result in the appearance of one (or in the case of OMP, two) bulky anionic substituents at the 6-carbon atom of UMP. These inhibitors are bound with affinities that surpass the binding affinity of UMP. We are led to infer that the active site of OMP decarboxylase is remarkably accommodating in the neighborhood of C6. These are not the properties that one would expect of an active site with a rigid structure that imposes sufficient electrostatic stress on the substrate to produce a major advancement along the reaction coordinate. PMID:17967036

  11. Mutants of the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis thaliana lacking glycine decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, C R; Ogren, W L

    1982-01-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyn. (a small plant in the crucifer family) that lacks glycine decarboxylase activity owing to a recessive nuclear mutation has been isolated on the basis of a growth requirement for high concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Mitochondria isolated from leaves of the mutant did not exhibit glycine-dependent O2 consumption, did not release 14CO2 from [14C]glycine, and did not catalyse the glycine-bicarbonate exchange reaction that is considered to be the first partial reaction associated with glycine cleavage. Photosynthesis in the mutant was decreased after illumination under atmospheric conditions that promote partitioning of carbon into intermediates of the photorespiratory pathway, but was not impaired under non-photorespiratory conditions. Thus glycine decarboxylase activity is not required for any essential function unrelated to photorespiration. The photosynthetic response of the mutant in photorespiratory conditions is probably caused by an increased rate of glyoxylate oxidation, which results from the sequestering of all readily transferable amino groups in a metabolically inactive glycine pool, and by a depletion of intermediates from the photosynthesis cycle. The rate of release of 14CO2 from exogenously applied [14C]glycollate was 14-fold lower in the mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that glycine decarboxylation is the only significant source of photorespiratory CO2. PMID:6807291

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the inducible lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alexopoulos, Eftichia; Kanjee, Usheer; Snider, Jamie; Houry, Walid A.; Pai, Emil F.

    2008-08-01

    The structure of the decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase from E. coli was determined by SIRAS using a hexatantalum dodecabromide (Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}) derivative. Model building and refinement are under way. The decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI) from Escherichia coli has been crystallized in space groups C2 and C222{sub 1}; the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+} cluster was used to derivatize the C2 crystals. The method of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) as implemented in SHELXD was used to solve the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-derivatized structure to 5 Å resolution. Many of the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-binding sites had twofold and fivefold noncrystallographic symmetry. Taking advantage of this feature, phase modification was performed in DM. The electron-density map of LdcI displays many features in agreement with the low-resolution negative-stain electron-density map [Snider et al. (2006 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.281, 1532–1546].

  13. CONFIRMATIONAL IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, A COMPARISON OF GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS FOR GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE AND B-D-GLUCURONIDASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and B-D-glucuronidase (GUD) were compared for their abilities to detect various strains of Escherichia coli and to discriminate among other bacterial species. Test strains included nonpathogenic E.coli, three major...

  14. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis. 173.115 Section 173.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Bacillus subtilis. The food additive alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation, may be... derived from a modified Bacillus subtilis strain that contains the gene coding for α-ALDC from...

  15. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis. 173.115 Section 173.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Bacillus subtilis. The food additive alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation, may be... derived from a modified Bacillus subtilis strain that contains the gene coding for α-ALDC from...

  16. Absence of malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase in mice increases cardiac glucose oxidation and protects the heart from ischemic injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute pharmacological inhibition of cardiac malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) protects the heart from ischemic damage by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation and stimulating glucose oxidation. However, it is unknown whether chronic inhibition of MCD results in altered cardiac function, energy metabo...

  17. POSTNATAL METHYL MERCURY EXPOSURE: EFFECTS ON ONTOGENY OF RENAL AND HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE RESPONSES TO TROPHIC STIMULI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of postnatal methylmercury exposure on the ongoteny of kidney and liver responsiveness to trophic stimuli were examined. Increased ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was used as an index of tissue stimulation. In the rat, kidney ODC responsiveness to growth hormon...

  18. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme...) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations...

  19. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme...) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations...

  20. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.115...

  1. COMPARISON OF ENHANCEMENT OF GGTASE-POSITIVE FOCI AND INDUCTION OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE IN RAT LIVER BY BARBITURATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by barbiturates and the ability of barbiturates to enhance neoplastic progression of chemically initiated cancer was examined in rat liver. All seven barbiturates induced ODC with barbital (7.7 fold increase) and phenobarbital (5.7 f...

  2. Elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase activities in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Eilert, U; De Luca, V; Constabel, F; Kurz, W G

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of one cell line (No. 615) of Catharanthus roseus c.v. Little Delicata with an elicitor preparation of autoclaved and homogenized Pythium aphanidermatum culture resulted in rapid accumulation of indole alkaloids. Alkaloid formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase. The induction of these two enzyme activities occurred when cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium or treatment with fungal elicitors. Treatment of this cell line with translational or transcriptional inhibitors prevented the Pythium-induced increases of enzyme activity as well as alkaloid accumulation. When cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium the induction of strictosidine synthase activity preceded that of tryptophan decarboxylase by many hours even when cells were also treated with Pythium elicitor. Results suggested that tryptophan decarboxylase induction proceeds only when endogenous tryptamine levels were decreased by two-third. The internal cellular level of tryptamine, therefore, could regulate expression of tryptophan decarboxylase, whereas induction of strictosidine synthase or of another enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway could control channeling of tryptamine into alkaloids. The results demonstrate that fungal elicitors can be used to facilitate studies of the factors which regulate expression of indole alkaloid pathway enzymes and their ultimate pathway products. PMID:3579315

  3. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT): an alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in pig conceptuses and uteri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine, a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines, is critical for implantation and development of the conceptus. We first reported that the arginine decarboxylase (ADC)/agmatinase(AGMAT) pathway as an alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in the ovine conceptuses...

  4. [Simultaneous demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase and synaptophysin in paraffin sections of rat cerebellum].

    PubMed

    Korzhevskiy, D E; Gilerovich, Ye G; Kirik, O V; Alekseyeva, O S; Grigoriyev, I P

    2015-01-01

    The article presents highly reproducible and inexpensive protocol for simultaneous demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), the key enzyme of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and synaptophysin (SYP), a marker protein of synaptic vesicles using confocal laser microscopy. In the cerebellar cortex, GAD labels Purkinje cells and pinceaux in their basal parts and is unevenly distributed in the neuropil of molecular and granular layers. SYP clearly marks the contours of large dendrites of Purkinje cells in molecular layer, while in the granular layers it labels parts of cerebellar glomeruli--the terminals of the mossy fibers. GAD-immunopositive structures (GABA-ergic axons of stellate cells--Golgi cells) are often located at periphery of the glomeruli. In the peripheral zone of the glomeruli, colocalization of GAD- and SYP-immunopositive structures was observed, suggesting the presence of GABA-ergic synapses in this zone. PMID:25958733

  5. Structural Determinants for Inhibitory Ligands of Orotidine-5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures. PMID:20452222

  6. pH-induced structural changes regulate histidine decarboxylase activity in Lactobacillus 30a.

    PubMed

    Schelp, E; Worley, S; Monzingo, A F; Ernst, S; Robertus, J D

    2001-03-01

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Lactobacillus 30a produces histamine that is essential to counter waste acids, and to optimize cell growth. The HDC trimer is active at low pH and inactive at neutral to alkaline pH. We have solved the X-ray structure of HDC at pH 8 and revealed the novel mechanism of pH regulation. At high pH helix B is unwound, destroying the substrate binding pocket. At acid pH the helix is stabilized, partly through protonation of Asp198 and Asp53 on either side of the molecular interface, acting as a proton trap. In contrast to hemoglobin regulation, pH has a large effect on the tertiary structure of HDC monomers and relatively little or no effect on quaternary structure. PMID:11243783

  7. Immunotherapy-responsive limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Markakis, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, Harry; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Akrivou, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Katsiva, Vassiliki; Lyrakos, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2014-08-15

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been recently identified as a target of humoral autoimmunity in a small subgroup of patients with non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (NPLE). We present a patient with NPLE and positive anti-GAD antibodies who showed significant improvement after long-term immunotherapy. A 48-year old female was admitted with a two-year history of anterograde amnesia and seizures. Brain MRI revealed bilateral lesions of medial temporal lobes. Screening for anti-neuronal antibodies showed high anti-GAD titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with strong evidence of intrathecal production. The patient received treatment with prednisolone and long-term plasma exchange. During a 12-month follow-up, she exhibited complete seizure remission and an improvement in memory and visuo-spatial skills. Anti-GAD antibodies may serve as a useful marker to identify a subset of NPLE patients that respond to immunoregulatory treatment. PMID:24950904

  8. Pristane-induced effects on cytochrome P-4501A, ornithine decarboxylase and putrescine in rats.

    PubMed

    Harper, C M; Soni, M G; Mehendale, H M; Cuchens, M A

    1995-08-16

    The effects of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) on cytochrome P-4501A (cP4501A) activity in microsomes, as well as on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and concomitant putrescine levels were examined in Copenhagen rats. In general, pristane treatment led to increased cP4501A levels when compared to basal levels, while co-treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and pristane elicited augmented cP4501A responses when compared to responses induced by 3-MC alone. Increases in both ODC activity and putrescine levels were also observed in pristane treated rats. Collectively, these results indicate that pristane influences cP4501A activity and elicits promoter-like responses as reflected in elevated ODC activity and increased amount of putrescine. PMID:7656217

  9. Stereospecificity of sodium borohydride reduction of tyrosine decarboxylase from Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Vederas, J C; Reingold, I D; Sellers, H W

    1979-06-25

    Sodium boro[3H]hydride reduction of tyrosine decarboxylase from Streptococcus faecalis followed by complete hydrolysis of the enzyme produces epsilon-[3H]pyridoxyllysine. Degradation of this material to [4'-3H]pyridoxamine and stereochemical analysis with apoaspartate aminotransferase shows that the re side at C-4' of the cofactor is exposed to solvent at pH 5.5 and 7.0. After binding of L-tyrosine at pH 5.5 or tyramine at pH 7.0 to the holoenzyme, sodium boro[3H]hydride reduction proceeds from the si face at C-4' of the substrate . cofactor complex. This indicates one of two conformational changes occurs upon binding of substrate; either rotation about the C-4 to C-4' bond in the cofactor or rotation about the axis through the C-5 and C-5' bond. PMID:36380

  10. Some Aspects of Yeast Anaerobic Metabolism Examined by the Inhibition of Pyruvate Decarboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Earl V.

    1998-10-01

    Incubation of yeast cells with various sugars in aqueous alkaline phosphate solutions under anaerobic conditions results in the accumulation of pyruvate in the cell medium after short periods of up to 15 minutes. This accumulation of pyruvate as the end product of glycolysis results from the inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase under the conditions. This pyruvate production can be readily measured in the cell-free medium by a spectrophotometric assay using lactic dehydrogenase and NADH. The production of pyruvate can be directly related to the ability of the yeast cells to metabolize particular carbon sources provided. Comparison of pyruvate production by yeast from a variety of common sugars, for example, provides students with a means to assess what sugars are readily utilized by this organism. An additional advantage for student laboratory studies is the availability of Sacchromyces cerevisiae at minimal cost as dry granules which are easily weighed and quickly activated.

  11. Relationship between RNA polymerase I activity and ornithine decarboxylase in rat liver tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Urata, M; Suzuki, N; Hosoya, T

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between RNA polymerase I and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), three lines of experiments were performed, with the following results. The glucocorticoid-induced increase of RNA polymerase I in rat liver nuclei was not abolished by administration of inhibitors of ODC synthesis and activity, namely 1,3-diaminopropane and 2-difluoromethylornithine respectively. Anti-ODC antibody did not cross-react with RNA polymerase I solubilized from rat liver nucleoli, indicating the absence of a common protein sequence in these enzymes. The ODC preparation which was treated with transglutaminase in the presence of putrescine could not stimulate the activity of RNA polymerase I in nuclei of liver and prostate. All these results suggest that the increases in ODC protein or activity are not a prerequisite to the increase in RNA polymerase I after hormonal or physiological stimuli, but rather that the increases in both enzymes are separate responses to the primary stimuli. PMID:2882747

  12. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase, a key enzyme in proteoglycan synthesis: cloning, characterization, and localization.

    PubMed

    Moriarity, John L; Hurt, K Joseph; Resnick, Adam C; Storm, Phillip B; Laroy, Wouter; Schnaar, Ronald L; Snyder, Solomon H

    2002-05-10

    UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UGD) catalyzes the formation of UDP-xylose from UDP-glucuronate. UDP-xylose is then used to initiate glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis on the core protein of proteoglycans. In a yeast two-hybrid screen with the protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B), we detected interactions with a novel sequence, which we cloned and expressed. The expressed protein displayed UGD activity but did not display the activities of homologous nucleotide sugar epimerases or dehydratases. We did not detect phosphorylation of UGD by Akt nor did we detect any influence of Akt on UGD activity. Effects of UGD on Akt kinase activity were also absent. Northern blot and Western blot analyses revealed the presence of UGD in multiple tissues and brain regions. Subcellular studies and histochemistry localized UGD protein to the perinuclear Golgi where xylosylation of proteoglycan core proteins is known to occur. PMID:11877387

  13. Syndromic intellectual disability: a new phenotype caused by an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase gene (DDC) variant.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Claudio; Wischmeijer, Anita; Pippucci, Tommaso; Fusco, Carlo; Diquigiovanni, Chiara; Nukas, Margit; Sauk, Martin; Kurg, Ants; Rivieri, Francesca; Blau, Nenad; Hoffmann, Georg F; Chaubey, Alka; Schwartz, Charles E; Romeo, Giovanni; Bonora, Elena; Garavelli, Livia; Seri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The causative variant in a consanguineous family in which the three patients (two siblings and a cousin) presented with intellectual disability, Marfanoid habitus, craniofacial dysmorphisms, chronic diarrhea and progressive kyphoscoliosis, has been identified through whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. WES study identified a homozygous DDC variant in the patients, c.1123C>T, resulting in p.Arg375Cys missense substitution. Mutations in DDC cause a recessive metabolic disorder (aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, AADC, deficiency, OMIM #608643) characterized by hypotonia, oculogyric crises, excessive sweating, temperature instability, dystonia, severe neurologic dysfunction in infancy, and specific abnormalities of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In our family, analysis of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in patient's CSF shows a pattern compatible with AADC deficiency, although the clinical signs are different from the classic form. Our work expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with DDC variants, which therefore can cause an additional novel syndrome without typical movement abnormalities. PMID:25597765

  14. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  15. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes Tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Lissandra Castellan; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M.; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H.; Hughes, Zo A.; Krystal, John H.; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm HDC deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify histamine-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  16. Targeting ornithine decarboxylase in Myc-induced lymphomagenesis prevents tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jonas A; Keller, Ulrich B; Baudino, Troy A; Yang, Chunying; Norton, Sara; Old, Jennifer A; Nilsson, Lisa M; Neale, Geoffrey; Kramer, Debora L; Porter, Carl W; Cleveland, John L

    2005-05-01

    Checkpoints that control Myc-mediated proliferation and apoptosis are bypassed during tumorigenesis. Genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes are overexpressed in B cells from E mu-Myc transgenic mice. Here, we report that disabling one of these Myc targets, Ornithine decarboxylase (Odc), abolishes Myc-induced suppression of the Cdk inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), thereby impairing Myc's proliferative, but not apoptotic, response. Moreover, lymphoma development was markedly delayed in E mu-Myc;Odc(+/-) transgenic mice and in E mu-Myc mice treated with the Odc inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Strikingly, tumors ultimately arising in E mu-Myc;Odc(+/-) transgenics lacked deletions of Arf, suggesting that targeting Odc forces other routes of transformation. Therefore, Odc is a critical Myc transcription target that regulates checkpoints that guard against tumorigenesis and is an effective target for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:15894264

  17. The ornithine decarboxylase gene is a transcriptional target of c-Myc.

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Fernandez, C; Packham, G; Cleveland, J L

    1993-01-01

    Constitutive c-myc expression suppresses cell cycle arrest, promotes entry into S phase, and results in the growth factor-independent expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17). The ODC gene contains a conserved repeat of the Myc binding site, CACGTG, in intron 1. In this report, we demonstrate that c-Myc is a potent transactivator of ODC promoter-reporter gene constructs in fibroblasts that requires the CACGTG repeat. These sites conferred Myc responsiveness on heterologous promoter constructs, suggesting that ODC is regulated by Myc at the level of transcription initiation. Analysis of deletion and point mutants of c-myc revealed that domains required for transactivation of the ODC promoter did not include the leucine zipper of the Myc protein. This suggests that Myc may interact with transcription factors other than Max to transactivate the ODC gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8356088

  18. Suppression of ornithine decarboxylase promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yo-Hsian; Lin, Kuan-Lian; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chen, Yuhsin; Sie, Min-Hua; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2015-07-22

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis. Suppression of ODC by its irreversible inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), or by RNA interference through siRNA, enhanced osteogenic gene expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and accelerated matrix mineralization of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Besides, adipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation was attenuated, indicating that the enhanced osteogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of adipogenesis when ODC was suppressed. A decrease in the intracellular polyamine content of hBMSCs during osteogenic induction was observed, suggesting that the level of endogenous polyamines is regulated during differentiation of hBMSCs. This study elucidates the role of polyamine metabolism in the lineage commitment of stem cells and provides a potential new indication for DFMO as bone-stimulating drug. PMID:26140984

  19. Discovery and characterization of gut microbiota decarboxylases that can produce the neurotransmitter tryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brianna B.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Cimermancic, Peter; Donia, Mohamed S.; Zimmermann, Michael; Taketani, Mao; Ishihara, Atsushi; Kashyap, Purna C.; Fraser, James S.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Several recent studies describe the influence of the gut microbiota on host brain and behavior. However, the mechanisms responsible for microbiota-nervous system interactions are unknown. Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry, and crystallography, we identify and characterize two phylogenetically distinct enzymes found in the human microbiome that decarboxylate tryptophan to form the β-arylamine neurotransmitter tryptamine. Although this enzymatic activity is exceedingly rare among bacteria more broadly, analysis of the Human Microbiome Project data demonstrates that at least 10% of the human population harbors at least one bacterium encoding a tryptophan decarboxylase in their gut community. Our results uncover a previously unrecognized enzymatic activity that can give rise to host-modulatory compounds and suggests a potential direct mechanism by which gut microbiota can influence host physiology, including behavior. PMID:25263219

  20. Maternal immune activation alters glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in the brains of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Sarah N; Hemmerle, Ann M; Lundgren, Kerstin H; Kyser, Tara L; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Bronson, Stefanie L; Richtand, Neil M; Seroogy, Kim B

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the maternal innate immune system, termed "maternal immune activation" (MIA), represents a common environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. Whereas evidence suggests dysregulation of GABA systems may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a role for MIA in alteration of GABAergic systems is less clear. Here, pregnant rats received either the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid or vehicle injection on gestational day 14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) mRNA expression was examined in male offspring at postnatal day (P)14, P30 and P60. At P60, GAD67 mRNA was elevated in hippocampus and thalamus and decreased in prefrontal cortex of MIA offspring. MIA-induced alterations in GAD expression could contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:26830319

  1. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the inducible lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alexopoulos, E.; Kanjee, U.; Snider, J.; Houry, W.A.; Pai, E.F.

    2010-02-11

    The decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI) from Escherichia coli has been crystallized in space groups C2 and C222{sub 1}; the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+} cluster was used to derivatize the C2 crystals. The method of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) as implemented in SHELXD was used to solve the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-derivatized structure to 5 {angstrom} resolution. Many of the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-binding sites had twofold and fivefold noncrystallographic symmetry. Taking advantage of this feature, phase modification was performed in DM. The electron-density map of LdcI displays many features in agreement with the low-resolution negative-stain electron-density map [Snider et al. (2006), J. Biol. Chem. 281, 1532-1546].

  3. Amphetamine and vigabatrin down regulate aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Buckland, P R; Spurlock, G; McGuffin, P

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) has previously been shown to be up-regulated at the level of its protein activity and its mRNA abundance by antipsychotic drugs. Its activity has also been shown to be down-regulated by dopamine agonists including amphetamine. In this study we have injected rats for up to 32 days with amphetamine and the anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin, both of which can cause psychosis with similarities to schizophrenia. We have shown that AADC mRNA levels are reduced in most brain regions by both drugs. Cocaine and other non-psychotogenic anti-epileptic drugs had no effect in this paradigm. Two products of this enzyme are implicated in psychotogenesis. PMID:8717341

  4. Investigation of two variants in the DOPA decarboxylase gene in patients with autism

    PubMed Central

    Lauritsen, Marlene; Børglum, Anders; Betancur, Catalina; Philippe, Anne; Kruse, Torben; Leboyer, Marion; Ewald, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Though genetic risk factors are important for the development of autism, no specific risk alleles have yet been identified. DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is involved in both the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways and may be considered a functional candidate gene for autism. The present study is the first to test if two new variants of possible functional significance in the DDC gene increase the susceptibility to autism. A total of 90 parent-offspring trios recruited in Denmark and France were investigated using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). We found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between autism and either of the two polymorphisms. Nor did we find linkage disequilibrium between autism and haplotypes of the two variants using a multiallelic TDT. These findings suggest that the DDC gene is unlikely to play a major role in the development of autism in our data set. PMID:11992572

  5. Epidermal growth factor stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Moriarity, D M; DiSorbo, D M; Litwack, G; Savage, C R

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) bound specifically to the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5. Treatment of these cells with nanomolar concentrations of EGF for 4-6 hr resulted in a 2- to 6-fold increase in ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) activity. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate also produced an increase in enzyme activity in these cells and exhibited an additive effect with EGF. It did not inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled EGF to these cells. The stimulation of enzyme activity by EGF was not inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, although these agents did cause a significant decrease in enzyme levels when added without EGF. Also, colchicine, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and methylamine, compounds that inhibit EGF degradation in various cells types, did not interfere with the ability of EGF to elevate enzyme levels in the human hepatoma cells. PMID:6265908

  6. Structure and Mechanism of Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Lee, Soon Goo

    2015-01-01

    The nonoxidative decarboxylation of aromatic acids occurs in a range of microbes and is of interest for bioprocessing and metabolic engineering. Although phenolic acid decarboxylases provide useful tools for bioindustrial applications, the molecular bases for how these enzymes function are only beginning to be examined. Here we present the 2.35-Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC1; UbiD) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FDC1 shares structural similarity with the UbiD family of enzymes that are involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The position of 4-vinylphenol, the product of p-coumaric acid decarboxylation, in the structure identifies a large hydrophobic cavity as the active site. Differences in the β2e-α5 loop of chains in the crystal structure suggest that the conformational flexibility of this loop allows access to the active site. The structure also implicates Glu285 as the general base in the nonoxidative decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by FDC1. Biochemical analysis showed a loss of enzymatic activity in the E285A mutant. Modeling of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-decaprenylbenzoate, a partial structure of the physiological UbiD substrate, in the binding site suggests that an ∼30-Å-long pocket adjacent to the catalytic site may accommodate the isoprenoid tail of the substrate needed for ubiquinone biosynthesis in yeast. The three-dimensional structure of yeast FDC1 provides a template for guiding protein engineering studies aimed at optimizing the efficiency of aromatic acid decarboxylation reactions in bioindustrial applications. PMID:25862228

  7. TROPHIC CONTROL OF THE ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE/POLYAMINE SYSTEM IN NEONATAL RAT CEREBELLUM: REGIONALLY-SELECTIVE EFFECTS OF NEONATAL LESIONS CAUSED BY 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norepinephrine has been hypothesized as a trophic factor influencing postnatal development of the cerebellum. n the current study, neonatal rats were given 6-hydroxydopanine (6-OHDA) to destroy noradrenergic projections and the effects on the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyami...

  8. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, phenobarbital and iron on hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Implications for the pathogenesis of porphyria.

    PubMed Central

    De Verneuil, H; Sassa, S; Kappas, A

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of cultured chick embryo hepatocytes with phenobarbital, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin resulted in increased delta-aminolaevulinate synthase and decreased uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activities and porphyrin accumulation; uroporphyrin and heptacarboxyporphyrin predominated. Iron had no effect on these changes. Simultaneous treatment of cultures with dioxin and phenobarbital produced a synergistic response in delta-aminolaevulinate synthase induction, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase inhibition and porphyrin accumulation. These data suggest that an inhibitor of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase may be generated in the liver from polychlorinated biphenyl compounds or dioxin by metabolic activation. Additionally these findings bear on the postulated role of these and related chemicals in determining the low levels of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity in porphyria cutanea tarda patients. PMID:6412692

  9. 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE (MPTP)-INDUCED ASTROGLIOSIS DOES NOT REQUIRE ACTIVATION OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanical injury to the brain results in enhanced immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that is markedly inhibited by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. n the current study, systemic exposure of mice to the d...

  10. The distribution of glutamate decarboxylase and aspartate transaminase in subcellular fractions of rat and guinea-pig brain

    PubMed Central

    Fonnum, F.

    1968-01-01

    1. The subcellular distributions of glutamate decarboxylase and aspartate transaminase were studied in rat and guinea-pig brain. 2. Glutamate decarboxylase is localized in the synaptosome fraction. The mean density of the particles containing the enzyme is slightly greater than those derived from cholinergic neurones, though overlap is substantial. 3. The enzyme is readily released from synaptosomes by hypo-osmotic treatment, but in the presence of Ca2+, Na+ and K+ it sediments with particulate material. 4. The release and binding of the enzyme to membrane fractions by Ca2+ were investigated. 5. Aspartate transaminase is present in brain as two isoenzymes with different kinetic properties. One isoenzyme is associated with the cytoplasm and the other with mitochondria. ImagesFig. 2. PMID:5688926

  11. Correlation between Ornithine Decarboxylase and Putrescine in Tomato Plants Infected by Citrus Exocortis Viroid or Treated with Ethephon.

    PubMed Central

    Belles, J. M.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.; Conejero, V.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17) activities and the levels of conjugated polyamines to explain the decrease of free putrescine level caused by citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and ethephon treatment in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) plants (J.M. Belles, J. Carbonell, V. Conejero [1991] Plant Physiol 96: 1053-1059). This decrease correlates with a decrease in ODC activity in CEVd-infected or ethephon-treated plants; ADC activity was not altered. CEVd infection had no effect on polyamine conjugates, and ethephon produced a decrease in putrescine conjugates. Interference with ethylene action by silver ions prevented the decrease in ODC activity and in free and conjugated putrescine. It is suggested that changes in putrescine level after CEVd infection and ethephon treatment are regulated via ODC activity and that conjugation is not involved. PMID:12231879

  12. Cloning and expression of an alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene from Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Goelling, D; Stahl, U

    1988-01-01

    The Streptococcus lactis gene coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (ADC) was cloned in Escherichia coli. Subsequent subcloning in E. coli showed that the ADC gene was located within a 1.3-kilobase DNA fragment. The ADC gene was controlled by its own promoter. Gas chromatography showed that S. lactis and the transformed E. coli strains produced the two optical isomers of acetoin in different ratios. Images PMID:3137872

  13. Role of calcium in the modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Hammond, James M.

    1981-01-01

    We examined the role of Ca2+ in the control of basal and hormone-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells maintained under chemically defined conditions in vitro. Omission of Ca2+ from the incubation medium (measured Ca2+ concentration 5μm) decreased basal enzymic activity, and significantly (P<0.01) impaired the response to maximally stimulating doses of either lutropin or follitropin. No significant alteration occurred in the concentration of either gonadotropin required to elicit half-maximal effects. The addition of EGTA (1.27–2.0mm) to chelate residual extracellular Ca2+ further decreased hormone-induced rises in ornithine decarboxylase activity. Despite the presence of 1.27mm concentrations of extracellular Ca2+, the administration of presumptive Ca2+ antagonists, believed to impair trans-membrane Ca2+ influx [verapamil (10–100μm), nifedipine (1–100μm) or CoCl2 (1mm)] suppressed hormone-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase activity. The inhibitory effects of verapamil or of Ca2+ omission from the medium were not overcome by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.25mm), or by cholera toxin, or by an exogenously supplied cyclic AMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic AMP. Conversely, micromolar concentrations of a putative bivalent-cation ionophore, A23187, increased significantly the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity by saturating concentrations of lutropin or 8-bromo cyclic AMP. Thus the present observations implicate Ca2+ ions in the modulation of hormone action and cellular function in normal ovarian cells. PMID:6172119

  14. Increased Putrescine Biosynthesis through Transfer of Mouse Ornithine Decarboxylase cDNA in Carrot Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bastola, D. R.; Minocha, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing 3[prime]-truncated mouse ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) cDNA under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. A neomycin phosphotransferase gene linked with a nopaline synthase promoter was used to select transformed cell lines on kanamycin. Although the nontransformed cells contained no ODC, high amounts of mouse-specific ODC activity were observed in the transformed cells. Transgenic cells showed a significant increase in the cellular content of putrescine compared to control cells. Spermidine, however, remained unaffected. Not only did the transformed cells exhibit improved somatic embryogenesis in the auxin-free medium, they also regenerated some embryos in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. These cells acquired tolerance to [alpha]-difluoromethylarginine (a potent inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase) at concentrations that inhibit growth as well as embryogenesis in nontransformed carrot cells, showing that the mouse ODC can replace the carrot arginine decarboxylase for putrescine biosynthesis in the transgenic cells. PMID:12228581

  15. Investigation of a substrate-specifying residue within Papaver somniferum and Catharanthus roseus aromatic amino acid decarboxylases.

    PubMed

    Torrens-Spence, Michael P; Lazear, Michael; von Guggenberg, Renee; Ding, Haizhen; Li, Jianyong

    2014-10-01

    Plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylases (AAADs) catalyze the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids with either benzene or indole rings. Because the substrate selectivity of AAADs is intimately related to their physiological functions, primary sequence data and their differentiation could provide significant physiological insights. However, due to general high sequence identity, plant AAAD substrate specificities have been difficult to identify through primary sequence comparison. In this study, bioinformatic approaches were utilized to identify several active site residues within plant AAAD enzymes that may impact substrate specificity. Next a Papaver somniferum tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) was selected as a model to verify our putative substrate-dictating residues through mutation. Results indicated that mutagenesis of serine 372 to glycine enables the P. somniferum TyDC to use 5-hydroxytryptophan as a substrate, and reduces the enzyme activity toward 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa). Additionally, the reverse mutation in a Catharanthus roseus tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) enables the mutant enzyme to utilize tyrosine and dopa as substrates with a reduced affinity toward tryptophan. Molecular modeling and molecular docking of the P. somniferum TyDC and the C. roseus TDC enzymes provided a structural basis to explain alterations in substrate specificity. Identification of an active site residue that impacts substrate selectivity produces a primary sequence identifier that may help differentiate the indolic and phenolic substrate specificities of individual plant AAADs. PMID:25107664

  16. Lysine decarboxylase catalyzes the first step of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis and coevolved with alkaloid production in leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Katayama, Kae; Ikeura, Emi; Oikawa, Akira; Toyooka, Kiminori; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2012-03-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the first-step in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which form a distinct, large family of plant alkaloids. A cDNA of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC) was isolated by differential transcript screening in QA-producing and nonproducing cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius. We also obtained L/ODC cDNAs from four other QA-producing plants, Sophora flavescens, Echinosophora koreensis, Thermopsis chinensis, and Baptisia australis. These L/ODCs form a phylogenetically distinct subclade in the family of plant ornithine decarboxylases. Recombinant L/ODCs from QA-producing plants preferentially or equally catalyzed the decarboxylation of L-lysine and L-ornithine. L. angustifolius L/ODC (La-L/ODC) was found to be localized in chloroplasts, as suggested by the transient expression of a fusion protein of La-L/ODC fused to the N terminus of green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells and hairy roots produced enhanced levels of cadaverine-derived alkaloids, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing (La-L/ODC) produced enhanced levels of cadaverine, indicating the involvement of this enzyme in lysine decarboxylation to form cadaverine. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein modeling studies revealed a structural basis for preferential LDC activity, suggesting an evolutionary implication of L/ODC in the QA-producing plants. PMID:22415272

  17. Immunocytochemical localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in astrocytes in the cerebellum and hippocampus: a quantitative double immunofluorescence study with glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 protein.

    PubMed

    Reymond, I; Almarghini, K; Tappaz, M

    1996-11-01

    Immunocytochemistry of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase was performed with a new rabbit antiserum that we have recently produced and characterized using as antigen an 11,000-fold purified fraction isolated from rat liver. This antiserum precipitated cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase enzymatic activity, labeled one band (mol. wt 51,000) on immunoblots of crude tissue extracts and did not stain any cells in peripheral tissues devoid of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase. According to these criteria, this antiserum appeared to be specific for cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase. Numerous cells were immunolabeled in the cerebellum and the hippocampus. Most notable was the labeling of the small cells surrounding the Purkinje cells and sending radial fibers up to the pial surface of the cerebellar cortex or the staining of small star-shaped cells with thin immunolabeled processes abutting on blood vessels. Identified nerve cells such as the Purkinje cells and granule cells in the cerebellum or the pyramidal and granule cells in the hippocampus were devoid of any immunoreactivity. simultaneous double immunofluorescence was carried out using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein or anti-S-100 monoclonal antibodies. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein- or S-100-immunopositive cells were plotted independently for the same section. Quantitative analysis of the maps indicated that the overwhelming majority of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase-immunolabeled cells were positive for the established astrocytes markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein or S-100. Between 82 and 98% of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase-immunolabeled cells were also glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive, depending upon the layer. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase immunostaining was localized within the cytoplasm, while that of glial fibrillary acidic protein was linked to the cytoskeleton. Since both labels could not be fully superposed, some double immunolabeled cells may have escaped our analysis. More than 94% up to 99% of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase-immunolabeled cells were simultaneously S-100-immunopositive. Our quantitative data establish that cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase is strictly localized in astrocytes in the cerebellum and in the hippocampus. This finding suggests that taurine is synthesized by astrocytes in the brain and accordingly may play a role in relation to glial function, possibly within the framework of glial-neuronal interactions. PMID:8931024

  18. Studies on the coordinate activity and lability of orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase in human erythrocytes, and the effects of allopurinol administration

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Richard M.; Wood, Margaret H.; O'Sullivan, William J.

    1971-01-01

    A coordinate relationship between the activities of two sequential enzymes in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway has been demonstrated in human red cells. The two enzymes, orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase are responsible for the conversion of orotic acid to uridine-5′-monophosphate. Fractionation of red cells, on the basis of increase of specific gravity with cell age, has revealed that these two enzymes have a marked but equal degree of lability in the ageing red cell. It is postulated that orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase form an enzyme-enzyme complex, and that the sequential deficiency of these two enzymes in hereditary orotic aciduria may reflect a structural abnormality in this complex. In patients receiving allopurinol, the activities of both enzymes are coordinately increased, and this increase appears to be due, at least in part, to stabilization of both orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase in the ageing red cell. Allopurinol ribonucleotide is an in vitro inhibitor of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase and requires the enzyme hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase for its synthesis. However, the administration of allopurinol to patients lacking this enzyme results in orotidinuria and these patients have elevated orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase activities in their erythrocytes. Evidence is presented that the chief metabolite of allopurinol, oxipurinol, with a 2,4-diketo pyrimidine ring is capable of acting as an analogue of orotic acid. It is postulated that the in vivo formation of oxipurinol ribonucleotide, catalyzed by orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase, after allopurinol administration, leads to inhibition of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase. This inhibition results in the urinary excretion of excessive amounts of orotidine and orotic acid, and “pseudo-substrate” stabilization of orotidylate phosphoribosyltransferase and decarboxylase. PMID:5552406

  19. Expression of an aromatic-dependent decarboxylase which provides growth-essential CO2 equivalents for the acetogenic (Wood) pathway of Clostridium thermoaceticum.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, T D; Lux, M F; Drake, H L

    1990-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium thermoaceticum generates growth-essential CO2 equivalents from carboxylated aromatic compounds (e.g., 4-hydroxybenzoate), and these CO2 equivalents are likely integrated into the acetogenic pathway (T. Hsu, S. L. Daniel, M. F. Lux, and H. L. Drake, J. Bacteriol. 172:212-217, 1990). By using 4-hydroxybenzoate as a model substrate, an assay was developed to study the expression and activity of the decarboxylase involved in the activation of aromatic carboxyl groups. The aromatic-dependent decarboxylase was induced by carboxylated aromatic compounds in the early stages of growth and was not repressed by glucose or other acetogenic substrates; nonutilizable carboxylated aromatic compounds did not induce the decarboxylase. The decarboxylase activity displayed saturation kinetics at both whole-cell and cell extract levels, was sensitive to oxidation, and was not affected by exogenous energy sources. However, at the whole-cell level, metabolic inhibitors decreased the decarboxylase activity. Supplemental biotin or avidin did not significantly affect decarboxylation. The aromatic-dependent decarboxylase was specific for benzoates with a hydroxyl group in the para position of the aromatic ring; the meta position could be occupied by various substituent groups (-H, -OH, -OCH3, -Cl, or -F). The carboxyl carbon from [carboxyl-14C] vanillate went primarily to 14CO2 in short-term decarboxylase assays. During growth, the aromatic carboxyl group went primarily to CO2 under CO2-enriched conditions. However, under CO2-limited conditions, the aromatic carboxyl carbon went nearly totally to acetate, with equal distribution between the carboxyl and methyl carbons, thus demonstrating that acetate could be totally synthesized from aromatic carboxyl groups. In contrast, when cocultivated (i.e., supplemented) with CO under CO2-limited conditions, the aromatic carboxyl group went primarily to the methyl carbon of acetate. PMID:2120194

  20. A highly sensitive high-throughput luminescence assay for malonyl-CoA decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chu; Wang, Minghan; Kim, Ki Won; Busby, James; Yamane, Harvey; Zondlo, James; Yuan, Chester; Young, Stephen W; Xiao, Shou-Hua

    2008-05-01

    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and thereby regulates malonyl-CoA levels in cells. Malonyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme involved in the mitochondrial uptake of fatty acids for oxidation. Abnormally high rates of fatty acid oxidation contribute to ischemic damage. Inhibition of MCD leads to increased malonyl-CoA and therefore decreases fatty acid oxidation, representing a novel approach for the treatment of ischemic heart injury. The commonly used MCD assay monitors the production of NADH fluorometrically, which is not ideal for library screening due to potential fluorescent interference by certain compounds. Here we report a luminescence assay for MCD activity. This assay is less susceptible to fluorescent interference by compounds. Furthermore, it is 150-fold more sensitive, with a detection limit of 20 nM acetyl-CoA, compared to 3 muM in the fluorescence assay. This assay is also amenable to automation for high-throughput screening and yields excellent assay statistics (Z' > 0.8). In addition, it can be applied to the screening for inhibitors of any other enzymes that generate acetyl-CoA. PMID:18294446

  1. Tryptamine-induced resistance in tryptophan decarboxylase transgenic poplar and tobacco plants against their specific herbivores.

    PubMed

    Gill, Rishi I S; Ellis, Brian E; Isman, Murray B

    2003-04-01

    The presence of amines and their derivatives in plant tissues is known to influence insect feeding and reproduction. The enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of tryptophan to tryptamine, which is both a bioactive amine and a precursor of other indole derivatives. Transgenic poplar and tobacco plants ectopically expressing TDC1 accumulated elevated levels of tryptamine without affecting plant growth and development. This accumulation was consistently associated with adverse effects on feeding behavior and physiology of Malacosoma disstria Hub. (forest tent caterpillar, FTC) and Manduca sexta L. (tobacco hornworm, THW). Behavior studies with FTC and THW larvae showed that acceptability of the leaf tissue to larvae was inversely related to foliar tryptamine levels. Physiological studies with FTC and THW larvae showed that consumption of leaf tissue from the transgenic lines is deleterious to larvae growth, apparently due to a postingestive mechanism. Thus, ectopic expression of TDC1 can allow sufficient tryptamine to accumulate in poplar and tobacco leaf tissue to suppress significantly the growth of insect pests that normally feed on these plants. PMID:12775143

  2. Novel interactions of fluorinated nucleotide derivatives targeting orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa; Avina, Maria Elena Meza; Wei, Lianhu; Crandall, Ian E.; Bello, Angelica Mara; Poduch, Ewa; Liu, Yan; Paige, Christopher J.; Kain, Kevin C.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorinated nucleosides and nucleotides are of considerable interest to medicinal chemists due to their antiviral, anticancer, and other biological activities. However, their direct interactions at target binding sites are not well understood. A new class of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-C6-substituted uridine and UMP derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase). These compounds were synthesized from the key intermediate, fully-protected 2′-deoxy-2′-fluorouridine. Among the synthesized compounds, 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-6-iodo-UMP covalently inhibited human ODCase with a second-order rate constant of 0.62 ± 0.02 M−1sec−1. Interestingly, the 6-cyano-2′-fluoro derivative covalently interacted with ODCase defying the conventional thinking, where its ribosyl derivative undergoes transformation into BMP by ODCase. This confirms that the 2′-fluoro moiety influences the chemistry at the C6 position of the nucleotides, thus interactions in the active site of ODCase. Molecular interactions of the 2′-fluorinated nucleotides are compared to those with the 3′-fluorinated nucleotides bound to the corresponding target enzyme, and the carbohydrate moieties were shown to bind in different conformations. PMID:21417464

  3. Cloning and Characterization of the Zymobacter palmae Pyruvate Decarboxylase Gene (pdc) and Comparison to Bacterial Homologues†

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Krishnan Chandra; Talarico, Lee A.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the key enzyme in all homo-ethanol fermentations. Although widely distributed among plants, yeasts, and fungi, PDC is absent in animals and rare in bacteria (established for only three organisms). Genes encoding the three known bacterial pdc genes have been previously described and expressed as active recombinant proteins. The pdc gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been used to engineer ethanol-producing biocatalysts for use in industry. In this paper, we describe a new bacterial pdc gene from Zymobacter palmae. The pattern of codon usage for this gene appears quite similar to that for Escherichia coli genes. In E. coli recombinants, the Z. palmae PDC represented approximately 1/3 of the soluble protein. Biochemical and kinetic properties of the Z. palmae enzyme were compared to purified PDCs from three other bacteria. Of the four bacterial PDCs, the Z. palmae enzyme exhibited the highest specific activity (130 U mg of protein−1) and the lowest Km for pyruvate (0.24 mM). Differences in biochemical properties, thermal stability, and codon usage may offer unique advantages for the development of new biocatalysts for fuel ethanol production. PMID:12039744

  4. Partial purification and characterization of arginine decarboxylase from avocado fruit, a thermostable enzyme.

    PubMed

    Winer, L; Vinkler, C; Apelbaum, A

    1984-09-01

    A partially purified preparation of arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism in plants, was isolated from avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Fuerte) fruit. The preparation obtained from the crude extract after ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and heat treatment, had maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.0 at 60 degrees C, in the presence of 1.2 millimolar MnCl(2), 2 millimolar dithiothreitol, and 0.06 millimolar pyridoxal phosphate. The K(m), of arginine for the decarboxylation reaction was determined for enzymes prepared from the seed coat of both 4-week-old avocado fruitlet and fully developed fruit, and was found to have a value of 1.85 and 2.84 millimolar, respectively. The value of V(app) (max) of these enzymes was 1613 and 68 nanomoles of CO(2) produced per milligram of protein per hour for the fruitlet and the fully developed fruit, respectively. Spermine, an end product of polyamine metabolism, caused less than 5% inhibition of the enzyme from fully developed fruit and 65% inhibition of the enzyme from the seed coat of 4-week-old fruitlets at 1 millimolar under similar conditions. The effect of different inhibitors on the enzyme and the change in the nature of the enzyme during fruit development are discussed. PMID:16663805

  5. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  6. Altered taste function in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Uno; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2004-02-19

    The 65-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) is considered to play an important role for GABA synthesis in the central nervous system. Using mice with targeted ablation of the GAD65 gene (GAD65(-/-) mice) we investigated a possible involvement of GABAergic neurotransmission in several taste functions. Preference/aversion responses to four basic tastes were not different between GAD65(-/-) and wild-type mice during a 48-h two-bottle choice test. GAD65(-/-) mice consumed less sucrose-quinine mixtures than did wild-type mice. The injection of midazolam (5 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine agonist, significantly increased the consumption of 100 mM sucrose in the wild-type mice. The same injection, however, failed to increase intake of the 100 mM sucrose in GAD65(-/-) mice. These results suggest that GAD65-generated GABA is not implicated in basic taste functions such as simple detection and discrimination. Rather, more complex processing of taste information including taste mixtures and palatability may be finely tuned by GAD65-mediated GABA synthesis. PMID:15036622

  7. Detection of glutamic acid decarboxylase-activated T cells with I-Ag7 tetramers.

    PubMed

    Liu, C P; Jiang, K; Wu, C H; Lee, W H; Lin, W J

    2000-12-19

    CD4(+) T cells selected by the type 1 diabetes associated class II MHC I-A(g7) molecules play a critical role in the disease process. Multivalent MHC/peptide tetramers have been used to directly detect antigen-specific T cells. Detection of autoantigen-activated CD4(+) T cells with tetramers should be very helpful in the study of the roles of these cells in diabetes. We report here the generation of tetramers of I-A(g7) covalently linked to two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) peptides and the detection of GAD peptide-activated T cells from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The I-A(g7) heterodimers can form stable complexes with a covalently bound GAD peptide and can stimulate antigen specific T cells. Furthermore, I-A(g7)/GAD peptide tetramer can detect most if not all of the antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells from immunized NOD mice. Antigen-specific T cells detected by the tetramers can up-regulate their CD4 expression on the cell surface after being restimulated with the GAD peptides in vitro. In contrast, the tetramers can detect a percentage of T cells in lymph nodes and spleens and T cells infiltrating islets from nonimmunized mice that is not significantly above the background. Therefore, T cells specific for the GAD peptides are present in NOD mice at a frequency too low to be detected, but immunization of NOD mice can facilitate their detection by tetramers. PMID:11106373

  8. Structure and cooperativity of a T-state mutant of histidine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus 30a.

    PubMed

    Worley, Scott; Schelp, Elisabeth; Monzingo, Arthur F; Ernst, Stephen; Robertus, Jon D

    2002-02-15

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Lactobacillus 30a converts histidine to histamine, a process that enables the bacteria to maintain the optimum pH range for cell growth. HDC is regulated by pH; it is active at low pH and inactive at neutral to alkaline pH. The X-ray structure of HDC at pH 8 revealed that a helix was disordered, resulting in the disruption of the substrate-binding site. The HDC trimer has also been shown to exhibit cooperative kinetics at neutral pH, that is, histidine can trigger a T-state to R-state transition. The D53,54N mutant of HDC has an elevated Km, even at low pH, indicating that the enzyme assumes the low activity T-state. We have solved the structures of the D53,54N mutant at low pH, with and without the substrate analog histidine methyl ester (HME) bound. Structural analysis shows that the apo-D53,54N mutant is in the inactive or T-state and that binding of the substrate analog induces the enzyme to adopt the active or R-state. A mechanism for the cooperative transition is proposed. PMID:11835507

  9. Biochemical and Genetic Characterization of the Enterococcus faecalis Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase Complex

    PubMed Central

    Repizo, Guillermo D.; Blancato, Víctor S.; Mortera, Pablo; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis encodes a biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD), which is constituted by four subunits: E. faecalis carboxyltransferase subunit OadA (termed Ef-A), membrane pump Ef-B, biotin acceptor protein Ef-D, and the novel subunit Ef-H. Our results show that in E. faecalis, subunits Ef-A, Ef-D, and Ef-H form a cytoplasmic soluble complex (termed Ef-AHD) which is also associated with the membrane. In order to characterize the role of the novel Ef-H subunit, coexpression of oad genes was performed in Escherichia coli, showing that this subunit is vital for Ef-A and Ef-D interaction. Diminished growth of the oadA and oadD single deletion mutants in citrate-supplemented medium indicated that the activity of the complex is essential for citrate utilization. Remarkably, the oadB-deficient strain was still capable of growing to wild-type levels but with a delay during the citrate-consuming phase, suggesting that the soluble Ef-AHD complex is functional in E. faecalis. These results suggest that the Ef-AHD complex is active in its soluble form, and that it is capable of interacting in a dynamic way with the membrane-bound Ef-B subunit to achieve its maximal alkalinization capacity during citrate fermentation. PMID:23435880

  10. Detection of mutations in the glycine decarboxylase gene in patients with nonketotic hyperglycinaemia.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Loryn; Edkins, Edward; Greed, Lawrence; Lewis, Barry

    2005-02-01

    Nonketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial glycine cleavage enzyme. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the P-protein, one of the four components of the glycine cleavage enzyme, also known as glycine decarboxylase (GLDC). Previous studies searching for causative mutations in NKH patients have only looked for a limited number of specific mutations or only screened part of the gene, and in many cases either no mutation or only one mutation was found, which is of limited use for prenatal diagnosis. In this study, we describe the screening of the entire GLDC gene in 3 NKH families by D-HPLC analysis of all 25 exons, identifying two point mutations and two large deletions (exon 8 and exons 2-15) using a combination of D-HPLC analysis, long range PCR, Southern blot and sequencing. For complete prenatal testing both mutations need to be identified, and we suggest that screening of the entire gene as well as deletional analysis should be considered in those subjects where only one mutation has been identified. PMID:15670722

  11. Structural basis of Ornithine Decarboxylase inactivation and accelerated degradation by polyamine sensor Antizyme1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Donghui; Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Tang, Xuhua; He, Yang; Vanessa Tan, Qianmin; Zhang, Neng; Song, Haiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis in humans. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of polyamines has a cytotoxic effect on cells and elevated level of ODC activity is associated with cancer development. To maintain normal cellular proliferation, regulation of polyamine synthesis is imposed by Antizyme1 (AZ1). The expression of AZ1 is induced by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism in response to increased intracellular polyamines. AZ1 regulates polyamine homeostasis by inactivating ODC activity and enhancing its degradation. Here, we report the structure of human ODC in complex with N-terminally truncated AZ1 (cAZ1). The structure shows cAZ1 binding to ODC, which occludes the binding of a second molecule of ODC to form the active homodimer. Consequently, the substrate binding site is disrupted and ODC is inactivated. Structural comparison shows that the binding of cAZ1 to ODC causes a global conformational change of ODC and renders its C-terminal region flexible, therefore exposing this region for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Our structure provides the molecular basis for the inactivation of ODC by AZ1 and sheds light on how AZ1 promotes its degradation. PMID:26443277

  12. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) as a prognostic factor in operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Love, Richard R; Astrow, Stephanie H; Cheeks, Alan M; Havighurst, Thomas C

    2003-06-01

    Increased ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, measured biochemically in breast cancers, has been associated with increased risk for recurrence of disease and death. Recently an immunohistochemical (IHC) method for ODC determinations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues has been developed. We used this IHC ODC assay to evaluate primary breast cancers from 433 Vietnamese premenopausal women participating in a clinical trial of adjuvant combined hormonal therapy. Using an H SCORE system (intensity of staining 0-3 x percentage of all cells; possible range 0-300), 52% of tumors had an ODC score of < or = 35; 12% had a score of > or = 100. No statistically significant correlations of ODC H SCORES and usual prognostic factors were found; a negative weak correlation with weight was demonstrated (Spearman -0.12; p = 0.01). Using two cutoff scores, high and low ODC groups were similar in prognostic factors, except for high histologic grade which was more common with higher ODC H SCORES. Univariate, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox analyses showed no evidence of relationships of ODC by H SCORE to disease-free or overall survival. PMID:12846417

  13. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K.

    2012-04-30

    The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

  14. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity, polyamines, and compensatory renal hypertrophy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.H.; Etheredge, S.B.; Lin, Shanyan; Ribstein, J.; Marton, L.J. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1988-08-01

    The authors determined the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in compensatory renal hypertrophy (CRH) by relating renal ODC activity and polyamine content to kidney size, expressed as a percent of body weight, 1 wk after unilateral nephrectomy (UN). In normal rats, renal ODC activity increased after UN; 1 wk later the remaining kidney weight had increased. Renal concentration of putrescine, the product of ODC's decarboxylation of ornithine, was increased 3, 8, and 48 h after UN, but concentrations of polyamines synthesized later in the pathway, spermidine and spermine, were not appreciably affected. Pretreatment with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC inhibited both base-line renal ODC activity and putrescine concentration as well as increases stimulated by UN, although concentrations of spermidine and spermine were not decreased. In hypophysectomized rats, both increased renal ODC activity and CRH occurred as well, indicating that these two consequences of UN do not require intact pituitary function. Thus stimulation of renal ODC activity and putrescine content do not appear critical to the process of CRH after UN.

  15. Ornithine decarboxylase and extracellular polyamines regulate microvascular sprouting and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Welch, Johanna E.; Svensson, Katrin J.; Belting, Mattias

    2010-10-01

    The polyamines are essential for cancer cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Targeted inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), i.e. a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, by {alpha}-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has shown anti-neoplastic activity in various experimental models. This activity has mainly been attributed to the anti-proliferative effect of DFMO in cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that unperturbed ODC activity is a requirement for proper microvessel sprouting ex vivo as well as the migration of primary human endothelial cells. DFMO-mediated ODC inhibition was reversed by extracellular polyamine supplementation, showing that anti-angiogenic effects of DFMO were specifically related to polyamine levels. ODC inhibition was associated with an abnormal morphology of the actin cytoskeleton during cell spreading and migration. Moreover, our data suggest that de-regulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics in DFMO treated endothelial cells may be related to constitutive activation of the small GTPase CDC42, i.e. a well-known regulator of cell motility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. These insights into the potential role of polyamines in angiogenesis should stimulate further studies testing the combined anti-tumor effect of polyamine inhibition and established anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo.

  16. Functional and conformational transitions of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Shakeel; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir; Bhosale, Siddharth; Gaikwad, Sushama

    2016-02-01

    Functional and conformational transitions of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), a key enzyme of mevalonate pathway in isoprenoid biosynthesis, from Bacopa monniera (BmMDD), cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli were studied under thermal, chemical and pH-mediated denaturation conditions using fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectroscopy. Native BmMDD is a helix dominant structure with 45% helix and 11% sheets and possesses seven tryptophan residues with two residues exposed on surface, three residues partially exposed and two situated in the interior of the protein. Thermal denaturation of BmMDD causes rapid structural transitions at and above 40°C and transient exposure of hydrophobic residues at 50°C, leading to aggregation of the protein. An acid induced molten globule like structure was observed at pH 4, exhibiting altered but compact secondary structure, distorted tertiary structure and exposed hydrophobic residues. The molten globule displayed different response at higher temperature and similar response to chemical denaturation as compared to the native protein. The surface tryptophans have predominantly positively charged amino acids around them, as indicated by higher KSV for KI as compared to that for CsCl. The native enzyme displayed two different lifetimes, τ1 (1.203±0.036ns) and τ2 (3.473±0.12ns) indicating two populations of tryptophan. PMID:26657583

  17. Characterization of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus sakei A156 Isolated from Jeot-gal.

    PubMed

    Sa, Hyun Deok; Park, Ji Yeong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Lee, Kang Wook; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-05-01

    A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing microorganism was isolated from jeot-gal (anchovy), a Korean fermented seafood. The isolate, A156, produced GABA profusely when incubated in MRS broth with monosodium glutamate (3% (w/v)) at 37°C for 48 h. A156 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The GABA conversion yield was 86% as determined by GABase enzyme assay. The gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was cloned by PCR. gadC encoding a glutamate/GABA antiporter was located immediately upstream of gadB. The operon structure of gadCB was confirmed by RT-PCR. gadB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and recombinant GAD was purified. The purified GAD was 54.4 kDa in size by SDS-PAGE. Maximum GAD activity was observed at pH 5.0 and 55°C and the activity was dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The Km and Vmax of GAD were 0.045 mM and 0.011 mM/min, respectively, when glutamate was used as the substrate. PMID:25791853

  18. Simultaneous Silencing of Two Arginine Decarboxylase Genes Alters Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Chávez-Martínez, Ana I; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A; Maruri-López, Israel; Urano, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2) catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA biological functions, mutants in PA biosynthesis have been generated; however, the double adc1/adc2 mutant is not viable in A. thaliana. In this study, we generated non-lethal A. thaliana lines through an artificial microRNA that simultaneously silenced the two ADC genes (amiR:ADC). The generated transgenic lines (amiR:ADC-L1 and -L2) showed reduced AtADC1 and AtADC2 transcript levels. For further analyses the amiR:ADC-L2 line was selected. We found that the amiR:ADC-L2 line showed a significant decrease of their PA levels. The co-silencing revealed a stunted growth in A. thaliana seedlings, plantlets and delay in its flowering rate; these phenotypes were reverted with PA treatment. In addition, amiR:ADC-L2 plants displayed two seed phenotypes, such as yellow and brownish seeds. The yellow mutant seeds were smaller than adc1, adc2 mutants and wild type seeds; however, the brownish were the smallest seeds with arrested embryos at the torpedo stage. These data reinforce the importance of PA homeostasis in the plant development processes. PMID:27014322

  19. Cloning and characterization of two pyruvate decarboxylase genes from Pichia stipitis CBS 6054.

    PubMed

    Lu, P; Davis, B P; Jeffries, T W

    1998-01-01

    In Pichia stipitis, fermentative and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activities increase with diminished oxygen rather than in response to fermentable sugars. To better characterize PDC expression and regulation, two genes for PDC (PsPDC1 and PsPDC2) were cloned and sequenced from P. stipitis CBS 6054. Aside from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from which three PDC genes have been characterized, P. stipitis is the only organism from which multiple genes for PDC have been identified and characterized. PsPDC1 and PsPDC2 have diverged almost as far from one another as they have from the next most closely related known yeast gene. PsPDC1 contains an open reading frame of 1,791 nucleotides encoding 597 amino acids. PsPDC2 contains a reading frame of 1,710 nucleotides encoding 570 amino acids. An 81-nucleotide segment in the middle of the beta domain of PsPDC1 codes for a unique segment of 27 amino acids, which may play a role in allosteric regulation. The 5' regions of both P. stipitis genes include two putative TATA elements that make them similar to the PDC genes from S. cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora uvarum. PMID:9435065

  20. Glycine decarboxylase deficiency causes neural tube defects and features of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Jin; Leung, Kit-Yi; Savery, Dawn; Hutchin, Tim; Prunty, Helen; Heales, Simon; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Brosnan, John T.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) acts in the glycine cleavage system to decarboxylate glycine and transfer a one-carbon unit into folate one-carbon metabolism. GLDC mutations cause a rare recessive disease non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Mutations have also been identified in patients with neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the relationship between NKH and NTDs is unclear. We show that reduced expression of Gldc in mice suppresses glycine cleavage system activity and causes two distinct disease phenotypes. Mutant embryos develop partially penetrant NTDs while surviving mice exhibit post-natal features of NKH including glycine accumulation, early lethality and hydrocephalus. In addition to elevated glycine, Gldc disruption also results in abnormal tissue folate profiles, with depletion of one-carbon-carrying folates, as well as growth retardation and reduced cellular proliferation. Formate treatment normalizes the folate profile, restores embryonic growth and prevents NTDs, suggesting that Gldc deficiency causes NTDs through limiting supply of one-carbon units from mitochondrial folate metabolism. PMID:25736695

  1. Simultaneous Silencing of Two Arginine Decarboxylase Genes Alters Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Chávez-Martínez, Ana I.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Maruri-López, Israel; Urano, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2) catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA biological functions, mutants in PA biosynthesis have been generated; however, the double adc1/adc2 mutant is not viable in A. thaliana. In this study, we generated non-lethal A. thaliana lines through an artificial microRNA that simultaneously silenced the two ADC genes (amiR:ADC). The generated transgenic lines (amiR:ADC-L1 and -L2) showed reduced AtADC1 and AtADC2 transcript levels. For further analyses the amiR:ADC-L2 line was selected. We found that the amiR:ADC-L2 line showed a significant decrease of their PA levels. The co-silencing revealed a stunted growth in A. thaliana seedlings, plantlets and delay in its flowering rate; these phenotypes were reverted with PA treatment. In addition, amiR:ADC-L2 plants displayed two seed phenotypes, such as yellow and brownish seeds. The yellow mutant seeds were smaller than adc1, adc2 mutants and wild type seeds; however, the brownish were the smallest seeds with arrested embryos at the torpedo stage. These data reinforce the importance of PA homeostasis in the plant development processes. PMID:27014322

  2. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.

  3. Highly active and stable oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na⁺ pump complex for structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Michio; Li, Xiaodan

    2015-11-01

    The oxaloacetate decarboxylase primary Na(+) pump (Oad) produces energy for the surviving of some pathogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Oad composes of three subunits: Oad-α, a biotinylated soluble subunit and catalyzes the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate; Oad-β, a transmembrane subunit and functions as a Na(+) pump; and Oad-γ, a single transmembrane α-helical anchor subunit and assembles Oad-α/β/γ complex. The molecular mechanism of Oad complex coupling the exothermic decarboxylation to generate the Na(+) electrochemical gradient remains unsolved. Our biophysical and biochemical studies suggested that the stoichiometry of Oad complex from Vibrio cholerae composed of α, β, γ in 4:2:2 stoichiometry not that of 4:4:4. The high-resolution structure determination of the Oad complex would reveal the energetic transformation mechanism from the catalytical soluble α subunit to membrane β subunit. Sufficient amount stable, conformational homogenous and active Oad complex with the right stoichiometry is the prerequisite for structural analysis. Here we report an easy and reproducible protocol to obtain high quantity and quality Oad complex protein for structural analysis. PMID:25986323

  4. Induction of histidine decarboxylase in macrophages inhibited by the novel NF-{kappa}B inhibitor (-)-DHMEQ

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Eriko Ninomiya, Yoko; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2009-02-06

    Histamine often causes inflammation, and this amine is produced by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). We found that (-)-DHMEQ, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced histamine production and HDC induction in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. However, as there is no {kappa}B site in the HDC promoter, we studied the mechanism of inhibition. Knockdown of the transcription factor C/EBP{beta} reduced the HDC expression in LPS-treated cells. (-)-DHMEQ inhibited the C/EBP{beta} transcriptional activity in a reporter assay and in an electrophoresis mobility shift assay. But it did not inhibit the in vitro binding of C/EBP{beta} to DNA. It also did not lower the nuclear amount of C/EBP{beta}. On the other hand, the addition of recombinant p65, a component of NF-{kappa}B, enhanced the activity of C/EBP{beta} acting as a cofactor in vitro. Then, we found that (-)-DHMEQ lowered the nuclear amount of p65. Thus, inhibition of the C/EBP{beta} activity by (-)-DHMEQ would be due to a reduction in the amount of nuclear p65, which has a co-activator activity for C/EBP{beta} that is essential for the HDC induction. (-)-DHMEQ may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent by lowering the histamine production in the body.

  5. Gastric protection by meciadanol. A new synthetic flavonoid inhibiting histidine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Konturek, S J; Kitler, M E; Brzozowski, T; Radecki, T

    1986-08-01

    Flavonoids reportedly inhibit histidine decarboxylase and reduce gastric mucosal histamine content. We studied the effects of acute and chronic intragastric administration to rats of meciadanol, a new synthetic flavonoid (Zyma S.A., Nyon, Switzerland). The action of meciadanol was compared to that of 16,16-dimethyl PGE2. Meciadanol did not affect acid or pepsin output at any dose used. High doses of 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 reduced both acid and pepsin output. Meciadanol partially prevented aspirin-induced lesions but the prevention required chronic administration of meciadanol. In contrast, a single dose of meciadanol completely prevented ethanol-induced lesions. Chronic administration of meciadanol also completely prevented ethanol-induced lesions. 16,16-Dimethyl PGE2 prevented both aspirin-induced and ethanol-induced lesions in doses that did not affect acid or pepsin output. Meciadanol did not influence the effect that either aspirin or ethanol had on endogenous mucosal PGI2. Thus, the dose range of meciadanol that protected against ulcerogens did not affect either gastric acid secretion or pepsin output. Therefore, we conclude that meciadanol's action represents true cytoprotection, which was previously attributed only to prostaglandins. PMID:3525045

  6. Transcriptional regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the male mouse amygdala by dietary phyto-oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, K V; Yanagawa, Y; Stork, O

    2015-04-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are biologically active components of many human and laboratory animal diets. In the present study, we investigated, in adult male mice with C57BL/6 genetic background, the effects of a reduced phyto-oestrogens intake on anxiety-related behaviour and associated gene expression in the amygdala. After 6 weeks on a low-phyto-oestrogen diet (< 20 μg/g cumulative phyto-oestrogen content), animals showed reduced centre exploration in an open-field task compared to their littermates on a soybean-based standard diet (300 μg/g). Freezing behaviour in an auditory fear memory task, in contrast, was not affected. We hypothesised that this mildly increased anxiety may involve changes in the function of GABAergic local circuit neurones in the amygdala. Using GAD67(+/GFP) mice, we could demonstrate reduced transcription of the GAD67 gene in the lateral and basolateral amygdala under the low-phyto-oestrogen diet. Analysis of mRNA levels in microdissected samples confirmed this regulation and demonstrated concomitant changes in expression of the second glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoform, GAD65, as well as the anxiolytic neuropeptide Y. These molecular and behavioural alterations occurred without apparent changes in circulating oestrogens or testosterone levels. Our data suggest that expression regulation of interneurone-specific gene products in the amygdala may provide a mechanism for the control of anxiety-related behaviour through dietary phyto-oestrogens. PMID:25650988

  7. New insights into structure-function relationships of oxalyl CoA decarboxylase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Werther, Tobias; Zimmer, Agnes; Wille, Georg; Golbik, Ralph; Weiss, Manfred S; König, Stephan

    2010-06-01

    The gene yfdU from Escherichia coli encodes a putative oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase, a thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme that is potentially involved in the degradation of oxalate. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity. The kinetic constants for conversion of the substrate oxalyl coenzyme A by the enzyme in the absence and presence of the inhibitor coenzyme A, as well as in the absence and presence of the activator adenosine 5'-diphosphate, were determined using a novel continuous optical assay. The effects of these ligands on the solution and crystal structure of the enzyme were studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystal diffraction. Analyses of the obtained crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with the cofactor thiamine diphosphate, the activator adenosine 5'-diphosphate and the inhibitor acetyl coenzyme A, as well as the corresponding solution scattering patterns, allow comparison of the oligomer structures of the enzyme complexes under various experimental conditions, and provide insights into the architecture of substrate and effector binding sites. PMID:20553497

  8. Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria Caused by a Novel Homoallelic Mutation in Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase Gene in Egyptian Patients.

    PubMed

    Farrag, M S; Mikula, I; Richard, E; Saudek, V; De Verneuil, H; Martásek, P

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are metabolic disorders resulting from mutations in haem biosynthetic pathway genes. Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP) is a rare type of porphyria caused by the deficiency of the fifth enzyme (uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, UROD) in this pathway. The defect in the enzymatic activity is due to biallelic mutations in the UROD gene. Currently, 109 UROD mutations are known. The human disease has an early onset, manifesting in infancy or early childhood with red urine, skin photosensitivity in sun-exposed areas, and hypertrichosis. Similar defects and links to photosensitivity and hepatopathy exist in several animal models, including zebrafish and mice. In the present study, we report a new mutation in the UROD gene in Egyptian patients with HEP. We show that the homozygous c.T163A missense mutation leads to a substitution of a conserved phenylalanine (amino acid 55) for isoleucine in the enzyme active site, causing a dramatic decrease in the enzyme activity (19 % of activity of wild-type enzyme). Inspection of the UROD crystal structure shows that Phe-55 contacts the substrate and is located in the loop that connects helices 2 and 3. Phe-55 is strictly conserved in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic UROD. The F55I substitution likely interferes with the enzyme-substrate interaction. PMID:26789143

  9. Change in the protein level of mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase in tissues of mouse by pravastatin.

    PubMed

    Michihara, Akihiro; Akasaki, Kenji; Yamori, Yukio; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2003-08-01

    We previously reported that treatment of rats with a diet containing 0.1% pravastatin and 5% cholestyramine markedly increased mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase (MPD) activity in liver crude extracts compared with nontreated rats. In this study, we examined the change in the protein level of MPD in the tissues of mice administered pravastatin. When MPD content in the tissues of nontreated mice was analyzed by quantitative immunoblotting, a single protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 46 kDa was detected in all tissues and the specific protein content of MPD in liver and kidney was markedly higher than that in other tissues. When MPD content in the tissues of pravastatin-treated mice was analyzed by immunoblotting, MPD was markedly increased (9-fold) only in the liver compared with nontreated mice. Next, when MPD activity was measured in the liver between nontreated and pravastatin-treated mice, MPD activity as well as protein levels were markedly increased (11-fold) in the liver of pravastatin-treated mice compared with nontreated mice. These data suggest that a marked induction of MPD in the liver by pravastatin is responsible for the tissue-specific effect of pravastatin. PMID:12913254

  10. Characterization of an avian histidine decarboxylase and localization of histaminergic neurons in the chicken brain.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Yuki; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Maejima, Sho; Taniuchi, Shusuke; Masuda, Keiko; Shikano, Kenshiro; Kondo, Kunihiro; Furumitsu, Megumi; Ukena, Kazuyoshi

    2014-08-22

    In mammals, it is established that histamine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. It is produced by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. However, HDC as well as histaminergic neurons have not yet been characterized in the avian brain. We have cloned the cDNA for HDC from the chicken hypothalamus and demonstrated that the chicken HDC sequence is highly homologous to the mammalian counterpart, and that the expressed protein shows high enzymatic activity. The expression of HDC mRNA at various sites in the brain was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HDC mRNA was highly expressed in the hypothalamic infundibulum. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that the cells containing HDC mRNA were localized in the medial mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamic infundibulum. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in chicks resulted in inhibition of feeding behavior. This is the first report of the characterization of histaminergic neurons in the avian brain, and our findings indicate that neuronal histamine exerts anorexigenic effects in chicks. PMID:24993302

  11. Rapid glutamic acid decarboxylase test for identification of Bacteroides and Clostridium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Jilly, B J; Schreckenberger, P C; LeBeau, L J

    1984-01-01

    A rapid 4-h test for glutamic acid decarboxylase is described for the identification of certain anaerobic bacteria. The test substrate consisted of 1.0 g of L-glutamic acid, 0.3 ml of Triton X-155, and 0.05 g of bromcresol green sodium salt in 1 liter of water. The substrate was dispensed in 0.5-ml amounts into test tubes, and a turbid suspension was made with the test organism. The test was then incubated aerobically at 35 degrees C for 4 h. The development of a blue color was considered positive. A total of 345 strains of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria were tested. All isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis. Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium sordellii gave a positive reaction. Some isolates of Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteroides vulgatus were also positive. The use of this rapid test in conjunction with other rapid methods, such as the spot indol test, will enable laboratory workers to report these pathogens on the same day on which an inoculum of pure culture growth on agar is available. PMID:6376535

  12. Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase gene expression by the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Moshier, J A; Skunca, M; Wu, W; Boppana, S M; Rauscher, F J; Dosescu, J

    1996-01-01

    The importance of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to cell proliferation is underscored by the complex array of cell-specific mechanisms invoked to regulate its synthesis and activity. Misregulation of ODC has severe negative consequences on normal cell function, including the acquisition of tumorigenic growth properties by cells overexpressing ODC. We hypothesize that ODC gene expression is a candidate target for the anti-proliferative function of certain tumor suppressors. Here we show that the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 binds to multiple sites within the human ODC promoter, as determined by DNase I protection and methylation interference assays. The expression of WT1 in transfected HCT 116, NIH/3T3 and HepG2 cells represses activity of the ODC promoter controlling expression of a luciferase reporter gene. In contrast WT1 expression enhances ODC promoter activity in SV40-transfected HepG2 cells. Both the extent of modulation of ODC gene expression and the mediating WT1 binding elements are cell specific. Constructs expressing WT1 deletion mutants implicate two regions required for repressor function, as well as an intrinsic activation domain. Understanding the regulation of ODC gene expression by WT1 may provide valuable insights into the roles of both WT1 and ODC in development and tumorigenesis. PMID:8604351

  13. Phosphatidylethanolamine from phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 is essential for autophagy under cadmium stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kannan; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potent toxic element used in several industries and in the process contaminates air, soil, and water. Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cd increases the major phospholipids, and profound increase was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In yeast, there are four different pathways contributing to the biosynthesis of PE, and contribution to PE pool through phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 (psd2) is not significant in normal conditions. Upon Cd exposure, psd2Δ strain showed a significant decrease in major phospholipids including PE. When exposed to Cd, wild-type (WT) cells depicted an increase in ER stress and autophagy, whereas in psd2, ER stress was noted but autophagy process was impaired. The supplementation of ethanolamine did not overcome the Cd stress and also the autophagy process, whereas overexpression of PSD2 in psd2Δ increased the cellular tolerance, PE levels, and the autophagy process against Cd stress. From our studies, we can suggest that PSD2 of S. cerevisiae has an important role in PE synthesis and in autophagy process under Cd stress. PMID:23743710

  14. The Bifunctional Pyruvate Decarboxylase/Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase from Thermococcus guaymasensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus guaymasensis produces ethanol as a metabolic end product, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol has been purified and characterized. However, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of acetaldehyde has not been identified. In this study an enzyme catalyzing the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate was purified and characterized from T. guaymasensis under strictly anaerobic conditions. The enzyme had both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activities. It was oxygen sensitive, and the optimal temperatures were 85°C and >95°C for the PDC and POR activities, respectively. The purified enzyme had activities of 3.8 ± 0.22 U mg−1 and 20.2 ± 1.8 U mg−1, with optimal pH-values of 9.5 and 8.4 for each activity, respectively. Coenzyme A was essential for both activities, although it did not serve as a substrate for the former. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined separately for each activity. The purified enzyme was a heterotetramer. The sequences of the genes encoding the subunits of the bifunctional PDC/POR were determined. It is predicted that all hyperthermophilic β-keto acids ferredoxin oxidoreductases are bifunctional, catalyzing the activities of nonoxidative and oxidative decarboxylation of the corresponding β-keto acids. PMID:24982594

  15. Structural constraints on protein self-processing in l-aspartate-α-decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Schmitzberger, Florian; Kilkenny, Mairi L.; Lobley, Carina M.C.; Webb, Michael E.; Vinkovic, Mladen; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Witty, Michael; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Smith, Alison G.; Abell, Chris; Blundell, Tom L.

    2003-01-01

    Aspartate decarboxylase, which is translated as a pro-protein, undergoes intramolecular self-cleavage at Gly24–Ser25. We have determined the crystal structures of an unprocessed native precursor, in addition to Ala24 insertion, Ala26 insertion and Gly24→Ser, His11→Ala, Ser25→Ala, Ser25→Cys and Ser25→Thr mutants. Comparative analyses of the cleavage site reveal specific conformational constraints that govern self-processing and demonstrate that considerable rearrangement must occur. We suggest that Thr57 Oγ and a water molecule form an ‘oxyanion hole’ that likely stabilizes the proposed oxyoxazolidine intermediate. Thr57 and this water molecule are probable catalytic residues able to support acid–base catalysis. The conformational freedom in the loop preceding the cleavage site appears to play a determining role in the reaction. The molecular mechanism of self-processing, presented here, emphasizes the importance of stabilization of the oxyoxazolidine intermediate. Comparison of the structural features shows significant similarity to those in other self-processing systems, and suggests that models of the cleavage site of such enzymes based on Ser→Ala or Ser→Thr mutants alone may lead to erroneous interpretations of the mechanism. PMID:14633979

  16. Aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis: carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect and deuterium exchange experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-03-26

    The authors have measured the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect at pH 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 6.5 and in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 and the rate of D-H exchange of the alpha and beta protons of aspartic acid in D/sub 2/O at pH 5.0 for the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme aspartate beta-decarboxylase from Alcaligenes faecalis. The /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect, with a value of 1.0099 +/- 0.0002 at pH 5.0, is less than the intrinsic isotope effect for the decarboxylation step, indicating that the decarboxylation step is not entirely rate limiting. The authors have been able to estimate probable values of the relative free energies of the transition states of the enzymatic reaction up to and including the decarboxylation step from the /sup 13/C kinetic isotope effect and the rate of D-H exchange of alpha-H. The pH dependence of the kinetic isotope effect reflects the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen of the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not that of the imine nitrogen. A mechanism is proposed for the exchange of aspartate beta-H that is consistent with the stereochemistry suggested earlier.

  17. Identification and characterization of barley mutants lacking glycine decarboxylase and carboxyl esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lewis, K.; Lea, P. )

    1990-05-01

    A barley mutant has been isolated, from a selection of fifty air-sensitive seed-lines, using a standard gel stain technique which lacks carboxyl esterase activity, but has normal levels of carbonic anhydrase. In addition, two barley mutants lacking the ability to convert glycine to serine in the mitochondria, have been characterized. Both plants accumulate glycine in air and are unable to metabolize ({sup 14}C)glycine in the short-term. When ({sup 14}C)glycine was supplied over 2h LaPr 85/55 metabolized 90%, whereas the second mutant (LaPr 87/30) metabolized 10%. Results indicate that the mutation in LaPr 85/55 is almost certainly in the glycine transporter into the mitochondrion. The mutation in LaPr 87/30 has been shown, using western blotting, to be in both the P and H proteins, two of four proteins which comprise glycine decarboxylase (P, H, T and L).

  18. [Spectroscopic study of the structure and intramolecular mobility of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase].

    PubMed

    Maskevich, S A; Maskevich, A A; Kivach, L N; Chernikevich, I P; Zabrodskaia, S V; Oparin, D A

    1993-12-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorimetry were used to study the properties of holo- and apopyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1, PDC) from Brewer's yeast after interaction with substrate (pyruvate), cofactor (thiamine diphosphate, ThDP) and Mg2+ ions. The analysis of the enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence as well as of its complex with the probe 2-(p-toluidinylnaphthalene)-6-sulphonate (TNS) revealed that ThDP was found at the polar region of the PDC active sites, inducing a decrease in the mobility of the protein's nearest surroundings. The fluorescent probe had three different sites of binding to the protein apoform, two of which being located at the catalytic site and having different rotation freedom. The study of the PDC complex with thiochrome pyrophosphate, a ThDP structural analogue, pointed to the occurrence of a non-polar region of the enzyme active site for pyruvate absorption besides the polar region. The binding of pyruvate to the protein does not depend upon the cofactor's binding. On the basis of the fluorescent studies a model of the ThDP and pyruvate arrangement at the PDC active site is suggested. PMID:8117333

  19. Distinct promoters direct neuronal and nonneuronal expression of rat aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, V R; Lee, M R; Bolden, A H; Wurzburger, R J; Aguanno, A

    1992-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, EC 4.1.1.28) catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-dopa to dopamine in catecholamine cells and 5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin in serotonin-producing neurons. This enzyme is also expressed in relatively large quantities in nonneuronal tissues such as liver and kidney, where its function is unknown. Neuronal and nonneuronal tissues express AADC mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions. To understand how this is accomplished at the genomic level, we have isolated rat genomic DNA encoding AADC. The organization of the AADC gene suggests that there are two separate promoters specific for the transcription of neuronal and nonneuronal forms of the AADC message. A small exon containing 68 bases of the neuronal-specific 5' end is located approximately 9.5 kilobases upstream of the translation start site, which is contained in the third exon. Approximately 7 kilobases upstream from the neuron-specific promoter is another small exon containing 71 bases of the 5' end of the nonneuronal AADC message. These data suggest that transcription initiating at distinct promoters, followed by alternative splicing, is responsible for the expression of the neuronal and nonneuronal forms of the AADC message. Images PMID:1465439

  20. Herbacetin Is a Novel Allosteric Inhibitor of Ornithine Decarboxylase with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Joon; Roh, Eunmiri; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Oi, Naomi; Lim, Do Young; Kim, Myoung Ok; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Pugliese, Angelo; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chen, Hanyong; Cho, Eun Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kang, Sun Chul; Paul, Souren; Kang, Hee Eun; Jung, Ji Won; Lee, Sung-Young; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Reddy, Kanamata; Yeom, Young Il; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2016-03-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the first step of polyamine biosynthesis that is associated with cell growth and tumor formation. Existing catalytic inhibitors of ODC have lacked efficacy in clinical testing or displayed unacceptable toxicity. In this study, we report the identification of an effective and nontoxic allosteric inhibitor of ODC. Using computer docking simulation and an in vitro ODC enzyme assay, we identified herbacetin, a natural compound found in flax and other plants, as a novel ODC inhibitor. Mechanistic investigations defined aspartate 44 in ODC as critical for binding. Herbacetin exhibited potent anticancer activity in colon cancer cell lines expressing high levels of ODC. Intraperitoneal or oral administration of herbacetin effectively suppressed HCT116 xenograft tumor growth and also reduced the number and size of polyps in a mouse model of APC-driven colon cancer (ApcMin/+). Unlike the well-established ODC inhibitor DFMO, herbacetin treatment was not associated with hearing loss. Taken together, our findings defined the natural product herbacetin as an allosteric inhibitor of ODC with chemopreventive and antitumor activity in preclinical models of colon cancer, prompting its further investigation in clinical trials. Cancer Res; 76(5); 1146-57. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26676750

  1. Overexpression of Tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa decarboxylase associated with pupal melanization in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has been found in a wide range of species, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely elusive. In this study, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the pupal melanism in Spodoptera exigua. The full length cDNA sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC), two key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of melanin, were cloned, and their temporal expression patterns in the integument were compared during the larval-pupal metamorphosis process of the S. exigua wild type (SEW) and melanic mutant (SEM) strains. No amino acid change in the protein sequence of TH and DDC was found between the two strains. Both DDC and TH were significantly over-expressed in the integument of the SEM strain at late-prepupa and 0 h pupa, respectively, compared with those of the SEW strain. Feeding 5th instar larvae of SEM with diets incorporated with 1 mg/g of the DDC inhibitor L-α-Methyl-DOPA and 0.75 mg/g of the TH inhibitor 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) resulted in 20% pupae with partially-rescued phenotype and 68.2% of pupae with partially- or fully-rescued phenotype, respectively. These results indicate that overexpressions of TH and DDC are involved in the pupal melanization of S. exigua. PMID:26084938

  2. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders. PMID:25841792

  3. The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dopa Decarboxylase Gene Cluster of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stathakis, D. G.; Pentz, E. S.; Freeman, M. E.; Kullman, J.; Hankins, G. R.; Pearlson, N. J.; Wright, TRF.

    1995-01-01

    We report the complete molecular organization of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster. Mutagenesis screens recovered 77 new Df(2L)TW130 recessive lethal mutations. These new alleles combined with 263 previously isolated mutations in the cluster to define 18 essential genes. In addition, seven new deficiencies were isolated and characterized. Deficiency mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and P-element-mediated germline transformation experiments determined the gene order for all 18 loci. Genomic and cDNA restriction endonuclease mapping, Northern blot analysis and DNA sequencing provided information on exact gene location, mRNA size and transcriptional direction for most of these loci. In addition, this analysis identified two transcription units that had not previously been identified by extensive mutagenesis screening. Most of the loci are contained within two dense subclusters. We discuss the effectiveness of mutagens and strategies used in our screens, the variable mutability of loci within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, the cytological and molecular organization of the Ddc gene cluster, the validity of the one band-one gene hypothesis and a possible purpose for the clustering of genes in the Ddc region. PMID:8647399

  4. Structural basis of Ornithine Decarboxylase inactivation and accelerated degradation by polyamine sensor Antizyme1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Donghui; Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Tang, Xuhua; He, Yang; Vanessa Tan, Qianmin; Zhang, Neng; Song, Haiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis in humans. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of polyamines has a cytotoxic effect on cells and elevated level of ODC activity is associated with cancer development. To maintain normal cellular proliferation, regulation of polyamine synthesis is imposed by Antizyme1 (AZ1). The expression of AZ1 is induced by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism in response to increased intracellular polyamines. AZ1 regulates polyamine homeostasis by inactivating ODC activity and enhancing its degradation. Here, we report the structure of human ODC in complex with N-terminally truncated AZ1 (cAZ1). The structure shows cAZ1 binding to ODC, which occludes the binding of a second molecule of ODC to form the active homodimer. Consequently, the substrate binding site is disrupted and ODC is inactivated. Structural comparison shows that the binding of cAZ1 to ODC causes a global conformational change of ODC and renders its C-terminal region flexible, therefore exposing this region for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Our structure provides the molecular basis for the inactivation of ODC by AZ1 and sheds light on how AZ1 promotes its degradation. PMID:26443277

  5. Human α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD): A structural and mechanistic unveiling

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lu; Liu, Fange; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Li, Tingfeng; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Liu, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Human α-amino-β-carboxymuconate-ε-semialdehyde decarboxylase determines the fate of tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway by controlling the quinolinate levels for de novo NAD biosynthesis. The unstable nature of its substrate has made gaining insight into its reaction mechanism difficult. Our electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic study on the catalytically active, Cu-substituted enzyme suggests that the native substrate does not directly ligate to the metal ion. Substrate binding did not result in a change of either the hyperfine structure or the super-hyperfine structure of the EPR spectrum. We also determined the crystal structure of the enzyme in its native state (at 1.99 Å resolution), a substrate analogue-bound form (2.50 Å resolution), and a selected active site mutant form with one of the putative substrate binding residues altered (2.32 Å resolution). These structures illustrate that each asymmetric unit contains 3 pairs of dimers. Consistent with the EPR findings, the ligand-bound complex structure shows that the substrate analogue does not directly coordinate to the metal ion but is bound to the active site by two ariginine residues through non-covalent interactions. PMID:25392945

  6. Partial purification and characterization of a novel histidine decarboxylase from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Tian, Mixia

    2015-08-18

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1 was purified in a three-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed a single protein band of 52.4 kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum pH for HDC activity was 6.5, and the enzyme was stable between pH 4 and 8. Enterobacter aerogenes HDC had optimal activity at 40°C and retained most of its activity between 4 and 50°C. HDC activity was reduced in the presence of numerous tested compounds. Particularly with SDS, it significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited enzyme activity. Conversely, Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) showed prominent activation effects (p < 0.01) with activity increasing to 117.20% and 123.42%, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that K m and V max values of the enzyme for L-histidine were 0.21 mM and 71.39 µmol/min, respectively. In comparison with most HDCs from other microorganisms and animals, HDC from E. aerogenes DL-1 displayed higher affinity and greater reaction velocity toward L-histidine. PMID:25036745

  7. Levels of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) in erythrocytes of Italian porphyria cutanea tarda patients.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Dario; Martinez di Montemuros, Franco; Fargion, Silvia; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Fiorelli, Gemino; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2002-02-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is a human metabolic disorder due to the acquired or genetic impairment of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activity, the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. A classification of inherited and non-inherited forms is based on the enzyme activity levels in red blood cells (RBC). Clinical manifestations of PCT are often precipitated by triggering factors such as alcohol, drug abuse, estrogens, virus infections, hepatotoxic chemicals and hepatic siderosis. We measured URO-D activity in RBC from a large sample of Italian PCT patients in order to define the enzyme activity distribution and to attempt a correlation among activity, risk factors and clinical outcome. Three classes of patients with low, normal and over-normal URO-D activity were defined according to control values. Low URO-D levels were present in 25.8% of patients, suggesting the familial form of PCT (type II). In this group, the outcome of PCT seems to be less influenced by risk factors. Patients with over-normal URO-D activity in RBC deserve further investigation. PMID:11929044

  8. Cloning and primary structure of a human islet isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase from chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsen, A.E.; Hagopian, W.A.; Grubin, C.E.; Dube, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Adler, D.A.; Baermeier, H.; Lernmark, A. ); Mathewes, S.; Grant, F.J.; Foster, D. )

    1991-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase which catalyzes formation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamic acid, is detectable in different isoforms with distinct electrophoretic and kinetic characteristics. GAD has also been implicated as an autoantigen in the vastly differing autoimmune disease stiff-man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Despite the differing GAD isoforms, only one type of GAD cDNA (GAD-1), localized to a syntenic region of chromosome 2, has been isolated from rat, mouse, and cat. Using sequence information from GAD-1 to screen a human pancreatic islet cDNA library, the authors describe the isolation of an additional GAD cDNA (GAD-2), which was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 10. Genomic Southern blotting with GAD-2 demonstrated a hybridization pattern different form that detected by GAD-1. GAD-2 recognizes a 5.6-kilobase transcript in both islets and brain, in contrast to GAD-1, which detects a 3.7-kilobase transcript in brain only. The deduced 585-amino acid sequence coded for by GAD-2 shows < 65% identify to previously published, highly conserved GAD-1 brain sequences, which show > 96% deduced amino acid sequence homology among the three species.

  9. Structure and inhibition of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Langley, David B; Shojaei, Maryam; Chan, Camilla; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Mackay, Joel P; Traut, Thomas W; Guss, J Mitchell; Christopherson, Richard I

    2008-03-25

    Orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase from Plasmodium falciparum (PfODCase, EC 4.1.1.23) has been overexpressed, purified, subjected to kinetic and biochemical analysis, and crystallized. The native enzyme is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 38 kDa. The saturation curve for OMP as a substrate conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics with K m = 350 +/- 60 nM and V max = 2.70 +/- 0.10 micromol/min/mg protein. Inhibition patterns for nucleoside 5'-monophosphate analogues were linear competitive with respect to OMP with a decreasing potency of inhibition of PfODCase in the order: pyrazofurin 5'-monophosphate ( K i = 3.6 +/- 0.7 nM) > xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP, K i = 4.4 +/- 0.7 nM) > 6-azauridine 5'-monophosphate (AzaUMP, K i = 12 +/- 3 nM) > allopurinol-3-riboside 5'-monophosphate ( K i = 240 +/- 20 nM). XMP is an approximately 150-fold more potent inhibitor of PfODCase compared with the human enzyme. The structure of PfODCase was solved in the absence of ligand and displays a classic TIM-barrel fold characteristic of the enzyme. Both the phosphate-binding loop and the betaalpha5-loop have conformational flexibility, which may be associated with substrate capture and product release along the reaction pathway. PMID:18303855

  10. Design of inhibitors of orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase using bioisosteric replacement and determination of inhibition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M; Tang, Sishi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Pai, Emil F; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2006-08-10

    Inhibitors of orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) have applications in RNA viral, parasitic, and other infectious diseases. ODCase catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine monophosphate (OMP), producing uridine monophosphate (UMP). Novel inhibitors 6-amino-UMP and 6-cyano-UMP were designed on the basis of the substructure volumes in the substrate OMP and in an inhibitor of ODCase, barbituric acid monophosphate, BMP. A new enzyme assay method using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was developed to investigate the inhibition kinetics of ODCase. The reaction rates were measured by monitoring the heat generated during the decarboxylation reaction of orotidine monophosphate. Kinetic parameters (k(cat) = 21 s(-1) and KM = 5 microM) and the molar enthalpy (DeltaH(app) = 5 kcal/mol) were determined for the decarboxylation of the substrate by ODCase. Competitive inhibition of the enzyme was observed and the inhibition constants (Ki) were determined to be 12.4 microM and 29 microM for 6-aza-UMP and 6-cyano-UMP, respectively. 6-Amino-UMP was found to be among the potent inhibitors of ODCase, having an inhibition constant of 840 nM. We reveal here the first inhibitors of ODCase designed by the principles of bioisosterism and a novel method of using isothermal calorimetry for enzyme inhibition studies. PMID:16884305

  11. Ornithine decarboxylase regulates the activity and localization of rhoA via polyamination

    SciTech Connect

    Maekitie, Laura T.; Kanerva, Kristiina; Andersson, Leif C.

    2009-04-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. Polyamines and ODC are connected to cell proliferation and transformation. Resting cells display a low ODC activity while normal, proliferating cells display fluctuations in ODC activity that coincide with changes in the actin cytoskeleton during the cell cycle. Cancerous cells display constitutively elevated ODC activity. Overexpression of ODC in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts induces a transformed phenotype. The cytoskeletal rearrangements during cytokinesis and cell transformation are intimately coupled to the ODC activity but the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. In this study we investigated how ODC and polyamines influence the organization of the cytoskeleton. Given that the small G-proteins of the rho family are key modulators of the actin cytoskeleton, we investigated the molecular interactions of rhoA with ODC and polyamines. Our results show that transglutaminase-catalyzed polyamination of rhoA regulates its activity. The polyamination status of rhoA crucially influences the progress of the cell cycle as well as the rate of transformation of rat fibroblasts infected with temperature-sensitive v-src. We also show that ODC influences the intracellular distribution of rhoA. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which ODC and polyamines regulate the dynamics of the cytoskeleton during cell proliferation and transformation.

  12. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  13. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  14. Identification of the Enterobacteriaceae in Montasio cheese and assessment of their amino acid decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Maifreni, Michela; Frigo, Francesca; Bartolomeoli, Ingrid; Innocente, Nadia; Biasutti, Marialuisa; Marino, Marilena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the species of Enterobacteriaceae present in Montasio cheese and to assess their potential to produce biogenic amines. Plate count methods and an Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR) approach, combined with 16S rDNA sequencing, were used to investigate the Enterobacteriaceae community present during the cheesemaking and ripening of 6 batches of Montasio cheese. Additionally, the potential decarboxylation abilities of selected bacterial isolates were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed against tyrosine, histidine, ornithine and lysine. The most predominant species detected during cheese manufacturing and ripening were Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Hafnia alvei. The non-limiting physico-chemical conditions (pH, NaCl% and a(w)) during ripening were probably the cause of the presence of detectable levels of Enterobacteriaceae up to 120 d of ripening. The HPLC test showed that cadaverine and putrescine were the amines produced in higher amounts by almost all isolates, indicating that the presence of these amines in cheese can be linked to the presence of high counts of Enterobacteriaceae. 44 isolates produced low amounts of histamine (<300 ppm), and four isolates produced more than 1000 ppm of this amine. Only 9 isolates, belonging to the species Citrobacter freundii, Esch. coli and Raoultella ornithinolytica, appeared to produce tyramine. These data provided new information regarding the decarboxylase activity of some Enterobacteriaceae species, including Pantoea agglomerans, Esch. fergusonii and R. ornithinolytica. PMID:23298547

  15. The gene PatG involved in the biosynthesis pathway of patulin, a food-borne mycotoxin, encodes a 6-methylsalicylic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tadrist, Souria; Laffitte, Joelle; Jamin, Emilien L; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by fungal genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It induces neurological, gastrointestinal and immunological effects, which is why patulin belongs to a short list of mycotoxins whose level in food is regulated in many countries around the world. Recently, a cluster gathering 15 genes involved in the biosynthesis of patulin has been identified in Aspergillus clavatus, but so far, only 4 genes encoding 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase, m-cresol hydroxylase, m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol hydroxylase and isoepoxydon dehydrogenase have been characterized. Previous studies have shown the involvement of a decarboxylase in the transformation of 6-methylsalicylic acid, the first stable patulin precursor, into m-cresol. In this study a putative decarboxylase gene, PatG, was identified in the genome sequence of A. clavatus. This gene is located near two P450 cytochrome genes PatH and PatI responsible respectively for the hydroxylation of m-cresol and m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. This decarboxylase encoded by PatG (ACLA_093620) consists of 325 amino acids. The search for putative conserved domain revealed that the gene product belongs to the AminoCarboxyMuconate Semialdehyde Decarboxylase (ACMSD) related protein family. This family includes decarboxylases such as the γ-resorcylate decarboxylase or o-pyrocatechuate decarboxylase. The substrates of these enzymes display strong structural similarities with 6-methylsalicylic acid. PatG was strongly expressed during patulin production whereas it was very weakly expressed in non-patulin permissive conditions. The coding sequence was used to enable heterologous expression of functional enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of decarboxylase was confirmed by Western blot. The bioconversion assays showed that PATG catalyzed the decarboxylation of 6-methylsalicylic acid into m-cresol. These results confirm for the first time that 6-methylsalicylic acid is the substrate for PATG, the 6-methylsalicylic acid decarboxylase. With this study, the four genes involved in the four first steps of patulin biosynthesis pathway (acetate→gentisyl alcohol) are now identified. PMID:24334092

  16. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two isoforms of meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Michael R.; Crowther, Jennifer M.; Leeman, Mary M.; Kessans, Sarah A.; North, Rachel A.; Donovan, Katherine A.; Griffin, Michael D. W.; Suzuki, Hironori; Hudson, André O.; Kasanmascheff, Müge; Dobson, Renwick C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Diaminopimelate decarboxylase catalyses the last step in the diaminopimelate-biosynthetic pathway leading to S-lysine: the decarboxylation of meso-diaminopimelate to form S-lysine. Lysine biosynthesis occurs only in microorganisms and plants, and lysine is essential for the growth and development of animals. Thus, the diaminopimelate pathway represents an attractive target for antimicrobial and herbicide treatments and has received considerable attention from both a mechanistic and a structural viewpoint. Diaminopimelate decarboxylase has only been characterized in prokaryotic species. This communication describes the first structural studies of two diaminopimelate decarboxylase isoforms from a plant. The Arabidopsis thaliana diaminopimelate decarboxylase cDNAs At3g14390 (encoding DapDc1) and At5g11880 (encoding DapDc2) were cloned from genomic DNA and the recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells. The crystals of DapDc1 and DapDc2 diffracted to beyond 2.00 and 2.27 Å resolution, respectively. Understanding the structural biology of diaminopimelate decarboxylase from a eukaryotic species will provide insights for the development of future herbicide treatments, in particular. PMID:24817733

  17. Identification in Haloferax volcanii of phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase as catalysts of the terminal enzyme reactions in an archaeal alternate mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Vannice, John C; Skaff, D Andrew; Keightley, Andrew; Addo, James K; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Miziorko, Henry M

    2014-03-01

    Mevalonate (MVA) metabolism provides the isoprenoids used in archaeal lipid biosynthesis. In synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the classical MVA pathway involves decarboxylation of mevalonate diphosphate, while an alternate pathway has been proposed to involve decarboxylation of mevalonate monophosphate. To identify the enzymes responsible for metabolism of mevalonate 5-phosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate in Haloferax volcanii, two open reading frames (HVO_2762 and HVO_1412) were selected for expression and characterization. Characterization of these proteins indicated that one enzyme is an isopentenyl phosphate kinase that forms isopentenyl diphosphate (in a reaction analogous to that of Methanococcus jannaschii MJ0044). The second enzyme exhibits a decarboxylase activity that has never been directly attributed to this protein or any homologous protein. It catalyzes the synthesis of isopentenyl phosphate from mevalonate monophosphate, a reaction that has been proposed but never demonstrated by direct experimental proof, which is provided in this account. This enzyme, phosphomevalonate decarboxylase (PMD), exhibits strong inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate monophosphate but negligible inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (a potent inhibitor of the classical mevalonate pathway), reinforcing its selectivity for monophosphorylated ligands. Inhibition by the fluorinated analog also suggests that the PMD utilizes a reaction mechanism similar to that demonstrated for the classical MVA pathway decarboxylase. These observations represent the first experimental demonstration in H. volcanii of both the phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase reactions that are required for an alternate mevalonate pathway in an archaeon. These results also represent, to our knowledge, the first identification and characterization of any phosphomevalonate decarboxylase. PMID:24375100

  18. Refractory status epilepticus and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in adults: presentation, treatment and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Vines, Brannon L; Miller, David W; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Amara, Amy W

    2016-03-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been implicated in refractory epilepsy. The association with refractory status epilepticus in adults has been rarely described. We discuss our experience in managing three adult patients who presented with refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. Case series with retrospective chart and literature review. Three patients without pre-existing epilepsy who presented to our institution with generalized seizures between 2013 and 2014 were identified. Seizures proved refractory to first and second-line therapies and persisted beyond 24 hours. Patient 1 was a 22-year-old female who had elevated serum GAD-Ab titres at 0.49 mmol/l (normal: <0.02) and was treated with multiple immuno- and chemotherapies, with eventual partial seizure control. Patient 2 was a 61-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l. EEG showed persistent generalized periodic discharges despite maximized therapy with anticonvulsants but no immunotherapy, resulting in withdrawal of care and discharge to nursing home. Patient 3 was a 50-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l, and was discovered to have pulmonary sarcoidosis. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in seizure resolution. Due to the responsiveness to immunotherapy, there may be an association between GAD-Abs and refractory seizures, including refractory status epilepticus. Causation cannot be established since GAD-Abs may be elevated secondary to concurrent autoimmune diseases or formed de novo in response to GAD antigen exposure by neuronal injury. Based on this report and available literature, there may be a role for immuno- and chemotherapy in the management of refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. PMID:26878120

  19. Nitric oxide mediates T cell cytokine production and signal transduction in histidine decarboxylase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Koncz, Agnes; Pasztoi, Maria; Mazan, Mercedesz; Fazakas, Ferenc; Buzas, Edit; Falus, Andras; Nagy, Gyorgy

    2007-11-15

    Histamine is a key regulator of the immune system. Several lines of evidence suggest the role of histamine in T cell activation and accelerated Th1 immune response is a hallmark of histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-KO) mice, with a complete lack of endogenously produced histamine. According to our previous work, T lymphocytes produce NO upon activation, and NO is necessary for effective T cell activation. To study the role of histamine in T cell activation, we investigated cytokine production and T cell signal transduction in HDC-KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In the absence of histamine, an elevated IFN-gamma mRNA and protein levels of splenocytes (p < 0.001; p = 0.001, respectively) were associated with a markedly increased (2.5-fold, p = 0.0009) NO production, compared with WT animals. Furthermore, histamine treatment decreased the NO production of splenocytes from both WT and HDC-KO mice (p = 0.001; p = 0.0004, respectively). NO precursor (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate-diethylenetriamine elicited IFN-gamma production (p = 0.0002), whereas NO synthase inhibitors N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and nitronidazole both inhibited IFN-gamma production (p = 0.002 and p = 0.01, respectively), suggesting the role of NO in regulating IFN-gamma synthesis. Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration of unstimulated T cells was increased in the HDC-KO mice (p = 0.02), whereas T cell activation-induced delta Ca(2+)-signal was similar in both HDC-KO and WT animals. Our present data indicate that, in addition to its direct effects on T lymphocyte function, histamine regulates cytokine production and T cell signal transduction through regulating NO production. PMID:17982051

  20. Variants Downstream of the Ornithine Decarboxylase Gene Influence Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Aspirin Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Elizabeth L.; Mott, Leila A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Baron, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased mucosal polyamine levels and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity are associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, and aspirin treatment reduces risk. Previous studies suggest that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of the ODC gene (rs2302615) may be associated with adenoma risk and/or response to aspirin chemoprevention. However, a comprehensive investigation of common genetic variation in the region of ODC gene is lacking. Using a tag SNP approach, we investigated associations between genotype or haplotype and adenoma risk among a cohort of 792 white non-Hispanic participants in a randomized trial of aspirin. Generalized linear regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for age and sex. The false discovery rate was used to account for multiple testing. Interactions terms were used to assess whether genotype modified the effect of aspirin treatment. Of 15 SNPs analyzed, 7 were statistically significantly associated with adenoma risk. However, in multiple SNP regression models, only 2 of these, located downstream of the gene, were independently associated with risk: rs11694911 (1.29 RR, 1.081.53 95% CI, P=0.005) and rs2430420 (1.20 RR, 1.031.40 95% CI, P=0.022). In addition, there was evidence that rs2430420 and rs28362380 modified the effect of aspirin treatment, whereas the previously investigated SNP, rs2302615, had no statistically significant main effect or interaction with aspirin treatment. Our findings suggest that common genetic variants located downstream (3) of the ODC gene influence risk of colorectal adenoma and may also impact the efficacy of aspirin chemoprevention. PMID:21930798

  1. Novel Interaction of Ornithine Decarboxylase with Sepiapterin Reductase Regulates Neuroblastoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Ingo; Geerts, Dirk; Feith, David J.; Mocz, Gabor; Koster, Jan; Bachmann, Andr S.

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the sentinel enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Both ODC and polyamines regulate cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and has been implicated in neurological diseases but not yet in cancer. In this study, we present compelling evidence that native ODC and SPR physically interact, and we defined the individual amino acid residues involved in both enzymes using in silico protein-protein docking simulations. The resulting heterocomplex is a surprisingly compact structure, featuring two energetically and structurally equivalent binding modes both in monomer and dimer conformations. The novel interaction between ODC and SPR proteins was confirmed under physiological conditions by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Importantly, we showed that siRNA-mediated knock-down of SPR expression significantly reduced endogenous ODC enzyme activity in NB cells, thus demonstrating the biological relevance of the ODC-SPR interaction. Finally, in a cohort of 88 human NB tumors we found that high SPR mRNA expression correlated significantly with poor survival prognosis using a Kaplan-Meier analysis (Logrank test P = 5 10?4), suggesting an oncogenic role for SPR in NB tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we showed that ODC binds SPR and thus propose a new concept in which two well-characterized biochemical pathways converge via the interaction of two enzymes. We identified SPR as a novel regulator of ODC enzyme activity, and based on clinical evidence present a model in which SPR drives ODC-mediated malignant progression in NB. PMID:24096079

  2. Spermidine mediates degradation of ornithine decarboxylase by a non-lysosomal, ubiquitin-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.R.; Gerner, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of spermidine-induced ornithine decarboxylase (OCD, E.C. 4.1.1.17) inactivation was investigated using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, maintained in serum-free medium, which display a stabilization of ODC owing to the lack of accumulation of putrescine and spermidine. Treatment of cells with 10 ..mu..M exogenous spermidine leads to rapid decay of ODC activity accompanied by a parallel decrease in enzyme protein. Analysis of the decay of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled ODC and separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed no detectable modification in ODC structure during enhanced degradation. Spermidine-mediated inactivation of ODC occurred in a temperature-dependent manner exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics over a temperature range of 22-37/sup 0/C. In cultures treated continuously, an initial lag was observed after treatment with spermidine, followed by a rapid decline in activity as an apparent critical concentration of intracellular spermidine was achieved. Treating cells at 22/sup 0/C for 3 hours with 10 ..mu.. M spermidine, followed by removal of exogenous polyamine, and then shifting to varying temperatures, resulted in rates of ODC inactivation identical with that determined with a continuous treatment. Arrhenius analysis showed that polyamine mediated inactivation of ODC occurred with an activation energy of approximately 16 kcal/mol. Treatment of cells with lysosomotrophic agents had no effect of ODC degradation. ODC turnover was not dependent on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These data support the hypothesis that spermidine regulates ODC degradation via a mechanism requiring new protein synthesis, and that this occurs via a non-lysosomal, ubiquitin-independent pathway.

  3. Histidine decarboxylase and urinary methylimidazoleacetic acid in gastric neuroendocrine cells and tumours

    PubMed Central

    Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Grimelius, Lars; Granerus, Göran; Stridsberg, Mats; Falkmer, Sture E; Janson, Eva T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression in normal and neoplastic gastric neuroendocrine cells in relationship to the main histamine metabolite. METHODS: Control tissues from fundus (n = 3) and corpus (n = 3) mucosa of six patients undergoing operations for gastric adenocarcinoma, biopsy and/or gastric surgical specimens from 64 patients with primary gastric neuroendocrine tumours (GNETs), as well as metastases from 22 of these patients, were investigated using conventional immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence with commercial antibodies vs vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2), HDC and ghrelin. The urinary excretion of the main histamine metabolite methylimidazoleacetic acid (U-MeImAA) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography in 27 of the 64 patients. RESULTS: In the gastric mucosa of the control tissues, co-localization studies identified neuroendocrine cells that showed immunoreactivity only to VMAT-2 and others with reactivity only to HDC. A third cell population co-expressed both antigens. There was no co-expression of HDC and ghrelin. Similar results were obtained in the foci of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with chronic atrophic gastritis type A and also in the tumours. The relative incidence of the three aforementioned markers varied in the tumours that were examined using conventional immunohistochemistry. All of these GNETs revealed both VMAT-2 and HDC immunoreactivity, and their metastases showed an immunohistochemical pattern and frequency similar to that of their primary tumours. In four patients, increased U-MeImAA excretion was detected, but only two of the patients exhibited related endocrine symptoms. CONCLUSION: Human enterochromaffin-like cells appear to partially co-express VMAT-2 and HDC. Co-expression of VMAT-2 and HDC might be required for increased histamine production in patients with GNETs. PMID:26715806

  4. Structural Basis for Nucleotide Binding and Reaction Catalysis in Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; McWhorter, William J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2012-09-17

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes the final step of the mevalonate pathway, the Mg{sup 2+}-ATP dependent decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP), producing isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Synthesis of IPP, an isoprenoid precursor molecule that is a critical intermediate in peptidoglycan and polyisoprenoid biosynthesis, is essential in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus spp.), and thus the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway are ideal antimicrobial targets. MDD belongs to the GHMP superfamily of metabolite kinases that have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, yet the crystallization of GHMP kinase ternary complexes has proven to be difficult. To further our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of GHMP kinases with the purpose of developing broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that target the substrate and nucleotide binding sites, we report the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant (S192A and D283A) ternary complexes of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD. Comparison of apo, MVAPP-bound, and ternary complex wild-type MDD provides structural information about the mode of substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. Structural characterization of ternary complexes of catalytically deficient MDD S192A and D283A (k{sub cat} decreased 10{sup 3}- and 10{sup 5}-fold, respectively) provides insight into MDD function. The carboxylate side chain of invariant Asp{sup 283} functions as a catalytic base and is essential for the proper orientation of the MVAPP C3-hydroxyl group within the active site funnel. Several MDD amino acids within the conserved phosphate binding loop ('P-loop') provide key interactions, stabilizing the nucleotide triphosphoryl moiety. The crystal structures presented here provide a useful foundation for structure-based drug design.

  5. The UDP-Glucuronate Decarboxylase Gene Family in Populus: Structure, Expression, and Association Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiaxing; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-01-01

    In woody crop plants, the oligosaccharide components of the cell wall are essential for important traits such as bioenergy content, growth, and structural wood properties. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UXS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-xylose for the formation of xylans during cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we isolated a multigene family of seven members (PtUXS1-7) encoding UXS from Populus tomentosa, the first investigation of UXSs in a tree species. Analysis of gene structure and phylogeny showed that the PtUXS family could be divided into three groups (PtUXS1/4, PtUXS2/5, and PtUXS3/6/7), consistent with the tissue-specific expression patterns of each PtUXS. We further evaluated the functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in PtUXS1. In total, 243 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, with a high frequency of SNPs (1/18 bp) and nucleotide diversity (πT = 0.01033, θw = 0.01280). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r2<0.1, P<0.001, within 700 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analysis showed that nine SNPs (Q <0.10) and 12 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood property traits in the association population (426 individuals), with 2.70% to 12.37% of the phenotypic variation explained. Four significant single-marker associations (Q <0.10) were validated in a linkage mapping population of 1200 individuals. Also, RNA transcript accumulation varies among genotypic classes of SNP10 was further confirmed in the association population. This is the first comprehensive study of the UXS gene family in woody plants, and lays the foundation for genetic improvements of wood properties and growth in trees using genetic engineering or marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23613749

  6. Targeted overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase enhances beta-adrenergic agonist-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Shantz, L M; Feith, D J; Pegg, A E

    2001-01-01

    These studies were designed to determine the consequences of constitutive overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in the heart. Induction of ODC is known to occur in response to agents that induce cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether high ODC levels are sufficient for the development of a hypertrophic phenotype. Transgenic mice were generated with cardiac-specific expression of a stable ODC protein using the alpha-myosin heavy-chain promoter. Founder lines with >1000-fold overexpression of ODC in the heart were established, resulting in a 50-fold overaccumulation of putrescine, 4-fold elevation in spermidine, a slight increase in spermine and accumulation of large amounts of cadaverine compared with littermate controls. Despite these significant alterations in polyamines, myocardial hypertrophy, as measured by ratio of heart to body weight, did not develop, although atrial natriuretic factor RNA was slightly elevated in transgenic ventricles. However, stimulation of beta-adrenergic signalling by isoproterenol resulted in severe hypertrophy and even death in ODC-overexpressing mice without further altering polyamine levels, compared with only a mild hypertrophy in littermates. When beta1-adrenergic stimulation was blocked by simultaneous treatment with isoproterenol and the beta1 antagonist atenolol, a significant, although reduced, hypertrophy was still present in the hearts of transgenic mice, suggesting that both beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors contribute to the hypertrophic phenotype. Therefore these mice provide a model to study the in vivo co-operativity between high ODC activity and activation of other pathways leading to hypertrophy in the heart. PMID:11485548

  7. Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes as a Prescreening Marker for Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Groups

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Michael A.; Weagant, Stephen D.; Feng, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is prevalent in Escherichia coli but few strains in the various pathogenic E. coli groups have been tested for GAD. Using PCR primers that amplify a 670-bp segment from the gadA and gadB genes encoding GAD, we examined the distribution of the gadAB genes among enteric bacteria. Analysis of 173 pathogenic E. coli strains, including 125 enterohemorrhagic E. coli isolates of the O157:H7 serotype and its phenotypic variants and 48 isolates of enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes, showed that gadAB genes were present in all these strains. Among the 22 non-E. coli isolates tested, only the 6 Shigella spp. carried gadAB. Analysis of naturally contaminated water and food samples using a gadAB-specific DNA probe that was labeled with digoxigenin showed that a gadAB-based assay is as reliable as standard methods that enumerate E. coli organisms on the basis of lactose fermentation. The presence of few E. coli cells initially seeded into produce rinsates could be detected by PCR to gadA/B genes after overnight enrichment. A multiplex PCR assay using the gadAB primers in combination with primers to Shiga toxin (Stx) genes stx1 and stx2 was effective in detecting STEC from the enrichment medium after seeding produce rinsate samples with as few as 2 CFU. The gadAB primers may be multiplexed with primers to other trait virulence markers to specifically identify other pathogenic E. coli groups. PMID:11425729

  8. Cognitive dysfunction associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoimmunity: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Anti-GAD antibodies (GADA) are associated with the progression of stiff person syndrome and other neurological diseases, as well as the immune-mediated (type 1) diabetes. GABA is one of the most widely distributed neurotransmitters, but the non-motor symptoms of GADA-positive patients are not well understood. Diabetes is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for dementia; however, the relationship between diabetes and dementia is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess cognitive function in patients with GADA-positive diabetes using subjects with GADA-negative type 2 diabetes as controls. Methods Twenty-one patients with GADA-positive diabetes (mean age 52.5 ± 12.3 years, mean duration 7.7 ± 6.6 years) and 19 control subjects with GADA-negative type 2 diabetes (mean age 53.4 ± 8.9 years, mean duration 12.5 ± 6.7) were included in the study. The subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and brain MRI. Results The neuropsychological test scores were lower in the GADA-positive group than the control group (GADA-negative). Twelve subjects (57%) in the GADA group and 4 subjects (21%) in the control group had low performances (p = 0.027). No statistically significant differences were found between the GADA and control groups regarding demographics, diabetic severity cardiovascular risks, cerebral T2 hyperintensities, white matter volume and gray matter volume. Conclusions Our study showed that GADA-positive diabetic patients have an increased risk of cognitive decline compared to patients with type 2 diabetes of comparable diabetic severity. It also showed that GADA may be associated with isolated cognitive decline in the absence of other neurological complications. PMID:23835051

  9. Substrate Distortion and the Catalytic Reaction Mechanism of 5-Carboxyvanillate Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Anna; Patskovsky, Yury; Fedorov, Alexander A; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Fedorov, Elena V; Toro, Rafael; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ronald D; Richards, Nigel G J; Almo, Steven C; Raushel, Frank M

    2016-01-27

    5-Carboxyvanillate decarboxylase (LigW) catalyzes the conversion of 5-carboxyvanillate to vanillate in the biochemical pathway for the degradation of lignin. This enzyme was shown to require Mn(2+) for catalytic activity and the kinetic constants for the decarboxylation of 5-carboxyvanillate by the enzymes from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 (kcat = 2.2 s(-1) and kcat/Km = 4.0 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) and Novosphingobium aromaticivorans (kcat = 27 s(-1) and kcat/Km = 1.1 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) were determined. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were determined in the presence and absence of ligands bound in the active site. The structure of LigW from N. aromaticivorans, bound with the substrate analogue, 5-nitrovanillate (Kd = 5.0 nM), was determined to a resolution of 1.07 Å. The structure of this complex shows a remarkable enzyme-induced distortion of the nitro-substituent out of the plane of the phenyl ring by approximately 23°. A chemical reaction mechanism for the decarboxylation of 5-carboxyvanillate by LigW was proposed on the basis of the high resolution X-ray structures determined in the presence ligands bound in the active site, mutation of active site residues, and the magnitude of the product isotope effect determined in a mixture of H2O and D2O. In the proposed reaction mechanism the enzyme facilitates the transfer of a proton to C5 of the substrate prior to the decarboxylation step. PMID:26714575

  10. Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jennifer L; DeMars, Paul L; Collins, Lindsay M; Stoner, Julie A; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Feasley, Christa L; Haddock, James A; Levine, Martin

    2012-10-19

    Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(), Emulsigen(), Polygen or Carbigen were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen() (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may provide protection from gingivitis if procedures are optimized. PMID:22975025

  11. Acute hypoxia increases ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine concentrations in fetal rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Longo, L D; Packianathan, S; McQueary, J A; Stagg, R B; Byus, C V; Cain, C D

    1993-01-01

    The cellular responses to hypoxia are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.1.17) activity and polyamine concentrations change in response to acute hypoxia, we performed the following studies. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats inspired various O2 concentrations (9-21%) for various time periods (0.5-48 h) from days 15 to 21 of gestation. In fetal brains we measured the activity of ODC, ODC mRNA, and polyamines. In response to 4-h acute mild hypoxia, ODC activity in fetal rat brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus) increased to 330-450% from control values (P < 0.001), after which it declined to control levels in 6-8 h. The 4-h ODC response varied inversely with inspired O2 concentration and was not mimicked by beta 2 agonist or blocked by beta 2-antagonist administration. The ODC response was associated with an increase in fetal brain putrescine concentration to 190% above control at 4-6 h (P < 0.01) and an increase in the polyamines spermidine and spermine to about 115% above control at 6-8 h. We also observed that ODC mRNA increased significantly after 2-4 h of hypoxia. ODC activity and polyamine concentrations appear to be useful enzymatic markers for fetal brain hypoxia. The magnitude and time course of the acute hypoxic ODC increase were similar to responses to extracellular signals that result in differentiation or cell growth. Thus, the well-defined and regulated ODC activity response may represent a protective mechanism in brain to hypoxia. Images PMID:8421708

  12. Expression of the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in male germ cells.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, H; Pelto-Huikko, M; Metsis, M; Söder, O; Brene, S; Skog, S; Hökfelt, T; Ritzén, E M

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the key enzyme in the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, is shown to be expressed in the testis of several different species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cDNA clone isolated from the human testis confirmed the presence of GAD mRNA in the testis. The major GAD mRNA in the testis was 2.5 kilobases. Smaller amounts of a 3.7-kilobase mRNA with the same size as GAD mRNA in the brain was also detected in the testis. In situ hybridization using a GAD-specific probe revealed GAD mRNA expressing spermatocytes and spermatids located in the middle part of rat seminiferous tubules. Studies on the ontogeny of GAD mRNA expression showed low levels of GAD mRNA in testes of prepubertal rats, with increasing levels as sexual maturation is reached, compatible with GAD mRNA expression in germ cells. In agreement with this, fractionation of cells from the rat seminiferous epithelium followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis showed the highest levels of GAD mRNA associated with spermatocytes and spermatids. Evidence for the presence of GAD protein in the rat testis was obtained from the demonstration of GAD-like immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules, predominantly at a position where spermatids and spermatozoa are found. Furthermore, GAD-like immunoreactivity was seen in the midpiece of ejaculated human spermatozoa, the part that is responsible for generating energy for spermatozoan motility. Images PMID:1697032

  13. Forebrain neurons that project to the gustatory parabrachial nucleus in rat lack glutamic acid decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Lundy, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that GABA might mediate the inhibitory influence of centrifugal inputs on taste-evoked responses in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Previous studies show that activation of the gustatory cortex (GC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH) inhibits PBN taste responses, GABAergic neurons are present in these forebrain regions, and GABA reduces the input resistance of PBN neurons. The present study investigated the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD_67 ir) in GC, BNST, CeA, and LH neurons that project to the PBN in rats. After anesthesia (50 mg/kg Nembutal ip), injections of the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) were made in the physiologically defined gustatory PBN. Brain tissue containing the above forebrain structures was processed and examined for FG and GAD_67 ir. Similar to previous studies, each forebrain site contained retrograde labeled neurons. Our results suggest further that the major source of input to the PBN taste region is the CeA (608 total cells) followed by GC (257 cells), LH (106 cells), and BNST (92 cells). This suggests a differential contribution to centrifugal control of PBN taste processing. We further show that despite the presence of GAD_67 neurons in each forebrain area, co-localization was extremely rare, occurring only in 3 out of 1,063 FG labeled cells. If we assume that the influence of centrifugal input is mediated by direct projections to the gustatory region of the PBN, then GABAergic forebrain neurons apparently are not part of this descending pathway. PMID:17989138

  14. Snapshot of a Reaction Intermediate: Analysis of Benzoylformate Decarboxylase in Complex with a Benzoylphosphonate Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Baykal, Ahmet T.; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; Ruby, David I.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kenyon, George L.; McLeish, Michael J.; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2009-04-22

    Benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) is a thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent enzyme acting on aromatic substrates. In addition to its metabolic role in the mandelate pathway, BFDC shows broad substrate specificity coupled with tight stereo control in the carbon-carbon bond-forming reverse reaction, making it a useful biocatalyst for the production of chiral-hydroxy ketones. The reaction of methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP), an analogue of the natural substrate benzoylformate, with BFDC results in the formation of a stable analogue (C2{alpha}-phosphonomandelyl-ThDP) of the covalent ThDP-substrate adduct C2{alpha}-mandelyl-ThDP. Formation of the stable adduct is confirmed both by formation of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomeric form of ThDP (commonly observed when ThDP forms tetrahedral complexes with its substrates) and by high-resolution mass spectrometry of the reaction mixture. In addition, the structure of BFDC with the MBP inhibitor was solved by X-ray crystallography to a spatial resolution of 1.37 {angstrom} (PDB ID 3FSJ). The electron density clearly shows formation of a tetrahedral adduct between the C2 atom of ThDP and the carbonyl carbon atom of the MBP. This adduct resembles the intermediate from the penultimate step of the carboligation reaction between benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The combination of real-time kinetic information via stopped-flow circular dichroism with steady-state data from equilibrium circular dichroism measurements and X-ray crystallography reveals details of the first step of the reaction catalyzed by BFDC. The MBP-ThDP adduct on BFDC is compared to the recently solved structure of the same adduct on benzaldehyde lyase, another ThDP-dependent enzyme capable of catalyzing aldehyde condensation with high stereospecificity.

  15. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase: Complete human gene sequence and molecular study of three families with hepatoerythropoietic porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Moran-Jimenez, M.J.; Ged, C.; Verneuil, H. de

    1996-04-01

    A deficiency in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) enzyme activity, the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is found in patients with sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (s-PCT), familial porphyria cutanea tarda (f-PCT), and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP). Subnormal UROD activity is due to mutations of the UROD gene in both f-PCT and HEP, but no mutations have been found in s-PCT. Genetic analysis has determined that f-PCT is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In contrast, HEP, a severe form of cutaneous porphyria, is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. HEP is characterized by a profound deficiency of UROD activity, and the disease is usually manifest in childhood. In this study, a strategy was designed to identify alleles responsible for the HEP phenotype in three unrelated families. Mutations of UROD were identified by direct sequencing of four amplified fragments that contained the entire coding sequence of the UROD gene. Two new missense mutations were observed at the homoallelic state: P62L (proline-to-leucine substitution at codon 62) in a Portuguese family and Y311C (tyrosine-to-cysteine substitution at codon 311) in an Italian family. A third mutation, G281E, was observed in a Spanish family. This mutation has been previously described in three families from Spain and one from Tunisia. In the Spanish family described in this report, a paternal uncle of the proband developed clinically overt PCT as an adult and proved to be heterozygous for the G281E mutation. Mutant cDNAs corresponding to the P62L and Y311C changes detected in these families were created by site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinant proteins proved to have subnormal enzyme activity, and the Y311C mutant was thermolabile. 24 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Engineering pyruvate decarboxylase-mediated ethanol production in the thermophilic host Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, L J; Taylor, M P; Eley, K; Tuffin, M; Cowan, D A

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the expression, purification, and kinetic characterization of a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from Gluconobacter oxydans. Kinetic analyses showed the enzyme to have high affinity for pyruvate (120 μM at pH 5), high catalytic efficiency (4.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5), a pHopt of approximately 4.5 and an in vitro temperature optimum at approximately 55 °C. Due to in vitro thermostablity (approximately 40 % enzyme activity retained after 30 min at 65 °C), this PDC was considered to be a suitable candidate for heterologous expression in the thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for ethanol production. Initial studies using a variety of methods failed to detect activity at any growth temperature (45-55 °C). However, the application of codon harmonization (i.e., mimicry of the heterogeneous host's transcription and translational rhythm) yielded a protein that was fully functional in the thermophilic strain at 45 °C (as determined by enzyme activity, Western blot, mRNA detection, and ethanol productivity). Here, we describe the first successful expression of PDC in a true thermophile. Yields as high as 0.35 ± 0.04 g/g ethanol per gram of glucose consumed were detected, highly competitive to those reported in ethanologenic thermophilic mutants. Although activities could not be detected at temperatures approaching the growth optimum for the strain, this study highlights the possibility that previously unsuccessful expression of pdcs in Geobacillus spp. may be the result of ineffective transcription/translation coupling. PMID:24276622

  17. Corroborative cobalt and zinc model compounds of alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconic-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD).

    PubMed

    Gtjens, Jessica; Mullins, Christopher S; Kampf, Jeff W; Thury, Pierre; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2009-01-01

    We have synthesised and characterised a series of new Co(II) complexes (1-4, 6, 7) and one new Zn(II) complex (5) employing N(3)- and N(3)O-donor ligands [biap: N,N-bis(2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)amino-propane, KBPZG: potassium N,N-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl) glycinate, KBPZA: potassium N,N-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl) alaninate, KB(i)PrPZG: potassium N,N-bis(3,5-di-iso-propylpyrazolylmethyl) glycinate, and KB((t)BuM)PZG: potassium N,N-bis(3-methyl-5-tert-butyl-pyrazolylmethyl)glycinate] as structural models of the metalloenzyme alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconic-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD). These complexes were characterised by several techniques including X-ray crystallographic analysis, X-band EPR, and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The crystal structures of 1, 2, 6,7 revealed that they exist as mononuclear Co(II) complexes with trigonal-bipyramidal geometry in the solid state. Compounds 3 and 5 form infinite polymeric chains of Co(II) or Zn(II) complexes, respectively, linked by the pendant carboxylate arms of the BPZG(-) ligand. By comparing the degree of distortion in the penta-coordinate complexes, defined by the Addison-parameter tau, with the value determined for the five-coordinate centres found in the active site of ACMSD, it could be seen that complexes 5 and 7 are very good matches for the geometry of the zinc(II) centre in monomer A of the native enzyme. All complexes could be seen as model compounds for the active site of the enzyme ACMSD, where the Co(II) complexes reflected the structural flexibility found in case of two histidine (His177 and His228) residues found in the active site of the enzyme. PMID:19081971

  18. Diversity of plasmids encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus spp. isolated from Japanese fish sauce.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2011-07-15

    Nineteen isolates of histamine producing halophilic bacteria were isolated from four fish sauce mashes, each mash accumulating over 1000 ppm of histamine. The complete sequences of the plasmids encoding the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA), which is harbored in histamine producing bacteria, were determined. In conjunction, the sequence regions adjacent to hdcA were analyzed to provide information regarding its genetic origin. As reference strains, Tetragenococcus halophilus H and T. muriaticus JCM10006(T) were also studied. Phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified all isolates as T. halophilus, a predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR, Southern blot, and complete plasmid sequencing) of the histamine producing isolates confirmed that all the isolates harbored approximately 21-37 kbp plasmids encoding a single copy of the hdc cluster consisting of four genes related to histamine production. Analysis of hdc clusters, including spacer regions, indicated >99% sequence similarity among the isolates. All of the plasmids sequenced encoded traA, however genes related to plasmid conjugation, namely mob genes and oriT, were not identified. Two putative mobile genetic elements, ISLP1-like and IS200-like, respectively, were identified in the up- and downstream region of the hdc cluster of all plasmids. Most of the sequences, except hdc cluster and two adjacent IS elements, were diverse among plasmids, suggesting that each histamine producers harbored a different histamine-related plasmid. These results suggested that the hdc cluster was not spread by clonal dissemination depending on the specific plasmid and that the hdc cluster in tetragenococcal plasmid was likely encoded on transformable elements. PMID:21616548

  19. Chemical-genetic induction of Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Defects in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance. Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) has been a target of investigation because it reduces the concentration of malonyl-CoA, a metabolite that inhibits fatty acid oxidation. The in vivo role of muscle MCD expression in the development of insulin resistance remains unclear. Results To determine the role of MCD in skeletal muscle of diet induced obese and insulin resistant mouse models we generated mice expressing a muscle specific transgene for MCD (Tg-fMCDSkel) stabilized posttranslationally by the small molecule, Shield-1. Tg-fMCDSkel and control mice were placed on either a high fat or low fat diet for 3.5months. Obese and glucose intolerant as well as lean control Tg-fMCDSkel and nontransgenic control mice were treated with Shield-1 and changes in their body weight and insulin sensitivity were determined upon induction of MCD. Inducing MCD activity >5-fold in skeletal muscle over two weeks did not alter body weight or glucose intolerance of obese mice. MCD induction further potentiated the defects in insulin signaling of obese mice. In addition, key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation were suppressed following MCD induction. Conclusion Acute induction of MCD in the skeletal muscle of obese and glucose intolerant mice did not improve body weight and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to obese nontransgenic controls. Induction of MCD in skeletal muscle resulted in a suppression of mitochondrial oxidative genes suggesting a redundant and metabolite driven regulation of gene expression. PMID:25152047

  20. Formation of isobutene from 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate by diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Gogerty, David S; Bobik, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Isobutene is an important commercial chemical used for the synthesis of butyl rubber, terephthalic acid, specialty chemicals, and a gasoline performance additive known as alkylate. Currently, isobutene is produced from petroleum and hence is nonrenewable. Here, we report that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (ScMDD) can convert 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate (3-HMB) to isobutene. Whole cells of Escherichia coli producing ScMDD with an N-terminal 6×His tag (His(6)-ScMDD) formed isobutene from 3-HMB at a rate of 154 pmol h(-1) g cells(-1). In contrast, no isobutene was detected from control cells lacking ScMDD. His(6)-ScMDD was purified by nickel affinity chromatography and shown to produce isobutene from 3-HMB at a rate of 1.33 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Controls showed that both His(6)-ScMDD and 3-HMB were required for detectable isobutene formation. Isobutene was identified by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection as well as by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). ScMDD was subjected to error-prone PCR, and two improved variants were characterized, ScMDD1 (I145F) and ScMDD2 (R74H). Whole cells of E. coli producing ScMDD1 and ScMDD2 produced isobutene from 3-HMB at rates of 3,000 and 5,888 pmol h(-1) g cells(-1), which are 19- and 38-fold increases compared to rates for cells producing His(6)-ScMDD. This showed that genetic modifications can be used to increase the rate at which ScMDD converts 3-HMB to isobutene. Because 3-HMB can be produced from l-leucine, ScMDD has a potential application for the production of renewable isobutene. Moreover, isobutene is a gas, which might simplify its purification from a fermentation medium, substantially reducing production costs. PMID:20971863

  1. Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant ?H2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

  2. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for altered expression of ornithine decarboxylase in overproducing variant cells.

    PubMed Central

    McConlogue, L; Dana, S L; Coffino, P

    1986-01-01

    We selected and characterized a series of mouse S49 cell variants that overproduce ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Previously, we described variants that have an amplified ODC gene and produce about 500-fold more ODC than the wild-type cells of origin (L. McConlogue and P. Coffino, J. Biol. Chem. 258:12083-12086, 1983). We examined a series of independent variants that overproduce ODC to a lesser degree and found that a number of mechanisms other than gene amplification are responsible for the increased ODC activity. Variants were selected for resistance to 0.1 mM difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ODC, by either a single or a multistep process. All showed increased ODC activity and increased ODC mRNA steady-state levels. The half-life of the enzyme was not increased in any of the variants. In one class of variant the increase of ODC mRNA was sufficient to account for ODC overproduction. In a second class, the rate of synthesis of ODC polypeptide per ODC mRNA was at least four- to eightfold higher than that in wild-type cells. Therefore, these variants were altered in the translatability of ODC mRNA. Southern analysis showed that gene amplification does not account for the increased ODC mRNA levels in any of the variants. In both variant and wild-type cells, ODC activity was responsive to changes in polyamine pools; activity was reduced following augmentation of pool size. This change in activity was associated with modification of the rate of synthesis and degradation of ODC but no change in the level of ODC mRNA. Images PMID:3023951

  3. Expression of properly folded human glutamate decarboxylase 65 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Papouchado, M L; Valdez, S N; Ghiringhelli, D; Poskus, E; Ermácora, M R

    1997-06-01

    Autoantibodies to the islet-cell 65-kDa variant of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) are found in most insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients many years before the appearance of clinical symptoms of the disease. As IDDM-preventive therapies may be available in the future, an international effort is taking place to develop widely applicable anti-GAD immunochemical tests. These tests would help to detect individuals at risk before the full installation of the disease and to enroll them in prevention programs. Autoantibodies to GAD65 are mostly directed to conformational epitopes, and the enzyme is a complex molecule with a prosthetic group and 15 cysteine residues. Thus, the conformational integrity of GAD65 is essential for an appropriate anti-GAD assay. Isolation of large amounts of GAD65 from pancreas or other tissues is impractical, and no successful production of properly folded GAD65 has been reported in bacteria. Native recombinant GAD65 for immunochemical tests is usually obtained from eukaryotic expression systems. Since the large-scale production of a recombinant protein in an eukaryotic system is expensive and technically difficult, we investigated the expression of GAD65 in Escherichia coli as an alternative. A number of DNA constructs intended to export the enzyme to the periplasmic space or to improve its cytoplasmic solubility were designed and tested. Our results provide a solution to the two main problems associated with the expression of GAD65 in E. coli: misfolding, leading to the formation of inclusion bodies; and the presence of alternative initiation sites for translation that causes the preferential production of truncated variants of GAD65. We describe here the production of properly folded, fully active, and immunochemically competent GAD65 as an N-terminal fusion protein with thioredoxin. An account of the reactivity of the produced protein with sera of six IDDM patients is also presented. PMID:9208924

  4. Arginine Decarboxylase expression, polyamines biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species during organogenic nodule formation in hop.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Ana M; Costa, Joana; Santos, Filipa; Seguí-Simarro, José M; Palme, Klaus; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Pais, Maria S

    2011-02-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an economically important plant species used in beer production and as a health-promoting medicine. Hop internodes develop upon stress treatments organogenic nodules which can be used for genetic transformation and micropropagation. Polyamines are involved in plant development and stress responses. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4·1.1·19) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of putrescine in plants. Here we show that ADC protein was increasingly expressed at early stages of hop internode culture (12h). Protein continued accumulating until organogenic nodule formation after 28 days, decreasing thereafter. The same profile was observed for ADC transcript suggesting transcriptional regulation of ADC gene expression during morphogenesis. The highest transcript and protein levels observed after 28 days of culture were accompanied by a peak in putrescine levels. Reactive oxygen species accumulate in nodular tissues probably due to stress inherent to in vitro conditions and enhanced polyamine catabolism. Conjugated polyamines increased during plantlet regeneration from nodules suggesting their involvement in plantlet formation and/or in the control of free polyamine levels. Immunogold labeling revealed that ADC is located in plastids, nucleus and cytoplasm of nodular cells. In vacuolated cells, ADC immunolabelling in plastids doubled the signal of proplastids in meristematic cells. Location of ADC in different subcellular compartments may indicate its role in metabolic pathways taking place in these compartments. Altogether these data suggest that polyamines play an important role in organogenic nodule formation and represent a progress towards understanding the role played by these growth regulators in plant morphogenesis. PMID:21415599

  5. Association between the ornithine decarboxylase G316A polymorphism and breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    XU, LINPING; LONG, JIANPING; WANG, PENG; LIU, KANGDONG; MAI, LING; GUO, YONGJUN

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a significant rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, required for normal cell growth, and is highly expressed in various malignancies, including colorectal and breast cancer. In the present study, the associations between the ODC G316A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and breast cancer-specific survival were investigated. In addition, the functional effects of this SNP were examined in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The present study recruited 300 stage IIII breast cancer cases, which were diagnosed at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Zhengzhou, China) between 2002 and 2003, with follow-up visits conducted until May 2013. ODC G316A was genotyped (ODC GG vs. ODC AG/AA) in the 300 cases and the association of the genotypes with cancer-specific survival was analyzed. In the MCF-7 cell line, the ODC allele-specific binding of E-box transcription factors was determined using western blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Survival differences were observed between the two genotypes: Compared with the ODC GG genotype, patients with ODC GA/AA exhibited significantly higher survival rates (P<0.05). In cultured cells, the ODC SNP, which is flanked by two E-boxes, appeared to predict ODC promoter activity. Furthermore, the E-box activator c-MYC and repressor MAX interactor 1 were found to preferentially bind to ODC minor A-alleles compared with major G-alleles, in cultured MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that the regulation of ODC may affect survival in breast cancer patients and indicate a model in which the ODC SNP may be protective for breast adenoma recurrence and detrimental for survival following a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:26171056

  6. Eflornithine (DFMO) Prevents Progression of Pancreatic Cancer by Modulating Ornithine Decarboxylase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Madka, Venkateshwar; Ritchie, Rebekah L.; Brewer, Misty; Biddick, Laura; Patlolla, Jagan Mohan R.; Sadeghi, Michael; Lightfoot, Stan; Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key rate limiting enzyme in the polyamine synthesis pathway and it is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. We found that polyamine synthesis and modulation of ODC signaling occurs at early stages of pancreatic precursor lesions and increases as the tumor progresses in Kras activated p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Interest in use of the ODC inhibitor Eflornithine (DFMO) as a cancer chemopreventive agent has increased in recent years since ODC was shown to be transactivated by the c-myc oncogene and to cooperate with the ras oncogene in malignant transformation of epithelial tissues. We tested the effects of DFMO on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in genetically engineered Kras mice. The KrasG12D/+ mice fed DFMO at 0.1 and 0.2 % in the diet showed a significant inhibition (p<0.0001) of PDAC incidence compared with mice fed control diet. Pancreatic tumor weights were decreased by 3143% (p<0.030.001) with both doses of DFMO. DFMO at 0.1 and 0.2 % caused a significant suppression (27 and 31%, P<0.020.004) of PanIN 3 lesions (carcinoma in situ). DFMO-treated pancreas exhibited modulated ODC pathway components along with decreased proliferation and increased expression of p21/p27 as compared with pancreatic tissues derived from mice fed control diet. In summary, our preclinical data indicate that DFMO has potential for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer and should be evaluated in other PDAC models and in combination with other drugs in anticipation of future clinical trials. PMID:25248858

  7. Functional Roles of the Dimer-Interface Residues in Human Ornithine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Yun; Liu, Yi-Liang; Lin, Chih-Li; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to putrescine and is the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. ODC is a dimeric enzyme, and the active sites of this enzyme reside at the dimer interface. Once the enzyme dissociates, the enzyme activity is lost. In this paper, we investigated the roles of amino acid residues at the dimer interface regarding the dimerization, protein stability and/or enzyme activity of ODC. A multiple sequence alignment of ODC and its homologous protein antizyme inhibitor revealed that 5 of 9 residues (residues 165, 277, 331, 332 and 389) are divergent, whereas 4 (134, 169, 294 and 322) are conserved. Analytical ultracentrifugation analysis suggested that some dimer-interface amino acid residues contribute to formation of the dimer of ODC and that this dimerization results from the cooperativity of these interface residues. The quaternary structure of the sextuple mutant Y331S/Y389D/R277S/D332E/V322D/D134A was changed to a monomer rather than a dimer, and the Kd value of the mutant was 52.8 M, which is over 500-fold greater than that of the wild-type ODC (ODC_WT). In addition, most interface mutants showed low but detectable or negligible enzyme activity. Therefore, the protein stability of these interface mutants was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. These results indicate that these dimer-interface residues are important for dimer formation and, as a consequence, are critical for enzyme catalysis. PMID:25140796

  8. Human Monoclonal Islet Cell Antibodies From a Patient with Insulin- Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Reveal Glutamate Decarboxylase as the Target Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Wiltrud; Endl, Josef; Eiermann, Thomas H.; Brandt, Michael; Kientsch-Engel, Rosemarie; Thivolet, Charles; Jungfer, Herbert; Scherbaum, Werner A.

    1992-09-01

    The autoimmune phenomena associated with destruction of the β cell in pancreatic islets and development of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) include circulating islet cell antibodies. We have immortalized peripheral blood lymphocytes from prediabetic individuals and patients with newly diagnosed IDDM by Epstein-Barr virus transformation. IgG-positive cells were selected by anti-human IgG-coupled magnetic beads and expanded in cell culture. Supernatants were screened for cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies using the conventional indirect immunofluorescence test on cryostat sections of human pancreas. Six islet cell-specific B-cell lines, originating from a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM, could be stabilized on a monoclonal level. All six monoclonal islet cell antibodies (MICA 1-6) were of the IgG class. None of the MICA reacted with human thyroid, adrenal gland, anterior pituitary, liver, lung, stomach, and intestine tissues but all six reacted with pancreatic islets of different mammalian species and, in addition, with neurons of rat cerebellar cortex. MICA 1-6 were shown to recognize four distinct antigenic epitopes in islets. Islet cell antibody-positive diabetic sera but not normal human sera blocked the binding of the monoclonal antibodies to their target epitopes. Immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled human islet cell extracts revealed that a protein of identical size to the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) was a target of all MICA. Furthermore, antigen immunotrapped by the MICA from brain homogenates showed glutamate decarboxylase enzyme activity. MICA 1-6 therefore reveal glutamate decarboxylase as the predominant target antigen of cytoplasmic islet cell autoantibodies in a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM.

  9. Mechanism of Citrate Metabolism by an Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase-Deficient Mutant of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2011-01-01

    Citrate metabolism in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403(pFL3) results in the formation of two end products from the intermediate pyruvate, acetoin and acetate (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:706–714, 2011). Pyruvate is formed from citrate following uptake by the transporter CitP through the subsequent actions of citrate lyase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The present study describes the metabolic response of L. lactis when oxaloacetate accumulates in the cytoplasm. The oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant ILCitM(pFL3) showed nearly identical rates of citrate consumption, but the end product profile in the presence of glucose shifted from mainly acetoin to only acetate. In addition, in contrast to the parental strain, the mutant strain did not generate proton motive force. Citrate consumption by the mutant strain was coupled to the excretion of oxaloacetate, with a yield of 80 to 85%. Following citrate consumption, oxaloacetate was slowly taken up by the cells and converted to pyruvate by a cryptic decarboxylase and, subsequently, to acetate. The transport of oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CitP. The parental strain IL1403(pFL3) containing CitP consumed oxaloacetate, while the original strain, IL1403, not containing CitP, did not. Moreover, oxaloacetate consumption was enhanced in the presence of l-lactate, indicating exchange between oxaloacetate and l-lactate catalyzed by CitP. Hence, when oxaloacetate inadvertently accumulates in the cytoplasm, the physiological response of L. lactis is to excrete oxaloacetate in exchange with citrate by an electroneutral mechanism catalyzed by CitP. Subsequently, in a second step, oxaloacetate is taken up by CitP and metabolized to pyruvate and acetate. PMID:21665973

  10. p-Hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium difficile. A novel glycyl radical enzyme catalysing the formation of p-cresol.

    PubMed

    Selmer, T; Andrei, P I

    2001-03-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium Clostridium difficile is a versatile organism concerning its ability to ferment amino acids. The formation of p-cresol as the main fermentation product of tyrosine by C. difficile is unique among clostridial species. The enzyme responsible for p-cresol formation is p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase. The enzyme was purified from C. difficile strain DMSZ 1296(T) and initially characterized. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence was 100% identical to an open reading frame in the unfinished genome of C. difficile strain 630. The ORF encoded a protein of the same size as the purified decarboxylase and was very similar to pyruvate formate-lyase-like proteins from Escherichia coli and Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The enzyme decarboxylated p-hydroxyphenylacetate (K(m) = 2.8 mM) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (K(m) = 0.5 mM). It was competitively inhibited by the substrate analogues p-hydroxyphenylacetylamide and p-hydroxymandelate with K(i) values of 0.7 mM and 0.48 mM, respectively. The protein was readily and irreversibly inactivated by molecular oxygen. Although the purified enzyme was active in the presence of sodium sulfide, there are some indications for an as yet unidentified low molecular mass cofactor that is required for catalytic activity in vivo. Based on the identification of p-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase as a novel glycyl radical enzyme and the substrate specificity of the enzyme, a catalytic mechanism involving ketyl radicals as intermediates is proposed. PMID:11231288

  11. Expression and characterization of a glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis 877G producing γ-aminobutyric acid.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myung-Ji; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Yi, Sung-Hun; Lim, Seong-Il

    2013-01-01

    The glutamate decarboxylase of γ-aminobutyric acid-producing Lactobacillus brevis 877G (LbGAD) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimal pH and temperature for the purified LbGAD activity were respectively determined to be pH 5.2 and 45 °C. CaCl2 was shown to be a potent activator of this LbGAD activity. The kinetic parameters for LbGAD were a Km value of 3.6 mmol/L and a Vmax value of 0.06 mmol/L/min for L-monosodium glutamate. PMID:23563537

  12. Improved conversion of cinnamaldehyde derivatives to diol compounds via a pyruvate decarboxylase-dependent mechanism in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Shunichi; Negishi, Yukari; Sekiya, Yusuke; Nakajima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is stereospecifically converted to (2S,3R) 5-phenylpent-4-ene-2,3-diol, an important starting material for the synthesis of biologically active compounds, by the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Immobilization of the yeast in calcium alginate capsules suppressed the formation of by-products and increased accumulation of the diol compounds. The mechanism of cinnamaldehyde conversion was investigated by using recombinant strains of Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae carrying the pyruvate decarboxylase gene PDC1. As a result, condensation of the substrate with acetaldehyde was enhanced by PDC and flow to the diol product was altered. PMID:26228910

  13. S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE: A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Virata, Maria Catrina; Peerson, Janet M.; Stabler, Sally P.; French, Samuel W.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Albanese, Anthony; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Panacek, Edward A.; Richards, John R.; Halsted, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Background S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is the methyl donor for all methylation reactions and regulates the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular antioxidant. Previous experimental studies suggested that SAM may benefit patients with established alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of SAM in treatment of ALD in a 24 week trial. The primary endpoints were changes in serum aminotransferase levels and liver histopathology scores, and the secondary endpoint was changes in serum levels of methionine metabolites. Methods We randomized 37 patients with ALD to receive 1.2 grams of SAM by mouth or placebo daily. Subjects were required to remain abstinent from alcohol drinking. A baseline liver biopsy was performed in 24 subjects and a post-treatment liver biopsy was performed in 14 subjects. Results Fasting serum SAM levels were increased over timed intervals in the SAM treatment group. The entire cohort showed an overall improvement of AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels after 24 weeks of treatment but there were no differences between the treatment groups in any clinical or biochemical parameters nor any intra- or intergroup differences or changes in liver histopathology scores for steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and Mallory-Denk hyaline bodies. Conclusions Whereas abstinence improved liver function, twenty-four weeks of therapy with SAM was no more effective than placebo in the treatment of ALD. PMID:22044287

  14. The Biosynthesis of Thiol- and Thioether-containing Cofactors and Secondary Metabolites Catalyzed by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur atoms are present as thiol and thioether functional groups in amino acids, coenzymes, cofactors, and various products of secondary metabolic pathways. The biosynthetic pathways for several sulfur-containing biomolecules require the substitution of sulfur for hydrogen at unreactive aliphatic or electron-rich aromatic carbon atoms. Examples discussed in this review include biotin, lipoic acid, methylthioether modifications found in some nucleic acids and proteins, and thioether cross-links found in peptide natural products. Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes use an iron-sulfur cluster to catalyze the reduction of SAM to methionine and a highly reactive 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical; this radical can abstract hydrogen atoms at unreactive positions, facilitating the introduction of a variety of functional groups. Radical SAM enzymes that catalyze sulfur insertion reactions contain a second iron-sulfur cluster that facilitates the chemistry, either by donating the cluster's endogenous sulfide or by binding and activating exogenous sulfide or sulfur-containing substrates. The use of radical chemistry involving iron-sulfur clusters is an efficient anaerobic route to the generation of carbon-sulfur bonds in cofactors, secondary metabolites, and other natural products. PMID:25477512

  15. Boron (B) deprivation increases plasma homocysteine and decreases liver S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diverse effects of B deprivation suggest that B affects a biomolecule involved in a variety of biochemical reactions. An experiment was conducted to determine whether dietary B affects the liver concentration of SAM, a frequently used enzyme substrate, especially for methylation reactions that y...

  16. Crystallographic capture of a radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme in the act of modifying tRNA.

    PubMed

    Schwalm, Erica L; Grove, Tyler L; Booker, Squire J; Boal, Amie K

    2016-04-15

    RlmN is a dual-specificity RNA methylase that modifies C2 of adenosine 2503 (A2503) in 23S rRNA and C2 of adenosine 37 (A37) in several Escherichia coli transfer RNAs (tRNAs). A related methylase, Cfr, modifies C8 of A2503 via a similar mechanism, conferring resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Here, we report the x-ray structure of a key intermediate in the RlmN reaction, in which a Cys(118)→Ala variant of the protein is cross-linked to a tRNA(Glu)substrate through the terminal methylene carbon of a formerly methylcysteinyl residue and C2 of A37. RlmN contacts the entire length of tRNA(Glu), accessing A37 by using an induced-fit strategy that completely unfolds the tRNA anticodon stem-loop, which is likely critical for recognition of both tRNA and ribosomal RNA substrates. PMID:27081063

  17. A Second 5-Carboxyvanillate Decarboxylase Gene, ligW2, Is Important for Lignin-Related Biphenyl Catabolism in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xue; Masai, Eiji; Kasai, Daisuke; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

    2005-01-01

    A lignin-related biphenyl compound, 5,5′-dehydrodivanillate (DDVA), is degraded to 5-carboxyvanillate (5CVA) by the enzyme reactions catalyzed by DDVA O-demethylase (LigX), meta-cleavage oxygenase (LigZ), and meta-cleavage compound hydrolase (LigY) in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. 5CVA is then transformed to vanillate by a nonoxidative 5CVA decarboxylase and is further degraded through the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. A 5CVA decarboxylase gene, ligW, was isolated from SYK-6 (X. Peng, E. Masai, H. Kitayama, K. Harada, Y, Katayama, and M. Fukuda, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4407-4415, 2002). However, disruption of ligW slightly affected the 5CVA decarboxylase activity and the growth rate on DDVA of the mutant, suggesting the presence of an alternative 5CVA decarboxylase gene. Here we isolated a second 5CVA decarboxylase gene, ligW2, which consists of a 1,050-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 39,379 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded by ligW2 exhibits 37% identity with the sequence encoded by ligW. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction product from 5CVA catalyzed by LigW2 in the presence of deuterium oxide, LigW2 was indicated to be a nonoxidative decarboxylase of 5CVA, like LigW. After disruption of ligW2, both the growth rate on DDVA and the 5CVA decarboxylase activity of the mutant were decreased to approximately 30% of the wild-type levels. The ligW ligW2 double mutant lost both the ability to grow on DDVA and the 5CVA decarboxylase activity. These results indicate that both ligW and ligW2 contribute to 5CVA degradation, although ligW2 plays the more important role in the growth of SYK-6 cells on DDVA. PMID:16151081

  18. Structural Basis of Enzymatic Activity for the Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an “open-closed” mechanism involving a pocket of 8×8×15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer. PMID:21283705

  19. Histamine and histidine decarboxylase are correlated with mucosal repair in rat small intestine after ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, K; Imamura, I; Granger, D N; Wada, H; Sakata, T; Tso, P

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate whether histamine and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) contribute to mucosal repair in small intestine subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 15 min followed by reperfusion. In jejunal mucosa, histamine content and HDC activity increased after I/R. Histamine output in mesenteric lymph was also elevated after I/R. These increases in HDC activity, and mucosal and lymph histamine levels were suppressed by pretreatment of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (alpha-FMH), a suicide inhibitor of HDC. alpha-FMH also attenuated the increase of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity normally observed after I/R. Transport of dietary lipid into lymph markedly decreased at 24 h after I/R, yet it was restored to normal at 48 h after I/R. alpha-FMH inhibitor led to a sustained deficit in lipid transport at 48 h after I/R. This sustained functional impairment in alpha-FMH treated animals was associated with blunted responses of HDC activity and histamine content to I/R. Our results suggest that histamine and HDC contribute to the restoration in mucosal function observed at 48 h after I/R. This response may be related, at least in part, to stimulation of ODC activity by histamine. PMID:1729265

  20. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA

    PubMed Central

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W. S.; Houry, Walid A.; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  1. Amino acid decarboxylase activity and other chemical characteristics as related to freshness loss in iced cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrero, M Manuela; Duflos, Guillaume; Malle, Pierre; Bouquelet, Stéphane

    2002-07-01

    Biogenic amine levels and other biochemical indicators were measured to study the safety of and the loss of freshness in iced Atlantic cod. Biogenic amine content exhibited high variability during iced storage of Atlantic cod. Ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activity apparently increased at the end of the storage period. Amino acid activity was probably generated by endogenous amino acid decarboxylases of raw fish. No statistical differences were observed in the total volatile base fraction or in the ammonia or monomethylamine contents during iced storage. However, trimethylamine contents showed a significant exponential relationship with time and sensory score. Cod formed inosine as the major metabolite of IMP. The H and G indices showed a linear relationship with time and sensory score and served as good indicators of cod freshness quality. However, the K, Ki, and P indices showed a logarithmic relationship with time and sensory score. IMP, K, Ki, and P served as indicators of freshness lost during the early stages of chilled storage of cod. PMID:12117250

  2. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD).

    PubMed

    Reymond, I; Sergeant, A; Tappaz, M

    1996-06-01

    The taurine biosynthesis enzyme, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), was purified to homogeneity from rat liver. Three CSD peptides generated by tryptic cleavage were isolated and partially sequenced. Two of them showed a marked homology with glutamate decarboxylase and their respective position on the CSD amino acid sequence was postulated accordingly. Using appropriate degenerated primers derived from these two peptides, a PCR amplified DNA fragment was generated from liver poly(A)+ mRNA, cloned and used as a probe to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Three cDNAs, length around 1800 bp, were isolated which all contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 493 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 55.2 kDa close to the experimental values for CSD. The encoded protein contained the sequence of the three peptides isolated from homogenous liver CSD. Our data confirm and significantly extend those recently published (Kaisaki et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1262, 79-82). Indeed, an additional base pair found 1371 bp downstream from the initiation codon led to a shift in the open reading frame which extended the carboxy-terminal end by 15 amino acid residues and altogether modified 36 amino acids. The validity of this correction is supported by the finding that the corrected reading frame encoded a peptide issued from CSD tryptic cleavage that was not encoded anywhere in the CSD sequence previously reported. PMID:8679699

  3. The role of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in bacillamide C biosynthesis by Bacillus atrophaeus C89

    PubMed Central

    Yuwen, Lei; Zhang, Feng-Li; Chen, Qi-Hua; Lin, Shuang-Jun; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    For biosynthesis of bacillamide C by Bacillus atrophaeus C89 associated with South China sea sponge Dysidea avara, it is hypothesized that decarboxylation from L-tryptophan to tryptamine could be performed before amidation by the downstream aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene cluster for biosynthesizing bacillamide C. The structural analysis of decarboxylases' known substrates in KEGG database and alignment analysis of amino acid sequence of AADC have suggested that L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine are the potential substrates of AADC. The enzymatic kinetic experiment of the recombinant AADC proved that L-tryptophan is a more reactive substrate of AADC than L-phenylalanine. Meanwhile, the AADC-catalyzed conversion of L-tryptophan into tryptamine was confirmed by means of HPLC and LC/MS. Thus during bacillamide C biosynthesis, the decarboxylation of L-tryptophan to tryptamine is likely conducted first under AADC catalysis, followed by the amidation of tryptamine with the carboxylic product of NRPS gene cluster. PMID:23628927

  4. Structural Characterization of the Molecular Events during a Slow Substrate-Product Transition in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Pai, Emil F

    2009-04-06

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.

  5. Fatal malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency due to maternal uniparental isodisomy of the telomeric end of chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Malvagia, S; Papi, L; Morrone, A; Donati, M A; Ciani, F; Pasquini, E; la Marca, G; Scholte, H R; Genuardi, M; Zammarchi, E

    2007-11-01

    Malonic aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, encoded by the MLYCD gene. We report on a patient with clinical presentation in the neonatal period. Metabolic investigations led to a diagnosis of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, confirmed by decreased activity in cultured fibroblasts. High doses of carnitine and a diet low in lipids led to a reduction in malonic acid excretion, and to an improvement in his clinical conditions, but at the age of 4 months he died suddenly and unexpectedly. No autopsy was performed. Molecular analysis of the MLYCD gene performed on the proband's RNA and genomic DNA identified a previously undescribed mutation (c.772-775delACTG) which was homozygous. This mutation was present in his mother but not in his father; paternity was confirmed by microsatellite analysis. A hypothesis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was investigated using fourteen microsatellite markers on chromosome 16, and the results confirmed maternal UPD. Maternal isodisomy of the 16q24 region led to homozygosity for the MLYCD mutant allele, causing the patient's disease. These findings are relevant for genetic counselling of couples with a previously affected child, since the recurrence risk in future pregnancies is dramatically reduced by the finding of UPD. In addition, since the patient had none of the clinical manifestations previously associated with maternal UPD 16, this case provides no support for the existence of maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 16 with a major effect on phenotype. PMID:17535268

  6. Specific protein binding to a conserved region of the ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Manzella, J M; Blackshear, P J

    1992-04-01

    An RNA gel retardation assay was used to identify one or more cellular protein(s) (ornithine decarboxylase mRNA 5'-UTR binding protein (ODCBP)) that bind specifically to a conserved region of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA. Ultraviolet light cross-linking demonstrated that this protein has an apparent Mr = 58,000 in mammalian cells. Treatment with the oxidizing agent diamide prevented binding of the ODCBP to ODC mRNA; addition of beta-mercaptoethanol reversed this inhibition and permitted mRNA.ODCBP complex formation. Cytoplasmic extracts from a variety of animal cells and tissues demonstrated similar binding activities; however, there was marked tissue-specific expression of the protein in the rat, with brain, heart, lung, and testis containing large amounts, and kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle expressing negligible amounts. Binding was completely prevented by several mutations within a highly conserved heptanucleotide region (CCAU/ACUC) that was within 61 bases of the initiation codon in ODC mRNAs from mammals, Xenopus, and Caenorhabditis elegans; mutations 5' and 3' of the conserved heptanucleotide domain had no effect on binding activity. Binding was not affected by manipulation of cellular polyamine levels or by treatment of cells with agents that stimulate ODC biosynthesis. Thus, we have identified a widely distributed cellular protein that binds to a conserved domain within the 5'-UTR of ODC mRNA from many animal species; functional consequences of this binding remain to be determined. PMID:1551914

  7. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W S; Houry, Walid A; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-06-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1})

  9. Structural basis of enzymatic activity for the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Yang, Jinkui; Lou, Zhiyong; Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer. PMID:21283705

  10. Ascorbic acid inhibits ferric nitrilotriacetate induction of ornithine decarboxylase, DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2015-11-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound with antioxidant properties used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. In this study, the effect of AA on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats has been examined. Fe-NTA alone enhances ornithine decarboxylase activity to 4.5-fold and tritiated thymidine incorporation in DNA to 3.6-fold in livers compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. The enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 3.02- and 1.88-fold, respectively, at a higher dose of 2 mg AA per day per animal, compared with the Fe-NTA-treated groups. Fe-NTA treatment also enhanced the hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation to 1.7-fold compared to saline-treated controls. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving pretreatment of AA. The present data shows that AA can reciprocate the toxic effects of Fe-NTA and can serve as a potent chemopreventive agent to suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:23863956

  11. Structural characterization of the molecular events during a slow substrate-product transition in orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Pai, Emil F

    2009-04-17

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis. PMID:19236876

  12. Aspartate decarboxylase (PanD) as a new target of pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wanliang; Chen, Jiazhen; Feng, Jie; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Shuo; Weng, Xinhua; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a frontline anti-tuberculosis drug that plays a crucial role in the treatment of both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). PZA is a prodrug that is converted to its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), by a nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase encoded by the pncA gene, the mutation of which is the major cause of PZA resistance. Although RpsA (ribosomal protein S1, involved in trans-translation) has recently been shown to be a target of POA/PZA, whole-genome sequencing has identified mutations in the panD gene encoding aspartate decarboxylase in PZA-resistant strains lacking pncA and rpsA mutations. To gain more insight into a possible new target of PZA, we isolated 30 POA-resistant mutants lacking mutations in pncA and rpsA from M. tuberculosis in vitro, and whole-genome sequencing of 3 mutants identified various mutations in the panD gene. Additionally, sequencing analysis revealed that the remaining 27 POA-resistant mutants all harbored panD mutations affecting the C-terminus of the PanD protein, with PanD M117I being the most frequent mutation (24/30, 80%). Conditional overexpression of panD from M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis or E. coli, or of M. tuberculosis mutant PanD M117I, all conferred resistance to POA and PZA in M. tuberculosis. β-alanine and pantothenate, which are downstream products of PanD, were found to antagonize the antituberculosis activity of POA. In addition, the activity of the M. tuberculosis PanD enzyme was inhibited by POA at therapeutically relevant concentrations in a concentration-dependent manner but was not inhibited by the prodrug PZA or the control compound nicotinamide. These findings suggest that PanD represents a new target of PZA/POA. These results have implications for a better understanding of this peculiar persister drug and for the design of new drugs targeting M. tuberculosis persisters for improved treatment. PMID:26038753

  13. Mechanism of the Orotidine 5’-Monophosphate Decarboxylase-Catalyzed Reaction: Evidence for Substrate Destabilization†

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kui K.; Wood, B. McKay; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Imker, Heidi J.; Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.; Almo, Steven C.; Gerlt, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5’-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (kcat/knon, 7.1 × 1016) and proficiency [(kcat/KM)/knon, 4.8 × 1022 M−1] is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (≥ 1010). The origin of the “missing” contribution, ≤ 107 (∼1017 total - ≥ 1010), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency [Wu, N., Mo, Y., Gao, J., and Pai, E. F. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 2017−2022]. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of kcat for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analog) but have little effect on the value of kex for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis á vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and exchange provide additional evidence for a carbanionic intermediate as well as the involvement of Asp 70 in substrate destabilization. PMID:19435314

  14. Antibodies to Inhibitory Synaptic Proteins in Neurological Syndromes Associated with Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Hernndez, Eugenia; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Sabater, Lidia; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) associate to different neurological syndromes. It is unknown if the diversity in syndrome association represents epitopes in different immunodominant domains or co-existence of antibodies to other proteins of the inhibitory synapsis. We examined the serum and CSF of 106 patients with anti-GAD related syndromes (39 cerebellar ataxia, 32 stiff-person syndrome [SPS], 18 epilepsy, and 17 limbic encephalitis [LE]). GAD65-ab titres were quantified by ELISA. Immunoblot was used to determine if the antibody-targeted epitopes of GAD65 and GAD67 were linear. A cell-based assay (CBA) with HEK293 cells expressing the GAD65 N-terminal, central catalytic domain, or C-terminal was used to investigate the immunodominant domains. Antibodies to GAD67, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAaR), glycine receptor (GlyR), GABAaR-associated protein (GABARAP), and gephyrin were determined with CBA. GAD-ab internalization was investigated using cultured rat hippocampal neurons. CSF GAD65-ab titres were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia and LE compared to those with SPS (p = 0.02). GAD67-ab were identified in 81% of sera and 100% of CSF. GAD65-ab recognized linear epitopes in 98% of the patients and GAD67-ab in 42% (p<0.001). The GAD65 catalytic domain was recognized by 93% of sera, and the three domains by 22% of sera and 74% of CSF (p<0.001). Six patients had GABAaR-ab and another 6 had GlyR-ab without association to distinctive symptoms. None of the patients had gephyrin- or GABARAP-ab. GAD65-ab were not internalized by live neurons. Overall, these findings show that regardless of the neurological syndrome, the CSF immune response against GAD is more widespread than that of the serum and that there is no specific association between clinical phenotype and the presence of antibodies against other proteins of the inhibitory synapsis. PMID:25774787

  15. Substrate Binding Mode and Molecular Basis of a Specificity Switch in Oxalate Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen; Easthon, Lindsey M; Reinhardt, Laurie A; Tu, Chingkuang; Cohen, Steven E; Silverman, David N; Allen, Karen N; Richards, Nigel G J

    2016-04-12

    Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into formate and carbon dioxide in a remarkable reaction that requires manganese and dioxygen. Previous studies have shown that replacing an active-site loop segment Ser(161)-Glu(162)-Asn(163)-Ser(164) in the N-terminal domain of OxDC with the cognate residues Asp(161)-Ala(162)-Ser-(163)-Asn(164) of an evolutionarily related, Mn-dependent oxalate oxidase gives a chimeric variant (DASN) that exhibits significantly increased oxidase activity. The mechanistic basis for this change in activity has now been investigated using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) and isotope effect (IE) measurements. Quantitative analysis of the reaction stoichiometry as a function of oxalate concentration, as determined by MIMS, suggests that the increased oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant is associated with only a small fraction of the enzyme molecules in solution. In addition, IE measurements show that C-C bond cleavage in the DASN OxDC variant proceeds via the same mechanism as in the wild-type enzyme, even though the Glu(162) side chain is absent. Thus, replacement of the loop residues does not modulate the chemistry of the enzyme-bound Mn(II) ion. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that the observed oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant arises from an increased level of access of the solvent to the active site during catalysis, implying that the functional role of Glu(162) is to control loop conformation. A 2.6 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between oxalate and the Co(II)-substituted ΔE162 OxDC variant, in which Glu(162) has been deleted from the active site loop, reveals the likely mode by which the substrate coordinates the catalytically active Mn ion prior to C-C bond cleavage. The "end-on" conformation of oxalate observed in the structure is consistent with the previously published V/K IE data and provides an empty coordination site for the dioxygen ligand that is thought to mediate the formation of Mn(III) for catalysis upon substrate binding. PMID:27014926

  16. Substrate Binding Mode and Molecular Basis of a Specificity Switch in Oxalate Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into formate and carbon dioxide in a remarkable reaction that requires manganese and dioxygen. Previous studies have shown that replacing an active-site loop segment Ser161-Glu162-Asn163-Ser164 in the N-terminal domain of OxDC with the cognate residues Asp161-Ala162-Ser-163-Asn164 of an evolutionarily related, Mn-dependent oxalate oxidase gives a chimeric variant (DASN) that exhibits significantly increased oxidase activity. The mechanistic basis for this change in activity has now been investigated using membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) and isotope effect (IE) measurements. Quantitative analysis of the reaction stoichiometry as a function of oxalate concentration, as determined by MIMS, suggests that the increased oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant is associated with only a small fraction of the enzyme molecules in solution. In addition, IE measurements show that C–C bond cleavage in the DASN OxDC variant proceeds via the same mechanism as in the wild-type enzyme, even though the Glu162 side chain is absent. Thus, replacement of the loop residues does not modulate the chemistry of the enzyme-bound Mn(II) ion. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that the observed oxidase activity of the DASN OxDC variant arises from an increased level of access of the solvent to the active site during catalysis, implying that the functional role of Glu162 is to control loop conformation. A 2.6 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between oxalate and the Co(II)-substituted ΔE162 OxDC variant, in which Glu162 has been deleted from the active site loop, reveals the likely mode by which the substrate coordinates the catalytically active Mn ion prior to C–C bond cleavage. The “end-on” conformation of oxalate observed in the structure is consistent with the previously published V/K IE data and provides an empty coordination site for the dioxygen ligand that is thought to mediate the formation of Mn(III) for catalysis upon substrate binding. PMID:27014926

  17. Fern L-methionine decarboxylase: Kinetics and mechanism of decarboxylation and abortive transamination

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Stevenson, D.E.; Gani, D. )

    1990-08-21

    L-Methionine decarboxylase from Dryopteris filix-mas catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-methionine and a range of straight- and branched-chain L-amino acids to give the corresponding amine products. The deuterium solvent isotope effects for the decarboxylation of (2S)-methionine are {sup D}(V/K) = 6.5 and {sup D}V = 2.3, for (2S)-valine are {sup D}(V/K) = 1.9 and {sup D}V = 2.6, and for (2S)-lecuine are {sup D}(V/K) = 2.5 and {sup D}V = 1.0 at pL 5.5. At pL 6.0 and above, where the value of k{sub cat} for all of the substrates is low, the solvent isotope effects on V{sub max} for methionine are 1.1-1.2 whereas the effects on V/K remain unchanged, indicating that the solvent-sensitive transition state occurs before the first irreversible step, carbon dioxide desorption. At very high concentration, the product amine can promote transamination of the coenzyme. However, the reaction occurs infrequently and does not influence the partitioning between decarboxylation and substrate-mediated abortive transamination under steady-state turnover conditions. The partition ratio, normal catalytic versus abortive events, can be determined from the amount of substrate consumed by a known amount of enzyme at infinite time, and the rate of inactivation can be determined by measuring the decrease in enzyme activity with respect to time. Experiments conducted in deuterium oxide allowed the solvent isotope effects for the partition ratio and the abortive reaction to be determined. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic analysis of 3-(methylthio)-1-aminopropane isolated from incubations conducted in 50 molar % deuterium oxide at pL 4.8 and at pL 6.5 indicated that the proton donor was monoprotic and, therefore, is probably the imidazolium side chain of a histidine residue.

  18. Mechanism of the Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase-Catalyzed Reaction: Evidence for Substrate Destabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.; Wood, M; Fedorov, A; Fedorov, E; Imker, H; Amyes, T; Richard, J; Almo, S; Gerlt, J

    2009-01-01

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (kcat/knon, 7.1 x 1016) and proficiency (kcat/KM)/knon, 4.8 x 1022 M-1 is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (=1010). The origin of the 'missing' contribution, =107 (1017 total - =1010), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of kcat for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analogue) but have little effect on the value of kex for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild-type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild-type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and exchange provide additional evidence for a carbanionic intermediate as well as the involvement of Asp 70 in substrate destabilization.

  19. EARLY BIOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF A NEUROBEHAVIORAL TERATOGEN: INFLUENCE OF PRENATAL METHYLMERCURY EXPOSURE ON ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE IN BRAIN AND OTHER TISSUES OF FETAL AND NEONATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an enzymatic regulator of macromolecule synthesis, has proven useful as a biochemical marker for teratologic events. Daily administration of methylmercury (0.5 or 1 mg/kg s.c.) to pregnant rats during the second and third trimesters had a profound e...

  20. Significant enhancement of methionol production by co-expression of the aminotransferase gene ARO8 and the decarboxylase gene ARO10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sheng; Lang, Tiandan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2015-03-01

    Methionol is an important volatile sulfur flavor compound, which can be produced via the Ehrlich pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aminotransferase and decarboxylase are essential enzymes catalyzing methionol biosynthesis. In this work, two aminotransferase genes ARO8 and ARO9 and one decarboxylase gene ARO10 were introduced into S. cerevisiae S288c, respectively, via an expression vector. Over-expression of ARO8 resulted in higher aminotransferase activity than that of ARO9. And the cellular decarboxylase activity was remarkably increased by over-expression of ARO10. A co-expression vector carrying both ARO8 and ARO10 was further constructed to generate the recombinant strain S810. Shaking flask experiments showed that the methionol yield from S810 reached 1.27 g L(-1), which was increased by 51.8 and 68.8% compared to that from the wild-type strain and the control strain harboring the empty vector. The fed-batch fermentation by strain S810 produced 3.24 g L(-1) of methionol after 72 h of cultivation in a bioreactor. These results demonstrated that co-expression of ARO8 and ARO10 significantly boosted the methionol production. It is the first time that more than 3.0 g L(-1) of methionol produced by genetically engineered yeast strain was reported by co-expression of the aminotransferase and decarboxylase via the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:25743068

  1. Steady-state and transient-state analysis of growth and metabolite production in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with reduced pyruvate-decarboxylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Flikweert, M.T.; Kuyper, M.; Maris, A.J.A. van; Koetter, P.; Dijken, J.P. van; Pronk, J.T.

    1999-07-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase is a key enzyme in the production of low-molecular-weight byproducts (ethanol, acetate) in biomass-directed applications of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate whether decreased expression levels of pyruvate decarboxylase can reduce byproduct formation, the PDC2 gene, which encodes a positive regulator of pyruvate-decarboxylase synthesis, was inactivated in the prototrophic strain S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D. This caused a 3--4-fold reduction of pyruvate-decarboxylase activity in glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures grown at a dilution rate of 0.10 h{sup {minus}1}. Upon exposure of such cultures to a 50 mM glucose pulse, ethanol and acetate were the major byproducts formed by the wild type. In the pdc2{Delta} strain, formation of ethanol and acetate was reduced by 60--70%. In contrast to the wild type, the pdc2{Delta} strain produced substantial amounts of pyruvate after a glucose pulse. Nevertheless, its overall byproduct formation was ca. 50% lower. The specific rate of glucose consumption after a glucose pulse to pdc2{Delta} cultures was about 40% lower than in wild-type cultures.

  2. Low-pH Rescue of Acid-Sensitive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strains by a Rhamnose-Regulated Arginine Decarboxylase System

    PubMed Central

    Willingham, Crystal; Kong, Wei; Curtiss, Roy; Roland, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    For Salmonella, transient exposure to gastric pH prepares invading bacteria for the stresses of host-cell interactions. To resist the effects of low pH, wild-type Salmonella enterica uses the acid tolerance response and the arginine decarboxylase acid resistance system. However, arginine decarboxylase is typically repressed under routine culture conditions, and for many live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, the acid tolerance response is unable to provide the necessary protection. The objective of this study was to enhance survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains at pHs 3.0 and 2.5 to compensate for the defects in the acid tolerance response imposed by mutations in rpoS, phoPQ, and fur. We placed the arginine decarboxylase system (adiA and adiC) under the control of the ParaBAD or PrhaBAD promoter to provide inducible acid resistance when cells are grown under routine culture conditions. The rhamnose-regulated promoter PrhaBAD was less sensitive to the presence of its cognate sugar than the arabinose-regulated promoter ParaBAD and provided tighter control over adiA expression. Increased survival at low pH was only observed when adiA and adiC were coregulated by rhamnose and depended on the presence of rhamnose in the culture medium and arginine in the challenge medium. Rhamnose-regulated acid resistance significantly improved the survival of ΔaroD and ΔphoPQ mutants at pHs 3 and 2.5 but only modestly improved the survival of a fur mutant. The construction of the rhamnose-regulated arginine decarboxylase system allowed us to render S. Typhi acid resistant (to pH 2.5) on demand, with survival levels approximately equivalent to that of the native arginine decarboxylase system. PMID:23645603

  3. Physiological relation between respiration activity and heterologous expression of selected benzoylformate decarboxylase variants in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD) from Pseudomonas putida is a biotechnologically interesting biocatalyst. It catalyses the formation of chiral 2-hydroxy ketones, which are important building blocks for stereoselective syntheses. To optimise the enzyme function often the amino acid composition is modified to improve the performance of the enzyme. So far it was assumed that a relatively small modification of the amino acid composition of a protein does not significantly influence the level of expression or media requirements. To determine, which effects these modifications might have on cultivation and product formation, six different BFD-variants with one or two altered amino acids and the wild type BFD were expressed in Escherichia coli SG13009 pKK233-2. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) as parameter for growth and metabolic activity of the different E. coli clones was monitored on-line in LB, TB and modified PanG mineral medium with the Respiratory Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS). Results Although the E. coli clones were genetically nearly identical, the kinetics of their metabolic activity surprisingly differed in the standard media applied. Three different types of OTR curves could be distinguished. Whereas the first type (clones expressing Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr or Leu476Pro) had typical OTR curves, the second type (clones expressing the wild type BFD, Ser181Thr or His281Ala) showed an early drop of OTR in LB and TB medium and a drastically reduced maximum OTR in modified PanG mineral medium. The third type (clone expressing Leu476Gln) behaved variable. Depending on the cultivation conditions, its OTR curve was similar to the first or the second type. It was shown, that the kinetics of the metabolic activity of the first type depended on the concentration of thiamine, which is a cofactor of BFD, in the medium. It was demonstrated that the cofactor binding strength of the different BFD-variants correlated with the differences in metabolic activity of their respective host strain. Conclusions The BFD-variants with high cofactor binding affinity (wild type, His281Ala, Ser181Thr) obviously extract thiamine from the medium and bind it tightly to the enzyme. This might explain the hampered growth of these clones. In contrast, growth of clones expressing variants with low cofactor binding affinity (Leu476His, Leu476Pro, Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr) is not impaired. Leu476Gln has an intermediate cofactor binding strength, thus, growth of its host strain depends on the specific cultivation conditions. This paper shows that slight differences of the amino acid composition can affect protein expression and cultivation and might require an adaptation of media components. Effects such as the observed are hardly foreseeable and difficult to detect in conventional screening processes. Via small scale experiments with on-line measurements in shake flasks such effects influencing the cultivation and product formation can be detected and avoided. PMID:20958977

  4. Regulated splicing produces different forms of dopa decarboxylase in the central nervous system and hypoderm of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, B A; Johnson, W A; Hirsh, J

    1986-01-01

    The dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in the hypoderm and the nervous system and promoter elements mediating differential expression in these tissues have been identified (Scholnick et al., 1986). Here we report an additional mode of regulation; the unique primary transcript of the Ddc gene is spliced to form mRNAs in these two tissues which differ by a single internal exon. In vitro mutagenesis and P-element-mediated transformation were employed to manipulate the tissue-specific expression of these RNAs. This approach demonstrated that regulated splicing rather than differential stability causes the tissue-specific expression of these RNAs and allowed the identification of Ddc enzyme isoforms encoded by each mRNA. The Ddc enzyme in the central nervous system differs from the hypodermal Ddc protein by the addition of 33-35 amino acids on the N terminus. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3102230

  5. Modulation of novel-length DOPA decarboxylase transcripts by 20-OH-ecdysone in a Drosophila melanogaster Kc cell subline.

    PubMed Central

    Swiderski, R E; O'Connor, J D

    1986-01-01

    The induction of DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) activity by 20-OH-ecdysone (20-OHE) in a subline of Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells was investigated. Cells cultured in the continuous presence of the steroid hormone exhibited a 96-h temporal lag prior to a peak of DDC enzyme activity while arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. The concentration of Ddc RNA increased sixfold between 72 and 96 h after initial exposure to hormone. Similarly, this increase was correlated temporally with a 26-fold increase in DDC enzyme activity. The Kc Ddc primary transcript, processing intermediate, and mature mRNA all were approximately 500 nucleotides longer than the corresponding transcripts observed for newly eclosed adult D. melanogaster. In vitro translation of poly(A)+ RNA from Kc cells resulted in an immunoprecipitable polypeptide which exhibited similar mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels to that of DDC synthesized in vitro by larval epidermal poly(A)+ RNA. Images PMID:3025658

  6. Analysis of the primary structure and promoter function of a pyruvate decarboxylase gene (PDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, E; Seeboth, P G; Hollenberg, C P

    1986-01-01

    The PDC1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding pyruvate decarboxylase was sequenced. The gene contains an open reading frame of 1647 base pairs. The codon usage shows the same strong bias as found for some other glycolytic enzymes. Transcription starts mainly at -30 and terminates 100 base pairs downstream of the termination codon. In some strains a second termination site, 46 base pairs upstream of the stop codon was observed. The function of the promoter region was analyzed by fusion to the bacterial structural gene encoding beta-lactamase (bla). On multicopy plasmid or integrated in the genome, the expression of the bla gene showed the regulation of the authentic PDC1 gene. Images PMID:3537965

  7. Irreversible inactivation of pyruvate decarboxylase in the presence of substrate and an oxidant. An example of paracatalytic enzyme inactivation.

    PubMed

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Hausner, U; Christen, P

    1979-10-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase from yeast is progressively inactivated in the presence of pyruvate and an extrinsic oxidant such as 2,6-dichloroindophenol or hexacyanoferrate(III). The inactivation is linked to the oxidation of the hydroxyethylthiamine diphosphate intermediate to acetate. Removal of low-molecular compounds by gel filtration does not reactivate the enzyme. The rate of inactivation obeys saturation kinetics with respect to substrate concentration and is independent of enzyme concentration. In analogy to the paracatalytic inactivation of other enzymes forming oxidizable carbanion intermediates [Christen, P. (1977) Methods Enzymol.46, 48--54], the oxidation of enzyme-bound hydroxyethylthiamine diphosphate is thought to generate a transiently reactive intermediate which, without being released from the enzyme, covalently modifies a group at or near the active site. Reconstitution experiments indicate that the protein rather than the coenzyme moiety is modified. PMID:385313

  8. Improvement of ethanol production by recombinant expression of pyruvate decarboxylase in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiao; Hirabayashi, Sho; Mori, Toshio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    To improve ethanol production by Phanerochaete sordida YK-624, the pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene was cloned from and reintroduced into this hyper lignin-degrading fungus; the gene encodes a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation. We screened 16 transformant P. sordida YK-624 strains that each expressed a second, recombinant PDC gene (pdc) and then identified the transformant strain (designated GP7) with the highest ethanol production. Direct ethanol production from hardwood was 1.41 higher with GP7 than with wild-type P. sordida YK-624. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the increased PDC activity was caused by elevated recombinant pdc expression. Taken together, these results suggested that ethanol production by P. sordida YK-624 can be improved by the stable expression of an additional, recombinant pdc. PMID:26766784

  9. Seven novel point mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) gene in patients with familial porphyria cutanea tarda (f-PCT).

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Martinez di Montemuros, F; Tavazzi, D; Fargion, S; Pizzuti, A; Comino, A; Cainelli, T; Fiorelli, G

    2001-04-01

    In this work, we describe seven novel molecular defects in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene responsible for familial porphyria cutanea tarda in Italian subjects with reduced erythrocyte URO-D activity. Four of these molecular abnormalities (R142Q, L161Q, S219F, P235S) are missense mutations, one (Q206X) is a nonsense mutation, one (IVS8-1 G>C) is a splicing defect causing the exon 9 deletion and one (1107 G>A) is located in the 3' untranslated region of UROD gene. All the amino acid substitutions fall in conserved regions in several organisms suggesting an important role in catalysis or in the protein structure stabilization. Three of these mutations have been detected in more than one subject. These results suggest a molecular heterogeneity at the UROD locus in Italian PCT patients although recurrent mutations have been identified. PMID:11295834

  10. Inhibition of Morganella morganii Histidine Decarboxylase Activity and Histamine Accumulation in Mackerel Muscle Derived from Filipendula ulumaria Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yoko; Yasukata, Fumiko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Ito, Mikiko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Ueno, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, also known as meadowsweet, is an herb; its extract was examined for the prevention of histamine production, primarily that caused by contaminated fish. The efficacy of meadowsweet was assessed using two parameters: inhibition of Morganella morganii histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and inhibition of histamine accumulation in mackerel. Ellagitannins from F. ulmaria (rugosin D, rugosin A methyl ester, tellimagrandin II, and rugosin A) were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of human HDC; and in the present work, these compounds inhibited M. morganii HDC, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.5, 4.4, 6.1, and 6.8 μM, respectively. Application of the extracts (at 2 wt%) to mackerel meat yielded significantly decreased histamine accumulation compared with treatment with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Hence, F. ulmaria exhibits inhibitory activity against bacterial HDC and might be effective for preventing food poisoning caused by histamine. PMID:26939657

  11. A comprehensive picture of the mutations associated with aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: from molecular mechanisms to therapy implications.

    PubMed

    Montioli, Riccardo; Dindo, Mirco; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Piccoli, Stefano; Cellini, Barbara; Voltattorni, Carla Borri

    2014-10-15

    Dopa decarboxylase (DDC), or aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzyme responsible for the production of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Deficit of this enzyme causes AADC deficiency, an inherited neurometabolic disorder. To date, 18 missense homozygous mutations have been identified through genetic screening in ∼80 patients. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which mutations cause disease. Here we investigated the impact of these pathogenic mutations and of an artificial one on the conformation and the activity of wild-type DDC by a combined approach of bioinformatic, spectroscopic and kinetic analyses. All mutations reduce the kcat value, and, except the mutation R347Q, alter the tertiary structure, as revealed by an increased hydrophobic surface and a decreased near-UV circular dichroism signal. The integrated analysis of the structural and functional consequences of each mutation strongly suggests that the reason underlying the pathogenicity of the majority of disease-causing mutations is the incorrect apo-holo conversion. In fact, the most remarkable effects are seen upon mutation of residues His70, His72, Tyr79, Phe80, Pro81, Arg462 and Arg447 mapping to or directly interacting with loop1, a structural key element involved in the apo-holo switch. Instead, different mechanisms are responsible for the pathogenicity of R347Q, a mere catalytic mutation, and of L38P and A110Q mutations causing structural-functional defects. These are due to local perturbation transmitted to the active site, as predicted by molecular dynamic analyses. Overall, the results not only give comprehensive molecular insights into AADC deficiency, but also provide an experimental framework to suggest appropriate therapeutic treatments. PMID:24865461

  12. The first step in the biosynthesis of cocaine in Erythroxylum coca: the characterization of arginine and ornithine decarboxylases.

    PubMed

    Docimo, Teresa; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Kai, Marco; Kunert, Grit; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D'Auria, John C

    2012-04-01

    Despite the long history of cocaine use among humans and its social and economic significance today, little information is available about the biochemical and molecular aspects of cocaine biosynthesis in coca (Erythroxylum coca) in comparison to what is known about the formation of other pharmacologically-important tropane alkaloids in species of the Solanaceae. In this work, we investigated the site of cocaine biosynthesis in E. coca and the nature of the first step. The two principal tropane alkaloids of E. coca, cocaine and cinnamoyl cocaine, were present in highest concentrations in buds and rolled leaves. These are also the organs in which the rate of alkaloid biosynthesis was the highest based on the incorporation of ¹³CO₂. In contrast, tropane alkaloids in the Solanaceae are biosynthesized in the roots and translocated to the leaves. A collection of EST sequences from a cDNA library made from young E. coca leaves was employed to search for genes encoding the first step in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. Full-length cDNA clones were identified encoding two candidate enzymes, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and the enzymatic activities of the corresponding proteins confirmed by heterologous expression in E. coli and complementation of a yeast mutant. The transcript levels of both ODC and ADC genes were highest in buds and rolled leaves and lower in other organs. The levels of both ornithine and arginine themselves showed a similar pattern, so it was not possible to assign a preferential role in cocaine biosynthesis to one of these proteins. PMID:22311164

  13. Engineering Salidroside Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root Cultures of Rhodiola crenulata Based on Metabolic Characterization of Tyrosine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lingjiang; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Fei; Zheng, Weilie; Quan, Hong; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min; Huang, Wenlin; Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase initializes salidroside biosynthesis. Metabolic characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase gene from Rhodiola crenulata (RcTYDC) revealed that it played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis. Recombinant 53 kDa RcTYDC converted tyrosine into tyramine. RcTYDC gene expression was induced coordinately with the expression of RcUDPGT (the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis) in SA/MeJA treatment; the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was dramatically upregulated by SA, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. MeJA also significantly increased the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT in hairy root cultures. The tissue profile of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was highly similar: highest expression levels found in stems, higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots. The gene expressing levels were consistent with the salidroside accumulation levels. This strongly suggested that RcTYDC played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis in R. crenulata. Finally, RcTYDC was used to engineering salidroside biosynthetic pathway in R. crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines showed much higher expression levels of RcTYDC than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produced tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which were respectively 3.21–6.84, 1.50–2.19 and 1.27–3.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines. In conclusion, RcTYDC overexpression promoted tyramine biosynthesis that facilitated more metabolic flux flowing toward the downstream pathway and as a result, the intermediate tyrosol was accumulated more that led to the increased production of the end-product salidroside. PMID:24124492

  14. Analysis of a 30 kbp plasmid encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus halophilus isolated from fish sauce.

    PubMed

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa-Takahashi, Miwako; Yano, Yutaka

    2008-08-15

    In order to analyze the genes related to the histamine production, a strain of histamine producing halophilic bacteria, referred to as strain H, was isolated using enrichment culture and dilution-to-extinction methods with histidine broth inoculated from the fish sauce mashes. The two Japanese fish sauce mashes used, accumulate over 1000 mg/l of histamine. Phenotypic and 16 S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified strain H as Tetragenococcus halophilus, the predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR and Southern blot) of the histamine producing strain confirmed that the strain harbored a 30 kbp plasmid (pHDC) encoding a single copy of the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc). A comparison of hdcA that is a structural gene of histidine decarboxylase among strain H, Lactobacillus hilgardii 0006, L. sakei LTH2076, Oenococcus oeni 9204, T. halophilus and T. muriaticus JCM10006 (T) indicated >99% sequence similarity. The hdc gene cluster consisted of 4 ORFs, hdcP, hdcA, hdcB, and hdcRS, and were almost identical to that of L. hilgardii 0006 with 99% sequence similarity including the structural hdc spacer region. However, the approximately 500 bp regions upstream and downstream of the hdc gene were different between that of strain H and L. hilgardii 0006. The complete sequence of pHDC revealed 29,924 nucleotides including 28 ORFs, two pairs of IR (inverted repeat), similar sequence of plasmid conjugative elements, and a theta-type replicon. These results suggested that hdc could be encoded on transformable elements among lactic acid bacteria. PMID:18573560

  15. Evolution and Multiplicity of Arginine Decarboxylases in Polyamine Biosynthesis and Essential Role in Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Burrell, Matthew; Hanfrey, Colin C.; Murray, Ewan J.; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; Michael, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Arginine decarboxylases (ADCs; EC 4.1.1.19) from four different protein fold families are important for polyamine biosynthesis in bacteria, archaea, and plants. Biosynthetic alanine racemase fold (AR-fold) ADC is widespread in bacteria and plants. We report the discovery and characterization of an ancestral form of the AR-fold ADC in the bacterial Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes phyla. The ancestral AR-fold ADC lacks a large insertion found in Escherichia coli and plant AR-fold ADC and is more similar to the lysine biosynthetic enzyme meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase, from which it has evolved. An E. coli acid-inducible ADC belonging to the aspartate aminotransferase fold (AAT-fold) is involved in acid resistance but not polyamine biosynthesis. We report here that the acid-inducible AAT-fold ADC has evolved from a shorter, ancestral biosynthetic AAT-fold ADC by fusion of a response regulator receiver domain protein to the N terminus. Ancestral biosynthetic AAT-fold ADC appears to be limited to firmicute bacteria. The phylogenetic distribution of different forms of ADC distinguishes bacteria from archaea, euryarchaeota from crenarchaeota, double-membraned from single-membraned bacteria, and firmicutes from actinobacteria. Our findings extend to eight the different enzyme forms carrying out the activity described by EC 4.1.1.19. ADC gene clustering reveals that polyamine biosynthesis employs diverse and exchangeable synthetic modules. We show that in Bacillus subtilis, ADC and polyamines are essential for biofilm formation, and this appears to be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved function of polyamines in bacteria. Also of relevance to human health, we found that arginine decarboxylation is the dominant pathway for polyamine biosynthesis in human gut microbiota. PMID:20876533

  16. Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis. Structure and re-activation of apoenzyme by the cofactors thiamin diphosphate and magnesium ion.

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, R J; Duggleby, R G

    1991-01-01

    To study the mechanism of re-activation of Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase apoenzyme by its cofactors thiamin diphosphate and Mg2+, cofactor-free enzyme was prepared by dialysis against 1 mM-dipicolinic acid at pH 8.2. This apoenzyme was then used in a series of experiments that included determination of: (a) the affinity towards one cofactor when the other was present at saturating concentrations; (b) cofactor-binding rates by measuring the quenching of tryptophan fluorescence on the apoenzyme; (c) the effect of replacement of cofactors with various analogues; (d) the stoichiometry of bound cofactors in holoenzyme; and (e) the molecular mass of apoenzyme by gel filtration. The results of these experiments form the basis for a proposed model for the re-activation of Z. mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase apoenzyme by its cofactors. In this model there exists two alterative but equivalent pathways for cofactor binding. In each pathway the first step is an independent reversible binding of either thiamin diphosphate (Kd 187 microM) or Mg2+ (Kd 1.31 mM) to free apoenzyme. When both cofactors are present, the second cofactor-binding step to form active holoenzyme is a slow quasi-irreversible step. This second binding step is a co-operative process for both thiamin diphosphate (Kd 0.353 microM) and Mg2+ (Kd 2.47 microM). Both the apo- and the holo-enzyme have a tetrameric subunit structure, with cofactors binding in a 1:1 ratio with each subunit. PMID:2049073

  17. Modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the normal and regenerating rat liver by various doses of the peptide morphogen of Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, K.N.; Kazimirskii, A.N.; Kositskii, G.I.; Rubina, A.Yu.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Pylaev, A.S.

    1986-11-01

    In this investigation, changes in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were studied in the normal and regenerating liver of rats receiving injections of various doses of Hydra peptide morphogen (HPM). Activity of ODC was determined by a radioisotope method based on liberation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)-ornithine. The results indicate in the author's opinion that HPM may have a role in the regulation of anabolic processes and, in particular, of regenerative processes in mammals.

  18. In Vivo Formation of the Protein Disulfide Bond That Enhances the Thermostability of Diphosphomevalonate Decarboxylase, an Intracellular Enzyme from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Ai; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Motoyama, Kento; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present study, the crystal structure of recombinant diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus was solved as the first example of an archaeal and thermophile-derived diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase. The enzyme forms a homodimer, as expected for most eukaryotic and bacterial orthologs. Interestingly, the subunits of the homodimer are connected via an intersubunit disulfide bond, which presumably formed during the purification process of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli. When mutagenesis replaced the disulfide-forming cysteine residue with serine, however, the thermostability of the enzyme was significantly lowered. In the presence of β-mercaptoethanol at a concentration where the disulfide bond was completely reduced, the wild-type enzyme was less stable to heat. Moreover, Western blot analysis combined with nonreducing SDS-PAGE of the whole cells of S. solfataricus proved that the disulfide bond was predominantly formed in the cells. These results suggest that the disulfide bond is required for the cytosolic enzyme to acquire further thermostability and to exert activity at the growth temperature of S. solfataricus. IMPORTANCE This study is the first report to describe the crystal structures of archaeal diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, an enzyme involved in the classical mevalonate pathway. A stability-conferring intersubunit disulfide bond is a remarkable feature that is not found in eukaryotic and bacterial orthologs. The evidence that the disulfide bond also is formed in S. solfataricus cells suggests its physiological importance. PMID:26303832

  19. A metabolic strategy to enhance long-term survival by Phx1 through stationary phase-specific pyruvate decarboxylases in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Bähler, Jürg; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2014-07-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the stationary phase-specific transcription factor Phx1 contributes to long-term survival, stress tolerance, and meiosis. We identified Phx1-dependent genes through transcriptome analysis, and further analyzed those related with carbohydrate and thiamine metabolism, whose expression decreased in ∆phx1. Consistent with mRNA changes, the level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and TPP-utilizing pyruvate decarboxylase activity that converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde were also reduced in the mutant. Therefore, Phx1 appears to shift metabolic flux by diverting pyruvate from the TCA cycle and respiration to ethanol fermentation. Among the four predicted genes for pyruvate decarboxylase, only the Phx1-dependent genes (pdc201+ and pdc202+) contributed to long-term survival as judged by mutation and overexpression studies. These findings indicate that the Phx1-mediated long-term survival is achieved primarily through increasing the synthesis and activity of pyruvate decarboxylase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that Phx1 curtailed respiration when cells entered stationary phase. Introduction of Δphx1 mutation compromised the long-lived phenotypes of Δpka1 and Δsck2 mutants that are devoid of pro-aging kinases of nutrient-signalling pathways, and of the Δpyp1 mutant with constitutively activated stress-responsive kinase Sty1. Therefore, achievement of long-term viability through both nutrient limitation and anti-stress response appears to be dependent on Phx1. PMID:25102102

  20. Mapping of catalytically important residues in the rat L-histidine decarboxylase enzyme using bioinformatic and site-directed mutagenesis approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, John V; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Moya-García, Aurelio A; Langlois, Michael R; Wang, Timothy C

    2004-01-01

    HDC (L-histidine decarboxylase), the enzyme responsible for the catalytic production of histamine from L-histidine, belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of vitamin B6-dependent enzymes known as the group II decarboxylases. Yet despite the obvious importance of histamine, mammalian HDC enzymes remain poorly characterized at both the biochemical and structural levels. By comparison with the recently described crystal structure of the homologous enzyme L-DOPA decarboxylase, we have been able to identify a number of conserved domains and motifs that are important also for HDC catalysis. This includes residues that were proposed to mediate events within the active site, and HDC proteins carrying mutations in these residues were inactive when expressed in reticulocyte cell lysates reactions. Our studies also suggest that a significant change in quartenary structure occurs during catalysis. This involves a protease sensitive loop, and incubating recombinant HDC with an L-histidine substrate analogue altered enzyme structure so that the loop was no longer exposed for tryptic proteolysis. In total, 27 mutant proteins were used to test the proposed importance of 34 different amino acid residues. This is the most extensive mutagenesis study yet to identify catalytically important residues in a mammalian HDC protein sequence and it provides a number of novel insights into the mechanism of histamine biosynthesis. PMID:14961766

  1. Activation of 3':5'-cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and induction of ornithine decarboxylase as early events in induction of mixed-function oxygenases.

    PubMed Central

    Byus, C V; Costa, M; Sipes, I G; Brodie, B B; Russell, D H

    1976-01-01

    The parenteral administration of a single dose of 3-methylcholanthrene to rats caused an increase in the liver of the concentration of 3', 5'-cAMP and of the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). These events were followed by an increased activity of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lase, EC 4.1.1.17), the enzyme that controls the biosynthesis of polyamines. Finally, the activity of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, as well as the amount of cytochrome P-448, was increased. Similarly, after the administration of phenobarbital, there was first an increase in the cAMP concentration and in the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, then the induction of ornithine decarboxylase, and finally, an enhanced activity of ethylmorphine N-demethylase and an increased content of cytochrome P-450. These data suggest that the drug-induced processes in liver that increase the activities of the oxidative, and presumably other, drug-metabolizing enzymes include the following sequence of events: (1) increase in cAMP concentration and/or activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase; (2) induction of ornithine decarboxylase; and, (3) induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:177981

  2. A metabolic strategy to enhance long-term survival by Phx1 through stationary phase-specific pyruvate decarboxylases in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Bähler, Jürg; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2014-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the stationary phase-specific transcription factor Phx1 contributes to long-term survival, stress tolerance, and meiosis. We identified Phx1-dependent genes through transcriptome analysis, and further analyzed those related with carbohydrate and thiamine metabolism, whose expression decreased in Δphx1. Consistent with mRNA changes, the level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and TPP-utilizing pyruvate decarboxylase activity that converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde were also reduced in the mutant. Therefore, Phx1 appears to shift metabolic flux by diverting pyruvate from the TCA cycle and respiration to ethanol fermentation. Among the four predicted genes for pyruvate decarboxylase, only the Phx1-dependent genes (pdc201+ and pdc202+) contributed to long-term survival as judged by mutation and overexpression studies. These findings indicate that the Phx1-mediated long-term survival is achieved primarily through increasing the synthesis and activity of pyruvate decarboxylase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that Phx1 curtailed respiration when cells entered stationary phase. Introduction of Δphx1 mutation compromised the long-lived phenotypes of Δpka1 and Δsck2 mutants that are devoid of pro-aging kinases of nutrient-signalling pathways, and of the Δpyp1 mutant with constitutively activated stress-responsive kinase Sty1. Therefore, achievement of long-term viability through both nutrient limitation and anti-stress response appears to be dependent on Phx1. PMID:25102102

  3. Polyamine and ornithine metabolism during the germination of conidia of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, L; McKinnon, I M; Winther, M

    1976-01-01

    1. The activities of ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and ornithine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase were studied during the first 24 h of conidial germination in Aspergillus nidulans. 2. Increases (over 100-fold) in the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase occurred during the emergence of the germ-tube and before the doubling of DNA and this was followed by a sharp fall in the activities of both enzymes by 16h. 3. The increase in ornithine decarboxylase could be largely suppressed if 0.6 mM-putrescine was added to the growth medium. 4. Low concentrations of cycloheximide, which delayed germination by 2h, caused a corresponding delay in the changes in ornithine decarboxylase activity. 5. Ornithine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity increased steadily during the first 24h of germination. 6. Ornithine or arginine in the growth medium induced higher activity of ornithine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, but did not affect ornithine decarboxylase activity. 7. The significance of these enzyme changes during germination is discussed. PMID:791270

  4. Lack of Association Between Polymorphisms in Dopa Decarboxylase and Dopamine Receptor-1 Genes With Childhood Autism in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Yang, Aiping; Yang, Guohui; Yang, Wenjun; Lei, Heyue; Quan, Jianjun; Zhang, Zengyu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in childhood autism. This study is to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1) genes with childhood autism, in a Chinese Han population. A total of 211 autistic children and 250 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. The severity of disease was determined by Children Autism Rating Scale scores. TaqMan Probe by real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine genotypes and allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6592961 in DDC and rs251937 in DRD1. Case-control and case-only studies were respectively performed, to determine the contribution of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms to the predisposition of disease and its severity. Our results showed that there was no significant association of the genotypes and allele frequencies of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms concerning childhood autism and its severity. More studies with larger samples are needed to corroborate their predicting roles. PMID:26337060

  5. Structural basis for simultaneous binding of two carboxy-terminal peptides of plant glutamate decarboxylase to calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kyoko L; Yuan, Tao; Mal, Tapas K; Vogel, Hans J; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2003-04-18

    Activation of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) by calcium-bound calmodulin (CaM) is required for normal plant growth through regulation of gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate metabolism. The interaction of CaM with the C-terminal domain of GAD is believed to induce dimerization of the enzyme, an event implicated for Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme activation. Here, we present the solution structure of CaM in complex with a dimer of peptides derived from the C-terminus of Petunia hybrida GAD. The 23 kDa ternary complex is pseudo-symmetrical with each domain of CaM bound to one of the two antiparallel GAD peptides, which form an X-shape with an interhelical angle of 60 degrees. To accommodate the dimeric helical GAD target, the two domains of CaM adopt an orientation markedly different from that seen in other CaM-target complexes. Although the dimeric GAD domain is much larger than previously studied CaM-binding peptides, the two CaM domains appear closer together and make a number of interdomain contacts not observed in earlier complexes. The present structure of a single CaM molecule interacting with two target peptides provides new evidence for the conformational flexibility of CaM as well as a structural basis for the ability of CaM to activate two enzyme molecules simultaneously. PMID:12684008

  6. Reduction of oxalate levels in tomato fruit and consequent metabolic remodeling following overexpression of a fungal oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-05-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  7. The Pyruvate decarboxylase1 Gene of Arabidopsis Is Required during Anoxia But Not Other Environmental Stresses[w

    PubMed Central

    Kürsteiner, Oliver; Dupuis, Isabelle; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2003-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation is classically associated with flooding tolerance when plant cells switch from respiration to anaerobic fermentation. However, recent studies have suggested that fermentation also has important functions in the presence of oxygen, mainly in germinating pollen and during abiotic stress. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which catalyzes the first step in this pathway, is thought to be the main regulatory enzyme. Here, we characterize the PDC gene family in Arabidopsis. PDC is encoded by four closely related genes. By using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we determined the expression levels of each individual gene in different tissues, under normal growth conditions, and when the plants were subjected to anoxia or other environmental stress conditions. We show that PDC1 is the only gene induced under oxygen limitation among the PDC1 gene family and that a pdc1 null mutant is comprised in anoxia tolerance but not other environmental stresses. We also characterize the expression of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene family. None of the three genes is induced by anoxia but ALDH2B7 reacts strongly to ABA application and dehydration, suggesting that ALDH may play a role in aerobic detoxification of acetaldehyde. We discuss the possible role of ethanolic fermentation as a robust back-up energy production pathway under adverse conditions when mitochondrial function is disturbed. PMID:12805625

  8. The Krebs Cycle Enzyme α-Ketoglutarate Decarboxylase Is an Essential Glycosomal Protein in Bloodstream African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Steven; Szempruch, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    α-Ketoglutarate decarboxylase (α-KDE1) is a Krebs cycle enzyme found in the mitochondrion of the procyclic form (PF) of Trypanosoma brucei. The bloodstream form (BF) of T. brucei lacks a functional Krebs cycle and relies exclusively on glycolysis for ATP production. Despite the lack of a functional Krebs cycle, α-KDE1 was expressed in BF T. brucei and RNA interference knockdown of α-KDE1 mRNA resulted in rapid growth arrest and killing. Cell death was preceded by progressive swelling of the flagellar pocket as a consequence of recruitment of both flagellar and plasma membranes into the pocket. BF T. brucei expressing an epitope-tagged copy of α-KDE1 showed localization to glycosomes and not the mitochondrion. We used a cell line transfected with a reporter construct containing the N-terminal sequence of α-KDE1 fused to green fluorescent protein to examine the requirements for glycosome targeting. We found that the N-terminal 18 amino acids of α-KDE1 contain overlapping mitochondrion- and peroxisome-targeting sequences and are sufficient to direct localization to the glycosome in BF T. brucei. These results suggest that α-KDE1 has a novel moonlighting function outside the mitochondrion in BF T. brucei. PMID:25416237

  9. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production Using Immobilized Glutamate Decarboxylase Followed by Downstream Processing with Cation Exchange Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production technique using his-tag mediated immobilization of Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA. The GAD was obtained at 1.43 g/L from GAD-overexpressed E. coli fermentation and consisted of 59.7% monomer, 29.2% dimer and 2.3% tetramer with a 97.6% soluble form of the total GAD. The harvested GAD was immobilized to metal affinity gel with an immobilization yield of 92%. Based on an investigation of specific enzyme activity and reaction characteristics, glutamic acid (GA) was chosen over monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a substrate for immobilized GAD, resulting in conversion of 2.17 M GABA in a 1 L reactor within 100 min. The immobilized enzymes retained 58.1% of their initial activities after ten consecutive uses. By using cation exchange chromatography followed by enzymatic conversion, GABA was separated from the residual substrate and leached GAD. As a consequence, the glutamic acid was mostly removed with no detectable GAD, while 91.2% of GABA was yielded in the purification step. PMID:23322022

  10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid production using immobilized glutamate decarboxylase followed by downstream processing with cation exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production technique using his-tag mediated immobilization of Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA. The GAD was obtained at 1.43 g/L from GAD-overexpressed E. coli fermentation and consisted of 59.7% monomer, 29.2% dimer and 2.3% tetramer with a 97.6% soluble form of the total GAD. The harvested GAD was immobilized to metal affinity gel with an immobilization yield of 92%. Based on an investigation of specific enzyme activity and reaction characteristics, glutamic acid (GA) was chosen over monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a substrate for immobilized GAD, resulting in conversion of 2.17 M GABA in a 1 L reactor within 100 min. The immobilized enzymes retained 58.1% of their initial activities after ten consecutive uses. By using cation exchange chromatography followed by enzymatic conversion, GABA was separated from the residual substrate and leached GAD. As a consequence, the glutamic acid was mostly removed with no detectable GAD, while 91.2% of GABA was yielded in the purification step. PMID:23322022

  11. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 –, was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  12. Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; Planas, Joan; Saxena, Triambak; Zarza, Xavier; Bortolotti, Cristina; Cuevas, Juan; Bitrián, Marta; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Altabella, Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, a model genus missing a functional ornithine decarboxylase pathway, most of the key genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis are duplicated. This gene redundancy has been related to the involvement of certain gene isoforms in the response to specific environmental stimuli. We have previously shown that drought stress induces Arginine decarboxlase 2 expression, while transcript levels for Arginine decarboxlase 1 remain constant. Accumulation of putrescine and increased arginine decarboxlase activity (EC 4.1.1.19) levels in response to different abiotic stresses have been reported in many different plant systems, but the biological meaning of this increase remains unclear. To get a new insight into these questions, we have studied the response to drought of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines constitutively expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxlase 2 gene. These lines contain high levels of putrescine with no changes in spermidine and spermine content even under drought stress. Drought tolerance experiments indicate that the different degree of resistance to dehydration correlates with Put content. Although no significant differences were observed in the number of stomata between wild-type and transgenic plants, a reduction in transpiration rate and stomata conductance was observed in the ADC2 over-expressor lines. These results indicate that one of the mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of transgenic plants over-producing Put is related to a reduction of water loss by transpiration. PMID:20206537

  13. Studies on polyamine and ornithine metabolism in rat colon: effects of two synergistically. Acting inducers of ornithine decarboxylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in rat colon mucosa was determined by the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from radiolabeled ornithine in the presence (total enzyme) or absence (holoenzyme) of added pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP). Total leucine incorporation into acid-precipitable protein over 30 minute was calculated by dividing the /sup 3/H-leucine in protein by the specific activity of the intracellular leucine. Amino acids, polyamines, and PLP-semicarbazide were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography. Ornithine aminotransaminase activity (OAT) was measured as the quantity of pyrolline (5-carboxy) produced from alpha-ketoglutarate and ornithine. After 10 weeks on a high or no vitamin B/sub 6/ diet, no change in basal ODC activity was seen; however, sodium deoxycholate instillation in vitamin B/sub 6/ deficient rats led to a large increase in total but not holo-ODC activity. In rats fed normal chow diet, no increases in mucosal PLP levels were seen after either treatment. Increases in general protein synthesis rate could not account for the peaks in ODC activity after either stimulus. Putrescine increases were proportional to peaks of ODC activity after either stimulus, while spermine levels remained depressed for 18 hours after starvation/refeeding. Ornithine levels were increased after either stimulus, and this increase was linked to decreases in OAT activity, indicating short-term coordination of overall ornithine metabolism to favor polyamine biosynthesis.

  14. Enhanced production of recombinant Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase through optimization of induction strategy and addition of pyridoxine.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingqia; Huang, Yan; Wu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the optimization of recombinant Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) production from engineered E. coli BL21(DE3) in a 3-L fermentor. Investigation of different induction strategies revealed that induction was optimal when the temperature was maintained at 30°C, the inducer (lactose) was fed at a rate of 0.2 g L(-1)h(-1), and protein expression was induced when the cell density (OD600) reached 50. Under these conditions, the GAD activity of 1273.8 U mL(-1) was achieved. Because GAD is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, the effect of supplementing the medium with pyridoxine hydrochloride (PN), a cheap and stable PLP precursor, on GAD production was also investigated. When the culture medium was supplemented with PN to a concentration of 2mM at the initiation of protein expression, and then again 10h later, the GAD activity reached 3193.4 U mL(-1), which represented the highest GAD production ever reported. PMID:26364229

  15. Antisense expression of Gossypium hirsutum UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase in Arabidopsis leads to changes in cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D M; Pan, Y X; Zhang, Y; Li, Z K; Wu, L Q; Liu, H W; Zhang, G Y; Wang, X F; Ma, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UDP-xylose synthase; UXS, EC 4.1.1.35) is an essential enzyme of the non-cellulosic polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, using transient expression of fluorescently labeled Gossypium hirsutum UXS (GhUXS3) protein in onion epidermal cells, we observed that this protein was distributed in the cytoplasm. The GhUXS3 cDNA of cotton was expressed in an antisense orientation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Homozygous plants showing down-regulation of UXS were analyzed with northern blots. Compared to the untransformed control, transgenic plant showed shorter roots, earlier blossom formation, and delayed senescence. Biochemical analysis indicated that levels of rhamnose, mannose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and cellulose were reduced in some of the down-regulated antisense plants. These results suggest that GhUXS3 regulates the conversion of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and modulates their composition in plant cell walls. We also discuss a possible cellular function for GhUXS in determining the quality of cotton fibers. PMID:26909959

  16. Isolation and characterization of extragenic mutations affecting the expression of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene (HEM12) in Sacharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zoładek, T; Chełstowska, A; Labbe-Bois, R; Rytka, J

    1995-05-20

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Uro-d; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, which catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen, is encoded by the HEM12 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The HEM12 gene is transcribed into a major short mRNA and a minor longer one, approximately 1.35 and 1.55 kb, respectively, in size, and that differ in the 5' untranslated region. "Uroporphyric" mutants, which have no mutations in the HEM12 gene but accumulate uroporphyrinogen, a phenotype characteristic of partial Uro-d deficiency, were investigated. Genetic analysis showed that the mutant phenotype depends on the combined action of two unlinked mutations, udt1 and either ipa1, ipa2, or ipa3. ipa1 is tightly linked to HEM12. The mutation udt1 apparently acts specifically on the HEM12 gene, and causes a six to tenfold decrease in the levels of the short HEM12 mRNA, in the beta-galactosidase activity of a HEM12-lacZ fusion, in immunodetectable protein and enzyme activity. But heme synthesis is normal and porphyrin accumulation was modest. The mutations ipa1, ipa2, and ipa3 had no phenotype on their own, but they caused an increase in porphyrin accumulation in a udt1 background. This multiplicity of genetic factors leading to uroporphyric yeast cells closely resembles the situation in human porphyria cutanea tarda. PMID:7770055

  17. Reduction of Oxalate Levels in Tomato Fruit and Consequent Metabolic Remodeling Following Overexpression of a Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  18. Removal kinetics of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase by various plasmapheresis modalities in the treatment of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Okado, Tomokazu; Kurashima, Naoki; Maeda, Takuma; Miyamoto, Satoko; Nakamura, Ayako; Seshima, Hiroshi; Iimori, Soichiro; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2014-06-01

    Plasmapheresis is one of the acute treatment modalities for neurological disorders associated with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD). However, there is little information about the removal kinetics of anti-GAD by various plasmapheresis modalities. Here, we investigated the removal rate of anti-GAD and fibrinogen (Fib) by immunoadsorption (IA), plasma exchange using a conventional plasma separator (OP-PE), and plasma exchange using a high cut-off selective membrane plasma separator (EC-PE) in two cases of anti-GAD-associated neurological diseases. In case 1, IA and OP-PE were used, and the percent reductions were as follows: anti-GAD: 38.2% and 69.1% and Fib: 67.7% and 68.2%, respectively. In case 2, OP-PE and EC-PE were used, and the percent reductions were as follows: anti-GAD: 65.8% and 48.5% and Fib: 68.5% and 19.8%, respectively. OP-PE could remove anti-GAD more efficiently than IA. Further, EC-PE could maintain coagulation factors such as Fib better than IA and OP-PE. It is important to select the appropriate plasmapheresis modality on the basis of the removal kinetics. PMID:24965288

  19. Effect of remedies for enhancing resistance and relieving blood stasis on metastasis in postoperative gastric cancer and ornithine decarboxylase levels

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the action of remedies for enhancing resistance and relieving blood stasis on metastasis in postoperative gastric cancer and its influence on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). METHODS: Sixty-three postoperative patients with gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty-one patients were treated with western medicine consisting of the FAP (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cisplatin) and CODP regimens (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, daunorubicin, prednisone), whereas 32 patients were treated with the FAP regimen and traditional Chinese medicine. Correlations were made between the ODC levels detected before and after treatment and other factors such as tumor diameter, infiltration depth, histological type, and lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: The ODC levels in the gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal gastric mucosal tissue were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. There was an obvious correlation between increased ODC and tumor size, infiltration depth, degree of differentiation, and lymph node metastasis. Six months later, there were no significant changes in the ODC levels of the group using only Western medicine, while the ODC levels decreased markedly in the group using combined Western and traditional Chinese medicine (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The effects of traditional Chinese medicine remedies on metastases in postoperative gastric cancer are related to the reduction of ODC activity.

  20. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  1. Cloning, characterization, and autoimmune recognition of rat islet glutamic acid decarboxylase in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Michelsen, B K; Petersen, J S; Boel, E; Møldrup, A; Dyrberg, T; Madsen, O D

    1991-01-01

    A 64-kDa islet protein is a major autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Autoantibodies against the 64-kDa protein were recently shown to immunoprecipitate glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.15) from brain and from islets. We present evidence that the autoantisera also recognize a hydrophilic islet protein of approximately 67 kDa in addition to the amphiphilic 64-kDa form. We have isolated a full-length rat islet GAD cDNA encoding a hydrophilic 67-kDa protein, which appears to be identical to rat brain 67-kDa GAD. A partial sequence of human insulinoma 67-kDa GAD was identical to human brain 67-kDa GAD. Allelic variations were observed in rat as well as in human 67-kDa GAD sequences. The expressed rat islet 67-kDa GAD protein is functional and is immunoprecipitated by IDDM sera; it comigrates electrophoretically with the 67-kDa islet autoantigen. The hydrophilic 67-kDa form of GAD in islets is an additional autoantigen in IDDM and is recognized by a different subset of autoantibodies than the 64-kDa autoantigen. Thus, mammalian cell lines expressing functionally active, recombinant GAD may become important tools to study the nature and the role of GAD autoreactivity in IDDM. Images PMID:1924335

  2. Genetic basis of stage-specific melanism: a putative role for a cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in insect pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Saenko, S V; Jerónimo, M A; Beldade, P

    2012-06-01

    Melanism, the overall darkening of the body, is a widespread form of animal adaptation to particular environments, and includes bookcase examples of evolution by natural selection, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth. The major components of the melanin biosynthesis pathway have been characterized in model insects, but little is known about the genetic basis of life-stage specific melanism such as cases described in some lepidopteran species. Here, we investigate two melanic mutations of Bicyclus anynana butterflies, called Chocolate and melanine, that exclusively affect pigmentation of the larval and adult stages, respectively. Our analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns reveals that the larval and adult melanic phenotypes are due to alleles at different, independently segregating loci. Our linkage mapping analysis excludes the pigmentation candidate gene black as the melanine locus, and implicates a gene encoding a putative pyridoxal phosphate-dependant cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase as the Chocolate locus. We show variation in coding sequence and in expression levels for this candidate larval melanism locus. This is the first study that suggests a biological function for this gene in insects. Our findings open up exciting opportunities to study the role of this locus in the evolution of adaptive variation in pigmentation, and the uncoupling of regulation of pigment biosynthesis across developmental stages with different ecologies and pressures on body coloration. PMID:22234245

  3. The linkage of catalysis and regulation in enzyme action: oxidative diversion in the hysteretically regulated yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, G; Schowen, K B; Schowen, R L

    1999-05-01

    The reaction catalyzed by the thiamin-diphosphate-dependent yeast pyruvate decarboxylase, which is hysteretically regulated by pyruvate, undergoes paracatalytic oxidative diversion by 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, which traps a carbanionic intermediate and diverts the product from acetaldehyde to acetate (Christen, P. Meth. Enzymol. 1977, 46, 48). This reaction is now shown to exhibit an oxidant on-rate constant somewhat faster than that for pyruvate in the normal catalytic cycle and a product off-rate constant about 60-fold smaller than that for acetaldehyde. Both on-rates and off-rates exhibit an inverse solvent isotope effect of 1.5-2, observed in normal catalysis as a signal of sulfhydryl addition to the keto group of pyruvate at the allosteric regulatory site. The findings are consistent with a model for regulation in which the sulfhydryl-addition process mediates access to a fully catalytically competent active site, the oxidative-diversion reaction being forced to make use of the normal entry exit machinery. PMID:10400342

  4. Molecular identification and characterization of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene family associated with latex regeneration and stress response in rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Wang, Chuang; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-02-01

    In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs not only under anaerobic conditions but also under aerobic conditions, and involves carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the first and the key enzyme of ethanolic fermentation, which branches off the main glycolytic pathway at pyruvate. Here, four PDC genes were isolated and identified in a rubber tree, and the protein sequences they encode are very similar. The expression patterns of HbPDC4 correlated well with tapping-simulated rubber productivity in virgin rubber trees, indicating it plays an important role in regulating glycometabolism during latex regeneration. HbPDC1, HbPDC2 and HbPDC3 had striking expressional responses in leaves and bark to drought, low temperature and high temperature stresses, indicating that the HbPDC genes are involve in self-protection and defense in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses during rubber tree growth and development. To understand ethanolic fermentation in rubber trees, it will be necessary to perform an in-depth study of the regulatory pathways controlling the HbPDCs in the future. PMID:25532122

  5. Buffer-free production of gamma-aminobutyric acid using an engineered glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taek Jin; Ho, Ngoc Anh Thu; Pack, Seung Pil

    2013-08-15

    Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamate into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through decarboxylation using proton as a co-substrate. Since GAD is active only at acidic conditions even though pH increases as the reaction proceeds, the conventional practice of using this enzyme involved the use of relatively high concentration of buffers, which might complicate the downstream purification steps. Here we show by simulation and experiments that the free acid substrate, glutamic acid, rather than its monosodium salt can act as a substrate and buffer at the same time. This yielded the buffer- and salt-free synthesis of GABA conveniently in a batch mode. Furthermore, we engineered GAD to hyper active ones by extending or reducing the length of the enzyme by just one residue at its C-terminus. Through the buffer-free reaction with engineered GAD, we could synthesize 1M GABA in 3h, which can be translated into a space-time yield of 34.3g/L/h. PMID:23830463

  6. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-06-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 (-), was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  7. Dynamic changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate decarboxylase activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian Guo; Hu, Qing Ping; Duan, Jiang Lian; Tian, Cheng Rui

    2010-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and provides beneficial effects for human and other animals health. To accumulate GABA, samples from two different naked oat cultivars, Baiyan II and Bayou I, were steeped and germinated in an incubator. The content of GABA and glutamic acid as well as the activity of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in oats during steeping and germination were investigated with an amino acid automatic analyzer. Compared with raw groats, an increase in GABA content of oat groats during steeping and germination was continuously observed for two oat cultivars. The activity of GAD increased greatly at the end of steeping and the second stage of germination for Baiyan II and Bayou I, respectively. Glutamic acid content of treated oat groats was significantly lower than that in raw groats until the later period of germination. GABA was correlated (p<0.01) significantly and positively with the glutamic acid rather than GAD activity in the current study. The results indicates that steeping and germination process under highly controlled conditions can effectively accumulate the GABA in oat groats for Baiyan II and Bayou I, which would greatly facilitate production of nutraceuticals or food ingredients that enable consumers to gain greater access to the health benefits of oats. However, more assays need to be further performed with more oat cultivars. PMID:20695426

  8. Comparative sequencing and association studies of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Speight, G; Turic, D; Austin, J; Hoogendoorn, B; Cardno, A G; Jones, L; Murphy, K C; Sanders, R; McCarthy, G; Jones, I; McCandless, F; McGuffin, P; Craddock, N; Owen, M J; Buckland, P; O'Donovan, M C

    2000-05-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is a relatively non specific enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of several classical neurotransmitters including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; serotonin). AADC does not catalyse the rate limiting step in either pathway, but is rate limiting in the synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine (2PE) which is a positive modulator of dopaminergic transmission and a candidate natural psychotogenic compound.1 We and others have proposed that polymorphism in AADC resulting in altered 2PE activity might contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis. In order to test this hypothesis, we have used denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)3 to screen 3943 bases of the AADC gene and its promoter regions for variants that might affect protein structure or expression in 15 unrelated people with schizophrenia, and 15 unrelated people with bipolar disorder. Three polymorphisms were identified by DHPLC: a insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' UTR of the neuronal specific mRNA (g.-33-30delAGAG, bases 586-589 of GenBank M77828), a T>A variant in the non-neuronal exon 1 (g. -67T>A, GenBank M88070), and a G>A polymorphism within intron 8 (g. IVS8 +75G>A, GenBank M84598). Case-control analysis did not suggest that genetic polymorphism in the AADC gene is associated with liability for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. PMID:10889538

  9. Direct production of cadaverine from soluble starch using Corynebacterium glutamicum coexpressing alpha-amylase and lysine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Toshihiro; Okada, Yusuke; Tsuchidate, Takeyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-02-01

    Here, we demonstrated the one-step production of cadaverine from starch using a Corynebacterium glutamicum strain coexpressing Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA) and Escherichia coli K-12 lysine decarboxylase (CadA). We constructed the E. coli-C. glutamicum shuttle vector, which produces CadA under the control of the high constitutive expression (HCE) promoter, and transformed this vector into C. glutamicum CSS secreting AmyA. The engineered C. glutamicum expressed both CadA and AmyA, which retained their activity. We performed cadaverine fermentation using 50 g/l soluble starch as the sole carbon source without pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, which is the coenzyme for CadA. C. glutamicum coexpressing AmyA and CadA successfully produced cadaverine from soluble starch and the yield of cadaverine was 23.4 mM after 21 h. CadA expression levels under the control of the HCE promoter were assumed to be sufficient to convert L-lysine to cadaverine, as there was no accumulation of L-lysine in the culture medium during fermentation. Thus, we demonstrated that C. glutamicum has great potential to produce cadaverine from biomass resources. PMID:18989633

  10. Disruption of pknG enhances production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing glutamate decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a building block of the biodegradable plastic polyamide 4, is synthesized from glucose by Corynebacterium glutamicum that expresses Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) B encoded by gadB. This strain was engineered to produce GABA more efficiently from biomass-derived sugars. To enhance GABA production further by increasing the intracellular concentration of its precursor glutamate, we focused on engineering pknG (encoding serine/threonine protein kinase G), which controls the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Odh) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle branch point leading to glutamate synthesis. We succeeded in expressing GadB in a C. glutamicum strain harboring a deletion of pknG. C. glutamicum strains GAD and GAD ∆pknG were cultured in GP2 medium containing 100 g L−1 glucose and 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. Strain GAD∆pknG produced 31.1 ± 0.41 g L−1 (0.259 g L−1 h−1) of GABA in 120 hours, representing a 2.29-fold higher level compared with GAD. The production yield of GABA from glucose by GAD∆pknG reached 0.893 mol mol−1. PMID:24949255

  11. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  12. Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis sp. nov., a pyrrolidonyl arylamidase/ornithine decarboxylase-positive bacterium isolated from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Han, Jian; McCormac, Melinda A; Li, Haijing; Stratton, Charles W

    2008-04-01

    Twelve coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates recovered from blood cultures with positive pyrrolidonyl arylamidase and ornithine decarboxylase reactions were identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis by the clinical microbiology laboratory. However, none of these 12 isolates were recognized by a S. lugdunensis translation elongation factor Tu (tuf) gene-specific probe. Under the API STAPH V4.0 identification system (bioMérieux, Durham, NC), 8 of these 12 isolates could not be identified with low discrimination scores, and 4 were identified as Kocuria varians/rosea with identification probabilities that ranged from 95.5% to 99.6%. All 12 isolates possessed identical partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, and the full 16S rRNA gene sequences of the prototype strain B006 were closely related to a tentatively assigned "Staphylococcus pettenkoferi". All 12 isolates had identical partial tuf gene sequences corresponding to 666 to 858 nucleotide positions, and the 1188-base pair full tuf sequences of B006 strain were mostly related to 2 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates with a 93.02% similarity. Two isolates, which were recovered from the same patient over a 16-day interval, were considered to be a pathogen causing an intravenous line-associated infection; the remaining 10 isolates were considered to be skin contaminants. Biochemical tests currently used in the clinical microbiology laboratory to identify S. lugdunensis appear to lack specificity in identifying these isolates. On the basis of the close biochemical reactions with S. lugdunensis and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates are proposed the designation Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis sp. nov. PMID:18248933

  13. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata) was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation causing variation in the gene expression and enzymatic activity of alcohol deydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxilase. PMID:22305374

  14. Reducing Biogenic-Amine-Producing Bacteria, Decarboxylase Activity, and Biogenic Amines in Raw Milk Cheese by High-Pressure Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Javier; del Olmo, Ana; Picón, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines may reach concentrations of public health concern in some cheeses. To minimize biogenic amine buildup in raw milk cheese, high-pressure treatments of 400 or 600 MPa for 5 min were applied on days 21 and 35 of ripening. On day 60, counts of lactic acid bacteria, enterococci, and lactobacilli were 1 to 2 log units lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 4 to 6 log units lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa than in control cheese. At that time, aminopeptidase activity was 16 to 75% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 56 to 81% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa than in control cheese, while the total free amino acid concentration was 35 to 53% higher in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 3 to 15% higher in cheeses treated at 600 MPa, and decarboxylase activity was 86 to 96% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 93 to 100% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. Tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine were the most abundant amines in control cheese. The total biogenic amine concentration on day 60, which reached a maximum of 1.089 mg/g dry matter in control cheese, was 27 to 33% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 40 to 65% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. On day 240, total biogenic amines attained a concentration of 3.690 mg/g dry matter in control cheese and contents 11 to 45% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 73 to 76% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. Over 80% of the histidine and 95% of the tyrosine had been converted into histamine and tyramine in control cheese by day 60. Substrate depletion played an important role in the rate of biogenic amine buildup, becoming a limiting factor in the case of some amino acids. PMID:23241980

  15. Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase reduces detrusor overactivity in spinal cord injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Minoru; Sugaya, Kimio; Goins, William F.; Goss, James R.; Chancellor, Michael B.; de Groat, William C.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding the 67 Kd form of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) gene product, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis enzyme, can suppress detrusor overactivity (DO) in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. One week after spinalization, HSV vectors expressing GAD and green fluorescent protein (GFP) (HSV-GAD) were injected into the bladder wall. SCI rats without HSV injection (HSV-untreated) and those injected with lacZ-encoding reporter gene HSV vectors (HSV-LacZ) were used as controls. Three weeks after viral injection, continuous cystometry was performed under awake conditions in all three groups. In the HSV-GAD group, the number and amplitude of non-voiding contractions (NVCs) were significantly decreased (40–45% and 38–40%, respectively) along with an increase in voiding efficiency, compared with HSV-untreated and HSV-LacZ groups, but micturition pressure was not different among the three groups. Intrathecal application of bicuculline partly reversed the decreased number and amplitude of NVCs, and decreased voiding efficiency in the HSV-GAD group. In the HSV-GAD group, GAD67 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) compared with the HSV-LacZ group while 57% of DRG cells were GFP-positive, and these neurons showed increased GAD67-like immunoreactivity compared with the HSV-LacZ group. These results indicate that GAD gene therapy effectively suppresses DO following SCI predominantly via activation of spinal GABAA receptors. Thus, HSV-based GAD gene transfer to bladder afferent pathways may represent a novel approach for the treatment of neurogenic DO. PMID:19225548

  16. Direct transcriptional stimulation of the ornithine decarboxylase gene by Fos in PC12 cells but not in fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, C; Busslinger, M

    1993-01-01

    We have established rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines stably expressing the estrogen-activatable transcription factor FosER to identify genes that can be regulated by c-Fos in this neuronal cell type. Induction of ectopic c-Fos activity in PC12 cells increased the mRNA levels of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and tyrosine hydroxylase genes with similar kinetics and to the same maximal level as nerve growth factor treatment. In both cases the rate of transcription initiation was increased. Induction of the ODC gene occurred even in the absence of protein synthesis, indicating direct regulation by FosER. ODC expression, however, was not induced by a mutant FosER protein containing a proline insertion in the basic region of the c-Fos moiety, demonstrating the requirement for a functional DNA-binding domain. These data show that FosER, and by extrapolation c-Fos, can directly activate transcription of the endogenous ODC gene in PC12 cells by binding to cis-regulatory sequences. Activation of the ODC gene was unexpectedly transient, as transcripts returned to the basal level after prolonged exposure of PC12 cells to FosER activity. Furthermore, ODC transcription was not at all induced by FosER in rat fibroblasts. To account for this cell-specific action of FosER, we propose that stimulation of the ODC gene by FosER requires either (i) cooperation with another transcription factor(s) or (ii) a specific pattern of modification which is present in PC12 cells but not in otherwise unstimulated fibroblasts. One or both of these mechanisms may be employed by cells to achieve selective gene activation in response to apparently stereotyped induction of c-fos. Images PMID:8101634

  17. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Manto, Mario; Honnorat, Jérôme; Hampe, Christiane S.; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Delgado-García, José María; Saitow, Fumihito; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct GAD autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal GAD antibodies. We found that GAD autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15) recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by GAD autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10) or limbic encephalitis (n = 4). We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal GAD antibody representing this epitope specificity; (1) disrupted in vitro the association of GAD with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles; (2) depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect; (3) significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task; (4) markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm; and (5) induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of GAD by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such GAD antibodies could be envisioned. PMID:25870548

  18. Multifaceted interactions and regulation between antizyme and its interacting proteins cyclin D1, ornithine decarboxylase and antizyme inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Li; Chen, Hui-Yi; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and antizyme inhibitor (AZI) promote cell growth. ODC and CCND1 can be degraded through antizyme (AZ)-mediated 26S proteasomal degradation. This paper describes a mechanistic study of the molecular interactions between AZ and its interacting proteins. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the binary AZ-CCND1 complex and the respective binding sites of AZ and CCND1 were determined. Our data indicate that CCND1 has a 4-fold lower binding affinity for AZ than does ODC and an approximately 40-fold lower binding affinity for AZ than does AZI. The Kd values of AZ-CCND1, AZ-ODC and AZ-AZI were 0.81, 0.21 and 0.02 μM, respectively. Furthermore, the Kd values for CCND1 binding to the AZ N-terminal peptide (AZ34–124) and AZ C-terminal peptide (AZ100–228) were 0.92 and 8.97 μM, respectively, indicating that the binding site of CCND1 may reside at the N-terminus of AZ, rather than the C-terminus. Our data also show that the ODC-AZ-CCND1 ternary complex may exist in equilibrium. The Kd values of the [AZ-CCND1]-ODC and [AZ-ODC]-CCND1 complexes were 1.26 and 4.93 μM, respectively. This is the first paper to report the reciprocal regulation of CCND1 and ODC through AZ-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation. PMID:26172301

  19. Role of ornithine decarboxylase/polyamine pathway in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Ba, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyamine pathway in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and to explore its mechanism in rats. Methods: This study was randomly divided into 3 groups including sham-operation (sham) group, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group and α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) group (each group with 80 rats). In DFMO group, 300 mg/kg of DFMO was injected by tail vein 24 h before reperfusion. According to different time points (3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h) after reperfusion, each group was divided into 5 subgroups (each subgroup with 16 rats). Results: In I/R group, apoptosis began increasing 3 h after reperfusion, reached a peak 24 h after perfusion and began decreasing 48 h after perfusion. Compared with sham group, apoptosis significantly increased in I/R and DFMO groups (P<0.05). However, apoptosis was significantly lower in DFMO group than in I/R group at each time point (P<0.05). In I/R group, CHOP expression began increasing 3 h after reperfusion, reached a peak 24 h after perfusion and began decreasing 48 h after perfusion. CHOP expression was significantly lower in DFMO group than in I/R group at each time point (P<0.05). The level of polyamines was significantly higher in I/R and DFMO groups than in sham group, and in I/R group than in DFMO group 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Down-regulation of ODC/polyamine pathway may inhibit CHOP-mediated apoptosis caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays a protective role in cerebral I/R injury. PMID:26884982

  20. Identification of the active site of human mitochondrial malonyl-coenzyme a decarboxylase: A combined computational study.

    PubMed

    Ling, Baoping; Liu, Yuxia; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Zhiguo; Bi, Siwei

    2016-06-01

    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) can control the level of malonyl-CoA in cell through the decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA, and plays an essential role in regulating fatty acid metabolism, thus it is a potential target for drug discovery. However, the interactions of MCD with CoA derivatives are not well understood owing to unavailable crystal structure with a complete occupancy in the active site. To identify the active site of MCD, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the interactions of human mitochondrial MCD (HmMCD) and CoA derivatives. The findings reveal that the active site of HmMCD indeed resides in the prominent groove which resembles that of CurA. However, the binding modes are slightly different from the one observed in CurA due to the occupancy of the side chain of Lys183 from the N-terminal helical domain instead of the adenine ring of CoA. The residues 300 - 305 play an essential role in maintaining the stability of complex mainly through hydrogen bond interactions with the pyrophosphate moiety of acetyl-CoA. Principle component analysis elucidates the conformational distribution and dominant concerted motions of HmMCD. MM_PBSA calculations present the crucial residues and the major driving force responsible for the binding of acetyl-CoA. These results provide useful information for understanding the interactions of HmMCD with CoA derivatives. Proteins 2016; 84:792-802. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26948533

  1. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  2. Biochemical and spectroscopic properties of Brucella microti glutamate decarboxylase, a key component of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system

    PubMed Central

    Grassini, Gaia; Pennacchietti, Eugenia; Cappadocio, Francesca; Occhialini, Alessandra; De Biase, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    In orally acquired bacteria, the ability to counteract extreme acid stress (pH ⩽ 2.5) ensures survival during transit through the animal host stomach. In several neutralophilic bacteria, the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system (GDAR) is the most efficient molecular system in conferring protection from acid stress. In Escherichia coli its structural components are either of the two glutamate decarboxylase isoforms (GadA, GadB) and the antiporter, GadC, which imports glutamate and exports γ-aminobutyrate, the decarboxylation product. The system works by consuming protons intracellularly, as part of the decarboxylation reaction, and exporting positive charges via the antiporter. Herein, biochemical and spectroscopic properties of GadB from Brucella microti (BmGadB), a Brucella species which possesses GDAR, are described. B. microti belongs to a group of lately described and atypical brucellae that possess functional gadB and gadC genes, unlike the most well-known “classical” Brucella species, which include important human pathogens. BmGadB is hexameric at acidic pH. The pH-dependent spectroscopic properties and activity profile, combined with in silico sequence comparison with E. coli GadB (EcGadB), suggest that BmGadB has the necessary structural requirements for the binding of activating chloride ions at acidic pH and for the closure of its active site at neutral pH. On the contrary, cellular localization analysis, corroborated by sequence inspection, suggests that BmGadB does not undergo membrane recruitment at acidic pH, which was observed in EcGadB. The comparison of GadB from evolutionary distant microorganisms suggests that for this enzyme to be functional in GDAR some structural features must be preserved. PMID:25853037

  3. Overexpression and optimization of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 for high gamma-aminobutyric acid production

    PubMed Central

    Tajabadi, Naser; Baradaran, Ali; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Rahim, Raha A; Bakar, Fatimah A; Manap, Mohd Yazid A; Mohammed, Abdulkarim S; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive compound biosynthesized by microorganisms through decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In this study, a full-length GAD gene was obtained by cloning the template deoxyribonucleic acid to pTZ57R/T vector. The open reading frame of the GAD gene showed the cloned gene was composed of 1410 nucleotides and encoded a 469 amino acids protein. To improve the GABA-production, the GAD gene was cloned into pMG36e-LbGAD, and then expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 cells. The overexpression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and GAD activity, showing a 53 KDa protein with the enzyme activity increased by sevenfold compared with the original GAD activity. The optimal fermentation conditions for GABA production established using response surface methodology were at glutamic acid concentration of 497.973 mM, temperature 36°C, pH 5.31 and time 60 h. Under the conditions, maximum GABA concentration obtained (11.09 mM) was comparable with the predicted value by the model at 11.23 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful cloning (clone-back) and overexpression of the LbGAD gene from L. plantarum to L. plantarum cells. The recombinant Lactobacillus could be used as a starter culture for direct incorporation into a food system during fermentation for production of GABA-rich products. PMID:25757029

  4. POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE 67 BY INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA: Evidence for the involvement of dopamine D1 receptor signaling$

    PubMed Central

    Raghuraman, Gayatri; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.; Kumar, Ganesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with sleep apnea leads to cardio-respiratory morbidities. Previous studies have shown that IH alters the synthesis of neurotransmitters including catecholamines and neuropeptides in brainstem regions associated with regulation of cardio-respiratory functions. GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has been implicated in cardio-respiratory control. GABA synthesis is primarily catalyzed by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that IH like its effect on other transmitters also alters GABA synthesis. The impact of IH on GABA synthesis was investigated in pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells, a neuronal cell line which is known to express active form of GAD67 in the cytosolic fraction and also assessed the underlying mechanisms contributing to IH-evoked response. Exposure of cell cultures to IH decreased GAD67 activity and GABA level. IH-evoked decrease in GAD67 activity was due to increased cAMP - protein kinase A (PKA) - dependent phosphorylation of GAD67, but not as a result of changes in either GAD67 mRNA or protein expression. PKA inhibitor restored GAD67 activity and GABA levels in IH treated cells. PC12 cells express dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), a G-protein coupled receptor whose activation increased adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Treatment with either D1R antagonist or AC inhibitor reversed IH-evoked GAD67 inhibition. Silencing D1R expression with siRNA reversed cAMP elevation and GAD67 inhibition by IH. These results provide evidence for the role of D1R-cAMP-PKA signaling in IH mediated inhibition of GAD67 via protein phosphorylation resulting in down regulation of GABA synthesis. PMID:20969567

  5. Determination of evolved 14CO2 in decarboxylase reactions with application to measurement of [14C]oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Costello, J F; Smith, M

    1992-05-01

    An assay is described for the determination of the radioactive purity of [14C]oxalic acid preparations and the quantity of [14C]oxalic acid in biological samples. In this method oxalate decarboxylase is used to convert oxalate to formate and CO2. The entire procedure is carried out in a scintillation vial. The 14CO2 released in the enzymic reaction is allowed to diffuse off in a fume hood following acidification. Scintillation fluid is added to reacted and unreacted vials and the radioactivity measured. The loss of radioactivity from the reacted versus the unreacted vials provides the quantity of evolved 14CO2. This value is equal to 50% of the [14C]-oxalate (dpm) present. The radioactive purity of four preparations of [U-14C]oxalic acid was 99.0% while a fifth batch had a purity of 88%. A single batch of [U-14C]oxalic acid had a radioactive purity of 99.0% following storage of an aqueous solution, at -20 degrees C for 7 years. Recovery of [14C]oxalic acid from rat fecal extracts was 101.3%. Eight replicate analyses of a [U-14C]oxalic acid preparation gave a coefficient of variation of 0.3%. Following subcutaneous infusion of [U-14C]oxalic acid to rats, 100.2 +/- 2.9%, mean +/- SD, of the 14C in fecal extracts was present as [14C]oxalic acid (n = 10). The procedure provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to determine [14C]oxalic acid. It avoids the time consuming and inconvenient procedure for trapping and counting the evolved 14CO2. The approach used to determine the evolved 14CO2 may find application in other radiochemical methods that require its measurement. PMID:1519761

  6. Reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase67 promoter remodeling in an epigenetic methionine-induced mouse model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, E.; Agis-Balboa, R. C.; Simonini, M. V.; Grayson, D. R.; Costa, E.; Guidotti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of prefrontal cortex glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and reelin (mRNAs and proteins) expression is the most consistent finding reported by several studies of postmortem schizophrenia (SZ) brains. Converging evidence suggests that the reduced GAD67 and reelin expression in cortical GABAergic interneurons of SZ brains is the consequence of an epigenetic hypermethylation of RELN and GAD67 promoters very likely mediated by the overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 in cortical GABAergic interneurons. Studies of the molecular mechanisms (DNA methylation plus related chromatin remodeling factors) that cause the down-regulation of reelin and GAD67 in SZ brains have important implications not only to understand the disease pathogenesis but also to improve present pharmacological interventions to treat SZ. The mouse treated with l-methionine models some of the molecular neuropathologies detected in SZ, including the hypermethylation of RELN promoter CpG islands and the down-regulation of reelin and GAD67 expression. We now report that in these mice, RELN and GAD67 promoters express an increased recruitment of methyl-CpG binding domain proteins. In these mice the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproate, which increases acetylated histone content in cortical GABAergic interneurons, also prevents MET-induced RELN promoter hypermethylation and reduces the methyl-CpG binding domain protein binding to RELN and GAD67 promoters. These findings suggest that DNA hypermethylation and the associated chromatin remodeling may be critically important in mediating the epigenetic down-regulation of reelin and GAD67 expression detected in cortical GABAergic interneurons of SZ patients. PMID:16113080

  7. Crystal Structures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase Bound to Inhibitory Analogs Reveal New Insight into Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; McWhorter, William J.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2011-10-28

    The polyisoprenoid compound undecaprenyl phosphate is required for biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogenic Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus spp. In these organisms, the mevalonate pathway is used to produce the precursor isoprenoid, isopentenyl 5-diphosphate. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes formation of isopentenyl 5-diphosphate in an ATP-dependent irreversible reaction and is therefore an attractive target for inhibitor development that could lead to new antimicrobial agents. To facilitate exploration of this possibility, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD (1.85 {angstrom} resolution) and, to the best of our knowledge, the first structures of liganded MDD. These structures include MDD bound to the mevalonate 5-diphosphate analogs diphosphoglycolyl proline (2.05 {angstrom} resolution) and 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP; 2.2 {angstrom} resolution). Comparison of these structures provides a physical basis for the significant differences in K{sub i} values observed for these inhibitors. Inspection of enzyme/inhibitor structures identified the side chain of invariant Ser{sup 192} as making potential contributions to catalysis. Significantly, Ser {yields} Ala substitution of this side chain decreases k{sub cat} by {approx}10{sup 3}-fold, even though binding interactions between FMVAPP and this mutant are similar to those observed with wild type MDD, as judged by the 2.1 {angstrom} cocrystal structure of S192A with FMVAPP. Comparison of microbial MDD structures with those of mammalian counterparts reveals potential targets at the active site periphery that may be exploited to selectively target the microbial enzymes. These studies provide a structural basis for previous observations regarding the MDD mechanism and inform future work toward rational inhibitor design.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-independent production of α-alkenes by OleTJE P450 fatty acid decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456, a new member of the CYP152 peroxygenase family, was recently found to catalyze the unusual decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids to form α-alkenes using H2O2 as the sole electron and oxygen donor. Because aliphatic α-alkenes are important chemicals that can be used as biofuels to replace fossil fuels, or for making lubricants, polymers and detergents, studies on OleTJE fatty acid decarboxylase are significant and may lead to commercial production of biogenic α-alkenes in the future, which are renewable and more environmentally friendly than petroleum-derived equivalents. Results We report the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE for the first time. In the presence of NADPH and O2, this P450 enzyme efficiently decarboxylates long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C20) in vitro when partnering with either the fused P450 reductase domain RhFRED from Rhodococcus sp. or the separate flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. In vivo, expression of OleTJE or OleTJE-RhFRED in different E. coli strains overproducing free fatty acids resulted in production of variant levels of multiple α-alkenes, with a highest total hydrocarbon titer of 97.6 mg·l-1. Conclusions The discovery of the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE not only raises a number of fundamental questions on the monooxygenase-like mechanism of this peroxygenase, but also will direct the future metabolic engineering work toward improvement of O2/redox partner(s)/NADPH for overproduction of α-alkenes by OleTJE. PMID:24565055

  9. Phloem-Specific Expression of Tyrosine/Dopa Decarboxylase Genes and the Biosynthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids in Opium Poppy.

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, P. J.; De Luca, V.

    1995-01-01

    Tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (TYDC) catalyzes the formation of tyramine and dopamine and represents the first steps in the biosynthesis of the large and diverse group of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids. Opium poppy accumulates morphine in aerial organs and roots, whereas sanguinarine, which is derived from a distinct branch pathway, accumulates only in roots. Expression of the TYDC gene family in opium poppy was investigated in relation to the organ-specific biosynthesis of these different types of alkaloids. Members of the TYDC gene family are classified into two groups (represented by TYDC1 and TYDC2) and are differentially expressed. In the mature plant, TYDC2-like transcripts are predominant in stems and are also present in roots, whereas TYDC1-like transcripts are abundant only in roots. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that the expression of TYDC genes is developmentally regulated. TYDC transcripts are associated with vascular tissue in mature roots and stems but are also expressed in cortical tissues at earlier stages of development. Expression of TYDC genes is restricted to metaphloem and to protoxylem in the vascular bundles of mature aerial organs. Localization of TYDC transcripts in the phloem is consistent with the expected developmental origin of laticifers, which are specialized internal secretory cells that accompany vascular tissues in all organs of select species and that contain the alkaloid-rich latex in aerial organs. The differential expression of TYDC genes and the organ-dependent accumulation of different alkaloids suggest a coordinated regulation of specific alkaloid biosynthetic genes that are ultimately controlled by specific developmental programs. PMID:12242361

  10. Association between a polymorphism of the 65K-glutamate decarboxylase gene and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Kure, S.; Aoki, Y.; Narisawa, K.

    1994-09-01

    Autoimmunity against 65K-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65), one of two forms of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme, is commonly associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). To study the predisposing effect of the GAD65 genotype on IDDM, we performed a case-control study screening an association between a newly-identified GAD65 polymorphism and IDDM in the Japanese population. The identified polymorphism was a microsatellite that was located in an intron near the 3{prime} end of the GAD65 gene consisting of variable numbers of a (CA)-dinucleotide repeat. We amplified the polymorphic region by polymerase chain reaction, and, for each individual in the control group (n=254) and the IDDM group (n=108), determined a pair of (CA)-repeat numbers, each number derived from one or the other of their alleles. In both groups we found 13 allelic variants with different repeat numbers, ranging from 19 to 31 repeats of the (CA) dinucleotide. The most frequent allelic variant in the IDDM group was 20 repeats; (CA){sub 20}. A higher frequency of a genotype containing two (CA){sub 20} alleles (p=0.005) was observed in the IDDM group (41.7%) compared with the control group (26.8%). Odds ratio (a 95% confidence interval) for a heterozygote or a homozygote of (CA){sub 20} versus a subject without (CA){sub 20} was 1.2 (0.66-2.25) and 2.23 (1.18-4.21), respectively. No significant association was observed between the (CA)-repeat genotype and the appearance of anti-GAD antibodies in the patients whose duration of the diabetes was less than 4 years (n=35). Therefore, genetic variations in GAD65 appears to be associated with IDDM susceptibility.

  11. Enzyme regulation in neuroblastoma cells in a salts/glucose medium: Induction of ornithine decarboxylase by asparagine and glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuang Yu; Canellakis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    L-Asparagine is necessary and sufficient for the maximal induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) activity in confluent N18 mouse neuroblastoma cells in a salts/glucose medium; L-asparagine also induces maximal ODC activity when added to a tissue culture medium. L-Glutamine is about one-half as effective as asparagine. Cholera toxin and agents that are known to raise intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations have no effect on the induction of ODC activity unless suboptimal concentrations of asparagine are present in the salts/glucose medium. Whereas actinomycin D does not inhibit induction of ODC activity by asparagine, it inhibits the induction of ODC activity in association with cyclic AMP. In the salts/glucose medium, the rate of loss of ODC activity following the inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide or puromycin depends upon the presence or absence of asparagine; loss is rapid only in the absence of asparagine and does not appear to be related to the inhibition of protein synthesis. These results are discussed in the context that the overlay of the growth medium tends to mask the minimal requirements for enzyme induction, because the composition of the medium defines: (a) the requirements for the induction of ODC activity; (b) the effect, or lack of effect, of cyclic AMP (and of inducers of intracellular cyclic AMP) on the induction of ODC activity; (c) the effect, or lack of effect, of actinomycin D on the induction of ODC activity; and (d) the action of puromycin and of cycloheximide on the rate of loss of ODC activity. It will be interesting to determine whether these results are uniquely applicable to ODC, whether many of the reactions attributed to cyclic AMP in the literature may be mediated by asparagine and glutamine, and whether actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and puromycin can be relied upon to differentiate between transcriptional and post-transcriptional control. Images PMID:198803

  12. Androgen-regulated genes differentially modulated by the androgen receptor coactivator L-dopa decarboxylase in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Margiotti, Katia; Wafa, Latif A; Cheng, Helen; Novelli, Giuseppe; Nelson, Colleen C; Rennie, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor is a ligand-induced transcriptional factor, which plays an important role in normal development of the prostate as well as in the progression of prostate cancer to a hormone refractory state. We previously reported the identification of a novel AR coactivator protein, L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC), which can act at the cytoplasmic level to enhance AR activity. We have also shown that DDC is a neuroendocrine (NE) marker of prostate cancer and that its expression is increased after hormone-ablation therapy and progression to androgen independence. In the present study, we generated tetracycline-inducible LNCaP-DDC prostate cancer stable cells to identify DDC downstream target genes by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Results Comparison of induced DDC overexpressing cells versus non-induced control cell lines revealed a number of changes in the expression of androgen-regulated transcripts encoding proteins with a variety of molecular functions, including signal transduction, binding and catalytic activities. There were a total of 35 differentially expressed genes, 25 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated, in the DDC overexpressing cell line. In particular, we found a well-known androgen induced gene, TMEPAI, which wasup-regulated in DDC overexpressing cells, supporting its known co-activation function. In addition, DDC also further augmented the transcriptional repression function of AR for a subset of androgen-repressed genes. Changes in cellular gene transcription detected by microarray analysis were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion Taken together, our results provide evidence for linking DDC action with AR signaling, which may be important for orchestrating molecular changes responsible for prostate cancer progression. PMID:17553164