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Sample records for s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase adometdc

  1. Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T.maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5?-deoxy-5?-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC. PMID:20124698

  2. Complexes of Thermotoga maritima S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase provide insights into substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Bale, Shridhar; Baba, Kavita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-25

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous aliphatic cations and are essential for cellular growth and differentiation. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical pyruvoyl-dependent enzyme in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structures of AdoMetDC from humans and plants and of the AdoMetDC proenzyme from Thermotoga maritima have been obtained previously. Here, the crystal structures of activated T. maritima AdoMetDC (TmAdoMetDC) and of its complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester and 5{prime}-deoxy-5{prime}-dimethylthioadenosine are reported. The results demonstrate for the first time that TmAdoMetDC autoprocesses without the need for additional factors and that the enzyme contains two complete active sites, both of which use residues from both chains of the homodimer. The complexes provide insights into the substrate specificity and ligand binding of AdoMetDC in prokaryotes. The conservation of the ligand-binding mode and the active-site residues between human and T. maritima AdoMetDC provides insight into the evolution of AdoMetDC.

  3. Novel protein–protein interaction between spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Arjun K.; Agnihotri, Pragati; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Pratap, J. Venkatesh

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • L. donovani spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase have been cloned and purified. • S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has autocatalytic property. • GST pull down assay shows the two proteins to form a metabolon. • Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that binding was exothermic having K{sub d} value of 0.4 μM. • Interaction confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. - Abstract: Polyamine biosynthesis pathway has long been considered an essential drug target for trypanosomatids including Leishmania. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDc) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) are enzymes of this pathway that catalyze successive steps, with the product of the former, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), acting as an aminopropyl donor for the latter enzyme. Here we have explored the possibility of and identified the protein–protein interaction between SpdSyn and AdoMetDc. The protein–protein interaction has been identified using GST pull down assay. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that the interaction is thermodynamically favorable. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies also confirms the interaction, with SpdSyn exhibiting a change in tertiary structure with increasing concentrations of AdoMetDc. Size exclusion chromatography suggests the presence of the complex as a hetero-oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzymes indeed form a heteromer. Computational analyses suggest that this complex differs significantly from the corresponding human complex, implying that this complex could be a better therapeutic target than the individual enzymes.

  4. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase overexpression inhibits mouse skin tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Feith, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Neoplastic growth is associated with increased polyamine biosynthetic activity and content. Tumor promoter treatment induces the rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), and targeted ODC overexpression is sufficient for tumor promotion in initiated mouse skin. We generated a mouse model with doxycycline (Dox)-regulated AdoMetDC expression to determine the impact of this second rate-limiting enzyme on epithelial carcinogenesis. TetOAdoMetDC (TAMD) transgenic founders were crossed with transgenic mice (K5-tTA) that express the tetracycline-regulated transcriptional activator within basal keratinocytes of the skin. Transgene expression in TAMD/K5-tTA mice was restricted to keratin 5 (K5) target tissues and silenced upon Dox treatment. AdoMetDC activity and its product, decarboxylated AdoMet, both increased approximately 8-fold in the skin. This enabled a redistribution of the polyamines that led to reduced putrescine, increased spermine, and an elevated spermine:spermidine ratio. Given the positive association between polyamine biosynthetic capacity and neoplastic growth, it was somewhat surprising to find that TAMD/K5-tTA mice developed significantly fewer tumors than controls in response to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate chemical carcinogenesis. Importantly, tumor counts in TAMD/K5-tTA mice rebounded to nearly equal the levels in the control group upon Dox-mediated transgene silencing at a late stage of tumor promotion, which indicates that latent viable initiated cells remain in AdoMetDC-expressing skin. These results underscore the complexity of polyamine modulation of tumor development and emphasize the critical role of putrescine in tumor promotion. AdoMetDC-expressing mice will enable more refined spatial and temporal manipulation of polyamine biosynthesis during tumorigenesis and in other models of human disease. PMID:22610166

  5. Expression of catalytically active rat S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, P; Kernen, M R; Pajunen, A

    1989-11-20

    The cDNA coding for rat S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC, EC 4.1.1.50) has been cloned into a plasmid expression vector, pKK-223-3, and expressed in E. coli. The authenticity of the expressed protein has been demonstrated by reactivity with antibodies specific for rat AdoMetDC, by size analysis on SDS gels visualized with immunotransblots, and, finally, by catalytic activity. The expression of the enzyme results in a decrease in the activity of the bacterial enzyme suggesting the replacement of the bacterial enzyme by the rat AdoMetDC. Similarly, the addition of exogenous spermidine to the growth medium reduces bacterial enzyme activity affecting only marginally the expression of the recombinant protein. PMID:2687019

  6. Structural Basis for Putrescine Activation of Human S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) activates the autoprocessing and decarboxylation reactions of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. In human AdoMetDC, putrescine binds in a buried pocket containing acidic residues Asp174, Glu178, and Glu256. The pocket is away from the active site but near the dimer interface; however, a series of hydrophilic residues connect the putrescine binding site and the active site. Mutation of these acidic residues modulates the effects of putrescine. D174N, E178Q, and E256Q mutants were expressed and dialyzed to remove putrescine and studied biochemically using X-ray crystallography, UV-CD spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, and ITC binding studies. The results show that the binding of putrescine to the wild type dimeric protein is cooperative. The D174N mutant does not bind putrescine, and the E178Q and E256Q mutants bind putrescine weakly with no cooperativity. The crystal structure of the mutants with and without putrescine and their complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester were obtained. Binding of putrescine results in a reorganization of four aromatic residues (Phe285, Phe315, Tyr318, and Phe320) and a conformational change in the loop 312?320. The loop shields putrescine from the external solvent, enhancing its electrostatic and hydrogen bonding effects. The E256Q mutant with putrescine added shows an alternate conformation of His243, Glu11, Lys80, and Ser229, the residues that link the active site and the putrescine binding site, suggesting that putrescine activates the enzyme through electrostatic effects and acts as a switch to correctly orient key catalytic residues. PMID:19053272

  7. Structural Basis for Putrescine Activation of Human S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Bale, Shridhar; Lopez, Maria M.; Makhatadze, George I.; Fang, Qingming; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2009-01-23

    Putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) activates the autoprocessing and decarboxylation reactions of human S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. In human AdoMetDC, putrescine binds in a buried pocket containing acidic residues Asp174, Glu178, and Glu256. The pocket is away from the active site but near the dimer interface; however, a series of hydrophilic residues connect the putrescine binding site and the active site. Mutation of these acidic residues modulates the effects of putrescine. D174N, E178Q, and E256Q mutants were expressed and dialyzed to remove putrescine and studied biochemically using X-ray crystallography, UV-CD spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation, and ITC binding studies. The results show that the binding of putrescine to the wild type dimeric protein is cooperative. The D174N mutant does not bind putrescine, and the E178Q and E256Q mutants bind putrescine weakly with no cooperativity. The crystal structure of the mutants with and without putrescine and their complexes with S-adenosylmethionine methyl ester were obtained. Binding of putrescine results in a reorganization of four aromatic residues (Phe285, Phe315, Tyr318, and Phe320) and a conformational change in the loop 312-320. The loop shields putrescine from the external solvent, enhancing its electrostatic and hydrogen bonding effects. The E256Q mutant with putrescine added shows an alternate conformation of His243, Glu11, Lys80, and Ser229, the residues that link the active site and the putrescine binding site, suggesting that putrescine activates the enzyme through electrostatic effects and acts as a switch to correctly orient key catalytic residues.

  8. Trypanosoma brucei S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase N Terminus Is Essential for Allosteric Activation by the Regulatory Subunit Prozyme*

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Nahir; Brautigam, Chad A.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei. Polyamine biosynthesis is a clinically validated target for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Metabolic differences between the parasite and the human polyamine pathway are thought to contribute to species selectivity of pathway inhibitors. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) catalyzes a key step in the production of the polyamine spermidine. We previously showed that trypanosomatid AdoMetDC differs from other eukaryotic enzymes in that it is regulated by heterodimer formation with a catalytically dead paralog, designated prozyme, which binds with high affinity to the enzyme and increases its activity by up to 103-fold. Herein, we examine the role of specific residues involved in AdoMetDC activation by prozyme through deletion and site-directed mutagenesis. Results indicate that 12 key amino acids at the N terminus of AdoMetDC are essential for prozyme-mediated activation with Leu-8, Leu-10, Met-11, and Met-13 identified as the key residues. These N-terminal residues are fully conserved in the trypanosomatids but are absent from other eukaryotic homologs lacking the prozyme mechanism, suggesting co-evolution of these residues with the prozyme mechanism. Heterodimer formation between AdoMetDC and prozyme was not impaired by mutation of Leu-8 and Leu-10 to Ala, suggesting that these residues are involved in a conformational change that is essential for activation. Our findings provide the first insight into the mechanisms that influence catalytic regulation of AdoMetDC and may have potential implications for the development of new inhibitors against this enzyme. PMID:23288847

  9. New Insights into the Design of Inhibitors of Human S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: Studies of Adenine C[superscript 8] Substitution in Structural Analogues of S-Adenosylmethionine

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, Diane E.; Bale, Shridhar; Secrist, III, John A.; Tiwari, Anita; Moss, III, Thomas H.; Valiyaveettil, Jacob; Brooks, Wesley H.; Guida, Wayne C.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2009-04-02

    S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is a critical enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and depends on a pyruvoyl group for the decarboxylation process. The crystal structures of the enzyme with various inhibitors at the active site have shown that the adenine base of the ligands adopts an unusual syn conformation when bound to the enzyme. To determine whether compounds that favor the syn conformation in solution would be more potent AdoMetDC inhibitors, several series of AdoMet substrate analogues with a variety of substituents at the 8-position of adenine were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to inhibit hAdoMetDC. The biochemical analysis indicated that an 8-methyl substituent resulted in more potent inhibitors, yet most other 8-substitutions provided no benefit over the parent compound. To understand these results, we used computational modeling and X-ray crystallography to study C{sup 8}-substituted adenine analogues bound in the active site.

  10. Monomeric S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from plants provides an alternative to putrescine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Eric M; Ekstrom, Jennifer L; Pegg, Anthony E; Ealick, Steven E

    2002-12-10

    S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has been implicated in cell growth and differentiation and is synthesized as a proenzyme, which undergoes autocatalytic cleavage to generate an active site pyruvoyl group. In mammals, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase is active as a dimer in which each protomer contains one alpha subunit and one beta subunit. In many higher organisms, autocatalysis and decarboxylation are stimulated by putrescine, which binds in a buried site containing numerous negatively charged residues. In contrast, plant S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases are fully active in the absence of putrescine, with rapid autocatalysis that is not stimulated by putrescine. We have determined the structure of the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from potato, Solanum tuberosum, to 2.3 A resolution. Unlike the previously determined human enzyme structure, the potato enzyme is a monomer in the crystal structure. Ultracentrifugation studies show that the potato enzyme is also a monomer under physiological conditions, with a weak self-association constant of 6.5 x 10(4) M(-)(1) for the monomer-dimer association. Although the potato enzyme contains most of the buried charged residues that make up the putrescine binding site in the human enzyme, there is no evidence for a putrescine binding site in the potato enzyme. Instead, several amino acid substitutions, including Leu13/Arg18, Phe111/Arg114, Asp174/Val181, and Phe285/His294 (human/potato), provide side chains that mimic the role of putrescine in the human enzyme. In the potato enzyme, the positively charged residues form an extensive network of hydrogen bonds bridging a cluster of highly conserved negatively charged residues and the active site, including interactions with the catalytic residues Glu16 and His249. The results explain the constitutively high activity of plant S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases in the absence of putrescine and are consistent with previously proposed models for how putrescine together with the buried, negatively charged site regulates enzyme activity. PMID:12463749

  11. Characterization of a Novel Putative S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase-Like Protein from Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh Pratap; Agnihotri, Pragati; Pratap, J. Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AD) present in all organisms, trypanosomatids including Leishmania spp. possess an additional copy, annotated as the putative S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-like proenzyme (ADL). Phylogenetic analysis confirms that ADL is unique to trypanosomatids and has several unique features such as lack of autocatalytic cleavage and a distinct evolutionary lineage, even from trypanosomatid ADs. In Trypanosoma ADL was found to be enzymaticaly dead but plays an essential regulatory role by forming a heterodimer complex with AD. However, no structural or functional information is available about ADL from Leishmania spp. Here, in this study, we report the cloning, expression, purification, structural and functional characterization of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) ADL using biophysical, biochemical and computational techniques. Biophysical studies show that, L. donovani ADL binds S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and putrescine which are natural substrates of AD. Computational modeling and docking studies showed that in comparison to the ADs of other organisms including human, residues involved in putrescine binding are partially conserved while the SAM binding residues are significantly different. In silico protein-protein interaction study reveals that L. donovani ADL can interact with AD. These results indicate that L. donovani ADL posses a novel substrate binding property and may play an essential role in polyamine biosynthesis with a different mode of function from known proteins of the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase super family. PMID:23840377

  12. Expression of host S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene and polyamine composition in aphid bacteriocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakabachi, A; Ishikawa, H

    2001-03-15

    Differential cDNA display and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that mRNA of host S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) was abundant only in the aphid endosymbiotic system well organized in young hosts, suggesting that SAMDC plays some important roles in the system. SAMDC is a key enzyme to synthesize polyamines that are known to be involved in a large array of biological events including protein synthesis, DNA stabilization, DNA replication, and cell proliferation. As the first step to investigate roles of polyamines in the endosymbiotic system, polyamine composition in bacteriocytes was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. As a result, we found that bacteriocytes contained virtually an only single polyamine, spermidine. The spermidine content of bacteriocytes fluctuated with time in the course of development and aging of the host aphid. This is the first report of polyamine assessment in a prokaryote-eukaryote endocellular symbiotic system, which demonstrated a unique polyamine composition. PMID:11222959

  13. RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of Ornithine Decarboxylase and Spermidine Synthase Genes in Trypanosoma brucei Provides Insight into Regulation of Polyamine Biosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yanjing; McCloskey, Diane E.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis is a drug target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness; however, mechanisms regulating the pathway in Trypanosoma brucei are not well understood. Recently, we showed that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing or the inhibition of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) led to the upregulation of the AdoMetDC activator, prozyme, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) proteins. To determine if this regulatory response is specific to AdoMetDC, we studied the effects of the RNAi-induced silencing of the spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) and ODC genes in bloodstream form T. brucei. The knockdown of either gene product led to the depletion of the polyamine and trypanothione pools and to cell death. Decarboxylated AdoMet levels were elevated, while AdoMet was not affected. There was no significant effect on the protein levels of other polyamine pathway enzymes. The treatment of parasites with the ODC inhibitor ?-difluoromethylornithine gave similar results to those observed for ODC knockdown. Thus, the cellular response to the loss of AdoMetDC activity is distinctive, suggesting that AdoMetDC activity controls the expression levels of the other spermidine biosynthetic enzymes. RNAi-mediated cell death occurred more rapidly for ODC than for SpdSyn. Further, the ODC RNAi cells were rescued by putrescine, but not spermidine, suggesting that the depletion of both putrescine and spermidine is more detrimental than the depletion of spermidine alone. This finding may contribute to the effectiveness of ODC as a target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness, thus providing important insight into the mechanism of action of a key antitrypanosomal agent. PMID:19304951

  14. Folate, vitamin B??, and S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2013-03-01

    Folate (vitamin B9) and cobalamin (vitamin B12) are essential for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. The metabolism of these vitamins is intimately linked and supports the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine(SAMe), the major methyl group donor in methylation reactions. This article reviews the metabolic and clinical importance of folate, vitamin B12, and SAMe, as well as clinical trials in relation to depression and dementia. PMID:23538072

  15. Inhibition of angiogenesis by S-adenosylmethionine

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, Mehmet; Sahin, Emel; Guemueslue, Saadet; Erdogan, Abdullah; Gueltekin, Meral

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effects of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) were investigated in endothelial cells. {yields} Our results showed that SAM decreased proliferation of endothelial cells. {yields} SAM influentially inhibited the percentage of cell migration. {yields} SAM probably stopped migration as independent from its effects on proliferation. {yields} SAM was shown to suppress in vitro angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Metastasis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer. One of the steps in metastasis process is the formation of new blood vessels. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are common in cancer cells. In recent studies, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is a DNA methylating agent, has been found to have inhibitory effects on some carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we have used SAM to investigate whether it is effective against angiogenesis in vitro. Our results have shown that SAM can reduce the formation and organization of capillary-like structures of endothelial cells in tumoral environment. Besides, we have found SAM can block endothelial cell proliferation and the migration of cells towards growth factors-rich media. In conclusion, our study suggests that SAM may be used against angiogenesis as a natural bio-product.

  16. FERONIA receptor kinase interacts with S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and suppresses S-adenosylmethionine production and ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dandan; Yu, Feng; Li, Jian; Van de Poel, Bram; Tan, Dan; Li, Jianglin; Liu, Yanqionq; Li, Xiushang; Dong, Mengqiu; Chen, Liangbi; Li, Dongping; Luan, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Environmental inputs such as stress can modulate plant cell metabolism, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We report here that FERONIA (FER), a plasma membrane receptor-like kinase, may negatively regulate the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis by interacting with two S-adenosylmethionine synthases (SAM1 and SAM2). SAM participates in ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamine biosynthetic pathways and provides the methyl group for protein and DNA methylation reactions. The Arabidopsis fer mutants contained a higher level of SAM and ethylene in plant tissues and displayed a dwarf phenotype. Such phenotype in the fer mutants was mimicked by over-expressing the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in transgenic plants, whereas sam1/2 double mutant showed an opposite phenotype. We propose that FER receptor kinase, in response to environmental stress and plant hormones such as auxin and BR, interacts with SAM synthases and down-regulates ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:25988356

  17. S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff): purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Hugo, E R; Byers, T J

    1993-10-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) has been purified to near homogeneity from the Neff strain of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The holoenzyme molecular mass is 88.8 kDa, including two copies each of a 32.8 kDa alpha-subunit and a 10-15 kDa beta-subunit. The alpha-subunit contains the active site. It has an N-terminal pyruvoyl group, and the first 19 amino acids are 63 and 74% identical with comparable sequences from yeast and mammals, respectively. The apparent Km for S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the presence of 2 mM putrescine was 30.0 microM. The enzyme was stimulated 2-fold by putrescine, but was unaffected by spermidine. It was inhibited by the following anti-metabolites, listed with their Ki values: Berenil (0.17 microM), pentamidine (19.4 microM), propamidine (334 microM), hydroxystilbamidine (357 microM), methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (604 microM) and ethidium bromide (1.3 mM). Activity of the enzyme fell to undetectable levels during cell differentiation (encystment). PMID:8216217

  18. Nonenzymatic methylation of DNA by S-adenosylmethionine in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, L.R.; Magee, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine was found to methylate DNA non-enzymatically to produce the same putative promutagenic and procarcinogenic lesions formed by carcinogenic chemical methylating agents. The formation of 7-methylguanine was confirmed by u.v. spectrophotometry, the formation of O6-methylguanine and 3-methyladenine was suggested by the cochromatography of radioactivity with standard bases. It is possible that this reaction may explain the presence of constitutive cellular enzymes specifically for the repair of methylated DNA, and may indicate the mechanism whereby methylated guanine is formed in the liver DNA of rats with chemically induced liver damage.

  19. S-adenosylmethionine levels regulate the Schwann cell DNA methylome

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Rey, Marta; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Aransay, Ana María; Fernandez, Agustín F.; Lavin, José Luis; Mósen-Ansorena, David; Berdasco, María; Turmaine, Marc; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C.; Esteller, Manel; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R.; Fraga, Mario F.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Mato, José M.; Woodhoo, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Axonal myelination is essential for rapid saltatory impulse conduction in the nervous system, and malformation or destruction of myelin sheaths leads to motor and sensory disabilities. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification during mammalian development, yet its role in myelination remains obscure. Here, using high-resolution methylome maps, we show that DNA methylation could play a key gene regulatory role in peripheral nerve myelination and that S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor in cytosine methylation, regulates the methylome dynamics during this process. Our studies also point to a possible role of SAMe in establishing the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, implicating SAMe in the pathogenesis of this disease. These critical observations establish a link between SAMe and DNA methylation status in a defined biological system, and provides a novel mechanism that could direct methylation changes during cellular differentiation and in diverse pathological situations. PMID:24607226

  20. S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE IN LIVER HEALTH, INJURY, AND CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.

    2013-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet, also known as SAM and SAMe) is the principal biological methyl donor synthesized in all mammalian cells but most abundantly in the liver. Biosynthesis of AdoMet requires the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). In mammals, two genes, MAT1A that is largely expressed by normal liver and MAT2A that is expressed by all extrahepatic tissues, encode MAT. Patients with chronic liver disease have reduced MAT activity and AdoMet levels. Mice lacking Mat1a have reduced hepatic AdoMet levels and develop oxidative stress, steatohepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In these mice, several signaling pathways are abnormal that can contribute to HCC formation. However, injury and HCC also occur if hepatic AdoMet level is excessive chronically. This can result from inactive mutation of the enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT). Children with GNMT mutation have elevated liver transaminases, and Gnmt knockout mice develop liver injury, fibrosis, and HCC. Thus a normal hepatic AdoMet level is necessary to maintain liver health and prevent injury and HCC. AdoMet is effective in cholestasis of pregnancy, and its role in other human liver diseases remains to be better defined. In experimental models, it is effective as a chemopreventive agent in HCC and perhaps other forms of cancer as well. PMID:23073625

  1. The role of S-adenosylmethionine in the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine and L-{beta}-lysine. This study is divided into three parts. They are; the purification of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, the investigation of the role of the C-5{prime}-hydrogens of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, and the question of whether activation of enzyme by S-adenosylmethionine necessitates transformation of S-adenosylmethionine into a new form. To determine if the C-5{prime}-hydrogens of S-adenosylmethionine participate in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, enzyme is activated with S-(2,8,5{prime}-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine and the L-lysine and L-{beta}-lysine are analyzed for their tritium content. The tritium levels in the two isomers are significant and reflect the Keq for the reaction with (L-{beta}-lysine)/(L-lysine) = 5.3 {+-} 0.3 at a pH of 7.7 and 37{degree}C. When S-(2,8-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine or S-(methyl-{sup 3}H)adenosylmethionine serve as activators, no significant amount of tritium is found in L-{beta}-lysine and L-lysine. To test if S-adenosylmethionine is modified during activation of enzyme, lysine 2,3-aminomutase is activated with {sup 14}C-radiolabelled S-adenosylmethionine.

  2. Evaluation of chemical and diastereoisomeric stability of S-adenosylmethionine in aqueous solution by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Desiderio, Claudia; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; De Rossi, Antonella; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Fuso, Andrea; Scarpa, Sigfrido

    2005-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was used for monitoring the stability of S-adenosylmethionine in aqueous solution under different conditions of storage and incubation used for "in vitro" and "in vivo" experiments, by evaluating both the entity of degradation and the possibility of epimerization at the sulfonium group. The determination of S,S-S-adenosylmethionine in presence of its R,S-epimer and degradation products was performed in uncoated capillary of 50 microm ID using 150 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 2.5. The analyses were performed in short or long-end injection modes depending if a fast monitoring of the degradation products or the evaluation of the diastereoisomeric ratio were carried out, respectively. In the long-end injection mode the baseline separation of S-adenosylmethionine diastereoisomeric forms and degradation products was obtained in less than 10 min with efficiency values in the range of 172,520-311,439 number of theoretical plates per meter. The results showed that freezing was the optimum storage mode for S-adenosylmethionine aqueous solutions preserving from degradation and diastereoisomeric ratio alterations. Under incubation conditions at 38 degrees C during 14 days period S-adenosylmethionine showed a strong degradation and the formation of three main increasing degradation products. After 7 and 14 days only the 52% and 32% of the initial drug concentration were available and the active S,S-S-adenosylmethionine form was the most affected. PMID:15925246

  3. Paramagnetic Intermediates Generated by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus A [4Fe–4S]+ cluster reduces a bound S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) molecule, cleaving it into methionine and a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical (5′-dA•). This step initiates the varied chemistry catalyzed by each of the so-called radical SAM enzymes. The strongly oxidizing 5′-dA• is quenched by abstracting a H-atom from a target species. In some cases, this species is an exogenous molecule of substrate, for example, l-tyrosine in the [FeFe] hydrogenase maturase, HydG. In other cases, the target is a proteinaceous residue as in all the glycyl radical forming enzymes. The generation of this initial radical species and the subsequent chemistry involving downstream radical intermediates is meticulously controlled by the enzyme so as to prevent unwanted reactions. But the manner in which this control is exerted is unknown. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has proven to be a valuable tool used to gain insight into these mechanisms. In this Account, we summarize efforts to trap such radical intermediates in radical SAM enzymes and highlight four examples in which EPR spectroscopic results have shed significant light on the corresponding mechanism. For lysine 2,3-aminomutase, nearly each possible intermediate, from an analogue of the initial 5′-dA• to the product radical l-β-lysine, has been explored. A paramagnetic intermediate observed in biotin synthase is shown to involve an auxiliary [FeS] cluster whose bridging sulfide is a co-substrate for the final step in the biosynthesis of vitamin B7. In HydG, the l-tyrosine substrate is converted in unprecedented fashion to a 4-oxidobenzyl radical on the way to generating CO and CN– ligands for the [FeFe] cluster of hydrogenase. And finally, EPR has confirmed a mechanistic proposal for the antibiotic resistance protein Cfr, which methylates the unactivated sp2-hybridized C8-carbon of an adenosine base of 23S ribosomal RNA. These four systems provide just a brief survey of the ever-growing set of radical SAM enzymes. The diverse chemistries catalyzed by these enzymes make them an intriguing target for continuing study, and EPR spectroscopy, in particular, seems ideally placed to contribute to our understanding. PMID:24991701

  4. Inactivation and dissociation of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase by modification of sulfhydryl groups and its possible occurrence in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Corrales, F; Cabrero, C; Pajares, M A; Ortiz, P; Martin-Duce, A; Mato, J M

    1990-02-01

    Catalytically active human and rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase exists mainly in tetramer and dimer form. In liver biopsy samples from cirrhotic patients a marked reduction in total S-adenosylmethionine synthetase activity and a specific loss of the tetrameric form of the enzyme exist. We have investigated the possible role of sulfhydryl groups in maintaining the structure and activity of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Both forms of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase are rapidly inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide, and the loss of enzyme activity correlates with the incorporation of approximately 2 moles N-ethylmaleimide per mole of subunit. In addition, reaction with N-ethylmaleimide resulted in displacement of the tetramer-dimer equilibrium of the enzyme toward the dimer, but no monomer was detected under these conditions. A catalytically active monomeric S-adenosylmethionine synthetase was detected in the cytosolic extract from a liver biopsy sample from a cirrhotic patient, supporting our model for the structure of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Because treatment of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase with N-ethylmaleimide resembles the situation of this enzyme in cirrhotic patients, it is proposed that impaired protection of the enzyme from oxidizing agents caused by a decreased synthesis of glutathione can explain the diminished synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine in liver cirrhosis. PMID:2307400

  5. S-adenosylmethionine lowers the inflammatory response in macrophages associated with changes in DNA methylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the unique methyl donor in DNA methylation, has been shown to lower inflammation. We assessed whether epigenetic mechanisms mediate this effect. Human THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages and treated with 0 micromole/L, 500 micromole/L or 1000 micromole/L SAM ...

  6. Allosteric and catalytic binding of S-adenosylmethionine to Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase monitored by 3H NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Bergerat, A.; Guschlbauer, W.; Fazakerley, G.V. )

    1991-08-01

    Adenine methylation of GATC sequences in DNA is carried out by the DNA adenine methyltransferase with the methyl group source being the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine. The authors report 3H NMR studies on the interaction of DNA adenine methyltransferase with S-adenosylmethionine and the reaction when the ternary complex is formed with an oligonucleotide containing a GATC site. The methylation reaction was also studied in the presence of a competitive inhibitor and this showed two successive stages involved in the methylation and two sites of binding for S-adenosylmethionine.

  7. Allosteric and catalytic binding of S-adenosylmethionine to Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase monitored by 3H NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Bergerat, A; Guschlbauer, W; Fazakerley, G V

    1991-01-01

    Adenine methylation of GATC sequences in DNA is carried out by the DNA adenine methyltransferase with the methyl group source being the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine. We report 3H NMR studies on the interaction of DNA adenine methyltransferase with S-adenosylmethionine and the reaction when the ternary complex is formed with an oligonucleotide containing a GATC site. The methylation reaction was also studied in the presence of a competitive inhibitor and this showed two successive stages involved in the methylation and two sites of binding for S-adenosylmethionine. PMID:1862071

  8. Reversible H atom abstraction catalyzed by the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme HydG.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Benjamin R; Ghose, Shourjo; Peters, John W; Broderick, Joan B

    2014-09-24

    The organometallic H-cluster at the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenases is synthesized by three accessory proteins, two of which are radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes (HydE, HydG) and one of which is a GTPase (HydF). In this work we probed the specific role of H atom abstraction in HydG-catalyzed carbon monoxide and cyanide production from tyrosine. The isotope distributions of 5'-deoxyadenosine and p-cresol were evaluated using deuterium-labeled tyrosine substrates in H2O and D2O. The observation of multiply deuterated 5'-deoxyadenosine and deuterated S-adenosylmethionine when the reaction is carried out in D2O provides evidence for a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical-mediated abstraction of a hydrogen atom from a solvent-exchangeable position as a reversible event. PMID:25099480

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from Chorispora bungeana.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenchen; Chen, Tao; Yang, Yu; Liu, Sha; Yan, Kan; Yue, Xiule; Zhang, Hua; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe; Chen, Shuyan

    2015-11-10

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which is a molecule essential for polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis, methylation modifications of protein, DNA and lipids. SAMS also plays an important role in abiotic stress response. Chorispora bungeana (C. bungeana) is an alpine subnival plant species which possesses strong tolerance to cold stress. Here, we cloned and characterized an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene, CbSAMS (C. bungeana S-adenosylmethionine synthetase), from C. bungeana, which encodes a protein of 393 amino acids containing a methionine binding motif GHPDK, an ATP binding motif GAGDQG and a phosphate binding motif GGGAFSGDK. Furthermore, an NES (nuclear export signal) peptide was identified through bioinformatics analysis. To explore the CbSAMS gene expression regulation, we isolated the promoter region of CbSAMS gene 1919bp upstream the ATG start codon, CbSAMSp, and analyzed its cis-acting elements by bioinformatics method. It was revealed that a transcription start site located at 320 bp upstream the ATG start codon and cis-acting elements related to light, ABA, auxin, ethylene, MeJA, low temperature and drought had been found in the CbSAMSp sequence. The gene expression pattern of CbSAMS was then analyzed by TR-qPCR and GUS assay method. The result showed that CbSAMS is expressed in all examined tissues including callus, roots, petioles, leaves, and flowers with a significant higher expression level in roots and flowers. Furthermore, the expression level of CbSAMS was induced by low temperature, ethylene and NaCl. Subcellular localization revealed that CbSAMS was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus but has a significant higher level in the nucleus. These results indicated a potential role of CbSAMS in abiotic stresses and plant growth in C. bungeana. PMID:26205258

  10. Marine-Derived Metabolites of S-Adenosylmethionine as Templates for New Anti-Infectives

    PubMed Central

    Sufrin, Janice R.; Finckbeiner, Steven; Oliver, Colin M.

    2009-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a key biochemical co-factor whose proximate metabolites include methylated macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids), methylated small molecules (e.g., sterols, biogenic amines), polyamines (e.g., spermidine, spermine), ethylene, and N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Marine organisms produce numerous AdoMet metabolites whose novel structures can be regarded as lead compounds for anti-infective drug design. PMID:19841722

  11. Role of S-adenosylmethionine in the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, M.; Frey, P.A.

    1987-11-05

    The interconversion of L-lysine and L-3,6-diamino-hexanoate (L-beta-lysine) catalyzed by lysine 2,3-aminomutase is known to be stimulated by added S-adenosylmethionine. In this paper we show that enzyme activated by S-(2,8,5'-/sup 3/H)adenosylmethionine catalyzes the conversion of L-lysine to the equilibrium mixture of L-lysine and L-beta-lysine with incorporation of high levels of tritium into both isomers. The tritium levels in the isomers reflect the equilibrium constant for their interconversion, 84% in the L-beta-lysine and 16% in L-lysine compared with Keq = 5.3 +/- 0.3 in the direction of the formation of L-beta-lysine at pH 7.7 and 30 degrees C. No significant tritium is incorporated into lysine from S-(2,8-/sup 3/H)adenosylmethionine or S-adenosyl(methyl-/sup 3/H) methionine under comparable conditions. Therefore, the tritium incorporated into lysine in the former reaction arises from the 5'-position of the 5'-deoxyadenosyl group in S-adenosylmethionine. These experiments implicate the 5'-deoxyadenosyl portion of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism of this reaction, perhaps in a role analogous to that played by the 5'-deoxyadenosyl moiety of deoxyadenosyl cobalamin in coenzyme B12-dependent rearrangements.

  12. Mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine suppress position-effect variegation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, J.; Rasmuson-Lestander, A.; Zhang, Jingpu

    1996-06-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the study of trans-acting modifier mutations of position-effect variegation and Polycomb group (Pc-G) genes have been useful tools to investigate genes involved in chromatin structure. We have cloned a modifier gene, Suppressor of zeste 5 (Su(z)5), which encodes S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and we present here molecular results and data concerning its expression in mutants and genetic interactions. The mutant alleles Su(z)5, l(2)R23 and l(2)M6 show suppression of w{sup m4} and also of two white mutants induced by roo element insertions in the regulatory region i.e., w{sup is} (in combination with z{sup 1}) and w{sup sp1}. Two of the Su(z)5 alleles, as well as a deletion of the gene, also act as enhancers of Polycomb by increasing the size of sex combes on midleg. The results suggest that Su(z)5 is connected with regulation of chromatin structure. The enzyme S-adenosylmethionine synthetase is involved in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a methyl group donor and also, after decarboxylation, a propylamino group donor in the biosynthesis of polyamines. Our results from HPLC analysis show that in ovaries from heterozygous Su(z)5 mutants the content of spermine is significantly reduced. Results presented here suggest that polyamines are an important molecule class in the regulation of chromatin structure. 50 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. ?-Lipoic Acid Induced Elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine and Depleted S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Stabler, Sally P.; Sekhar, Jeevan; Allen, Robert H.; O'Neill, Heidi C.; White, Carl W.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoic Acid is a disulfhydryl-containing compound used in clinical medicine and in experimental models as an antioxidant. We developed a stable isotope dilution capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry assay for lipoic acid. We assayed a panel of the metabolites of transmethylation and transsulfuration 30 minutes after injecting lipoic acid 100 mg/kg in a rat model. Lipoic acid values rose 1000-fold in serum and 10-fold in liver. A methylated metabolite of lipoic acid was also detected but not quantitated. Lipoic acid injection caused a massive increase in serum S-adenosylhomocysteine and marked depletion of liver S-adenosylmethionine. Serum total cysteine was depleted but liver cysteine and glutathione were maintained. Serum total homocysteine doubled with increases also in cystathionine, N, N-dimethylglycine and alpha-aminobutyric acid. In contrast, after injection of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA), serum total cysteine and homocysteine were markedly depleted and there were no effects on serum S-adenosylmethionine or S-adenosylhomocysteine. We conclude that large doses of lipoic acid both displace sulfhydryls from binding sites resulting in depletion of serum cysteine but also pose a methylation burden with severe depletion of liver S-adenosylmethionine and massive release of S-adenosylhomocysteine. These changes may have previously unrecognized deleterious effects that should be investigated in both human disease and experimental models. PMID:19616616

  14. Discovery of Novel Types of Inhibitors of S-Adenosylmethionine Synthesis by Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John C.; Bock, Charles W.; Takusagawa, Fusao; Markham, George D.

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) lies at an intersection of nucleotide and amino acid metabolism, and performs a multitude of metabolic functions. AdoMet formation is catalyzed by S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (ATP : L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase (MAT)) which is a target for development of anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents. High affinity MAT inhibitors have been found through computational docking of more than 200,000 compounds for predicted binding to the crystallographically-defined nucleotide binding region of the enzyme's active site. Two of the top scoring candidate compounds had IC50 values less than 10 nM,, more than 10,000-fold lower than the substrates' KM values. The compounds are structurally unrelated to the natural ligands of the enzyme. The enzyme is protected from inhibition by ATP, but not by methionine, consistent with binding at the adenosyl region of the active site. These results validate in silico screening as a robust approach to the discovery of inhibitors of this chemotherapeutically relevant enzyme. PMID:19739644

  15. Identification and functional reconstitution of yeast mitochondrial carrier for S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Marobbio, C.M.T.; Agrimi, G.; Lasorsa, F.M.; Palmieri, F.

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains 35 members of the mitochondrial carrier protein family, most of which have not yet been functionally identified. Here the identification of the mitochondrial carrier for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) Sam5p is described. The corresponding gene has been overexpressed in bacteria and the protein has been reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and identified by its transport properties. In confirmation of its identity, (i) the Sam5p–GFP protein was found to be targeted to mitochondria; (ii) the cells lacking the gene for this carrier showed auxotrophy for biotin (which is synthesized in the mitochondria by the SAM-requiring Bio2p) on fermentable carbon sources and a petite phenotype on non-fermentable substrates; and (iii) both phenotypes of the knock-out mutant were overcome by expressing the cytosolic SAM synthetase (Sam1p) inside the mitochondria. PMID:14609944

  16. SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE AND S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE IN MOUSE AND RAT TISSUES BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rat liver and kidney and mouse liver is described. The method can also be used to determine SAM in whole blood. The method provides rapid (approximately 16 min sample to sample)...

  17. Boron Deprivation Decreases Liver S-Adenosylmethionine and Spermidine and Increases Plasma Homocysteine and Cysteine in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted with weanling Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether changes in S-adenosylmethionine utilization or metabolism contribute to the diverse responses to boron deprivation. In both experiments, four treatment groups of 15 male rats were fed ground corn-casein based diets...

  18. An unusual S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from dinoflagellate is methylated

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Percy; Kong, KF; Chan, YH; Tsang, Jimmy SH; Wong, Joseph TY

    2007-01-01

    Background S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (AdoMetS) catalyzes the formation of S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the major methyl group donor in cells. AdoMet-mediated methylation of DNA is known to have regulatory effects on DNA transcription and chromosome structure. Transcription of environmental-responsive genes was demonstrated to be mediated via DNA methylation in dinoflagellates. Results A full-length cDNA encoding AdoMetS was cloned from the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CcAdoMetS gene, is associated with the clade of higher plant orthrologues, and not to the clade of the animal orthrologues. Surprisingly, three extra stretches of residues (8 to 19 amino acids) were found on CcAdoMetS, when compared to other members of this usually conserved protein family. Modeled on the bacterial AdeMetS, two of the extra loops are located close to the methionine binding site. Despite this, the CcAdoMetS was able to rescue the corresponding mutant of budding yeast. Southern analysis, coupled with methylation-sensitive and insensitive enzyme digestion of C. cohnii genomic DNA, demonstrated that the AdoMetS gene is itself methylated. The increase in digestibility of methylation-sensitive enzymes on AdoMet synthetase gene observed following the addition of DNA methylation inhibitors L-ethionine and 5-azacytidine suggests the presence of cytosine methylation sites within CcAdoMetS gene. During the cell cycle, both the transcript and protein levels of CcAdoMetS peaked at the G1 phase. L-ethionine was able to delay the cell cycle at the entry of S phase. A cell cycle delay at the exit of G2/M phase was induced by 5-azacytidine. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a major role of AdoMet-mediated DNA methylation in the regulation of cell proliferation and that the CcAdoMetS gene is itself methylated. PMID:17915037

  19. Identification of Catalytic Residues in the As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Qin, Jie; Rosen, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.137) (ArsM or AS3MT) is found in members of every kingdom, from bacteria to humans. In these enzymes, there are three conserved cysteine residues at positions 72, 174, and 224 in the CmArsM orthologue from the thermophilic eukaryotic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508. Substitution of any of the three led to loss of As(III) methylation. In contrast, a C72A mutant still methylated trivalent methylarsenite [MAs(III)]. Protein fluorescence of a single-tryptophan mutant reported binding of As(III) or MAs(III). As(GS)3 and MAs(GS)2 bound significantly faster than As(III), suggesting that the glutathionylated arsenicals are preferred substrates for the enzyme. Protein fluorescence also reported binding of Sb(III), and the purified enzyme methylated and volatilized Sb(III). The results suggest that all three cysteine residues are necessary for the first step in the reaction, As(III) methylation, but that only Cys174 and Cys224 are required for the second step, methylation of MAs(III) to dimethylarsenite [DMAs(III)]. The rate-limiting step was identified as the conversion of DMAs(III) to trimethylarsine, and DMAs(III) accumulates as the principal product. PMID:22257120

  20. Functional proteomics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Mitochondrial proteins as targets of S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, Enrique; Avila, Matías A.; Latasa, M. Ujue; Rubio, Angel; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work shows that S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) helps maintain normal liver function as chronic hepatic deficiency results in spontaneous development of steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms by which these nontraditional functions of AdoMet occur are unknown. Here, we use knockout mice deficient in hepatic AdoMet synthesis (MAT1A−/−) to study the proteome of the liver during the development of steatohepatitis. One hundred and seventeen protein spots, differentially expressed during the development of steatohepatitis, were selected and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Among them, 12 proteins were found to be affected from birth, when MAT1A−/− expression is switched on in WT mouse liver, to the rise of histological lesions, which occurs at ≈8 months. Of the 12 proteins, 4 [prohibitin 1 (PHB1), cytochrome c oxidase I and II, and ATPase β-subunit] have known roles in mitochondrial function. We show that the alteration in expression of PHB1 correlates with a loss of mitochondrial function. Experiments in isolated rat hepatocytes indicate that AdoMet regulates PHB1 content, thus suggesting ways by which steatohepatitis may be induced. Importantly, we found the expression of these mitochondrial proteins was abnormal in ob/ob mice and obese patients who are at risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:12631701

  1. S-Adenosylmethionine-Binding Properties of a Bacterial Phospholipid N-Methyltransferase?

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Meriyem; Gleichenhagen, Jan; Stoll, Raphael; Narberhaus, Franz

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial membrane is critically important for many host-microbe interactions. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens catalyzes the formation of PC by a three-step methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine and dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine. The methyl group is provided by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) during transmethylation. Despite the biological importance of bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferases, little is known about amino acids critical for binding to SAM or phospholipids and catalysis. Alanine substitutions in the predicted SAM-binding residues E58, G60, G62, and E84 in A. tumefaciens PmtA dramatically reduced SAM-binding and enzyme activity. Homology modeling of PmtA satisfactorily explained the mutational results. The enzyme is predicted to exhibit a consensus topology of the SAM-binding fold consistent with cofactor interaction as seen with most structurally characterized SAM-methyltransferases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration experiments and 14C-SAM-binding studies revealed binding constants for SAM and SAH in the low micromolar range. Our study provides first insights into structural features and SAM binding of a bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferase. PMID:21602340

  2. Excess S-adenosylmethionine reroutes phosphatidylethanolamine towards phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Ua, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Cano, Ainara; Fernndez-Ares, Larraitz; Beraza, Naiara; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Martnez-Arranz, Ibon; Garca-Rodrguez, Juan L; Buqu, Xabier; Mestre, Daniela; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Alonso, Cristina; Finnell, Richard H; Lu, Shelly C; Martnez-Chantar, M Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, Jos M

    2013-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) are the primary genes involved in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis and degradation, respectively. Mat1a ablation in mice induces a decrease in hepatic SAMe, activation of lipogenesis, inhibition of triglyceride (TG) release, and steatosis. Gnmt deficient mice, despite showing a large increase in hepatic SAMe, also develop steatosis. We hypothesized that as an adaptive response to hepatic SAMe accumulation, phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway is stimulated in Gnmt?/? mice. We also propose that the excess PC thus generated is catabolized leading to TG synthesis and steatosis via diglyceride (DG) generation. We observed that Gnmt?/? mice present with normal hepatic lipogenesis and increased TG release. We also observed that the flux from PE to PC is stimulated in the liver of Gnmt?/? mice and that this results in a reduction in PE content and a marked increase in DG and TG. Conversely, reduction of hepatic SAMe following the administration of a methionine deficient diet reverted the flux from PE to PC of Gnmt?/? mice to that of wild type animals and normalized DG and TG content preventing the development of steatosis. Gnmt?/? mice with an additional deletion of perilipin2, the predominant lipid droplet protein, maintain high SAMe levels, with a concurrent increased flux from PE to PC, but do not develop liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings indicate that excess SAMe reroutes PE towards PC and TG synthesis, and lipid sequestration. PMID:23505042

  3. Automethylation of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) Regulates Activity by Impeding S-Adenosylmethionine Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Myles B. C.; Rust, Heather L.; Thompson, Paul R.; Mowen, Kerri A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 8 is unique among the PRMTs, as it has a highly restricted tissue expression pattern and an N terminus that contains two automethylation sites and a myristoylation site. PRMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a peptidylarginine on a protein substrate. Currently, the physiological roles, regulation, and cellular substrates of PRMT8 are poorly understood. However, a thorough understanding of PRMT8 kinetics should provide insights into each of these areas, thereby enhancing our understanding of this unique enzyme. In this study, we determined how automethylation regulates the enzymatic activity of PRMT8. We found that preventing automethylation with lysine mutations (preserving the positive charge of the residue) increased the turnover rate and decreased the Km of AdoMet but did not affect the Km of the protein substrate. In contrast, mimicking automethylation with phenylalanine (i.e. mimicking the increased hydrophobicity) decreased the turnover rate. The inhibitory effect of the PRMT8 N terminus could be transferred to PRMT1 by creating a chimeric protein containing the N terminus of PRMT8 fused to PRMT1. Thus, automethylation of the N terminus likely regulates PRMT8 activity by decreasing the affinity of the enzyme for AdoMet. PMID:23946480

  4. S-adenosylmethionine-binding properties of a bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Meriyem; Gleichenhagen, Jan; Stoll, Raphael; Narberhaus, Franz

    2011-07-01

    The presence of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial membrane is critically important for many host-microbe interactions. The phospholipid N-methyltransferase PmtA from the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens catalyzes the formation of PC by a three-step methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine and dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine. The methyl group is provided by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) during transmethylation. Despite the biological importance of bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferases, little is known about amino acids critical for binding to SAM or phospholipids and catalysis. Alanine substitutions in the predicted SAM-binding residues E58, G60, G62, and E84 in A. tumefaciens PmtA dramatically reduced SAM-binding and enzyme activity. Homology modeling of PmtA satisfactorily explained the mutational results. The enzyme is predicted to exhibit a consensus topology of the SAM-binding fold consistent with cofactor interaction as seen with most structurally characterized SAM-methyltransferases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration experiments and (14)C-SAM-binding studies revealed binding constants for SAM and SAH in the low micromolar range. Our study provides first insights into structural features and SAM binding of a bacterial phospholipid N-methyltransferase. PMID:21602340

  5. Arsenic methylation and volatilization by arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase in Pseudomonas alcaligenes NBRC14159.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Tingting; Tang, Zhu; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-04-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is highly toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Inorganic As can be transformed by microbial methylation, which constitutes an important part of the As biogeochemical cycle. In this study, we investigated As biotransformation by Pseudomonas alcaligenes NBRC14159. P. alcaligenes was able to methylate arsenite [As(III)] rapidly to dimethylarsenate and small amounts of trimethylarsenic oxide. An arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase, PaArsM, was identified and functionally characterized. PaArsM shares low similarities with other reported ArsM enzymes (<55%). When P. alcaligenes arsM gene (PaarsM) was disrupted, the mutant lost As methylation ability and became more sensitive to As(III). PaarsM was expressed in the absence of As(III) and the expression was further enhanced by As(III) exposure. Heterologous expression of PaarsM in an As-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli conferred As(III) resistance. Purified PaArsM protein methylated As(III) to dimethylarsenate as the main product in the medium and also produced dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine gases. We propose that PaArsM plays a role in As methylation and detoxification of As(III) and could be exploited in bioremediation of As-contaminated environments. PMID:25681184

  6. Automethylation of protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) regulates activity by impeding S-adenosylmethionine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Myles B C; Rust, Heather L; Thompson, Paul R; Mowen, Kerri A

    2013-09-27

    Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 8 is unique among the PRMTs, as it has a highly restricted tissue expression pattern and an N terminus that contains two automethylation sites and a myristoylation site. PRMTs catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to a peptidylarginine on a protein substrate. Currently, the physiological roles, regulation, and cellular substrates of PRMT8 are poorly understood. However, a thorough understanding of PRMT8 kinetics should provide insights into each of these areas, thereby enhancing our understanding of this unique enzyme. In this study, we determined how automethylation regulates the enzymatic activity of PRMT8. We found that preventing automethylation with lysine mutations (preserving the positive charge of the residue) increased the turnover rate and decreased the Km of AdoMet but did not affect the Km of the protein substrate. In contrast, mimicking automethylation with phenylalanine (i.e. mimicking the increased hydrophobicity) decreased the turnover rate. The inhibitory effect of the PRMT8 N terminus could be transferred to PRMT1 by creating a chimeric protein containing the N terminus of PRMT8 fused to PRMT1. Thus, automethylation of the N terminus likely regulates PRMT8 activity by decreasing the affinity of the enzyme for AdoMet. PMID:23946480

  7. Mechanistic diversity of radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylation.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, Matthew R; Schwalm, Erica L; Booker, Squire J

    2015-02-13

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes use the oxidizing power of a 5'-deoxyadenosyl 5'-radical to initiate an amazing array of transformations, usually through the abstraction of a target substrate hydrogen atom. A common reaction of radical SAM (RS) enzymes is the methylation of unactivated carbon or phosphorous atoms found in numerous primary and secondary metabolites, as well as in proteins, sugars, lipids, and RNA. However, neither the chemical mechanisms by which these unactivated atoms obtain methyl groups nor the actual methyl donors are conserved. In fact, RS methylases have been grouped into three classes based on protein architecture, cofactor requirement, and predicted mechanism of catalysis. Class A methylases use two cysteine residues to methylate sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers. Class B methylases require a cobalamin cofactor to methylate both sp(2)-hybridized and sp(3)-hybridized carbon centers as well as phosphinate phosphorous atoms. Class C methylases share significant sequence homology with the RS enzyme, HemN, and may bind two SAM molecules simultaneously to methylate sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers. Lastly, we describe a new class of recently discovered RS methylases. These Class D methylases, unlike Class A, B, and C enzymes, which use SAM as the source of the donated methyl carbon, are proposed to methylate sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers using methylenetetrahydrofolate as the source of the appended methyl carbon. PMID:25477520

  8. Arsenic Methylation and Volatilization by Arsenite S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase in Pseudomonas alcaligenes NBRC14159

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Tingting; Tang, Zhu; Shen, Qirong; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is highly toxic and ubiquitous in the environment. Inorganic As can be transformed by microbial methylation, which constitutes an important part of the As biogeochemical cycle. In this study, we investigated As biotransformation by Pseudomonas alcaligenes NBRC14159. P. alcaligenes was able to methylate arsenite [As(III)] rapidly to dimethylarsenate and small amounts of trimethylarsenic oxide. An arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase, PaArsM, was identified and functionally characterized. PaArsM shares low similarities with other reported ArsM enzymes (<55%). When P. alcaligenes arsM gene (PaarsM) was disrupted, the mutant lost As methylation ability and became more sensitive to As(III). PaarsM was expressed in the absence of As(III) and the expression was further enhanced by As(III) exposure. Heterologous expression of PaarsM in an As-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli conferred As(III) resistance. Purified PaArsM protein methylated As(III) to dimethylarsenate as the main product in the medium and also produced dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine gases. We propose that PaArsM plays a role in As methylation and detoxification of As(III) and could be exploited in bioremediation of As-contaminated environments. PMID:25681184

  9. Essential roles of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine in the autarkic lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Chen, Mei; Kim, John; Wang, Jingxin; Harris, David; Parkhill, Julian; Chan, John; Wang, Feng; Jacobs, William R

    2015-08-11

    Multidrug resistance, strong side effects, and compliance problems in TB chemotherapy mandate new ways to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here we show that deletion of the gene encoding homoserine transacetylase (metA) inactivates methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) biosynthesis in Mtb and renders this pathogen exquisitely sensitive to killing in immunocompetent or immunocompromised mice, leading to rapid clearance from host tissues. Mtb ΔmetA is unable to proliferate in primary human macrophages, and in vitro starvation leads to extraordinarily rapid killing with no appearance of suppressor mutants. Cell death of Mtb ΔmetA is faster than that of other auxotrophic mutants (i.e., tryptophan, pantothenate, leucine, biotin), suggesting a particularly potent mechanism of killing. Time-course metabolomics showed complete depletion of intracellular methionine and SAM. SAM depletion was consistent with a significant decrease in methylation at the DNA level (measured by single-molecule real-time sequencing) and with the induction of several essential methyltransferases involved in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis, both of which are vital biological processes and validated targets of antimycobacterial drugs. Mtb ΔmetA could be partially rescued by biotin supplementation, confirming a multitarget cell death mechanism. The work presented here uncovers a previously unidentified vulnerability of Mtb-the incapacity to scavenge intermediates of SAM and methionine biosynthesis from the host. This vulnerability unveils an entirely new drug target space with the promise of rapid killing of the tubercle bacillus by a new mechanism of action. PMID:26221021

  10. Blocking S-Adenosylmethionine Synthesis in Yeast Allows Selenomethionine Incorporation And Multiwavelength Anomalous Dispersion Phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Malkowski, M.G.; Quartley, E.; Friedman, A.E.; Babulski, J.; Kon, Y.; Wolfley, J.; Said, M.; Luft, J.R.; Phizicky, E.M.; DeTitta, G.T.; Grayhack, E.J.

    2009-06-03

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ideal host from which to obtain high levels of posttranslationally modified eukaryotic proteins for x-ray crystallography. However, extensive replacement of methionine by selenomethionine for anomalous dispersion phasing has proven intractable in yeast. We report a general method to incorporate selenomethionine into proteins expressed in yeast based on manipulation of the appropriate metabolic pathways. sam1{sup -} sam2{sup -} mutants, in which the conversion of methionine to S-adenosylmethionine is blocked, exhibit reduced selenomethionine toxicity compared with wild-type yeast, increased production of protein during growth in selenomethionine, and efficient replacement of methionine by selenomethionine, based on quantitative mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography. The structure of yeast tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase was solved to 1.8 {angstrom} by using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with protein that was expressed and purified from the sam1{sup -} sam2{sup -} strain grown in selenomethionine. Six of eight selenium residues were located in the structure.

  11. Essential roles of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine in the autarkic lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Michael; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Chen, Mei; Kim, John; Wang, Jingxin; Harris, David; Parkhill, Julian; Chan, John; Wang, Feng; Jacobs, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance, strong side effects, and compliance problems in TB chemotherapy mandate new ways to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here we show that deletion of the gene encoding homoserine transacetylase (metA) inactivates methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) biosynthesis in Mtb and renders this pathogen exquisitely sensitive to killing in immunocompetent or immunocompromised mice, leading to rapid clearance from host tissues. Mtb ΔmetA is unable to proliferate in primary human macrophages, and in vitro starvation leads to extraordinarily rapid killing with no appearance of suppressor mutants. Cell death of Mtb ΔmetA is faster than that of other auxotrophic mutants (i.e., tryptophan, pantothenate, leucine, biotin), suggesting a particularly potent mechanism of killing. Time-course metabolomics showed complete depletion of intracellular methionine and SAM. SAM depletion was consistent with a significant decrease in methylation at the DNA level (measured by single-molecule real-time sequencing) and with the induction of several essential methyltransferases involved in biotin and menaquinone biosynthesis, both of which are vital biological processes and validated targets of antimycobacterial drugs. Mtb ΔmetA could be partially rescued by biotin supplementation, confirming a multitarget cell death mechanism. The work presented here uncovers a previously unidentified vulnerability of Mtb—the incapacity to scavenge intermediates of SAM and methionine biosynthesis from the host. This vulnerability unveils an entirely new drug target space with the promise of rapid killing of the tubercle bacillus by a new mechanism of action. PMID:26221021

  12. Consecutive radical S-adenosylmethionine methylations form the ethyl side chain in thienamycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marous, Daniel R.; Lloyd, Evan P.; Buller, Andrew R.; Moshos, Kristos A.; Grove, Tyler L.; Blaszczyk, Anthony J.; Booker, Squire J.; Townsend, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their broad anti-infective utility, the biosynthesis of the paradigm carbapenem antibiotic, thienamycin, remains largely unknown. Apart from the first two steps shared with a simple carbapenem, the pathway sharply diverges to the more structurally complex members of this class of ?-lactam antibiotics, such as thienamycin. Existing evidence points to three putative cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymes, ThnK, ThnL, and ThnP, as potentially being responsible for assembly of the ethyl side chain at C6, bridgehead epimerization at C5, installation of the C2-thioether side chain, and C2/3 desaturation. The C2 substituent has been demonstrated to be derived by stepwise truncation of CoA, but the timing of these events with respect to C2S bond formation is not known. We show that ThnK of the three apparent cobalamin-dependent RS enzymes performs sequential methylations to build out the C6-ethyl side chain in a stereocontrolled manner. This enzymatic reaction was found to produce expected RS methylase coproducts S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5?-deoxyadenosine, and to require cobalamin. For double methylation to occur, the carbapenam substrate must bear a CoA-derived C2-thioether side chain, implying the activity of a previous sulfur insertion by an as-yet unidentified enzyme. These insights allow refinement of the central steps in complex carbapenem biosynthesis. PMID:26240322

  13. Consecutive radical S-adenosylmethionine methylations form the ethyl side chain in thienamycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Marous, Daniel R; Lloyd, Evan P; Buller, Andrew R; Moshos, Kristos A; Grove, Tyler L; Blaszczyk, Anthony J; Booker, Squire J; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-08-18

    Despite their broad anti-infective utility, the biosynthesis of the paradigm carbapenem antibiotic, thienamycin, remains largely unknown. Apart from the first two steps shared with a simple carbapenem, the pathway sharply diverges to the more structurally complex members of this class of ?-lactam antibiotics, such as thienamycin. Existing evidence points to three putative cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine (RS) enzymes, ThnK, ThnL, and ThnP, as potentially being responsible for assembly of the ethyl side chain at C6, bridgehead epimerization at C5, installation of the C2-thioether side chain, and C2/3 desaturation. The C2 substituent has been demonstrated to be derived by stepwise truncation of CoA, but the timing of these events with respect to C2-S bond formation is not known. We show that ThnK of the three apparent cobalamin-dependent RS enzymes performs sequential methylations to build out the C6-ethyl side chain in a stereocontrolled manner. This enzymatic reaction was found to produce expected RS methylase coproducts S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5'-deoxyadenosine, and to require cobalamin. For double methylation to occur, the carbapenam substrate must bear a CoA-derived C2-thioether side chain, implying the activity of a previous sulfur insertion by an as-yet unidentified enzyme. These insights allow refinement of the central steps in complex carbapenem biosynthesis. PMID:26240322

  14. Serum S-adenosylmethionine, but not methionine, increases in response to overfeeding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Elshorbagy, A K; Jernerén, F; Samocha-Bonet, D; Refsum, H; Heilbronn, L K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plasma concentration of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is linearly associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass. As SAM is a high-energy compound and a sensor of cellular nutrient status, we hypothesized that SAM would increase with overfeeding. Methods: Forty normal to overweight men and women were overfed by 1250 kcal per day for 28 days. Results: Serum SAM increased from 106 to 130 nmol/l (P=0.006). In stratified analysis, only those with weight gain above the median (high-weight gainers; average weight gain 3.9±0.3 kg) had increased SAM (+42%, P=0.001), whereas low-weight gainers (weight gain 1.5±0.2 kg) did not (Pinteraction=0.018). Overfeeding did not alter serum concentrations of the SAM precursor, methionine or the products, S-adenosyl-homocysteine and homocysteine. The SAM/SAH (S-adenosylhomocysteine) ratio was unchanged in the total population, but increased in high-weight gainers (+52%, P=0.006, Pinteraction =0.005). Change in SAM correlated positively with change in weight (r=0.33, P=0.041) and fat mass (r=0.44, P=0.009), but not with change in protein intake or plasma methionine, glucose, insulin or low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Conclusion: Overfeeding raised serum SAM in proportion to the fat mass gained. The increase in SAM may help stabilize methionine levels, and denotes a responsiveness of SAM to nutrient state in humans. The role of SAM in human energy metabolism deserves further attention. PMID:26807510

  15. S-adenosylmethionine increases circulating very-low density lipoprotein clearance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Una, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mestre, Daniela; Fernandez-Ares, Larraitz; Fresnedo, Olatz; Fernandez-Ramos, David; Juan, Virginia Gutierrez-de; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad, Africa; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C; Garcia-Monzon, Carmelo; Finnell, Richard H; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Buque, Xabier; Martinez-Chantar, M. Luz; Mato, Jose M.; Aspichueta, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background Very-low density-lipoproteins (VLDL) export lipids from liver to peripheral tissues and are the precursors of low-density-lipoproteins. Low levels of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) decrease triglyceride (TG) secretion in VLDL contributing to hepatosteatosis in methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice but nothing is known about the effect of SAMe over circulating VLDL metabolism. Objective We wanted to investigate whether excess SAMe could disrupt VLDL plasma metabolism and unravel the mechanisms involved. Methods Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) knockout (KO), GNMT-PLIN2-KO and their respective wild types (WT) were used. A high fat diet (HFD) or a methionine deficient diet (MDD) was administrated to exacerbate or recover VLDL metabolism, respectively. Finally, 33 patients with nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD); 11 with hypertriglyceridemia and 22 with normal lipidemia were used in this study. Results We found that excess SAMe increases turnover of hepatic TG stores for secretion in VLDL in GNMT-KO mice, a model of NAFLD with high SAMe levels. The disrupted VLDL assembly resulted in the secretion of enlarged, phosphatidylethanolamine-poor, TG-and apoE-enriched VLDL-particles; special features that lead to increased VLDL clearance and decreased serum TG levels. Re-establishing normal SAMe levels restore VLDL secretion, features and metabolism. In NAFLD patients, serum TG levels are lower when hepatic GNMT-protein expression is decreased. Conclusion Excess hepatic SAMe levels disrupt VLDL assembly and features and increase circulating VLDL clearance which will cause increased VLDL-lipid supply to tissues and might contribute to the extrahepatic complications of NAFLD. Electronic word count: 235 PMID:25457203

  16. Equilibria and partitioning of complexes in the S-adenosylmethionine synthetase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, G.D.

    1987-05-01

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (ATP: L-methionine S-adenosyltransferase) catalyzes a reaction in which the (enzyme-ATP-methionine) complex reacts to form an intermediate (enzyme-AdoMet-PPPi) complex: hydrolysis of PPPi yields an (enzyme-AdoMet-PPi-Pi) complex from which AdoMet is the last product to dissociate. Analysis of reaction mixtures which were quenched with acid during turnover of E. coli AdoMet synthetase with saturating substrates containing ( - TSP)ATP showed that PPPi is present in an amount corresponding to 45% of the total enzyme active sites, reflecting the portion of enzyme present in an (enzyme-AdoMet-PPPi) complex. Similar experiments in which excess pyrophosphatase was included (to hydrolyze PPi as it was released from AdoMet synthetase), showed that enzyme-bound PPi is present in an amount corresponding to 22% of the total AdoMet synthetase. The enzyme not present in complexes with PPPi or PPi is probably distributed between the (enzyme-ATP-methionine) and the (enzyme-AdoMet) complexes. AdoMet synthetase forms enzyme-bound TSPPPi from added TSPPi and Pi; the equilibrium constant (enzyme-AdoMet-PPi-Pi)/(enzyme-AdoMet-PPPi) is 2.0, greatly displaced from the equilibrium for hydrolysis of free PPPi. Since the ratio of enzyme-bound PPi to PPPi is 0.5 during the steady state, the PPPi hydrolysis step is not at equilibrium during turnover. Formation of (TSP)ATP from the (enzyme-AdoMet-TSPPPi) complex was not detected.

  17. Associations between S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and colorectal adenoma risk are modified by sex.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Wagner, Conrad; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Hou, Lifang; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Methionine metabolism is an important component of one-carbon metabolism. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for nearly all methylation reactions, is irreversibly converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), an inhibitor of methyltransferases, some of which are key enzymes for methylation. Changes in DNA methylation are common in colorectal cancers. We evaluated plasma SAM and SAH with colorectal adenoma risk in a matched case-control study conducted among individuals undergoing routine colonoscopy. 216 cases were individually matched to polyp-free controls in a 1:1 ratio on age ( 5 years), sex, race (white/non-white), study site (academic medical center/VA hospital) and date of sample collection ( 60 days). Sex-specific quantiles were evaluated based on the control distribution due to vastly different metabolite levels by sex. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among males, both higher SAM (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18-0.77, p for trend = 0.007) and higher SAH (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.91, p for trend = 0.02) were associated with statistically significantly decreased risks of colorectal adenoma in comparison to lowest plasma SAM or SAH tertile. Conversely, among females, both higher SAM and higher SAH were associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma, which was statistically significant for SAH (OR = 5.18, 95% CI: 1.09-24.62, p for trend = 0.04). The difference in these associations between men and women was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The ratio of SAM/SAH was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk among males or females. These findings suggest SAM and SAH may be involved in the development of colorectal adenoma and the association may be modified by sex. PMID:25628954

  18. S-Adenosylmethionine and Methylthioadenosine Inhibit ?-Catenin Signaling by Multiple Mechanisms in Liver and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tony W. H.; Peng, Hui; Yang, Heping; Kurniawidjaja, Steven; Panthaki, Parizad; Zheng, Yuhua; Mato, Jos M.

    2015-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor that is available as a nutritional supplement, and its metabolite methylthioadenosine (MTA) exert chemopreventive properties against liver and colon cancer in experimental models. Both agents reduced ?-catenin expression on immunohistochemistry in a murine colitis-associated colon cancer model. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms involved. SAMe or MTA treatment in the colitis-associated cancer model lowered total ?-catenin protein levels by 47 and 78%, respectively. In an orthotopic liver cancer model, increasing SAMe levels by overexpressing methionine adenosyltransferase 1A also reduced total ?-catenin levels by 68%. In both cases, lower cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression correlated with lower ?-catenin levels. In liver (HepG2) and colon (SW480, HCT116) cancer cells with constitutively active ?-catenin signaling, SAMe and MTA treatment inhibited ?-catenin activity by excluding it from the nuclear compartment. However, in liver (Huh-7) and colon (RKO) cancer cells expressing wild-type Wnt/?-catenin, SAMe and MTA accelerated ?-catenin degradation by a glycogen synthase kinase 3-?dependent mechanism. Both agents lowered protein kinase B activity, but this was not mediated by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Instead, both agents increased the activity of protein phosphatase 2A, which inactivates protein kinase B. The effect of MTA on lowering ?-catenin is direct and not mediated by its conversion to SAMe, as blocking this conversion had no influence. In conclusion, SAMe and MTA inhibit Wnt/?-catenin signaling in colon and liver cancer cells regardless of whether this pathway is aberrantly induced, making them ideal candidates for chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy in these cancers. PMID:25338671

  19. Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.

    PubMed

    Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2002-07-01

    Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening. PMID:12083877

  20. A disulfide-bond cascade mechanism for arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Packianathan, Charles; Ajees, A. Abdul; Dheeman, Dharmendra S.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kandavelu, Palani; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of the toxic metalloid arsenic is widespread in nature. Members of every kingdom have arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferase enzymes, which are termed ArsM in microbes and AS3MT in animals, including humans. Trivalent arsenic(III) is methylated up to three times to form methylarsenite [MAs(III)], dimethylarsenite [DMAs(III)] and the volatile trimethylarsine [TMAs(III)]. In microbes, arsenic methylation is a detoxification process. In humans, MAs(III) and DMAs(III) are more toxic and carcinogenic than either inorganic arsenate or arsenite. Here, new crystal structures are reported of ArsM from the thermophilic eukaryotic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508 (CmArsM) with the bound aromatic arsenicals phenylarsenite [PhAs(III)] at 1.80 Å resolution and reduced roxarsone [Rox(III)] at 2.25 Å resolution. These organoarsenicals are bound to two of four conserved cysteine residues: Cys174 and Cys224. The electron density extends the structure to include a newly identified conserved cysteine residue, Cys44, which is disulfide-bonded to the fourth conserved cysteine residue, Cys72. A second disulfide bond between Cys72 and Cys174 had been observed previously in a structure with bound SAM. The loop containing Cys44 and Cys72 shifts by nearly 6.5 Å in the arsenic(III)-bound structures compared with the SAM-bound structure, which suggests that this movement leads to formation of the Cys72–Cys174 disulfide bond. A model is proposed for the catalytic mechanism of arsenic(III) SAM methyltransferases in which a disulfide-bond cascade maintains the products in the trivalent state. PMID:25760600

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid and S-adenosylmethionine supplementation in predementia syndromes and Alzheimer's disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza; Capurso, Cristiano; D'Introno, Alessia; Colacicco, Anna M; Di Palo, Alessandra; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Capurso, Antonio; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that nutritional supplements can improve cognition; however, which supplements are effective remains controversial. In this review article, we focus on dietary supplementation suggested for predementia syndromes and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with particular emphasis on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Very recent findings confirmed that SAM can exert a direct effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. AD is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the downstream metabolic product resulting from SAM-mediated transmethylation reactions, when deprived of folate. Therefore, these findings underscored the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health, suggesting a possible role of SAM as a neuroprotective dietary supplement for AD patients. In fact, very recent studies on early-stage AD patients and moderate- to late-stage AD patients were conducted with a nutriceutical supplementation that included SAM, with promising results. Given recent findings from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in which n-3 PUFA supplementation was effective only in very mild AD subgroups or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we suggest future intervention trials using measures of dietary supplementation (dietary n-3 PUFA and SAM plus B vitamin supplementation) to determine if such supplements will reduce the risk for cognitive decline in very mild AD and MCI. Therefore, key supplements are not necessarily working in isolation and the most profound impact, or in some cases the only impact, is noted very early in the course of AD, suggesting that nutriceutical supplements may bolster pharmacological approaches well past the window where supplements can work on their own. Recommendations regarding future research on the effects of SAM or n-3 PUFA supplementation on predementia syndromes and very mild AD include properly designed RCTs that are sufficiently powered and with an adequate length (e.g., 3-5 years of follow-up). PMID:19468660

  2. LINE-1 hypomethylation induced by reactive oxygen species is mediated via depletion of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Kloypan, Chiraphat; Srisa-art, Monpicha; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Boonla, Chanchai

    2015-08-01

    Whether long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was mediated through the depletion of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was investigated. Bladder cancer (UM-UC-3 and TCCSUP) and human kidney (HK-2) cell lines were exposed to 20 μM H2O2 for 72 h to induce oxidative stress. Level of LINE-1 methylation, SAM and homocysteine (Hcy) was measured in the H2O2 -exposed cells. Effects of α-tocopheryl acetate (TA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), methionine, SAM and folic acid on oxidative stress and LINE-1 methylation in the H2O2 -treated cells were explored. Viabilities of cells treated with H2O2 were not significantly changed. Intracellular ROS production and protein carbonyl content were significantly increased, but LINE-1 methylation was significantly decreased in the H2O2 -treated cells. LINE-1 methylation was restored by TA, NAC, methionine, SAM and folic acid. SAM level in H2O2 -treated cells was significantly decreased, while total glutathione was significantly increased. SAM level in H2O2 -treated cells was restored by NAC, methionine, SAM and folic acid; while, total glutathione level was normalized by TA and NAC. Hcy was significantly decreased in the H2O2 -treated cells and subsequently restored by NAC. In conclusion, in bladder cancer and normal kidney cells exposed to H2O2 , SAM and Hcy were decreased, but total glutathione was increased. Treatments with antioxidants (TA and NAC) and one-carbon metabolites (SAM, methionine and folic acid) restored these changes. This pioneer finding suggests that exposure of cells to ROS activates glutathione synthesis via the transsulfuration pathway leading to deficiency of Hcy, which consequently causes SAM depletion and eventual hypomethylation of LINE-1. PMID:26178977

  3. A variant riboswitch aptamer class for S-adenosylmethionine common in marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Poiata, Elena; Meyer, Michelle M.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2009-01-01

    Riboswitches that sense S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are widely distributed throughout a variety of bacterial lineages. Four classes of SAM-binding riboswitches have been reported to date, constituting the most diverse collection of riboswitch classes that sense the same compound. Three of these classes, termed SAM-I, SAM-II, and SAM-III represent unique structures that form distinct binding pockets for the ligand. SAM-IV riboswitches carry different conserved sequence and structural features compared to other SAM riboswitches, but nucleotides and substructures corresponding to the ligand binding pocket are identical to SAM-I aptamers. In this article, we describe a fifth class of SAM binding aptamer, which we have termed SAM-V. SAM-V was discovered by analyzing GC-rich intergenic regions preceding metabolic genes in the marine ?-proteobacterium Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique. Although the motif is nearly unrepresented in cultured bacteria whose genomes have been completely sequenced, SAM-V is prevalent in marine metagenomic sequences. The consensus sequence and structure of SAM-V show some similarities to that of the SAM-II riboswitch, and it is likely that the two aptamers form similar ligand binding pockets. In addition, we identified numerous examples of a tandem SAM-II/SAM-V aptamer architecture. In this arrangement, the SAM-II aptamer is always positioned 5? of the SAM-V aptamer and the SAM-II aptamer is followed by a predicted intrinsic transcription terminator stem. The SAM-V aptamer, however, appears to use a ribosome binding site occlusion mechanism for genetic regulation. This tandem riboswitch arrangement exhibits an architecture that can potentially control both the transcriptional and translational stages of gene expression. PMID:19776155

  4. Inhibition of human betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase expression by S-adenosylmethionine and methylthioadenosine

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaopeng; Yang, Heping; Ramani, Komal; Ara, Ainhoa Iglesias; Chen, Hui; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2006-01-01

    BHMT (betaine–homocysteine methyltransferase) remethylates homocysteine to form methionine. SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) inhibits BHMT activity, but whether SAM modulates BHMT gene expression is unknown. Transcriptional regulation of the human BHMT is also unknown. The present study examined regulation of the human BHMT gene by SAM and its metabolite, MTA (5′-methylthioadenosine). To facilitate these studies, we cloned the 2.7 kb 5′-flanking region of the human BHMT gene (GenBank® accession number AY325901). Both SAM and MTA treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in BHMT mRNA levels, which paralleled their effects on the BHMT promoter activity. Maximal suppression was observed with the BHMT promoter construct −347/+33, which contains a number of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) binding sites. SAM and MTA treatment increased NF-κB nuclear binding and NF-κB-driven luciferase activities, and increased nuclear binding activity of multiple histone deacetylase co-repressors to the NF-κB sites. Overexpression of p50 and p65 decreased BHMT promoter activity, while blocking NF-κB activation increased BHMT expression and promoter activity, and prevented SAM but not MTA's ability to inhibit BHMT expression. The NF-κB binding site at −301 is responsible, at least in part, for this effect. Lower BHMT expression can impair homocysteine metabolism, which can induce ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress. Indeed, MTA treatment resulted in increased expression ER stress markers. In conclusion, SAM and MTA down-regulate BHMT expression in HepG2 cells in part by inducing NF-κB, which acts as a repressor for the human BHMT gene. While SAM's mechanism is NF-κB-dependent, MTA has both NF-κB-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:16953798

  5. Plant-driven repurposing of the ancient S-adenosylmethionine repair enzyme homocysteine S-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Louis M T; Ziemak, Michael J; El Badawi-Sidhu, Mona; Fiehn, Oliver; Hanson, Andrew D

    2014-10-15

    Homocysteine S-methyltransferases (HMTs) are widely distributed enzymes that convert homocysteine (Hcy) into methionine (Met) using either S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) or the plant secondary product S-methylmethionine (SMM) as methyl donor. AdoMet is chirally and covalently unstable, with racemization of natural (S,S)-AdoMet yielding biologically inactive (R,S)-AdoMet and depurination yielding S-ribosylmethionine (S-ribosylMet). The apparently futile AdoMet-dependent reaction of HMTs was assigned a role in repairing chiral damage to AdoMet in yeast: yeast HMTs strongly prefer (R,S)- to (S,S)-AdoMet and thereby limit (R,S)-AdoMet build-up [Vinci and Clarke (2010) J. Biol. Chem. 285, 20526-20531]. In the present study, we show that bacterial, plant, protistan and animal HMTs likewise prefer (R,S)- over (S,S)-AdoMet, that their ability to use SMM varies greatly and is associated with the likely prevalence of SMM in the environment of the organism and that most HMTs cannot use S-ribosylMet. Taken with results from comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, these data imply that (i) the ancestral function of HMTs was (R,S)-AdoMet repair, (ii) the efficient use of SMM reflects the repurposing of HMTs after the evolutionary advent of plants introduced SMM into the biosphere, (iii) this plant-driven repurposing was facile and occurred independently in various lineages, and (iv) HMTs have little importance in S-ribosylMet metabolism. PMID:25046177

  6. Overexpression of arginine decarboxylase in transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Burtin, D; Michael, A J

    1997-01-01

    The activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), a key enzyme in plant polyamine biosynthesis, was manipulated in two generations of transgenic tobacco plants. Second-generation transgenic plants overexpressing an oat ADC cDNA contained high levels of oat ADC transcript relative to tobacco ADC, possessed elevated ADC enzyme activity and accumulated 10-20-fold more agmatine, the direct product of ADC. In the presence of high levels of the precursor agmatine, no increase in the levels of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine was detected in the transgenic plants. Similarly, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were unchanged. No diversion of polyamine metabolism into the hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine conjugate pool or into the tobacco alkaloid nicotine was detected. Activity of the catabolic enzyme diamine oxidase was the same in transgenic and control plants. The elevated ADC activity and agmatine production were subjected to a metabolic/physical block preventing increased, i.e. deregulated, polyamine accumulation. Overaccumulation of agmatine in the transgenic plants did not affect morphological development. PMID:9230111

  7. Novel S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase inhibitors as potent antiproliferative agents against intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum parasites?

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, Dina; Burger, Pieter B.; Niemand, Jandeli; Grobler, Anne; Urbn, Patricia; Fernndez-Busquets, Xavier; Barker, Robert H.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; I. Louw, Abraham; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2013-01-01

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway has been identified as a suitable drug target in Plasmodium falciparum parasites, which causes the most lethal form of malaria. Derivatives of an irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme, 5?-{[(Z)-4-amino-2-butenyl]methylamino}-5?-deoxyadenosine (MDL73811), have been developed with improved pharmacokinetic profiles and activity against related parasites, Trypanosoma brucei. Here, these derivatives were assayed for inhibition of AdoMetDC from P. falciparum parasites and the methylated derivative, 8-methyl-5?-{[(Z)-4-aminobut-2-enyl]methylamino}-5?-deoxyadenosine (Genz-644131) was shown to be the most active. The in vitro efficacy of Genz-644131 was markedly increased by nanoencapsulation in immunoliposomes, which specifically targeted intraerythrocytic P. falciparum parasites. PMID:24596666

  8. S-adenosylmethionine limitation induces p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and triggers cell cycle arrest in G1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Da-Wei; Chung, Benjamin P.; Kaiser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The primary methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is important for a plethora of cellular pathways including methylation of nucleic acids, proteins, and the 5? cap structure of mRNAs, as well as biosynthesis of phospholipids and polyamines. In addition, because it is the cofactor for chromatin methylation, SAM is an important metabolite for the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic marks. Here, we demonstrate that cells halt proliferation when SAM levels become low. Cell cycle arrest occurs primarily in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and is accompanied by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPK14) and subsequent phosphorylation of MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2). Surprisingly, Cdk4 activity remains high during cell cycle arrest, whereas Cdk2 activity decreases concomitantly with cyclin E levels. Cell cycle arrest was induced by both pharmacological and genetic manipulation of SAM synthesis through inhibition or downregulation of methionine adenosyltransferase, respectively. Depletion of methionine, the precursor of SAM, from the growth medium induced a similar cell cycle arrest. Unexpectedly, neither methionine depletion nor inhibition of methionine adenosyltransferase significantly affected mTORC1 activity, suggesting that the cellular response to SAM limitation is independent from this major nutrient-sensing pathway. These results demonstrate a G1 cell cycle checkpoint that responds to limiting levels of the principal cellular methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. This metabolic checkpoint might play important roles in maintenance of epigenetic stability and general cellular integrity. PMID:24155332

  9. Strong cellular preference in the expression of a housekeeping gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encoding S-adenosylmethionine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Peleman, J; Boerjan, W; Engler, G; Seurinck, J; Botterman, J; Alliotte, T; Van Montagu, M; Inz, D

    1989-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine serves as a methyl group donor in numerous transmethylation reactions and plays a role in the biosynthesis of polyamines and ethylene. We have cloned and sequenced an S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (sam-1) of Arabidopsis thaliana. The deduced polypeptide sequence of the enzyme has extensive homology with the corresponding enzymes of Escherichia coli and yeast. Genomic hybridization indicates the presence of two adenosylmethionine synthetase genes per haploid Arabidopsis genome. RNA gel blot analysis shows that adenosylmethionine synthetase mRNA levels are high in stems and roots, correlating well with the higher enzyme activity in stems, compared with leaves. Histochemical analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants transformed with a chimeric beta-glucuronidase gene, under the control of 748-base pair 5' sequences of the sam-1 gene, demonstrates that the gene is expressed primarily in vascular tissues. In addition, high expression was observed in sclerenchyma and in the root cortex. A hypothesis for the strong cellular preference in the expression of the sam-1 gene is presented. PMID:2535470

  10. Differential transcriptional regulation of two distinct S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes (SAM1 and SAM2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kodaki, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Shinji; Otani, Naoko; Yamamoto, Daihei; Rao, Kota Sreenivasa; Watanabe, Seiya; Tsukatsune, Masahiro; Makino, Keisuke

    2003-01-01

    Expression of a number of genes encoding enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be repressed on the addition of myo-inositol and choline to the culture medium (inositol-choline regulation). All genes subject to this inositol-choline regulation have an octamer sequence 5'-CATRTGAA-3' in their upstream regions and those octamer sequences play an important role in this regulation. To confirm the role of the octamer sequence further, we studied the transcriptional regulation of two distinct S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes (SAM1 and SAM2) of S. cerevisiae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that only the SAM2 gene was subject to the inositol-choline regulation, consistent with the fact that only the SAM2 gene has two octamer sequences in its upstream region. Furthermore, functional promoter analysis revealed that the proximal octamer sequence of the SAM2 gene has an essential role for this regulation. PMID:14510501

  11. Analysis of S-methylmethionine and S-adenosylmethionine in plant tissue by a dansylation, Dual-isotope method

    SciTech Connect

    Macnicol, P.K.

    1986-10-01

    A method is presented for determining the levels of S-methylmethionine (MeMet) and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in the same plant tissue sample, utilizing readily available equipment. The bottom limit of sensitivity, ca. 100 pmol, can be lowered if required. A trichloracetic acid homogenate of the tissue is supplemented with (carboxyl-/sup 14/C)MeMet and (carboxyl-/sup 14/C)AdoMet. After separation of MeMet and AdoMet from each other and from endogenous homoserine on a phosphocellulose column, the two fractions are heat treated at appropriate pH values to liberate (/sup 14/C)homoserine. Quantitation is via the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio of (/sup 3/H)dansyl-(/sup 14/C)homoserine isolated by thin-layer chromatography. The method is validated with pea cotyledon, corn root, and cauliflower leaf.

  12. Carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. S-Adenosylmethionine as the methylating agent in the biosynthesis of spheroidene and spheroidenone

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Raj K.; Britton, George; Goodwin, Trevor W.

    1973-01-01

    [methyl-14C]Methionine and S-adenosyl[methyl-14C]methionine were incorporated into the methoxycarotenoids spheroidene and spheroidenone by Rhodopseudomonas spheroides. The incorporation was greatly enhanced in the presence of lysozyme. On degradation of labelled spheroidene by hydriodic acid, the 14C label was recovered in methyl iodide. Degradation of spheroidenone by reduction and allylic dehydration and demethylation of the reduction product gave a mixture of unlabelled carotenoid hydrocarbons, including 3,4-didehydrolycopene and 3,4-didehydro-7?,8?-dihydrolycopene. The label from [methyl-14C]methionine and S-adenosyl[methyl-14C]methionine was located specifically in the methoxy group of spheroidene and spheroidenone. The biosynthesis of methoxycarotenoids in Rps. spheroides involves methylation of the tertiary hydroxyl groups of intermediates with S-adenosylmethionine. PMID:4544066

  13. Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Voelker, D R

    1997-09-01

    Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD) is an important enzyme in the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The cloned bacterial gene encodes an integral membrane protein that is first made as a proenzyme, and subsequently proteolyzed to an alpha subunit, containing a pyruvoyl prosthetic group, and a beta subunit. Two types of decarboxylases are found in yeast, PSD1 and PSD2, that localize to the inner mitochondrial membrane and the Golgi/vacuole membrane, respectively. The mammalian enzyme is also found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The yeast genes and mammalian cDNA have been cloned and sequenced. The yeast genes contain 5' sequences associated with regulation of expression by inositol and choline. The yeast PSD1 and the mammalian PSD both contain an LGST amino acid motif that identifies the site of proteolysis and pyruvoyl prosthetic group attachment in the bacterial enzyme. The yeast PSD1 and mammalian PSD also have mitochondrial targeting and inner membrane sorting sequences. Processing intermediates have been defined in the mammalian enzyme that correspond to the sequential removal of the mitochondrial targeting and inner membrane sorting sequence, followed by formation of the alpha and beta subunits. In contrast, the PSD2 enzyme contains a putative Golgi localization/retention sequence and a C2 homology domain, in addition to predicted alpha and beta subunits. The transport requirements for substrate access to the PSD enzymes have provided important information about lipid trafficking, and the availability of yeast mutants is likely to provide important new genetic selections in the future. PMID:9370338

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ArsM arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Marapakala, Kavitha; Ajees, A. Abdul; Qin, Jie; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin and carcinogen and consequently ranks first on the Environmental Protection Agencys Superfund Priority List of Hazardous Substances. It is introduced primarily from geochemical sources and is acted on biologically, creating an arsenic biogeocycle. A common biotransformation is methylation to monomethylated, dimethylated and trimethylated species. Methylation is catalyzed by the ArsM (or AS3MT) arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase, an enzyme (EC 2.1.1.137) that is found in members of every kingdom from bacteria to humans. ArsM from thethermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon sp. 5508 was expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.85, b = 46.89, c = 100.35?, ? = 114.25 and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected at the Advanced Light Source and were processed to a resolution of 1.76?. PMID:20823523

  15. Identification of the human mitochondrial S-adenosylmethionine transporter: bacterial expression, reconstitution, functional characterization and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Agrimi, G; Di Noia, M A; Marobbio, C M T; Fiermonte, G; Lasorsa, F M; Palmieri, F

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial carriers are a family of transport proteins that, with a few exceptions, are found in the inner membranes of mitochondria. They shuttle metabolites and cofactors through this membrane, and connect cytoplasmic functions with others in the matrix. SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) has to be transported into the mitochondria where it is converted into S-adenosylhomocysteine in methylation reactions of DNA, RNA and proteins. The transport of SAM has been investigated in rat liver mitochondria, but no protein has ever been associated with this activity. By using information derived from the phylogenetically distant yeast mitochondrial carrier for SAM and from related human expressed sequence tags, a human cDNA sequence was completed. This sequence was overexpressed in bacteria, and its product was purified, reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and identified from its transport properties as the human mitochondrial SAM carrier (SAMC). Unlike the yeast orthologue, SAMC catalysed virtually only countertransport, exhibited a higher transport affinity for SAM and was strongly inhibited by tannic acid and Bromocresol Purple. SAMC was found to be expressed in all human tissues examined and was localized to the mitochondria. The physiological role of SAMC is probably to exchange cytosolic SAM for mitochondrial S-adenosylhomocysteine. This is the first report describing the identification and characterization of the human SAMC and its gene. PMID:14674884

  16. The Elongator subunit Elp3 contains a Fe4S4 cluster and binds S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulou, Christina; Fairhurst, Shirley A; Lowe, David J; Brick, Peter; Onesti, Silvia

    2006-02-01

    The Elp3 subunit of the Elongator complex is highly conserved from archaea to humans and contains a well-characterized C-terminal histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain. The central region of Elp3 shares significant sequence homology to the Radical SAM superfamily. Members of this large family of bacterial proteins contain a FeS cluster and use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to catalyse a variety of radical reactions. To biochemically characterize this domain we have expressed and purified the corresponding fragment of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Elp3 protein. The presence of a Fe4S4 cluster has been confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the Fe content determined by both a colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The cysteine residues involved in cluster formation have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis. The protein binds SAM and the binding alters the EPR spectrum of the FeS cluster. Our results provide biochemical support to the hypothesis that Elp3 does indeed contain the Fe4S4 cluster which characterizes the Radical SAM superfamily and binds SAM, suggesting that Elp3, in addition to its HAT activity, has a second as yet uncharacterized catalytic function. We also present preliminary data to show that the protein cleaves SAM. PMID:16420352

  17. Design of a fluorescent ligand targeting the S-adenosylmethionine binding site of the histone methyltransferase MLL1.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yepeng; Blazer, Levi L; Hu, Hao; Hajian, Taraneh; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Hong; Houliston, Scott; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Vedadi, Masoud; Zheng, Yujun George

    2015-12-23

    The histone methyltransferase MLL1 has been linked to translocation-associated gene fusion in childhood leukemias and is an attractive drug target. High-throughput biochemical analysis of MLL1 methyltransferase activity requires the production of at least a trimeric complex of MLL1, RbBP5 and WDR5 to elicit robust activity. Production of trimeric and higher order MLL1 complexes in the quantities and reproducibility required for high-throughput screening presents a significant impediment to MLL1 drug discovery efforts. We present here a small molecule fluorescent ligand (FL-NAH, ) that is able to bind to the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site of MLL1 in a manner independent of the associated complex members. We have used FL-NAH to develop a fluorescence polarization-based SAM displacement assay in a 384-well format targeting the MLL1 SET domain in the absence of associated complex members. FL-NAH competes with SAM and is displaced from the MLL1 SET domain by other SAM-binding site ligands with Kdisp values similar to the higher-order complexes, but is unaffected by the H3 peptide substrate. This assay enables screening for SAM-competitive MLL1 inhibitors without requiring the use of trimeric or higher order MLL1 complexes, significantly reducing screening time and cost. PMID:26541578

  18. Coproporphyrin Excretion and Low Thiol Levels Caused by Point Mutation in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides S-Adenosylmethionine Synthetase Gene ?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaty, Monique; Adryanczyk, Graldine; Roustan, Chlo; Cuin, Stephan; Lamouroux, Christine; Pignol, David

    2010-01-01

    A spontaneous mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans IL-106 was found to excrete a large amount of a red compound identified as coproporphyrin III, an intermediate in bacteriochlorophyll and heme synthesis. The mutant, named PORF, is able to grow under phototrophic conditions but has low levels of intracellular cysteine and glutathione and overexpresses the cysteine synthase CysK. The expression of molybdoenzymes such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and nitrate reductases is also affected under certain growth conditions. Excretion of coproporphyrin and overexpression of CysK are not directly related but were both found to be consequences of a diminished synthesis of the key metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The wild-type phenotype is restored when the gene metK encoding SAM synthetase is supplied in trans. The metK gene in the mutant strain has a mutation leading to a single amino acid change (H145Y) in the encoded protein. This point mutation is responsible for a 70% decrease in intracellular SAM content which probably affects the activities of numerous SAM-dependent enzymes such as coproporphyrinogen oxidase (HemN); uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase (CobA), which is involved in siroheme synthesis; and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein A (MoaA). We propose a model showing that the attenuation of the activities of SAM-dependent enzymes in the mutant could be responsible for the coproporphyrin excretion, the low cysteine and glutathione contents, and the decrease in DMSO and nitrate reductase activities. PMID:20038586

  19. THE CYCLIC PATTERN OF BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS DURING CONTINUOUS ETHANOL FEEDING IN RATS. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE

    PubMed Central

    Bardag-Gorce, F; Li, J; Oliva, J; Lu, SC; French, BA; French, SW

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for one month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver. The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in liver SAMe levels and its metabolites and ADH. SAMe changed the type of fatty liver, reduced liver ALT levels and prevented the BAL cycle caused by intragastric ethanol feeding. Microarray analysis showed that SAMe feeding prevented most of the changes in gene expression induced by ethanol feeding, presumably by inducing H3K27me3 and gene silencing. H3K27me3 was significantly increased by SAMe with or without ethanol feeding. It is concluded that SAMe feeding stabilized global gene expression so that the changes in gene expression involved in the blood alcohol cycle were prevented. PMID:20303346

  20. The Endosymbiont Amoebophilus asiaticus Encodes an S-Adenosylmethionine Carrier That Compensates for Its Missing Methylation Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Haferkamp, Ilka; Penz, Thomas; Geier, Melanie; Ast, Michelle; Mushak, Tanja; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    All organisms require S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl group donor and cofactor for various biologically important processes. However, certain obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria and also the amoeba symbiont Amoebophilus asiaticus have lost the capacity to synthesize this cofactor and hence rely on its uptake from host cells. Genome analyses revealed that A. asiaticus encodes a putative SAM transporter. The corresponding protein was functionally characterized in Escherichia coli: import studies demonstrated that it is specific for SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), the end product of methylation. SAM transport activity was shown to be highly dependent on the presence of a membrane potential, and by targeted analyses, we obtained direct evidence for a proton-driven SAM/SAH antiport mechanism. Sequence analyses suggest that SAM carriers from Rickettsiales might operate in a similar way, in contrast to chlamydial SAM transporters. SAM/SAH antiport is of high physiological importance, as it allows for compensation for the missing methylation cycle. The identification of a SAM transporter in A. asiaticus belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum demonstrates that SAM transport is more widely spread than previously assumed and occurs in bacteria belonging to three different phyla (Proteobacteria, Chlamydiae, and Bacteroidetes). PMID:23667233

  1. eth-1, the Neurospora crassa locus encoding S-adenosylmethionine synthetase: Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and in vivo overexpression

    SciTech Connect

    Mautino, M.R.; Barra, J.L.; Rosa, A.L.

    1996-03-01

    Intense biochemical and genetic research on the eth-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa suggested that this locus might encode S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (S-Adomet synthetase). We have used protoplast transformation and phenotypic rescue of a thermosensitive phenotype associated with the eth-1 mutation to clone the locus. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that it encodes S-Adomet synthetase. Homology analyses of prokaryotic, fungal and higher eukaryotic S-Adomet synthetase polypeptide sequences show a remarkable evolutionary conservation of the enzyme. N. crassa strains carrying S-Adomet synthetase coding sequences fused to a strong heterologous promoter were constructed to assess the phenotypic consequences of in vivo S-Adomet synthetase overexpression. Studies of growth rates and microscopic examination of vegetative development revealed that normal growth and morphogenesis take place in N. crassa even at abnormally high levels of cellular S-Adomet. The degree of cytosine methylation of a naturally methylated genomic region was dependent on the cellular levels of S-Adomet. We conclude that variation in S-Adomet levels in N. crassa cells, which in addition to the status of genomic DNA methylation could modify the flux of other S-Adomet-dependent metabolic pathways, does not affect growth rate or morphogenesis. 90 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Possible role of S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in predementia syndromes and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza; Capurso, Cristiano; D'Introno, Alessia; Colacicco, Anna M; Vendemiale, Gianluigi; Capurso, Antonio; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Very recent findings confirmed that S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) can exert a direct effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM, and increased S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH), the downstream metabolic product resulting from SAM-mediated transmethylation reactions, when deprived of folate. Therefore, these findings underscored the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health, suggesting a possible role of SAM as a neuroprotective dietary supplement in AD. Given recent findings from clinical trials in which omega-3 polyunsturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation was effective only in very mild AD subgroups or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we suggest intervention trials using measures of dietary supplementation (dietary omega-3 PUFA and SAM plus B vitamin supplementation) to determine if such supplements will reduce the risk for cognitive decline in very mild AD and MCI. Therefore, key supplements are not necessarily working in isolation, and the most profound impact, or in some cases the only impact, is noted very early in the course of AD, suggesting that nutriceutical supplements may bolster pharmacological approaches well past the window where supplements can work on their own. PMID:19276539

  3. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase (AS3MT).

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Madegowda, Mahendra; Nefzi, Adel; Houghten, Richard A; Giulianotti, Marc A; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-12-21

    Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin and carcinogen. Long-term exposure to arsenic is associated with human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Human As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases (hAS3MT) methylates As(III) to trivalent mono- and dimethyl species that are more toxic and potentially more carcinogenic than inorganic arsenic. Modulators of hAS3MT activity may be useful for the prevention or treatment of arsenic-related diseases. Using a newly developed high-throughput assay for hAS3MT activity, we identified 10 novel noncompetitive small molecule inhibitors. In silico docking analysis with the crystal structure of an AS3MT orthologue suggests that the inhibitors bind in a cleft between domains that is distant from either the As(III) or SAM binding sites. This suggests the presence of a possible allosteric and regulatory site in the enzyme. These inhibitors may be useful tools for future research in arsenic metabolism and are the starting-point for the development of drugs against hAS3MT. PMID:26577531

  4. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase (AS3MT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin and carcinogen. Long-term exposure to arsenic is associated with human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Human As(III) S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases (hAS3MT) methylates As(III) to trivalent mono- and dimethyl species that are more toxic and potentially more carcinogenic than inorganic arsenic. Modulators of hAS3MT activity may be useful for the prevention or treatment of arsenic-related diseases. Using a newly developed high-throughput assay for hAS3MT activity, we identified 10 novel noncompetitive small molecule inhibitors. In silico docking analysis with the crystal structure of an AS3MT orthologue suggests that the inhibitors bind in a cleft between domains that is distant from either the As(III) or SAM binding sites. This suggests the presence of a possible allosteric and regulatory site in the enzyme. These inhibitors may be useful tools for future research in arsenic metabolism and are the starting-point for the development of drugs against hAS3MT. PMID:26577531

  5. Effect of Nifedipine and S-Adenosylmethionine in the liver of rats treated with CCl[sub 4] and ethanol for one month

    SciTech Connect

    Cutrin, C.; Menino, J.M.; Otero, X.; Miguez, J.; Perez-becerra, E.; Barrio, E. )

    1992-01-01

    An experimental model of toxic liver injury in rats was employed to assay the effect of Nifedipine (a calcium antagonist blocker) and S-Adenosylmethionine. An important decrease in both perivenular fibrosis and cirrhosis was found. Furthermore, a significant decrease in lactic acid levels was found in the group of animals treated with pharmacologic therapy, although no correlation was seen between lactic acid levels and the different degrees of perivenular fibrosis. No significant variations in ALT and AST enzymes were observed between both groups, as opposed to a significant decrease in LDH enzyme in the Nifedipine+S-Adenosylmethionine group. The results indicate an improvement in the histologic picture of the liver in rats treated by means of pharmacological association, without any change in inflammatory infiltrate and with a slight decrease in necrosis, indicating an action mechanism via creeping fibrosis.

  6. Plasma S-adenosylmethionine, DNMT polymorphisms, and peripheral blood LINE-1 methylation among healthy Chinese adults in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Global hypomethylation of repetitive DNA sequences is believed to occur early in tumorigenesis. There is a great interest in identifying factors that contribute to global DNA hypomethylation and associated cancer risk. We tested the hypothesis that plasma S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) level alone or in combination with genetic variation in DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) was associated with global DNA methylation extent at long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) sequences. Methods Plasma SAM level and LINE-1 DNA methylation index were measured using stored blood samples collected from 440 healthy Singaporean Chinese adults during 1994-1999. Genetic polymorphisms of 13 loci in DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B were determined. Results LINE-1 methylation index was significantly higher in men than in women (p = 0.001). LINE-1 methylation index was positively associated with plasma SAM levels (p ≤ 0.01), with a plateau at approximately 78% of LINE-1 methylation index (55 nmol/L plasma SAM) in men and 77% methylation index (50 nmol/L plasma SAM) in women. In men only, the T allele of DNMT1 rs21124724 was associated with a statistically significantly higher LINE-1 methylation index (ptrend = 0.001). The DNMT1 rs2114724 genotype modified the association between plasma SAM and LINE-1 methylation index at low levels of plasma SAM in men. Conclusions Circulating SAM level was associated with LINE-1 methylation status among healthy Chinese adults. The DNMT1 genetic polymorphism may exert a modifying effect on the association between SAM and LINE-1 methylation status in men, especially when plasma SAM level is low. Our findings support a link between plasma SAM and global DNA methylation status at LINE-1 sequences. PMID:23957506

  7. S-Adenosylmethionine Affects ERK1/2 and Stat3 Pathways and Induces Apotosis in Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ilisso, Concetta Paola; Sapio, Luigi; Delle Cave, Donatella; Illiano, Michela; Spina, Annamaria; Cacciapuoti, Giovanna; Naviglio, Silvio; Porcelli, Marina

    2016-02-01

    Osteosarcoma is a very aggressive bone tumor. Its clinical outcome remains discouraging despite intensive surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches are demanded. S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is a naturally occurring molecule that is synthesized in our body by methionine adenosyltransferase isoenzymes and is also available as a nutritional supplement. AdoMet is the principal methyl donor in numerous methylation reactions and is involved in many biological functions. Interestingly, AdoMet has been shown to exert antiproliferative action in various cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are just starting to be studied. Here, we investigated the effects of AdoMet on the proliferation of osteosarcoma U2OS cells and the underlying mechanisms. We carried out direct cell number counting, MTT and flow cytometry-based assays, and immunoblotting experiments in response to AdoMet treatment. We found that AdoMet strongly inhibits proliferation of U2OS cells by slowing-down cell cycle progression and by inducing apoptosis. We also report that AdoMet consistently causes an increase of p53 and p21 cell-cycle inhibitor, a decrease of cyclin A and cyclin E protein levels, and a marked increase of pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, the AdoMet-induced antiproliferative effects were dynamically accompanied by profound changes in ERK1/2 and STAT3 protein and phosphorylation levels. Altogether, our data enforce the evidence of AdoMet acting as a biomolecule with antiproliferative action in osteosarcoma cells, capable of down-regulating ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways leading to cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis, and provide a rationale for the possible use of AdoMet in osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:26174106

  8. Structural insight into the molecular mechanism of allosteric activation of human cystathionine ?-synthase by S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Ereo-Orbea, June; Majtan, Tomas; Oyenarte, Iker; Kraus, Jan P; Martnez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2014-09-16

    Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) is a heme-dependent and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent protein that controls the flux of sulfur from methionine to cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, taurine, and H2S. Deficiency of CBS activity causes homocystinuria, the most frequent disorder of sulfur amino acid metabolism. In contrast to CBSs from lower organisms, human CBS (hCBS) is allosterically activated by S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), which binds to the regulatory domain and triggers a conformational change that allows the protein to progress from the basal toward the activated state. The structural basis of the underlying molecular mechanism has remained elusive so far. Here, we present the structure of hCBS with bound AdoMet, revealing the activated conformation of the human enzyme. Binding of AdoMet triggers a conformational change in the Bateman module of the regulatory domain that favors its association with a Bateman module of the complementary subunit to form an antiparallel CBS module. Such an arrangement is very similar to that found in the constitutively activated insect CBS. In the presence of AdoMet, the autoinhibition exerted by the regulatory region is eliminated, allowing for improved access of substrates to the catalytic pocket. Based on the availability of both the basal and the activated structures, we discuss the mechanism of hCBS activation by AdoMet and the properties of the AdoMet binding site, as well as the responsiveness of the enzyme to its allosteric regulator. The structure described herein paves the way for the rational design of compounds modulating hCBS activity and thus transsulfuration, redox status, and H2S biogenesis. PMID:25197074

  9. The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

  10. Two patients with hepatic mtDNA depletion syndromes and marked elevations of S-adenosylmethionine and methionine

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, S. Harvey; Wagner, Conrad; Luka, Zigmund; Stabler, Sally P.; Allen, Robert H.; Schroer, Richard; Wood, Timothy; Wang, Jing; Wong, Lee-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports studies of two patients proven by a variety of studies to have mitochondrial depletion syndromes due to mutations in either their MPV17 or DGUOK genes. Each was initially investigated metabolically because of plasma methionine concentrations as high as 1521-fold above the upper limit of the reference range, then found also to have plasma levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) 4.48.6-fold above the upper limit of the reference range. Assays of S-adenosylhomocysteine, total homocysteine, cystathionine, sarcosine, and other relevant metabolites and studies of their gene encoding glycine N-methyltransferase produced evidence suggesting they had none of the known causes of elevated methionine with or without elevated AdoMet. Patient 1 grew slowly and intermittently, but was cognitively normal. At age 7 years he was found to have hepatocellular carcinoma, underwent a liver transplant and died of progressive liver and renal failure at age almost 9 years. Patient 2 had a clinical course typical of DGUOK deficiency and died at age 8 months. Although each patient had liver abnormalities, evidence is presented that such abnormalities are very unlikely to explain their elevations of AdoMet or the extent of their hypermethioninemias. A working hypothesis is presented suggesting that with mitochondrial depletion the normal usage of AdoMet by mitochondria is impaired, AdoMet accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected cells poor in glycine N-methyltransferase activity, the accumulated AdoMet causes methionine to accumulate by inhibiting activity of methionine adenosyltransferase II, and that both AdoMet and methionine consequently leak abnormally into the plasma. PMID:22137549

  11. Quantitation of S-Adenosylmethionine and S-Adenosylhomocysteine in Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate determination of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in plasma as a diagnostic test. SAM and SAH are key metabolic intermediates of methionine metabolism and the methylation cycle. Determination of SAM and SAH in plasma was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Calibrators (SAM and SAH) and internal standards ((2)H3-SAM and (2)H4-SAH) were included in each analytical run for calibration. Sample preparation involved combining 20 ?L sample with 180 ?L of internal standard solution consisting of heavy isotope labeled internal standards in mobile phase A and filtering by ultracentrifugation through a 10 kd MW cutoff membrane. Sample filtrate (3 ?L) was injected by a Shimadzu Nexera LC System interfaced with a 5500 QTRAP() (AB Sciex). Chromatographic separation was achieved on a 250 mm??2.0 mm EA:faast column from Phenomenex. Samples were eluted at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min with a binary gradient with a total run time of 10 min. The source operated in positive ion mode at an ion spray voltage of +5000 V. SAM and SAH resolved by a gradient to 100 % methanol with retention times of 6.0 and 5.7 min, respectively. The observed m/z values of the fragment ions were m/z 399???250 for SAM, m/z 385???136 for SAH, m/z 402???250 for (2)H3-SAM, m/z 203???46. The calibration curve was linear over the ranges of 12.5-5000 nmol/L for SAM and SAH. PMID:26602137

  12. Folate and Cobalamin Modify Associations between S-adenosylmethionine and Methylated Arsenic Metabolites in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Caitlin G.; Niedzwiecki, Megan M.; Hall, Megan N.; Liu, Xinhua; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Alam, Shafiul; Siddique, Abu B.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Gamble, Mary V.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) through drinking water is a major problem worldwide. InAs undergoes hepatic methylation to form mono- and dimethyl arsenical species (MMA and DMA, respectively), facilitating arsenic elimination. Both reactions are catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the methyl donor, yielding the methylated product and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent product-inhibitor of AS3MT. SAM biosynthesis depends on folate- and cobalamin-dependent one-carbon metabolism. With the use of samples from 353 participants in the Folate and Oxidative Stress Study, our objective was to test the hypotheses that blood SAM and SAH concentrations are associated with arsenic methylation and that these associations differ by folate and cobalamin nutritional status. Blood SAM and SAH were measured by HPLC. Arsenic metabolites in blood and urine were measured by HPLC coupled to dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma MS. In linear regression analyses, SAH was not associated with any of the arsenic metabolites. However, log(SAM) was negatively associated with log(% urinary InAs) (β: −0.11; 95% CI: −0.19, −0.02; P = 0.01), and folate and cobalamin nutritional status significantly modified associations between SAM and percentage of blood MMA (%bMMA) and percentage of blood DMA (%bDMA) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). In folate- and cobalamin-deficient individuals, log(SAM) was positively associated with %bMMA (β: 6.96; 95% CI: 1.86, 12.05; P < 0.01) and negatively associated with %bDMA (β: −6.19; 95% CI: −12.71, 0.32; P = 0.06). These findings suggest that when exposure to InAs is high, and methyl groups are limiting, SAM is used primarily for MMA synthesis rather than for DMA synthesis, contributing additional evidence that nutritional status may explain some of the interindividual differences in arsenic metabolism and, consequently, susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. PMID:24598884

  13. Structure-guided design of fluorescent S-adenosylmethionine analogs for a high-throughput screen to target SAM-I riboswitch RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Scott F; Hammond, Ming C

    2014-03-20

    Many classes of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding RNAs and proteins are of interest as potential drug targets in diverse therapeutic areas, from infectious diseases to cancer. In the former case, the SAM-I riboswitch is an attractive target because this structured RNA element is found only in bacterial mRNAs and regulates multiple genes in several human pathogens. Here, we describe the synthesis of stable and fluorescent analogs of SAM in which the fluorophore is introduced through a functionalizable linker to the ribose. A Cy5-labeled SAM analog was shown to bind several SAM-I riboswitches via in-line probing and fluorescence polarization assays, including one from Staphylococcus aureus that controls the expression of SAM synthetase in this organism. A fluorescent ligand displacement assay was developed and validated for high-throughput screening of compounds to target the SAM-I riboswitch class. PMID:24560607

  14. Polyamine homoeostasis as a drug target in pathogenic protozoa: peculiarities and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Williams, Marni; Niemand, Jandeli; Louw, AbrahamI.; Persson, Lo; Heby, Olle

    2011-01-01

    New drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of tropical and subtropical parasitic diseases, such as African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis and malaria. Enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis and thiol metabolism, as well as polyamine transporters, are potential drug targets within these organisms. In the present review, the current knowledge of unique properties of polyamine metabolism in these parasites is outlined. These properties include prozyme regulation of AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) activity in trypanosomatids, co-expression of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) and AdoMetDC activities in a single protein in plasmodia, and formation of trypanothione, a unique compound linking polyamine and thiol metabolism in trypanosomatids. Particularly interesting features within polyamine metabolism in these parasites are highlighted for their potential in selective therapeutic strategies. PMID:21834794

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of CrArsM, an arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Packianathan, Charles; Pillai, Jitesh K.; Riaz, Ahmed; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is one the most toxic environmental substances. Arsenic is ubiquitous in water, soil and food, and ranks first on the Environmental Protection Agencys Superfund Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Arsenic(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferases (AS3MT in animals and ArsM in microbes) are key enzymes of arsenic biotransformation, catalyzing the methylation of inorganic arsenite to give methyl, dimethyl and trimethyl products. Arsenic methyltransferases are found in members of every kingdom from bacteria to humans (EC 2.1.1.137). In the human liver, hAS3MT converts inorganic arsenic into more toxic and carcinogenic forms. CrArsM, an ortholog of hAS3MT from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was purified by chemically synthesizing the gene and expressing it in Escherichia coli. Synthetic purified CrArsM was crystallized in an unliganded form. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3:H, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 157.8, c = 95.4?, ? = 120 and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Complete data sets were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.40?. PMID:25286945

  16. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  17. Plasma thiols levels in Alzheimer's disease mice under diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia: effect of S-adenosylmethionine and superoxide-dismutase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Persichilli, Silvia; Gervasoni, Jacopo; Di Napoli, Alessandra; Fuso, Andrea; Nicolia, Vincenzina; Giardina, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Desiderio, Claudia; Cavallaro, Rosaria A

    2015-01-01

    Widely confirmed reports were published on association between hyperhomocysteinemia, B vitamin deficiency, oxidative stress, and amyloid-? in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Homocysteine, cysteine, cysteinylglycine and glutathione are metabolically interrelated thiols that may be potential indicators of health status and disease risk; they all participate in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine. Previous data obtained in one of our laboratories showed that B vitamin deficiency induced exacerbation of AD-like features in TgCRND8 AD mice; these effects were counteracted by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) supplementation, through the modulation of DNA methylation and antioxidant pathways. Since the cellular response to oxidative stress typically involves alteration in thiols content, a rapid and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was here used to evaluate the effect of SAM and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) supplementation on thiols level in plasma, in TgCRND8 mice. The quantitative data obtained from HPLC analysis of mice plasma samples showed significant decrease of thiols level when the B vitamin deficient diet was supplemented with SAM + SOD and SOD alone, the latter showing the greatest effect. All these considerations point out the measurement of plasma thiols concentration as a powerful tool of relevance for all clinical purposes involving the evaluation of oxidative stress. The coupling of HPLC with fluorimetric detection, here used, provided a strong method sensitivity allowing thiols determination at very low levels. PMID:25672765

  18. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III: Characterization of DDX3X as a target of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Schrder, Paul C; Fernndez-Irigoyen, Joaqun; Bigaud, Emilie; Serna, Antonio; Renndez-Alcoceba, Rubn; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, Jos M; Prieto, Jess; Corrales, Fernando J

    2012-06-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in quiescent hepatocytes. Its activity is compromised in most liver diseases including liver cancer. Since SAM is a driver of hepatocytes fate we have studied the effect of re-expressing MAT1A in hepatoma Huh7 cells using proteomics. MAT1A expression leads to SAM levels close to those found in quiescent hepatocytes and induced apoptosis. Normalization of intracellular SAM induced alteration of 128 proteins identified by 2D-DIGE and gel-free methods, accounting for deregulation of central cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. Human Dead-box protein 3 (DDX3X), a RNA helicase regulating RNA splicing, export, transcription and translation was down-regulated upon MAT1A expression. Our data support the regulation of DDX3X levels by SAM in a concentration and time dependent manner. Consistently, DDX3X arises as a primary target of SAM and a principal intermediate of its antitumoral effect. Based on the parallelism between SAM and DDX3X along the progression of liver disorders, and the results reported here, it is tempting to suggest that reduced SAM in the liver may lead to DDX3X up-regulation contributing to the pathogenic process and that replenishment of SAM might prove to have beneficial effects, at least in part by reducing DDX3X levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. PMID:22270009

  19. Identification of a 5?-Deoxyadenosine Deaminase in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Its Possible Role in Recycling the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzyme Reaction Product 5?-Deoxyadenosine

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Danielle; O'Brien, Kaitlin; Xu, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    We characterize here the MJ1541 gene product from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, an enzyme that was annotated as a 5?-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.31/3.5.4.28). The MJ1541 gene product catalyzes the conversion of 5?-deoxyadenosine to 5?-deoxyinosine as its major product but will also deaminate 5?-methylthioadenosine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and adenosine to a small extent. On the basis of these findings, we are naming this new enzyme 5?-deoxyadenosine deaminase (DadD). The Km for 5?-deoxyadenosine was found to be 14.0 1.2 ?M with a kcat/Km of 9.1 109 M?1 s?1. Radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzymes account for nearly 2% of the M. jannaschii genome, where the major SAM derived products is 5?-deoxyadenosine. Since 5?-dA has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of radical SAM enzymes; a pathway for removing this product must be present. We propose here that DadD is involved in the recycling of 5?-deoxyadenosine, whereupon the 5?-deoxyribose moiety of 5?-deoxyinosine is further metabolized to deoxyhexoses used for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in methanogens. PMID:24375099

  20. COMMUNICATION: Folate and S-adenosylmethionine modulate synaptic activity in cultured cortical neurons: acute differential impact on normal and apolipoprotein-deficient mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Michael; Chan, Amy; Dubey, Maya; Gilman, Vladimir; Shea, Thomas B.

    2008-12-01

    Folate deficiency is accompanied by a decline in the cognitive neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a decline in cognitive performance in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/- mice), a low-density lipoprotein that regulates aspects of lipid metabolism. One direct consequence of folate deficiency is a decline in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Since dietary SAM supplementation maintains acetylcholine levels and cognitive performance in the absence of folate, we examined herein the impact of folate and SAM on neuronal synaptic activity. Embryonic cortical neurons from mice expressing or lacking ApoE (ApoE+/+ or -/-, respectively) were cultured for 1 month on multi-electrode arrays, and signaling was recorded. ApoE+/+ cultures displayed significantly more frequent spontaneous signals than ApoE-/- cultures. Supplementation with 166 m SAM (not normally present in culture medium) increased signal frequency and decreased signal amplitude in ApoE+/+ cultures. SAM also increased the frequency of tightly clustered signal bursts. Folate deprivation reversibly reduced signal frequency in ApoE+/+ cultures; SAM supplementation maintained signal frequency despite folate deprivation. These findings support the importance of dietary supplementation with folate and SAM on neuronal health. Supplementation with 166 m SAM did not alter signaling in ApoE-/- cultures, which may be a reflection of the reduced SAM levels in ApoE-/- mice. The differential impact of SAM on ApoE+/+ and -/- neurons underscores the combined impact of nutritional and genetic deficiencies on neuronal homeostasis.

  1. Natural variability in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent riboswitches: S-box elements in bacillus subtilis exhibit differential sensitivity to SAM In vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Jerneja; McDaniel, Brooke A; Grundy, Frank J; Henkin, Tina M

    2008-02-01

    Riboswitches are regulatory systems in which changes in structural elements in the 5' region of the nascent RNA transcript (the "leader region") control expression of the downstream coding sequence in response to a regulatory signal in the absence of a trans-acting protein factor. The S-box riboswitch, found primarily in low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, is the paradigm for riboswitches that sense S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Genes in the S-box family are involved in methionine metabolism, and their expression is induced in response to starvation for methionine. S-box genes exhibit conserved primary sequence and secondary structural elements in their leader regions. We previously demonstrated that SAM binds directly to S-box leader RNA, causing a structural rearrangement that results in premature termination of transcription at S-box leader region terminators. S-box genes have a variety of physiological roles, and natural variability in S-box structure and regulatory response could provide additional insight into the role of conserved S-box leader elements in SAM-directed transcription termination. In the current study, in vivo and in vitro assays were employed to analyze the differential regulation of S-box genes in response to SAM. A wide range of responses to SAM were observed for the 11 S-box-regulated transcriptional units in Bacillus subtilis, demonstrating that S-box riboswitches can be calibrated to different physiological requirements. PMID:18039762

  2. Binding of 5-GTP to the C-terminal FeS Cluster of the Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzyme MoaA Provides Insights into its Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Haenzelmann,P.; Schindelin, H.

    2006-01-01

    The first step in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, the conversion of 5'-GTP to precursor Z, an oxygen-sensitive tetrahydropyranopterin is catalyzed by the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent enzyme MoaA and the accessory protein MoaC. This reaction involves the radical-initiated intramolecular rearrangement of the guanine C8 atom. MoaA harbors an N-terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster, which is involved in the reductive cleavage of SAM and generates a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical (5'-dA), and a C-terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster presumably involved in substrate binding and/or activation. Biochemical studies identified residues involved in 5'-GTP binding and the determinants of nucleotide specificity. The crystal structure of MoaA in complex with 5'-GTP confirms the biochemical data and provides valuable insights into the subsequent radical reaction. MoaA binds 5'-GTP with high affinity and interacts through its C-terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster with the guanine N1 and N2 atoms, in a yet uncharacterized binding mode. The tightly anchored triphosphate moiety prevents the escape of radical intermediates. This structure also visualizes the L-Met and 5'-dA cleavage products of SAM. Rotation of the 5'-dA ribose and/or conformational changes of the guanosine are proposed to bring the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical into close proximity of either the ribose C2' and C3' or the guanine C8 carbon atoms leading to hydrogen abstraction.

  3. S-adenosylmethionine blocks osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo: therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Surabhi; Cheishvili, David; Arakelian, Ani; Hussain, Zahid; Tanvir, Imrana; Khan, Haseeb Ahmed; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic form of primary bone cancer affecting young children and adults. Previous studies have shown that hypomethylation of critical genes is driving metastasis. Here, we examine whether hypermethylation treatment can block OS growth and pulmonary metastasis. Human OS cells LM-7 and MG-63 were treated with the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or its inactive analog S-adenosylhomocystine (SAH) as control. Treatment with SAM resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, cell migration, and cell cycle characteristics. Inoculation of cells treated with 150?mol/L SAM for 6days into tibia or via intravenous route into Fox Chase severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice resulted in the development of significantly smaller skeletal lesions and a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis as compared to control groups. Epigenome wide association studies (EWAS) showed differential methylation of several genes involved in OS progression and prominent signaling pathways implicated in bone formation, wound healing, and tumor progression in SAM-treated LM-7 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis confirmed that SAM treatment blocked the expression of several prometastatic genes and additional genes identified by EWAS analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human bone and tissue array from OS patients showed significantly high levels of expression of one of the identified gene platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA). These studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of DNA demethylation in the development and metastasis of OS to provide a rationale for the use of hypermethylation therapy for OS patients and identify new targets for monitoring OS development and progression. PMID:25619880

  4. One-carbon metabolism nutrient status and plasma S-adenosylmethionine concentrations in middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Nelson, Heather H; Robien, Kim; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a primary methyl donor for the methylation of many molecules including DNA. DNA methylation is believed to play an important role in functions of cells and genes. Dietary, genetic and metabolic factors that influence systematic SAM levels are not fully understood. We conducted cross-sectional analysis to evaluate associations between plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and metabolites and plasma SAM concentrations using healthy individuals within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Plasma SAM, betaine, choline, folate, total homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 concentrations were quantified. Genotypes of methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT1A, MAT2A and MAT2B) were also determined. Linear regression and path analysis were performed to depict the directed dependencies in one-carbon metabolism. Age and body mass index were positively associated while cigarette smoking were inversely associated with plasma SAM concentrations. Plasma choline, methionine and SAH were positively and strongly associated with plasma SAM after adjustment for confounders. Plasma betaine and folate were positively associated with plasma SAM only in men. Men carrying the variant MAT1A genotypes had lower plasma SAM concentrations than men carrying the wild type genotype (p for gene x gender interaction = 0.02). This effect modification by gender was restricted to individuals with low plasma methionine. In conclusion, plasma choline, methionine and SAH were strongly associated with plasma SAM concentrations. The MAT1A genetic polymorphism may impact plasma SAM concentrations in men with low plasma methionine concentrations. PMID:22724053

  5. Reduced response of Cystathionine Beta-Synthase (CBS) to S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM): Identification and functional analysis of CBS gene mutations in Homocystinuria patients.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marisa I S; Colao, Henrique G; Smith, Desire E C; Ramos, Rben J J F; Pop, Ana; van Dooren, Silvy J M; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Janssen, Mirian C H; Rivera, Isabel; Salomons, Gajja S; Leandro, Paula; Blom, Henk J

    2014-03-01

    A reduced response of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) to its allosteric activator S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) has been reported to be a cause of CBS dysfunction in homocystinuria patients. In this work we performed a retrospective analysis of fibroblast data from 62 homocystinuria patients and found that 13 of them presented a disturbed SAM activation. Their genotypic background was identified and the corresponding CBS mutant proteins were produced in E. coli. Nine distinct mutations were detected in 22 independent alleles: the novel mutations p.K269del, p.P427L, p.S500L and p.L540Q; and the previously described mutations p.P49L, p.C165Rfs*2, p.I278T, p.R336H and p.D444N. Expression levels and residual enzyme activities, determined in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, strongly correlated with the localization of the affected amino acid residue. C-terminal mutations lead to activities in the range of the wild-type CBS and to oligomeric forms migrating faster than tetramers, suggesting an abnormal conformation that might be responsible for the lack of SAM activation. Mutations in the catalytic core were associated with low protein expression levels, decreased enzyme activities and a higher content of high molecular mass forms. Furthermore, the absence of SAM activation found in the patients' fibroblasts was confirmed for all but one of the characterized recombinant proteins (p.P49L). Our study experimentally supports a deficient regulation of CBS by SAM as a frequently found mechanism in CBS deficiency, which should be considered not only as a valuable diagnostic tool but also as a potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches in classical homocystinuria. PMID:23974653

  6. S-adenosylmethionine blocks osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo: therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Surabhi; Cheishvili, David; Arakelian, Ani; Hussain, Zahid; Tanvir, Imrana; Khan, Haseeb Ahmed; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2015-05-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic form of primary bone cancer affecting young children and adults. Previous studies have shown that hypomethylation of critical genes is driving metastasis. Here, we examine whether hypermethylation treatment can block OS growth and pulmonary metastasis. Human OS cells LM-7 and MG-63 were treated with the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or its inactive analog S-adenosylhomocystine (SAH) as control. Treatment with SAM resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, cell migration, and cell cycle characteristics. Inoculation of cells treated with 150 μmol/L SAM for 6 days into tibia or via intravenous route into Fox Chase severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice resulted in the development of significantly smaller skeletal lesions and a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis as compared to control groups. Epigenome wide association studies (EWAS) showed differential methylation of several genes involved in OS progression and prominent signaling pathways implicated in bone formation, wound healing, and tumor progression in SAM-treated LM-7 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis confirmed that SAM treatment blocked the expression of several prometastatic genes and additional genes identified by EWAS analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human bone and tissue array from OS patients showed significantly high levels of expression of one of the identified gene platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA). These studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of DNA demethylation in the development and metastasis of OS to provide a rationale for the use of hypermethylation therapy for OS patients and identify new targets for monitoring OS development and progression. PMID:25619880

  7. The mthA mutation conferring low-level resistance to streptomycin enhances antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis by increasing the S-adenosylmethionine pool size.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Shigeo; Kim, Ji-Yun; Tanaka, Yukinori; Inaoka, Takashi; Hiraga, Yoshikazu; Ochi, Kozo

    2014-04-01

    Certain Str(r) mutations that confer low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis. Using comparative genome-sequencing analysis, we successfully identified this novel mutation in B. subtilis as being located in the mthA gene, which encodes S-adenosylhomocysteine/methylthioadenosine nucleosidase, an enzyme involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-recycling pathways. Transformation experiments showed that this mthA mutation was responsible for the acquisition of low-level streptomycin resistance and overproduction of bacilysin. The mthA mutant had an elevated level of intracellular SAM, apparently acquired by arresting SAM-recycling pathways. This increase in the SAM level was directly responsible for bacilysin overproduction, as confirmed by forced expression of the metK gene encoding SAM synthetase. The mthA mutation fully exerted its effect on antibiotic overproduction in the genetic background of rel(+) but not the rel mutant, as demonstrated using an mthA relA double mutant. Strikingly, the mthA mutation activated, at the transcription level, even the dormant ability to produce another antibiotic, neotrehalosadiamine, at concentrations of 150 to 200 ?g/ml, an antibiotic not produced (<1 ?g/ml) by the wild-type strain. These findings establish the significance of SAM in initiating bacterial secondary metabolism. They also suggest a feasible methodology to enhance or activate antibiotic production, by introducing either the rsmG mutation to Streptomyces or the mthA mutation to eubacteria, since many eubacteria have mthA homologues. PMID:24509311

  8. Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Characterization of the Iron-Sulfur and Cobalamin Cofactors of TsrM, an Unusual Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Methylase.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Anthony J; Silakov, Alexey; Zhang, Bo; Maiocco, Stephanie J; Lanz, Nicholas D; Kelly, Wendy L; Elliott, Sean J; Krebs, Carsten; Booker, Squire J

    2016-03-16

    TsrM, an annotated radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme, catalyzes the methylation of carbon 2 of the indole ring of l-tryptophan. Its reaction is the first step in the biosynthesis of the unique quinaldic acid moiety of thiostrepton A, a thiopeptide antibiotic. The appended methyl group derives from SAM; however, the enzyme also requires cobalamin and iron-sulfur cluster cofactors for turnover. In this work we report the overproduction and purification of TsrM and the characterization of its metallocofactors by UV-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE), and Mössbauer spectroscopies as well as protein-film electrochemistry (PFE). The enzyme contains 1 equiv of its cobalamin cofactor in its as-isolated state and can be reconstituted with iron and sulfide to contain one [4Fe-4S] cluster with a site-differentiated Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) pair. Our spectroscopic studies suggest that TsrM binds cobalamin in an uncharacteristic five-coordinate base-off/His-off conformation, whereby the dimethylbenzimidazole group is replaced by a non-nitrogenous ligand, which is likely a water molecule. Electrochemical analysis of the protein by PFE indicates a one-electron redox feature with a midpoint potential of -550 mV, which is assigned to a [4Fe-4S](2+)/[4Fe-4S](+) redox couple. Analysis of TsrM by Mössbauer and HYSCORE spectroscopies suggests that SAM does not bind to the unique iron site of the cluster in the same manner as in other radical SAM (RS) enzymes, yet its binding still perturbs the electronic configuration of both the Fe/S cluster and the cob(II)alamin cofactors. These biophysical studies suggest that TsrM is an atypical RS enzyme, consistent with its reported inability to catalyze formation of a 5'-deoxyadenosyl 5'-radical. PMID:26841310

  9. The mthA Mutation Conferring Low-Level Resistance to Streptomycin Enhances Antibiotic Production in Bacillus subtilis by Increasing the S-Adenosylmethionine Pool Size

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Shigeo; Kim, Ji-Yun; Tanaka, Yukinori; Inaoka, Takashi; Hiraga, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Certain Strr mutations that confer low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Bacillus subtilis. Using comparative genome-sequencing analysis, we successfully identified this novel mutation in B. subtilis as being located in the mthA gene, which encodes S-adenosylhomocysteine/methylthioadenosine nucleosidase, an enzyme involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-recycling pathways. Transformation experiments showed that this mthA mutation was responsible for the acquisition of low-level streptomycin resistance and overproduction of bacilysin. The mthA mutant had an elevated level of intracellular SAM, apparently acquired by arresting SAM-recycling pathways. This increase in the SAM level was directly responsible for bacilysin overproduction, as confirmed by forced expression of the metK gene encoding SAM synthetase. The mthA mutation fully exerted its effect on antibiotic overproduction in the genetic background of rel+ but not the rel mutant, as demonstrated using an mthA relA double mutant. Strikingly, the mthA mutation activated, at the transcription level, even the dormant ability to produce another antibiotic, neotrehalosadiamine, at concentrations of 150 to 200 μg/ml, an antibiotic not produced (<1 μg/ml) by the wild-type strain. These findings establish the significance of SAM in initiating bacterial secondary metabolism. They also suggest a feasible methodology to enhance or activate antibiotic production, by introducing either the rsmG mutation to Streptomyces or the mthA mutation to eubacteria, since many eubacteria have mthA homologues. PMID:24509311

  10. The effects of S-adenosylmethionine on clinical pathology and redox potential in the red blood cell, liver, and bile of clinically normal cats.

    PubMed

    Center, S A; Randolph, J F; Warner, K L; McCabe-McClelland, J; Foureman, P; Hoffmann, W E; Erb, H N

    2005-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), an important hepatic metabolite and glutathione (GSH) donor, has been studied mechanistically in vitro, in humans with clinical liver disease, and in experimental animal models of liver disease. Collective findings encourage its therapeutic use in necroinflammatory and cholestatic liver disorders. A chronic longitudinal study (pre- and posttreatment parameters compared) was undertaken with 15 clinically healthy cats given a stable 1,4-butanedisulfonate (S'S isomer) SAMe salt (enteric coated tablets providing 180 mg SAMe), dosage 48 mg/kg PO q24h, on an empty stomach for 113 days. Routine physical and clinicopathologic assessments, red blood cell (RBC) osmotic fragility, liver function and histology, hepatic concentrations of reduced GSH (RGSH) and its oxidized disulfide form (GSSG), protein, glycogen, and deoxyribonucleic acid, GSH concentrations in RBCs, total bile acids in serum and bile, oxidative membrane products (TBARS) in RBCs and liver, and plasma SAMe concentrations were evaluated. SAMe administered PO significantly increased plasma SAMe concentrations, and peak concentrations usually occurred 2-4 hours after dosing. Chronic SAMe administration did not change peak or cumulative plasma SAMe concentrations and did not [corrected] cause overt signs of toxicity. A positive influence on RBC and hepatic redox status (RBC TBARS reduced 21.1% [P < .002], liver GSH increased 35% [P < .002], liver RGSH: GSSG ratio increased 69% [P < .03]) and improved RBC resilience to osmotic challenge (P < .03) were observed. Results prove that this SAMe PO product is enterically available and suggest that it imparts biologic effects that might be useful for attenuating systemic or hepatic oxidant challenge. PMID:15954543

  11. A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Trial of S-Adenosylmethionine in Reducing Serum ?-Fetoprotein in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis and Elevated AFP.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy R; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2015-09-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC whereas administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 g/d, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. One hundred ten subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. PMID:26130251

  12. Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Senga K; Svoboda, Katja P; Walters, Dale R

    2005-01-01

    Biomass of the fungal pathogen Botrytis fabae in liquid culture amended with two chemotypes of the essential oil of basil, Ocimum basilicum, was reduced significantly at concentrations of 50 ppm or less. The methyl chavicol chemotype oil increased the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), but polyamine concentrations were not significantly altered. In contrast, the linalol chemotype oil decreased AdoMetDC activity in B. fabae, although again polyamine concentrations were not altered significantly. However activities of the polyamine catabolic enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) were increased significantly in B. fabae grown in the presence of the essential oil of the two chemotypes. It is suggested that the elevated activities of DAO and PAO may be responsible, in part, for the antifungal effects of the basil oil, possibly via the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent triggering of programmed cell death. PMID:16392245

  13. Post-translational modification of ribosomal proteins: structural and functional characterization of RimO from Thermotoga maritima, a radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferase.

    PubMed

    Arragain, Simon; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Blondin, Genevive; Douki, Thierry; Clemancey, Martin; Latour, Jean-Marc; Forouhar, Farhad; Neely, Helen; Montelione, Gaetano T; Hunt, John F; Mulliez, Etienne; Fontecave, Marc; Atta, Mohamed

    2010-02-19

    Post-translational modifications of ribosomal proteins are important for the accuracy of the decoding machinery. A recent in vivo study has shown that the rimO gene is involved in generation of the 3-methylthio derivative of residue Asp-89 in ribosomal protein S12 (Anton, B. P., Saleh, L., Benner, J. S., Raleigh, E. A., Kasif, S., and Roberts, R. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 1826-1831). This reaction is formally identical to that catalyzed by MiaB on the C2 of adenosine 37 near the anticodon of several tRNAs. We present spectroscopic evidence that Thermotoga maritima RimO, like MiaB, contains two [4Fe-4S] centers, one presumably bound to three invariant cysteines in the central radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) domain and the other to three invariant cysteines in the N-terminal UPF0004 domain. We demonstrate that holo-RimO can specifically methylthiolate the aspartate residue of a 20-mer peptide derived from S12, yielding a mixture of mono- and bismethylthio derivatives. Finally, we present the 2.0 A crystal structure of the central radical AdoMet and the C-terminal TRAM (tRNA methyltransferase 2 and MiaB) domains in apo-RimO. Although the core of the open triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel of the radical AdoMet domain was conserved, RimO showed differences in domain organization compared with other radical AdoMet enzymes. The unusually acidic TRAM domain, likely to bind the basic S12 protein, is located at the distal edge of the radical AdoMet domain. The basic S12 protein substrate is likely to bind RimO through interactions with both the TRAM domain and the concave surface of the incomplete TIM barrel. These biophysical results provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of methylthioation by radical AdoMet enzymes in the MiaB/RimO family. PMID:20007320

  14. Different polyamine pathways from bacteria have replaced eukaryotic spermidine biosynthesis in ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetaurelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sok Ho; Zhang, Yang; Hanfrey, Colin C; Elliott, Katherine A; Ealick, Steven E; Michael, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    The polyamine spermidine is absolutely required for growth and cell proliferation in eukaryotes, due to its role in post-translational modification of essential translation elongation factor eIF5A, mediated by deoxyhypusine synthase. We have found that free-living ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium lost the eukaryotic genes encoding spermidine biosynthesis: S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn). In Tetrahymena, they were replaced by a gene encoding a fusion protein of bacterial AdoMetDC and SpdSyn, present as three copies. In Paramecium, a bacterial homospermidine synthase replaced the eukaryotic genes. Individual AdoMetDC-SpdSyn fusion protein paralogues from Tetrahymena exhibit undetectable AdoMetDC activity; however, when two paralogous fusion proteins are mixed, AdoMetDC activity is restored and spermidine is synthesized. Structural modelling indicates a functional active site is reconstituted by sharing critical residues from two defective protomers across the heteromer interface. Paramecium was found to accumulate homospermidine, suggesting it replaces spermidine for growth. To test this concept, a budding yeast spermidine auxotrophic strain was found to grow almost normally with homospermidine instead of spermidine. Biosynthesis of spermidine analogue aminopropylcadaverine, but not exogenously provided norspermidine, correlated with some growth. Finally, we found that diverse single-celled eukaryotic parasites and multicellular metazoan Schistosoma worms have lost the spermidine biosynthetic pathway but retain deoxyhypusine synthase. PMID:25994085

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed May 2008 What is aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency? Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed May 2008 What is aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency? Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) ...

  17. C3'-Deoxygenation of Paromamine Catalyzed by a Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzyme: Characterization of the Enzyme AprD4 and Its Reductase Partner AprD3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Joong; LeVieux, Jake; Yeh, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Hung-Wen

    2016-03-01

    C3'-deoxygenation of aminoglycosides results in their decreased susceptibility to phosphorylation thereby increasing their efficacy as antibiotics. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of C3'-deoxygenation is unknown. To address this issue, aprD4 and aprD3 genes from the apramycin gene cluster in Streptomyces tenebrarius were expressed in E.?coli and the resulting gene products were characterized in?vitro. AprD4 is shown to be a radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme, catalyzing homolysis of SAM to 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-dAdo) in the presence of paromamine. [4'-(2) H]-Paromamine was prepared and used to show that its C4'-H is transferred to 5'-dAdo by AprD4, during which the substrate is dehydrated to a product consistent with 4'-oxolividamine. In contrast, paromamine is reduced to a deoxy product when incubated with AprD4/AprD3/NADPH. These results show that AprD4 is the first radical SAM diol-dehydratase and, along with AprD3, is responsible for 3'-deoxygenation in aminoglycoside biosynthesis. PMID:26879038

  18. Reactions of site-differentiated [Fe4S4]2+, 1+ clusters with sulfonium cations: reactivity analogues of biotin synthase and other members of the S-adenosylmethionine enzyme family.

    PubMed

    Daley, Christopher J A; Holm, R H

    2003-11-01

    The first examples of reduced 3:1 site-differentiated Fe(4)S(4) clusters have been synthesized as [Fe(4)S(4)(LS(3))(SR')](3-) (R=Et, Ph) by chemical reduction of previously reported [Fe(4)S(4)(LS(3))(SR')](2-) clusters, and isolated as NBu(4)(+) salts. The reduced clusters were characterized by electrochemistry and EPR, 1H NMR, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. The reaction of oxidized clusters with the sulfonium ions [PhMeSCH(2)R](+) (R=COPh, p-C(6)H(4)CN) in acetonitrile results in electrophilic attack on coordinated thiolate and production of PhSMe and R'SCH(2)R when the reaction occurs at the unique cluster site. The reactions of reduced clusters with these substrates were examined in relation to the reductive cleavage of the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine, the first step in the catalytic cycle of biotin synthase. Product analysis indicated a approximately 4:1 ratio of reductive cleavage to electrophilic attack. The cleavage products are PhSMe, R'SCH(2)R, and RCH(3) for both clusters, and also PhMeS=CHR and RCH(2)CH(2)R from secondary reactions when the sulfonium cation is [PhMeSCH(2)COPh](+) and [PhMeSCH(2)-p-C(6)H(4)CN](+), respectively. Reaction schemes for reductive cleavage based on product distributions are presented. These results parallel those previously reported for homoleptic [Fe(4)S(4)(SR')(4)](2-,3-) clusters and demonstrate that site-differentiated clusters sustain a high percentage of reductive cleavage, a necessary result in the context of biotin synthase activity preceding an investigation of the mode of binding of sulfonium substrates and inhibitors at the unique iron site. [LS(3)=1,3,5-tris[(4,6-dimethyl-3-mercaptophenyl)thio]-2,4,6-tris(p-tolylthio)benzene(3-)]. PMID:14511891

  19. A study of potential histidine decarboxylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, D.; Shepherd, D. M.

    1960-01-01

    A series of compounds has been examined for ability to inhibit histidine decarboxylase. Histidine analogues having substituents in the imidazole ring showed a wide variation in potency, but these were all much less active than α-methyldopa [β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-α-methylalanine], the most potent known inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase. Some tentative conclusions are drawn regarding the relationship between chemical structure and inhibitory activity. PMID:13764874

  20. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuya; Toda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Michiko; Negishi, Takashi; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT) was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-), bisulfide ([SH]-), and thiocyanate ([SCN]-) ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions. A survey of biogenic emissions of methyl halides strongly suggests that the HTM/HTMT reaction is the key to understanding the biogenesis of methyl halides and methylated sulfur compounds in nature. PMID:19723322

  1. ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In rat liver, allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) treatment strongly induced (25-fold) the activity of rat hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). y either the oral or the subcutaneous routes, AIA produced a long-lasting induction (30 to 4O hours) of hepatic ODC activity. hree analogs o...

  2. Structures of Bacterial Biosynthetic Arginine Decarboxylases

    SciTech Connect

    F Forouhar; S Lew; J Seetharaman; R Xiao; T Acton; G Montelione; L Tong

    2011-12-31

    Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC; also known as SpeA) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of polyamines from arginine in bacteria and plants. SpeA is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and shares weak sequence homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases. Here, the crystal structure of PLP-bound SpeA from Campylobacter jejuni is reported at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution and that of Escherichia coli SpeA in complex with a sulfate ion is reported at 3.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure of the SpeA monomer contains two large domains, an N-terminal TIM-barrel domain followed by a {beta}-sandwich domain, as well as two smaller helical domains. The TIM-barrel and {beta}-sandwich domains share structural homology with several other PLP-dependent decarboxylases, even though the sequence conservation among these enzymes is less than 25%. A similar tetramer is observed for both C. jejuni and E. coli SpeA, composed of two dimers of tightly associated monomers. The active site of SpeA is located at the interface of this dimer and is formed by residues from the TIM-barrel domain of one monomer and a highly conserved loop in the {beta}-sandwich domain of the other monomer. The PLP cofactor is recognized by hydrogen-bonding, {pi}-stacking and van der Waals interactions.

  3. Sequence of ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a.

    PubMed Central

    Hackert, M L; Carroll, D W; Davidson, L; Kim, S O; Momany, C; Vaaler, G L; Zhang, L

    1994-01-01

    A gene encoding biodegradative ornithine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a was isolated from a genomic DNA library and sequenced. Primer extension analysis revealed two transcription initiation sites. The deduced amino acid sequence is compared with the amino acid sequences of five previously reported bacterial decarboxylases, and conserved pyridoxal phosphate motif residues are identified. PMID:7961515

  4. Dopa decarboxylase activity of the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gjedde, A.; Reith, J.; Dyve, S.; Leger, G.; Guttman, M.; Diksic, M.; Evans, A.; Kuwabara, H. )

    1991-04-01

    Monoaminergic neurons use dopa decarboxylase to form dopamine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). We measured regional dopa decarboxylase activity in brains of six healthy volunteers with 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa and positron emission tomography. We calculated the enzyme activity, relative to its Km, with a kinetic model that yielded the relative rate of conversion of 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa to ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine. Regional values of relative dopa decarboxylase activity ranged from nil in occipital cortex to 1.9 h-1 in caudate nucleus and putamen, in agreement with values obtained in vitro.

  5. Conditional lethal phosphatidylserine decarboxylase mutants of Escherichia coli. Mapping of the structural gene for phosphatidylserine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Hawrot, E; Kennedy, E P

    1976-11-17

    The final step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, the major membrane lipid of Escherichia coli, is catalyzed by the membrane-bound enzyme, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. A variation of a procedure for localized mutagenesis (Hong and Ames, 1971) was employed to generate conditional lethal mutants in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. In our modification, an episome carrying the psd gene closely linked to purA+ was heavily mutagenized in vivo in a strain also lysogenic for phage P1CMclr100. After induction of a phage lytic cycle, the purA+ marker was transduced to a purA- recipient. A majority of the Pur+ transductants thus contained a psd gene originating from the heavily mutagenized episomal strain. Three mutants were isolated in which temperature-sensitive growth is caused by thermosensitive phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity that is defective in vivo at the non-permissive temperature. All 3 mutations were mapped at the same location as psd1, being cotransduced with melA, purA, and ampA. The gene order in this region, as determined by a phage Pl-meidated, three-factor cross is ampA-psd-purA. psd+ is dominant to the psd mutant alleles. PMID:796663

  6. Metal Dependence of Oxalate Decarboxylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moomaw, Ellen W.; Angerhofer, Alexander; Moussatche, Patricia; Ozarowski, Andrew; Garca-Rubio, Ins; Richards, Nigel G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the conversion of oxalate into CO2 and formate. The enzyme is composed of two cupin domains, each of which contains a Mn(II) ion. Although there is general agreement that Mn(II) in the N-terminal domain mediates OxDC-catalyzed decarboxylation, legitimate questions have been raised concerning the function (if any) of the Mn(II) bound in the C-terminal cupin domain. We have investigated this problem using a series of OxDC mutants in which Mn(II) binding is perturbed by mutagenesis of Glu-101 and Glu-280, which coordinate the metal in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, respectively. We now demonstrate that decarboxylase activity and total manganese content are sensitive to modifications in either metal-binding glutamate residue. These findings, in combination with EPR measurements, raise the possibility that the C-terminal Mn(II) center can catalyze the decarboxylation reaction. Further support for this conclusion has been provided from a combination of in vivo and in vitro strategies for preparing wild-type OxDC in which Mn(II) is incorporated to a variety of extents. Kinetic characterization of these variants shows that OxDC activity is linearly correlated with manganese content, as might be expected if both sites can catalyze the breakdown of oxalate into formate and CO2. These studies also represent the first unequivocal demonstration that OxDC activity is uniquely mediated by manganese. PMID:19473032

  7. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by {beta}-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, {beta}-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-(1-{sup 14}C)cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Phenylpyruvate Decarboxylase Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Vuralhan, Zeynep; Morais, Marcos A.; Tai, Siew-Leng; Piper, Matthew D. W.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2003-01-01

    Catabolism of amino acids via the Ehrlich pathway involves transamination to the corresponding ?-keto acids, followed by decarboxylation to an aldehyde and then reduction to an alcohol. Alternatively, the aldehyde may be oxidized to an acid. This pathway is functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since during growth in glucose-limited chemostat cultures with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source, phenylethanol and phenylacetate were produced in quantities that accounted for all of the phenylalanine consumed. Our objective was to identify the structural gene(s) required for the decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate to phenylacetaldehyde, the first specific step in the Ehrlich pathway. S. cerevisiae possesses five candidate genes with sequence similarity to genes encoding thiamine diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases that could encode this activity: YDR380w/ARO10, YDL080C/THI3, PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6. Phenylpyruvate decarboxylase activity was present in cultures grown with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source but was absent from ammonia-grown cultures. Furthermore, the transcript level of one candidate gene (ARO10) increased 30-fold when phenylalanine replaced ammonia as the sole nitrogen source. Analyses of phenylalanine catabolite production and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase enzyme assays indicated that ARO10 was sufficient to encode phenylpyruvate decarboxylase activity in the absence of the four other candidate genes. There was also an alternative activity with a higher capacity but lower affinity for phenylpyruvate. The candidate gene THI3 did not itself encode an active phenylpyruvate decarboxylase but was required along with one or more pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6) for the alternative activity. The Km and Vmax values of the two activities differed, showing that Aro10p is the physiologically relevant phenylpyruvate decarboxylase in wild-type cells. Modifications to this gene could therefore be important for metabolic engineering of the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:12902239

  9. Functional analysis of human ornithine decarboxylase alleles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Harris, R B; Rosson, D; Boorman, D; O'Brien, T G

    2000-11-15

    It has been known for > 10 years that there are two alleles of the human ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene, defined by a polymorphic PstI RFLP in intron 1. We have sequenced a large portion of each of the two alleles, including some of the 5' promoter region, exon 1, intron 1, and exon 2, and determined that a single nucleotide polymorphism at base +317 (relative to transcription start site) is responsible for the presence or absence of the PstI restriction site. We have developed two genotyping assays, a PCR-RFLP assay and a high-throughput TaqMan-based method, and determined the ODC genotype distribution in >900 North American DNA samples. On the basis of its location between two closely spaced Myc/Max binding sites (E-boxes), we speculated that the single nucleotide polymorphism at base +317 could have functional significance. Results of transfection assays with allele-specific reporter constructs support this hypothesis. The promoter/regulatory region derived from the minor ODC allele (A allele) was more effective in driving luciferase expression in these assays than the identical region from the major allele (G allele). Our results suggest that individuals homozygous for the A allele may be capable of greater ODC expression after environmental exposures, especially those that up-regulate c-MYC expression. PMID:11103791

  10. A Porphodimethene Chemical Inhibitor of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Kenneth W.; Zhang, Zhan; Sakemura-Nakatsugawa, Noriko; Huang, Jui-Wen; Vu, Nhu Mai; Chiang, Yi-Kun; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Jennifer Y. Y.; Yue, Shijun; Jitkova, Yulia; To, Terence; Zahedi, Payam; Pai, Emil F.; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) catalyzes the conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen during heme biosynthesis. This enzyme was recently identified as a potential anticancer target; its inhibition leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species, likely mediated by the Fenton reaction, thereby decreasing cancer cell viability and working in cooperation with radiation and/or cisplatin. Because there is no known chemical UROD inhibitor suitable for use in translational studies, we aimed to design, synthesize, and characterize such a compound. Initial in silico-based design and docking analyses identified a potential porphyrin analogue that was subsequently synthesized. This species, a porphodimethene (named PI-16), was found to inhibit UROD in an enzymatic assay (IC50?=?9.9 M), but did not affect porphobilinogen deaminase (at 62.5 M), thereby exhibiting specificity. In cellular assays, PI-16 reduced the viability of FaDu and ME-180 cancer cells with half maximal effective concentrations of 22.7 M and 26.9 M, respectively, and only minimally affected normal oral epithelial (NOE) cells. PI-16 also combined effectively with radiation and cisplatin, with potent synergy being observed in the case of cisplatin in FaDu cells (Chou-Talalay combination index <1). This work presents the first known synthetic UROD inhibitor, and sets the foundation for the design, synthesis, and characterization of higher affinity and more effective UROD inhibitors. PMID:24587102

  11. Reversible changes in goldfish brain polyamine concentrations and synthetic enzymes after cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Notari, S; Lucchi, R; Traversa, U; Fabbri, E; Poli, A

    2004-05-01

    Exposure of goldfish to the cold (5 degrees C) caused a sharp increase in brain putrescine level during the first week. Such increase continued at a minor rate for the whole period of exposure (2 months). In contrast, the content of spermidine and spermine remained unchanged. Putrescine increase was concomitant with a remarkable rise in ornithine decarboxylase activity (ODC), which reached a maximum stimulation after 1 week of cold exposure, and declined thereafter, remaining significantly higher than the control for the entire period of study. Cold exposure caused also a reduction of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity and an increase of ornithine level, whereas methionine content was unchanged. When fish exposed to cold temperature were returned to 20 degrees C, the modifications observed on brain polyamine metabolism were completely reversed. Supported by previous observations, our results suggest that the changes in the polyamine metabolism induced in goldfish brain by cold exposure could represent an homeostatic mechanism carried out by the goldfish to minimize the possible effects of thermal changes. PMID:15051528

  12. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase in rat brain and liver: distinction from ornithine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Regunathan, S; Reis, D J

    2000-05-01

    We compared the properties of mammalian arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in rat liver and brain. Mammalian ADC is thermally unstable and associated with mitochondrial membranes. ADC decarboxylates both arginine (Km = 0.75 mM) and ornithine (Km = 0.25 mM), a reaction not inhibited by the specific ODC inhibitor, difluoromethylomithine. ADC activity is inhibited by Ca2+, Co2+, and polyamines, is present in many organs being highest in aorta and lowest in testis, and is not recognized by a specific monoclonal antibody to ODC. In contrast, ODC is thermally stable, cytosolic, and mitochondrial and is expressed at low levels in most organs except testis. Although ADC and ODC are expressed in cultured rat C6 glioma cells, the patterns of expression during growth and confluence are very different. We conclude that mammalian ADC differs from ADC isoforms expressed in plants, bacteria, or Caenorhabditis elegans and is distinct from ODC. ADC serves to synthesize agmatine in proximity to mitochondria, an organelle also harboring agmatine's degradative enzyme, agmatinase, and a class of imidazoline receptor (I2) to which agmatine binds with high affinity. PMID:10800966

  13. Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Y; Kojima, H; Tanaka, T; Takatsuka, Y; Kamio, Y

    1997-01-01

    We report here on the existence of a new gene for lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli K-12. The hybridization experiments with a cadA probe at low stringency showed that the homologous region of cadA was located in lambda Kohara phage clone 6F5 at 4.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. We cloned the 5.0-kb HindIII fragment of this phage clone and sequenced the homologous region of cadA. This region contained a 2,139-nucleotide open reading frame encoding a 713-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 80,589. Overexpression of the protein and determination of its N-terminal amino acid sequence defined the translational start site of this gene. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69.4% identity to that of lysine decarboxylase encoded by cadA at 93.7 min on the E. coli chromosome. In addition, the level of lysine decarboxylase activity increased in strains carrying multiple copies of the gene. Therefore, the gene encoding this lysine decarboxylase was designated Idc. Analysis of the lysine decarboxylase activity of strains containing cadA, ldc, or cadA ldc mutations indicated that ldc was weakly expressed under various conditions but is a functional gene in E. coli. PMID:9226257

  14. Ornithine Decarboxylase, Polyamines, and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Senecio and Crotalaria

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Birecki, Mieczyslaw; Cohen, Eric J.; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here—using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors—endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence—with relatively very high levels of these compounds—in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence. PMID:16665870

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis: characterization of ornithine decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Yarlett, N; Goldberg, B; Moharrami, M A; Bacchi, C J

    1993-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the lead enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was partially purified from Trichomonas vaginalis and its kinetic properties were studied. The enzyme appears to be of special significance in this anaerobic parasite, since the arginine dihydrolase pathway generates ATP as well as putrescine from arginine. ODC from T. vaginalis had a broad substrate specificity, decarboxylating ornithine (100%), lysine (1.0%) and arginine (0.1%). The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6.5, a temperature optimum of 37 degrees C and was pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent. Attempts to separate ornithine- from lysine-decarboxylating activity by thermal-stability and pH-optima curves were not successful. Although Km values for ornithine and lysine were 109 and 91 microM respectively, and the Vmax values for these substrates were 1282 and 13 nmol/min per mg of protein respectively, the most important intracellular substrate is ornithine, since intracellular ornithine levels are 3.5 times those of lysine and extracellular putrescine levels are 7.5 times those of cadaverine. Ornithine was also an effective inhibitor of lysine-decarboxylating activity (Ki 150 microM), whereas lysine was relatively ineffective as inhibitor of ornithine-decarboxylating activity (Ki 14.5 mM). Crude ODC activity was localized (86%) in the 43,000 g supernatant and 3303-fold purification was obtained by (NH4)2SO4 salting and DEAE-Sephacel, agarose-gel and hydroxyapatite chromatography steps. The enzyme bound difluoro[3H]methylornithine ([3H]DFMO) with a ratio of drug bound to activity of 2500 fmol/unit, where 1 unit corresponds to 1 nmol of CO2 released from ornithine/min. The enzyme had a native M(r) of 210000 (gel filtration), with a subunit M(r) of 55,000 (by SDS/PAGE), suggesting that the trichomonad enzyme is a tetramer. From the subunit M(r) and binding ratio of DFMO, there is about 137 ng of ODC per mg of T. vaginalis protein (0.013%). The significant amount of ODC protein present supports the view that putrescine synthesis in T. vaginalis plays an important role in the metabolism of the parasite. Images Figure 4 PMID:8343128

  16. ALLYLISOPROPYLACETAMIDE INDUCES RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) did not cause DNA damage in rat liver. The porphyrinogenic research drug did strongly induce the activity (25-fold) of rat hepatic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). By either the oral or the subcutaneous route AIA produced a long lasting inductio...

  17. Mouse uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase: cDNA cloning, expression, and mapping.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Xu, W; Kozak, C A; Desnick, R J

    1996-05-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-decarboxylase; EC 4.1.1.37), the heme biosynthetic enzyme responsible for the conversion of uroporphyrinogen III to coproporphyrinogen III, is the enzymatic defect in porphyria cutanea tarda, the most common porphyria. The mouse URO-decarboxylase cDNA was isolated from a mouse adult liver cDNA library. The longest clone of 1.5 kb, designated pmUROD-1, had 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of 281 and 97 bp, respectively, and an open reading frame of 1104 bp encoding a 367-amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 40,595 Da. The mouse and human coding sequences had 87.8% and 90.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. The authenticity of the mouse cDNA was established by expression of the active enzyme in Escherichia coli. In addition, the analysis of two sets of multilocus genetic crosses localized the mouse gene, Urod, on Chromosome (Chr) 4, consistent with the map location of the human gene to a position of conserved synteny on Chr 1. The availability of the mouse URO-decarboxylase should facilitate studies of the structure and organization of the mouse genomic sequence and the development of a mouse model of this inherited porphyria. PMID:8661721

  18. RAPID GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid test procedure for the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase was developed for the detection of Escherichia coli. he assay procedure was able to confirm the presence of E. coli in enteric broth cultures with a 95 percent specificity for both pure cultures and environmental sampl...

  19. Regulation of yeast phospholipid biosynthetic genes in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase mutants.

    PubMed

    Griac, P

    1997-09-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the products of two genes (PSD1 and PSD2) are able to catalyze the decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PS) to produce phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (C. J. Clancey, S. Chang, and W. Dowhan, J. Biol. Chem. 268:24580-24590, 1993; P. J. Trotter, J. Pedretti, and D. R. Voelker, J. Biol. Chem. 268:21416-21424, 1993; P.J. Trotter, and D. R. Voelker, J. Biol. Chem. 270:6062-6070, 1995). I report that the major mitochondrial PS decarboxylase gene (PSD1) is transcriptionally regulated by inositol in a manner similar to that reported for other coregulated phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The second PS decarboxylase gene (PSD2) is not regulated on a transcriptional level by inositol and/or ethanolamine. In yeast, phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis is required for the repression of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes, including the INO1 gene, in response to inositol. I show that the presence of a functional major mitochondrial PS decarboxylase encoded by the PSD1 gene is necessary for proper regulation of INO1 in response to inositol in the absence of ethanolamine. Disruption of the second PS decarboxylase gene (PSD2) does not affect the INO1 regulation. Analysis of phospholipid content of PS decarboxylase mutants suggests that the proportion of PC on total cellular phospholipids is not correlated to the cell's ability to repress INO1 in response to inositol. Rather, yeast cells are apparently able to monitor the flux through the phospholipid biosynthetic pathway and modify the transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic genes accordingly. PMID:9294443

  20. Inhibitors binding to L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Barboni, E; Voltattorni, C B; D'Erme, M; Fiori, A; Minelli, A; Rosei, M A

    1982-10-01

    The effect of a number of inhibitors of L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity on the absorption spectrum of the enzyme-bound coenzyme has been studied. It has been observed that the compounds tested, even if devoid of the amino function and therefore unable to form the Schiff base with the coenzyme, modify significantly the enzyme spectrum, indicating their binding to the coenzyme active site. Spectral modifications suggest that at least two kinds of binding of inhibitors to L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase may occur, depending on their structural features. Moreover, from the spectra obtained at different concentrations of the inhibitors their affinity constants have been determined: data indicate that the cathecol ring gives the largest contribution to the binding, while the presence of the carboxyl group, the aminic group and the aliphatic chain are responsible for a decrease in the binding, which could be relevant for the efficiency of the catalysis. PMID:6183555

  1. Arginine decarboxylase as the source of putrescine for tobacco alkaloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    The putrescine which forms a part of nicotine and other pyrrolidine alkaloids is generally assumed to arise through the action of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, we have previously noted that changes in the activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), an alternate source of putrescine, parallel changes in tissue alkaloids, while changes in ODC activity do not. This led us to undertake experiments to permit discrimination between ADC and ODC as enzymatic sources of putrescine destined for alkaloids. Two kinds of evidence presented here support a major role for ADC in the generation of putrescine going into alkaloids: (a) A specific 'suicide inhibitor' of ADC effectively inhibits the biosynthesis of nicotine and nornicotine in tobacco callus, while the analogous inhibitor of ODC is less effective, and (b) the flow of 14C from uniformly labelled arginine into nicotine is much more efficient than that from ornithine.

  2. Tryptophan Decarboxylase, Tryptamine, and Reproduction of the Whitefly.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. C.; Adams, D. G.; Nessler, C. L.; Brown, J. K.; Bohnert, H. J.

    1995-01-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) from Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) converts tryptophan to the indole-alkaloid tryptamine. When the TDC gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco, the 55-kD TDC enzyme and tryptamine accumulated. Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) reproduction on transgenic plants decreased up to 97% relative to controls. Production of tryptamine, its derivatives, or other products resulting from TDC activity may discourage whitefly reproduction and provide a single-gene-based plant protection strategy. PMID:12228625

  3. Purification of acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and cloning of the acetoacetate decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, D.J.; Bennett, G.N. )

    1990-11-01

    In Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, acetoacetate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.4) is essential for solvent production, catalyzing the decarboxylation of acetoacetate to acetone. We report here the purification of the enzyme from C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and the cloning and expression of the gene encoding the acetoacetate decarboxylase enzyme in Escherichia coli. A bacteriophage lambda EMBL3 library of C. acetobutylicum DNA was screened by plaque hybridization, using oligodeoxynucleotide probes derived from the N-terminal amino acid sequence obtained from the purified protein. Phage DNA from positive plaques was analyzed by Southern hybridization. Restriction mapping and subsequent subcloning of DNA fragments hybridizing to the probes localized the gene within an {approximately}2.1-kb EcoRI/BglII fragment. A polypeptide with a molecular weight of {approximately}28,000 corresponding to that of the purified acetoacetate decarboxylase was observed in both Western blots (immunoblots) and maxicell analysis of whole-cell extracts of E. coli harboring the clostridial gene. Although the expression of the gene is tightly regulated in C. acetobutylicum, it was well expressed in E. coli, although from a promoter sequence of clostridial origin.

  4. Molecular and functional analyses of amino acid decarboxylases involved in cuticle tanning in Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) provide b–alanine and dopamine used in insect cuticle tanning. Beta-alanine is conjugated with dopamine to yield N-b-alanyldopamine (NBAD), a substrate for the phenoloxidase laccase that catalyzes the synthesis of cuticle protein cross-li...

  5. Vector-mediated chromosomal integration of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrative vector pINTRS was used to transfer glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity to Streptococcus thermophilus ST128, thus allowing for the production of '-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In pINTRS, the gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was flanked by DNA fragments homologous to a S. ...

  6. Tyrosine decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis: soluble expression and characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Ni, Ye

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC, EC 4.1.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-tyrosine to produce tyramine and CO2. In this study, a 1881-bp tdc gene from Lactobacillus brevis was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Glucose was discovered to play an important role in the soluble expression of rLbTDC. After optimization, recombinant TDC (rLbTDC) was achieved in excellent solubility and a yield of 224mg rLbTDC/L broth. The C-terminal His-Tagged rLbTDC was one-step purified with 90% recovery. Based on SDS-PAGE and gel filtration analysis, rLbTDC is a dimer composed of two identical subunits of approximately 70kDa. Using l-tyrosine as substrate, the specific activity of rLbTDC was determined to be 133.5U/mg in the presence of 0.2mM pyridoxal-5'-phosphate at 40°C and pH 5.0. The Km and Vmax values of rLbTDC were 0.59mM and 147.1μmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively. In addition to l-tyrosine, rLbTDC also exhibited decarboxylase activity towards l-DOPA. This study has demonstrated, for the first time, the soluble expression of tdc gene from L. brevis in heterologous host. PMID:24211777

  7. Post-translational arginylation of ornithine decarboxylase from rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kopitz, J; Rist, B; Bohley, P

    1990-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was purified 6500-fold from NMRI mouse kidneys under conditions designed to inhibit degradation by proteinases. The enzyme was homogeneous by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and the specific activity was among the highest reported. The yield was 70%. A monoclonal antibody against this preparation was generated and used in studies to investigate the half-life of ODC in cultured rat hepatocytes labelled with [35S]methionine. This value was 39 +/- 4 min and was unchanged when either NH4Cl (as a lysosomotropic agent) or leupeptin (as a lysosomal proteinase inhibitor) was added to the culture medium. Thus the intracellular turnover of ODC in cultured hepatocytes occurs mainly in extra-lysosomal compartments. Arginylation of rat ODC was investigated in vitro by incubation with L-[3H]arginyl-tRNA, and the incorporation of the label was compared with that of total cytosolic proteins. Arginylated ODC had a specific radioactivity 8600 times that of the bulk of cytosolic protein. Edman degradation of this ODC showed that the post-translational arginylation occurred only at the alpha-amino end of the enzyme. The inhibitor of arginyl-tRNA:protein arginyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.8), L-glutamyl-L-valyl-L-phenylalanine, increased the half-life of ODC in cultured hepatocytes from 39 min to more than 90 min. The possible significance of the preferential post-translational arginylation of ornithine decarboxylase to its rapid turnover is discussed. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2334397

  8. Activities of Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases in Various Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1985-01-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to Vmax, ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. α-Difluoromethylornithine and α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species. No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed. In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum. PMID:16664442

  9. Expression and functions of dopa decarboxylase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori was regulated by molting hormone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-xian; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Xin, Hu-Hu; Chen, Rui-ting; Liang, Shuang; Singh, Chabungbam Orville; Kim, Jong-Nam; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2013-06-01

    Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. Molting includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis shed and other series of continuous processes. Polyphenol oxidases, dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the dopa decarboxylase (BmDdc) was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that dopa decarboxylase is one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the regulation of ecdysone at the time of biological molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of dopa decarboxylase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was also observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the dopa decarboxylase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. BmDdc RNAi induced dopa decarboxylase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae appeared no pupation or incomplete pupation. BmDdc was mainly expressed and stored in the peripheral plasma area near the nucleus in BmN cells. In larval, BmDdc was mainly located in the brain and epidermis, which is consisted with its function in sclerotization and melanization. Overall, the results described that the dopa decarboxylase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting. PMID:23640098

  10. Induction of translatable mRNA for dopa decarboxylase in Drosophila: an early response to ecdysterone.

    PubMed Central

    Kraminsky, G P; Clark, W C; Estelle, M A; Gietz, R D; Sage, B A; O'Connor, J D; Hodgetts, R B

    1980-01-01

    Ecdysteroid titer and dopa decarboxylase (aromatic-L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.28) activity were determined throughout the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. Five peaks in the amount of hormone were observed, which preceeded five dopa decarboxylase peaks by times ranging from 5 to 58 hr. Late in the third instar the hormone and enzyme maxima are nearly coincident. The increase in enzyme activity observed at this time is paralleled by an increase in translatable dopa decarboxylase mRNA. To obtain evidence that ecdysterone induces the appearance of this mRNA we made use of the temperature-sensitive ecd1 mutant. Garen et al. [Garen, A., Kauvar, L. & Lepesant, J.-A. (1977) Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci. USA 74, 5099-5103] have shown that when third instar mutant larvae are kept at 29 degrees C, the ecdysteroid titer remains low. In such larvae we show that the normal increase in dopa decarboxylase activity fails to appear, and no translatable dopa decarboxylase mRNA can be detected. Exogenous feeding of ecdysterone to these larvae results in a rapid synthesis of dopa decarboxylase in the epidermal cells. In addition, a parallel increase in translatable dopa decarboxylase mRNA occurs, which may be a primary response of these target cells to ecdysterone. Images PMID:6776524

  11. Altered subcellular localization of ornithine decarboxylase in Alzheimer's disease brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Tatjana . E-mail: Tatjana.Nilsson@ki.se; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Volkman, Inga; Winblad, Bengt; Folkesson, Ronnie; Benedikz, Eirikur

    2006-06-02

    The amyloid precursor protein can through ligand-mimicking induce expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. We report here the regional distribution and cellular localization of ODC immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. In frontal cortex and hippocampus of control cases, the most pronounced ODC immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus. In possible and definite AD the immunoreactivity had shifted to the cytoplasm. In cerebellum of control cases, ODC staining was found in a small portion of Purkinje cells, mostly in the nucleus. In AD, both possible and definite, the number of stained Purkinje cells increased significantly and immunoreactivity was shifted to the cytoplasm, even though it was still prominent in the nucleus. In conclusion, our study reveals an early shift of the ODC immunoreactivity in AD from the nuclear compartment towards the cytoplasm.

  12. An endosymbiont positively modulates ornithine decarboxylase in host trypanosomatids

    SciTech Connect

    Frossard, Mariana Lins; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Matta, Renato Augusto da; Souza, Wanderley de; Garcia de Mello, Fernando; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado . E-mail: motta@biof.ufrj.br

    2006-05-05

    Summary: Some trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia deanei, are endosymbiont-containing species. Aposymbiotic strains are obtained after antibiotic treatment, revealing interesting aspects of this symbiotic association. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promotes polyamine biosynthesis and contributes to cell proliferation. Here, we show that ODC activity is higher in endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids than in aposymbiotic cells, but isolated endosymbionts did not display this enzyme activity. Intriguingly, expressed levels of ODC were similar in both strains, suggesting that ODC is positively modulated in endosymbiont-bearing cells. When the aposymbiotic strain was grown in conditioned medium, obtained after cultivation of the endosymbiont-bearing strain, cellular proliferation as well as ODC activity and localization were similar to that observed in the endosymbiont-containing trypanosomatids. Furthermore, dialyzed-heated medium and trypsin treatment reduced ODC activity of the aposymbiont strain. Taken together, these data indicate that the endosymbiont can enhance the protozoan ODC activity by providing factors of protein nature, which increase the host polyamine metabolism.

  13. Gene Cloning and Molecular Characterization of Lysine Decarboxylase from Selenomonas ruminantium Delineate Its Evolutionary Relationship to Ornithine Decarboxylases from Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuka, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ono, Minenobu; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC; EC 4.1.1.18) from Selenomonas ruminantium comprises two identical monomeric subunits of 43 kDa and has decarboxylating activities toward both l-lysine and l-ornithine with similar Km and Vmax values (Y. Takatsuka, M. Onoda, T. Sugiyama, K. Muramoto, T. Tomita, and Y. Kamio, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62:10631069, 1999). Here, the LDC-encoding gene (ldc) of this bacterium was cloned and characterized. DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the amino acid sequence of S. ruminantium LDC is 35% identical to those of eukaryotic ornithine decarboxylases (ODCs; EC 4.1.1.17), including the mouse, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa, Trypanosoma brucei, and Caenorhabditis elegans enzymes. In addition, 26 amino acid residues, K69, D88, E94, D134, R154, K169, H197, D233, G235, G236, G237, F238, E274, G276, R277, Y278, K294, Y323, Y331, D332, C360, D361, D364, G387, Y389, and F397 (mouse ODC numbering), all of which are implicated in the formation of the pyridoxal phosphate-binding domain and the substrate-binding domain and in dimer stabilization with the eukaryotic ODCs, were also conserved in S. ruminantium LDC. Computer analysis of the putative secondary structure of S. ruminantium LDC showed that it is approximately 70% identical to that of mouse ODC. We identified five amino acid residues, A44, G45, V46, P54, and S322, within the LDC catalytic domain that confer decarboxylase activities toward both l-lysine and l-ornithine with a substrate specificity ratio of 0.83 (defined as the kcat/Km ratio obtained with l-ornithine relative to that obtained with l-lysine). We have succeeded in converting S. ruminantium LDC to form with a substrate specificity ratio of 58 (70 times that of wild-type LDC) by constructing a mutant protein, A44V/G45T/V46P/P54D/S322A. In this study, we also showed that G350 is a crucial residue for stabilization of the dimer in S. ruminantium LDC. PMID:11073919

  14. A Liquid-Based Colorimetric Assay of Lysine Decarboxylase and Its Application to Enzymatic Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Kim, Hyun Joong; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Yun-Gon; Park, Kyungmoon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-12-28

    A liquid-based colorimetric assay using a pH indicator was introduced for high-throughput monitoring of lysine decarboxylase activity. The assay is based on the color change of bromocresol purple, measured at 595 nm in liquid reaction mixture, due to an increase of pH by the production of cadaverine. Bromocresol purple was selected as the indicator because it has higher sensitivity than bromothymol blue and pheonol red within a broad range and shows good linearity within the applied pH. We applied this for simple determination of lysine decarboxylase reusability using 96-well plates, and optimization of conditions for enzyme overexpression with different concentrations of IPTG on lysine decarboxylase. This assay is expected to be applied for monitoring and quantifying the liquid-based enzyme reaction in biotransformation of decarboxylase in a high-throughput way. PMID:26282689

  15. Nerve growth factor increases activity of ornithine decarboxylase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M E; Lakshmanan, J; Nagaiah, K; Macdonnell, P C; Guroff, G

    1978-02-01

    Intraventricular administration of nanogram quantities of nerve growth factor to adult rats results in a marked increase in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) in the brain. The increase occurs in all major brain regions and the activity is maximal by 7.5 hr after administration. The enzyme response to nerve growth factor increases in magnitude during maturation; the relative increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity in adult animals is much greater than that in young. Neither insulin nor bovine growth hormone was able to increase ornithine decarboxylase activity to the same extent as did nerve growth factor. When brain was separated into neuronal- and glial-enriched fractions, induction of ornithine decarboxylase was found in both, but a greater increase was observed in the glial fraction. PMID:16592486

  16. Induction of de-novo synthesis of tryptophan decarboxylase in cell suspensions of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Noé, W; Berlin, J

    1985-12-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (EC 4.2.1.27) is synthesized de-novo by Catharanthus roseus cells shortly after the cells have been transferred into culture medium in which monoterpenoid indole alkaloids are formed. The enzyme production, monitored by in-vivo labelling with [(35)S]methionine and immunoprecipitation, precedes the apparent maximal enzyme activity by 10-12 h. From the time course of the descending enzyme activity after induction, a half-life of 21 h for tryptophan decarboxylase in C. roseus cell suspensions is calculated. A comparison of the polyadenylated-RNA preparations from C. roseus cells indicates that mRNA activity for tryptophan decarboxylase is only detected in cells grown in the production medium. The importance of tryptophan decarboxylase induction with respect to the accumulation of th corresponding alkaloids is discussed. PMID:24241615

  17. Spermine synthase overexpression in vivo does not increase susceptibility to DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis or Min-Apc intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Patricia A.; Sass-Kuhn, Suzanne; Prakashagowda, Chethana; McCloskey, Diane E.; Feith, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a link between elevated polyamine biosynthesis and neoplastic growth, but the specific contribution of spermine synthase to epithelial tumor development has never been explored in vivo. Mice with widespread overexpression of spermine synthase (CAG-SpmS) exhibit decreased spermidine levels, increased spermine and a significant rise in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio. We characterized the response of CAG-SpmS mice to two-stage skin chemical carcinogenesis as well as spontaneous intestinal carcinogenesis induced by loss of the Apc tumor suppressor in ApcMin/+ (Min) mice. CAG-SpmS mice maintained the canonical increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, polyamine content and epidermal thickness in response to tumor promoter treatment of the skin. The induction of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity and its product decarboxylated AdoMet were impaired in CAG-SpmS mice, and the spermine:spermidine ratio was increased 3-fold in both untreated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/TPA skin carcinogenesis was not altered in CAG-SpmS mice, and SpmS overexpression did not modify the previously described tumor resistance of mice with targeted antizyme expression or the enhanced tumor response in mice with targeted spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase expression. CAG-SpmS/Min mice also exhibited elevated spermine:spermidine ratios in the small intestine and colon, yet their tumor multiplicity and size was similar to Min mice. Therefore, studies in two of the most widely used tumorigenesis models demonstrate that increased spermine synthase activity and the resulting elevation of the spermine:spermidine ratio does not alter susceptibility to tumor development initiated by c-Ha-Ras mutation or Apc loss. PMID:22258329

  18. Conversion of nitrosobenzene to N-phenylacetohydroxamic acid by yeast pyruvate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Corbett, M D; Cahoy, J E; Chipko, B R

    1975-11-01

    In the presence of yeast enzyme concentrate or purified yeast pyruvate decarboxylase, nitrosobenzene was converted in part to N-phenylacetohydroxamic acid. This transformation had to be catalyzed by the enzyme, since the incubation of nitrosobenzene with the cofactor of pyruvate decarboxylase did not produce the hydroxamic acid. Similar incubations conducted with phenylhydroxylamine did not yield any detectable amounts of N-phenylacetohydroxamic acid. PMID:1206753

  19. Nature of the increase in renal ornithine decarboxylase activity after cycloheximide administration in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, J H; Nicholson, W E; Orth, D N

    1975-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether the increase in rat renal ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) activity after cycloheximide administration was a primary effect on the kidney or was a secondary effect of adrenal or pituitary hormones released in response to the drug. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity was reduced approximately 70% 1 hr after intraperitoneal administration of doses of cycloheximide that also inhibited renal protein synthesis by 68-95% within 1 hr. Protein synthesis began to recover by the second hour, accompanied by a rise in decarboxylase activity that reached a peak about six times greater than pretreatment values at 8 hr, then gradually declined to preinjection levels by 16 hr. Peak ornithine decarboxylase activity was directly proportional to cycloheximide doses up to 250 mug; larger doses, which almost abolished protein synthesis for 8 hr, where inhibitory. Plasma corticosterone rose rapidly after cycloheximide, reached a peak at 2 hr, then fell to baseline by 8 hr. Corticosterone response was also dose-dependent up to 250 mug, but larger doses were inhibitorymadrenalectomy did not reduce decarboxylase activity response to cycloheximide, nor did cortisol administration enhance it. Hypophysectomy greatly reduced baseline renal decarboxylase activity within 9 hr and all but abolished the increase in enzyme activity normally seen after cycloheximide administration to the intact rat. The hypophysectomized animal exhibited apparent increased sensitivity to cycloheximide, since a smaller dose of the drug caused a reduction in renal protein synthesis similar to that seen with a larger dose in the intact rat. As protein synthesis was recovering in the hypophysectomized animals, renal decarboxylase activity responded adequately to the injection of a crude pituitary extract. These data suggest that renal ornithine decarboxylase turnover is rapid, that baseline activity is.maintained by new protein synthesis, and that the increase in renal enzyme activity after cycloheximide is in larger part dependent upon pituitary hormone action. PMID:806079

  20. Arginase, Arginine Decarboxylase, Ornithine Decarboxylase, and Polyamines in Tomato Ovaries (Changes in Unpollinated Ovaries and Parthenocarpic Fruits Induced by Auxin or Gibberellin).

    PubMed Central

    Alabadi, D.; Aguero, M. S.; Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) activity has been found in the ovaries and Young fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers).Changes in arginase, arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and ornithine decarboxylase activity (EC 4.1.1.17) and levels of free and conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were determined in unpollinated ovaries and in parthenocarpic fruits during the early stages of development induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or gibberellic acid (GA3). Levels of arginase, free spermine, and conjugates of the three polyamines were constant in unpollinated ovaries and characteristic of a presenescent step. A marked decrease in arginase activity, free spermine, and polyamine conjugates was associated with the initiation of fruit growth due to cell division, and when cell expansion was initiated, the absence of arginase indicated a redirection of nitrogen metabolism to the synthesis of arginine. A transient increase in arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase was also observed in 2,4-D-induced fruits. In general, 2,4-D treatments produced faster changes than GA3, and without treatment, unpollinated ovaries developed only slightly and senescence was hardly visible. Sensitivity to 2,4-D and GA3 treatment remained for at least 2 weeks postanthesis. PMID:12226441

  1. Induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity by growth and differentiation factors in FRTL-5 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eggo, M. C.; Higgins, B. P.; Tam, D.; Bachrach, L. K.; Burrow, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Induction of ornithine decarboxylase has been correlated with the onset of cellular proliferation and cAMP production. Whether the resulting increases in polyamine levels are essential mediators of growth and/or differentiation or are merely incidental remains controversial. We have used FRTL-5 thyroid cells in culture to study the effects of three growth factors on ornithine decarboxylase activity. These factors [TSH, bovine calf serum, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)] are thought to act through different intracellular pathways. TSH stimulates cAMP production in thyroid cells, calf serum acts through ill-defined pathways to stimulate growth, and TPA is known to activate protein kinase C. Bovine calf serum and TSH acted synergistically to induce ornithine decarboxylase activity. Activity was maximal when the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, methyl isobutyl xanthine, was included. Individually, neither serum nor TSH was a potent stimulator of the enzyme. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA was apparent on Northern blots as a doublet following one hour of exposure to these agents. TPA did not stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity and had an inhibitory effect on enzyme induction by TSH and serum. Difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, inhibited growth induced by both TPA and TSH in putrescine-free medium. This effect was not apparent in medium containing 10(-5) M putrescine. The data indicate that, although intracellular levels of cyclic AMP regulate ornithine decarboxylase activity, a component in serum is necessary for significant induction of this enzyme. Factors stimulating growth by non-cyclic AMP-dependent pathways may act without apparently stimulating this enzyme, although polyamines appear to be essential for their growth stimulatory effects. PMID:2483473

  2. Processing and Topology of the Yeast Mitochondrial Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase 1*

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Susanne E.; Bttinger, Lena; Vgtle, F.-Nora; Wiedemann, Nils; Meisinger, Chris; Becker, Thomas; Daum, Gnther

    2012-01-01

    The inner mitochondrial membrane plays a crucial role in cellular lipid homeostasis through biosynthesis of the non-bilayer-forming lipids phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the majority of cellular phosphatidylethanolamine is synthesized by the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 (Psd1). The biogenesis of Psd1 involves several processing steps. It was speculated that the Psd1 precursor is sorted into the inner membrane and is subsequently released into the intermembrane space by proteolytic removal of a hydrophobic sorting signal. However, components involved in the maturation of the Psd1 precursor have not been identified. We show that processing of Psd1 involves the action of the mitochondrial processing peptidase and Oct1 and an autocatalytic cleavage at a highly conserved LGST motif yielding the ?- and ?-subunit of the enzyme. The Psd1 ?-subunit (Psd1?) forms the membrane anchor, which binds the intermembrane space-localized ?-subunit (Psd1?). Deletion of a transmembrane segment in the ?-subunit results in mislocalization of Psd1 and reduced enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, autocatalytic cleavage does not depend on proper localization to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In summary, membrane integration of Psd1 is crucial for its functionality and for maintenance of mitochondrial lipid homeostasis. PMID:22984266

  3. [Induction of histidine decarboxylase in inflammation and immune responses].

    PubMed

    Endo, Y

    2001-07-01

    Histamine is a classical, but still interesting inflammatory mediator. Many people have long believed that histamine is derived from mast cells or basophils alone. However, the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), is induced in a variety of tissues in response (i) to gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial components (lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan, and enterotoxin A) and (ii) to various cytokines (IL-1, IL-3, IL-12, IL-18, TNF, G-CSF, and GM-CSF). HDC is induced even in mast-cell-deficient mice. The histamine newly formed via the induction of HDC is released immediately and may be involved in a variety of immune responses. Reviewing our work and that of Schayer and Kahlson, the pioneers in this field, lead us to the conclusion that nowadays we need to understand that histamine can be produced via the induction of HDC by a mechanism coupled with the cytokine network. We call this histamine "neohistamine", to distinguish it from the classical histamine derived from mast cells or basophils. Neohistamine is involved in physiological reactions, inflammation, immune responses and a variety of diseases such as periodontitis, muscle fatigue (or temporomandibular disorders), stress- or drug-induced gastric ulcers, rheumatoid arthritis, complications in diabetes, hepatitis, allograft rejection, allergic reactions, tumor growth, and inflammatory side effects of aminobisphosphonates. PMID:11496827

  4. Ethanolic fermentation in transgenic tobacco expressing Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, M; Brndle, R; Kuhlemeier, C

    1994-01-01

    During oxygen limitation in higher plants, energy metabolism switches from respiration to fermentation. As part of this anaerobic response the expression of genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is strongly induced. In addition there is ample evidence for post-translational regulation. In order to understand this multi-level regulation of the anaerobic response, we provided tobacco with the constitutive capacity of ethanolic fermentation by expressing a PDC gene derived from the obligate anaerobe Zymomonas mobilis. The protein accumulated to high levels and was active in an in vitro assay. During the first 2-4 h of anoxia, acetaldehyde accumulated to 10- to 35-fold and ethanol to 8- to 20-fold higher levels than in wild-type. Under normoxic conditions no accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol could be measured. Instead, the two products may be immediately re-metabolized in tobacco leaf tissue. We show that aerobic fermentation takes place when the respiratory system is inhibited. Although these conditions enhance ethanolic fermentation under normoxia, they fail to increase ADH transcript levels. These results indicate that anaerobic transcription is triggered not by the metabolic consequences of oxygen limitation, but directly through an oxygen-sensing system. Images PMID:8026460

  5. Bacopa monniera recombinant mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase: Biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Shakeel J; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Patel, Parth; Kumari, Uma; Khan, Bashir M

    2015-08-01

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD; EC 4.1.1.33) is an important enzyme in the mevalonic acid pathway catalyzing the Mg(2+)-ATP dependant decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP) to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Bacopa monniera recombinant MDD (BmMDD) protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and purified to apparent homogeneity. Km and Vmax for MVAPP were 144 ?M and 52 U mg(-1) respectively. The values of turnover (kcat) and kcat/Km for mevalonate 5-diphosphate were determined to be 40s(-1) and 2.7710(5) M(-1) s(-1) and kcat and kcat/Km values for ATP were found to be 30 s(-1) and 2.2010(4) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. pH activity profile indicated the involvement of carboxylate ion, lysine and arginine for the activity of enzyme. The apparent activation energy for the BmMDD catalyzed reaction was 12.7 kJ mol(-1). Optimum pH and temperature for the forward reaction was found to be 8.0 and 45 C. The enzyme was most stable at pH 7 at 20 C with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) of 1.6910(-4) and half life (t1/2) of 68 h. The cation studies suggested that BmMDD is a cation dependant enzyme and optimum activity was achieved in the presence of Mg(2+). PMID:26027607

  6. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 haplodeficiency impairs social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, K V; Lang, D; Müller, B; Nullmeier, S; Yanagawa, Y; Schwegler, H; Stork, O

    2014-04-01

    Reduced glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 expression may be causally involved in the development of social withdrawal in neuropsychiatric states such as autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this study, we report disturbance of social behavior in male GAD67 haplodeficient mice. GAD67(+/-) mice, compared to GAD67(+/+) littermates, show reduced sociability and decreased intermale aggression, but normal nest building and urine marking behavior, as well as unchanged locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, the mutants display a reduced sensitivity to both social and non-social odors, indicating a disturbance in the detection and/or processing of socially relevant olfactory stimuli. Indeed, we observed reduced activation of the lateral septum, medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and cortical amygdala upon exposure of GAD67(+/-) mice to social interaction paradigm, as indicated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These data suggest a disturbance of stimulus processing in the brain circuitry controlling social behavior in GAD67(+/-) mice, which may provide a useful model for studying the impact of a reduced GAD67 expression on alterations of social behavior related to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24612522

  7. Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Manal; Machavoine, François; Rignault, Rachel; Dam, Julie; Dy, Michel; Thieblemont, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the role of histamine in inflammation. Since this monoamine has also been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes, we assessed its effect in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. To this end, we used mice (inactivated) knocked out for the gene encoding histidine decarboxylase, the unique histamine-forming enzyme, backcrossed on a NOD genetic background. We found that the lack of endogenous histamine in NOD HDC−/− mice decreased the incidence of diabetes in relation to their wild-type counterpart. Whereas the proportion of regulatory T and myeloid-derived suppressive cells was similar in both strains, histamine deficiency was associated with increased levels of immature macrophages, as compared with wild-type NOD mice. Concerning the cytokine pattern, we found a decrease in circulating IL-12 and IFN-γ in HDC−/− mice, while IL-6 or leptin remained unchanged, suggesting that histamine primarily modulates the inflammatory environment. Paradoxically, exogenous histamine given to NOD HDC−/− mice provided also protection against T1D. Our study supports the notion that histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, thus providing additional evidence for its role in the regulation of the immune response. PMID:26090474

  8. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, Kristiina; Maekitie, Laura T.; Baeck, Nils; Andersson, Leif C.; Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm

    2010-07-01

    Antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2) are proteins that activate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis. Both AZINs release ODC from its inactive complex with antizyme (AZ), leading to formation of the catalytically active ODC. The ubiquitously expressed AZIN1 is involved in cell proliferation and transformation whereas the role of the recently found AZIN2 in cellular functions is unknown. Here we report the intracellular localization of AZIN2 and present novel evidence indicating that it acts as a regulator of vesicle trafficking. We used immunostaining to demonstrate that both endogenous and FLAG-tagged AZIN2 localize to post-Golgi vesicles of the secretory pathway. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that the vesicles associate mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). RNAi-mediated knockdown of AZIN2 or depletion of cellular polyamines caused selective fragmentation of the TGN and retarded the exocytotic release of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Exogenous addition of polyamines normalized the morphological changes and reversed the inhibition of protein secretion. Our findings demonstrate that AZIN2 regulates the transport of secretory vesicles by locally activating ODC and polyamine biosynthesis.

  9. Histamine synthesis by mouse T lymphocytes through induced histidine decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, R; Nakashima, I; Kitamura, Y; Asai, H; Nakano, K

    1989-01-01

    When spleen cells of C57BL/6 mice or mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice were cultured, their histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity increased with increases in the histamine concentration in the cells and the medium. Addition of concanavalin A (Con A) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced the increase. The removal of adherent cells reduced both the control HDC activity and the response to the mitogens. Purified T lymphocytes responded to Con A but not to LPS. Neither Con A nor LPS had any effect on B lymphocytes. Treatment of T cells with anti-Thy-1.2 and complement completely abrogated the induction of HDC. Histamine synthesis dependent on Con A by T cells was stimulated by the addition of conditioned medium from peritoneal adherent cells activated with LPS. The addition of recombinant interleukin-1 (rIL-1) or peritoneal adherent cells fixed with paraformaldehyde significantly enhanced HDC induction dependent on Con A in T cells. These results suggest that histamine is synthesized by T lymphocytes through HDC and that the reaction was enhanced by a soluble factor(s) released from macrophages. PMID:2784410

  10. The Origin of the electrostatic Perturbation in Acetoacetate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Menetret, J; Tsuruta, H; Allen, K

    2009-01-01

    Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AADase) has long been cited as the prototypical example of the marked shifts in the pKa values of ionizable groups that can occur in an enzyme active site. In 1966, it was hypothesized that in AADase the origin of the large pKa perturbation (-4.5 log units) observed in the nucleophilic Lys 115 results from the proximity of Lys 116, marking the first proposal of microenvironment effects in enzymology. The electrostatic perturbation hypothesis has been demonstrated in a number of enzymes, but never for the enzyme that inspired its conception, owing to the lack of a three-dimensional structure. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of AADase and of the enamine adduct with the substrate analogue 2,4-pentanedione. Surprisingly, the shift of the pKa of Lys 115 is not due to the proximity of Lys 116, the side chain of which is oriented away from the active site. Instead, Lys 116 participates in the structural anchoring of Lys 115 in a long, hydrophobic funnel provided by the novel fold of the enzyme. Thus, AADase perturbs the pKa of the nucleophile by means of a desolvation effect by placement of the side chain into the protein core while enforcing the proximity of polar residues, which facilitate decarboxylation through electrostatic and steric effects.

  11. Identification of phosphatidylserine decarboxylases 1 and 2 from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Sunga, Anthony Jay; Cregg, James M; Daum, Guenther

    2009-09-01

    Genetic manipulation of lipid biosynthetic enzymes allows modification of cellular membranes. We made use of this strategy and constructed mutants in phospholipid metabolism of Pichia pastoris, which is widely used in biotechnology for expression of heterologous proteins. Here we describe identification of two P. pastoris phosphatidylserine decarboxylases (PSDs) encoded by genes homologous to PSD1 and PSD2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using P. pastoris psd1Delta and psd2Delta mutants we investigated the contribution of the respective gene products to phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis, membrane composition and cell growth. Deletion of PSD1 caused loss of PSD activity in mitochondria, a severe growth defect on minimal media and depletion of cellular and mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine levels. This defect could not be compensated by Psd2p, but by supplementation with ethanolamine, which is the substrate for the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-ethanolamine pathway, the third route of phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in yeast. Fatty acid analysis showed selectivity of both Psd1p and Psd2p in vivo for the synthesis of unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine species. Phosphatidylethanolamine species containing palmitic acid (16:0), however, were preferentially assembled into mitochondria. In summary, this study provides first insight into membrane manipulation of P. pastoris, which may serve as a useful method to modify cell biological properties of this microorganism for biotechnological purposes. PMID:19656201

  12. Theoretical study of the reaction mechanism of phenolic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiang; Lind, Maria E S; Himo, Fahmi

    2015-12-01

    The cofactor-free phenolic acid decarboxylases (PADs) catalyze the non-oxidative decarboxylation of phenolic acids to their corresponding p-vinyl derivatives. Phenolic acids are toxic to some organisms, and a number of them have evolved the ability to transform these compounds, including PAD-catalyzed reactions. Since the vinyl derivative products can be used as polymer precursors and are also of interest in the food-processing industry, PADs might have potential applications as biocatalysts. We have investigated the detailed reaction mechanism of PAD from Bacillus subtilis using quantum chemical methodology. A number of different mechanistic scenarios have been considered and evaluated on the basis of their energy profiles. The calculations support a mechanism in which a quinone methide intermediate is formed by protonation of the substrate double bond, followed by C-C bond cleavage. A different substrate orientation in the active site is suggested compared to the literature proposal. This suggestion is analogous to other enzymes with p-hydroxylated aromatic compounds as substrates, such as hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-lyase and vanillyl alcohol oxidase. Furthermore, on the basis of the calculations, a different active site residue compared to previous proposals is suggested to act as the general acid in the reaction. The mechanism put forward here is consistent with the available mutagenesis experiments and the calculated energy barrier is in agreement with measured rate constants. The detailed mechanistic understanding developed here might be extended to other members of the family of PAD-type enzymes. It could also be useful to rationalize the recently developed alternative promiscuous reactivities of these enzymes. PMID:26408050

  13. Structural and degradative aspects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lambertos, Ana; Lopez-Contreras, Andrés J.; Kasprzak, Joanna M.; Czerwoniec, Anna; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism. PMID:24967154

  14. Structural and degradative aspects of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lambertos, Ana; Lopez-Contreras, Andrés J; Kasprzak, Joanna M; Czerwoniec, Anna; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Cremades, Asunción; Peñafiel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. ODC levels are controlled by polyamines through the induction of antizymes (AZs), small proteins that inhibit ODC and target it to proteasomal degradation without ubiquitination. Antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) are proteins homologous to ODC that bind to AZs and counteract their negative effect on ODC. Whereas ODC and AZIN1 are well-characterized proteins, little is known on the structure and stability of AZIN2, the lastly discovered member of this regulatory circuit. In this work we first analyzed structural aspects of AZIN2 by combining biochemical and computational approaches. We demonstrated that AZIN2, in contrast to ODC, does not form homodimers, although the predicted tertiary structure of the AZIN2 monomer was similar to that of ODC. Furthermore, we identified conserved residues in the antizyme-binding element, whose substitution drastically affected the capacity of AZIN2 to bind AZ1. On the other hand, we also found that AZIN2 is much more labile than ODC, but it is highly stabilized by its binding to AZs. Interestingly, the administration of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 caused differential effects on the three AZ-binding proteins, having no effect on ODC, preventing the degradation of AZIN1, but unexpectedly increasing the degradation of AZIN2. Inhibitors of the lysosomal function partially prevented the effect of MG132 on AZIN2. These results suggest that the degradation of AZIN2 could be also mediated by an alternative route to that of proteasome. These findings provide new relevant information on this unique regulatory mechanism of polyamine metabolism. PMID:24967154

  15. Ultraviolet radiation induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, C.F.; Gajic, D.; Drucker, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    UV radiation plays an important role in the induction of cutaneous malignancy, including basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanoma. In addition to its effects on DNA damage and repair mechanisms, UV radiation has been shown to modulate the expression of specific genes, altering the levels of their mRNAs and the synthesis of their corresponding proteins. In order to gain further information about the molecular effects of UV radiation, we have studied the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene expression in response to UVB radiation. ODC is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is involved in growth and differentiation, and has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Keratinocytes grown in culture were either sham-irradiated or exposed to increasing doses of UVB (1-5 mJ/cm2). Northern blot analysis of keratinocyte RNA under basal conditions demonstrated the presence of two ODC mRNA transcripts. Increasing exposure to UVB resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the levels of both ODC mRNA transcripts. The induction of ODC gene expression following UVB was noted 2 h after UVB exposure, and ODC mRNA levels continued to increase up to 24 h after UVB exposure. The UVB-induced increase in ODC gene expression was not serum dependent, despite the ability of serum alone to induce ODC gene expression. The mRNA transcripts for actin and hexosaminidase A were not induced after UVB exposure. These studies show that the UVB-induced increase in ODC activity is due, at least in part, to an increase in ODC gene expression and they provide a useful model for the analysis of the molecular effects of UVB radiation.

  16. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Gamat, Melissa; Malinowski, Rita L.; Parkhurst, Linnea J.; Steinke, Laura M.; Marker, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO) to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effect in mediating prostatic bud induction, and are required for the expression of a subset of prostatic developmental regulatory genes including Notch1 and Nkx3.1. PMID:26426536

  17. Cloning and sequencing of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes from bacteria and uses therefor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin-Furlow, Julie A [Gainesville, FL; Talarico, Lee Ann [Gainesville, FL; Raj, Krishnan Chandra [Tamil Nadu, IN; Ingram, Lonnie O [Gainesville, FL

    2008-02-05

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids molecules which encode pyruvate decarboxylase enzymes having improved decarboxylase activity, substrate affinity, thermostability, and activity at different pH. The nucleic acids of the invention also have a codon usage which allows for high expression in a variety of host cells. Accordingly, the invention provides recombinant expression vectors containing such nucleic acid molecules, recombinant host cells comprising the expression vectors, host cells further comprising other ethanologenic enzymes, and methods for producing useful substances, e.g., acetaldehyde and ethanol, using such host cells.

  18. Plant tyrosine decarboxylase can be strongly inhibited by L-?-aminooxy-?-phenylpropionate.

    PubMed

    Chapple, C C; Walker, M A; Ellis, B E

    1986-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.25) from Syringa vulgaris L. cell cultures and from Hordeum vulgare L. seedlings is strongly inhibited by the phenylalanine analogue, L-?-aminooxy-?-phenylpropionate. L-?-Aminooxy-?-phenylpropionate is therefore not specific in its inhibitory action against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5). Hordeum tyrosine decarboxylase is also very sensitive to ?-fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine, but preparations from Nicotiana tabacum L. and Sanguinaria canadensis L. are largely unaffected by either type of inhibitor. PMID:24241738

  19. Effect of 1,3-diaminopropane on ornithine decarboxylase enzyme protein in thioacetamide-treated rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Seely, J E; Pegg, A E

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for ornithine decarboxylase was used to study the regulation of this enzyme in rat liver. The antiserum used reacts with ornithine decarboxylase from mouse, human or rat cells. Rat liver ornithine decarboxylase enzyme activity and enzyme protein (as determined by radioimmunoassay) were measured in thioacetamide-treated rats at various times after administration of 1,3-diaminopropane. Enzyme activity declined rapidly after 1,3-diaminopropane treatment as did the amount of enzyme protein, although the disappearance of enzyme activity slightly preceded the loss of immunoreactive protein. The loss of enzyme protein after cycloheximide treatment also occurred rapidly, but was significantly slower than that seen with 1,3-diaminopropane. When 1,3-diaminopropane and cycloheximide were injected simultaneously, the rate of disappearance of enzyme activity and enzyme protein was the same as that seen with cycloheximide alone. These results show that the rapid loss in enzyme activity after 1,3-diaminopropane treatment is primarily due to a loss in enzyme protein and that protein synthesis is needed in order for 1,3-diaminopropane to exert its full effect. A macromolecular inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase that has been termed antizyme is induced in response to 1,3-diaminopropane, but our results indicate that the loss of enzyme activity is not due to the accumulation of inactive ornithine decarboxylase-antizyme complexes. It is possible that the antizyme enhances the degradation of the enzyme protein. Control experiments demonstrated that the antiserum used would have detected any inactive antizyme-ornithine decarboxylase complexes present in liver since addition of antizyme to ornithine decarboxylase in vitro did not affect the amount of ornithine decarboxylase detected in our radioimmunoassay. Anti-(ornithine decarboxylase) antibodies may be useful in the purification of antizyme since the antizyme-ornithine decarboxylase complex can be immunoprecipitated, and antizyme released from the precipitate with 0.3 M-NaCl. PMID:6667263

  20. Inhibition of human ornithine decarboxylase activity by enantiomers of difluoromethylornithine.

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ning; Ignatenko, Natalia A; Yamauchi, Phillip; Stringer, David E; Levenson, Corey; Shannon, Patrick; Perrin, Scott; Gerner, Eugene W

    2003-01-01

    Racemic difluoromethylornithine (D/L-DFMO) is an inhibitor of ODC (ornithine decarboxylase), the first enzyme in eukaryotic polyamine biosynthesis. D/L-DFMO is an effective anti-parasitic agent and inhibitor of mammalian cell growth and development. Purified human ODC-catalysed ornithine decarboxylation is highly stereospecific. However, both DFMO enantiomers suppressed ODC activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. ODC activity failed to recover after treatment with either L- or D-DFMO and dialysis to remove free inhibitor. The inhibitor dissociation constant (K(D)) values for the formation of enzyme-inhibitor complexes were 28.3+/-3.4, 1.3+/-0.3 and 2.2+/-0.4 microM respectively for D-, L- and D/L-DFMO. The differences in these K(D) values were statistically significant ( P <0.05). The inhibitor inactivation constants (K(inact)) for the irreversible step were 0.25+/-0.03, 0.15+/-0.03 and 0.15+/-0.03 min(-1) respectively for D-, L- and D/L-DFMO. These latter values were not statistically significantly different ( P >0.1). D-DFMO was a more potent inhibitor (IC50 approximately 7.5 microM) when compared with D-ornithine (IC50 approximately 1.5 mM) of ODC-catalysed L-ornithine decarboxylation. Treatment of human colon tumour-derived HCT116 cells with either L- or D-DFMO decreased the cellular polyamine contents in a concentration-dependent manner. These results show that both enantiomers of DFMO irreversibly inactivate ODC and suggest that this inactivation occurs by a common mechanism. Both enantiomers form enzyme-inhibitor complexes with ODC, but the probability of formation of these complexes is 20 times greater for L-DFMO when compared with D-DFMO. The rate of the irreversible reaction in ODC inactivation is similar for the L- and D-enantiomer. This unexpected similarity between DFMO enantiomers, in contrast with the high degree of stereospecificity of the substrate ornithine, appears to be due to the alpha-substituent of the inhibitor. The D-enantiomer may have advantages, such as decreased normal tissue toxicity, over L- or D/L-DFMO in some clinical applications. PMID:12859253

  1. Phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 in human malonyl-CoA decarboxylase expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori regulates catalytic decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Chung, Shin-Kyo; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-11-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is a vital catalytic reaction of lipid metabolism. While it is established that phosphorylation of MCD modulates the enzymatic activity, the specific phosphorylation sites associated with the catalytic function have not been documented due to lack of sufficient production of MCD with proper post-translational modifications. Here, we used the silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid system to express human MCD (hMCD) and mapped phosphorylation effects on enzymatic function. Purified MCD from silkworm displayed post-translational phosphorylation and demonstrated coherent enzymatic activity with high yield (-200?g/silkworm). Point mutations in putative phosphorylation sites, Ser-204 or Tyr-405 of hMCD, identified by bioinformatics and proteomics analyses reduced the catalytic activity, underscoring the functional significance of phosphorylation in modulating decarboxylase-based catalysis. Identified phosphorylated residues are distinct from the decarboxylation catalytic site, implicating a phosphorylation-induced global conformational change of MCD as responsible in altering catalytic function. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 regulates the decarboxylase function of hMCD leveraging the silkworm-based BmNPV bacmid expression system that offers a fail-safe eukaryotic production platform implementing proper post-translational modification such as phosphorylation. PMID:26004805

  2. The ornithine decarboxylase gene of Caenorhabditis elegans: Cloning, mapping and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Macrae, M.; Coffino, P.; Plasterk, R.H.A.

    1995-06-01

    The gene (odc-1) encoding ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was cloned and characterized. Two introns interrupt the coding sequence of the gene. The deduced protein contains 442 amino acids and is homologous to ornithine decarboxylases of other eukaryotic species. In vitro translation of a transcript of the cDNA yielded an enzymatically active product. The mRNA is 1.5 kb in size and is formed by trans-splicing to SL1, a common 5{prime} RNA segment. odc-1 maps to the middle of LG V, between dpy-11 and unc-42 and near a breakpoint of the nDf32 deficiency strain. Enzymatic activity is low in starved 1 (L1) larva and, after feeding, rises progressively as the worms develop. Targeted gene disruption was used to create a null allele. Homozygous mutants are normally viable and show no apparent defects, with the exception of a somewhat reduced brood size. In vitro assays for ornithine decarboxylase activity, however, show no detectable enzymatic activity, suggesting that ornithine decarboxylase is dispensible for nematode growth in the laboratory. 37 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Amine-specificity of the inactivating ornithine decarboxylase modification in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J L; Mitchell, G K; Carter, D D

    1982-01-01

    The enzyme catalysing the polyamine-stimulated modification of Physarum ornithine decarboxylase in vivo was partially purified and its activity on purified ornithine decarboxylase was examined with respect to its specificity for various amines. Spermidine, spermine and several polyamine analogues strongly promoted this reaction in vitro (apparent Km in the 0.1--0.5 mM range), whereas putrescine (apparent Km 5.33 mM) and several related diamines were not nearly as effective. In agreement with this, sensitivity studies performed in vivo also suggested that cellular spermidine, and not putrescine, is critical in modulating ornithine decarboxylase activity by this post-translational control. Unlike putrescine, or other diamines, 1,3-diaminopropane demonstrated a functional similarity to the polyamines in stimulating this reaction. This study has demonstrated a method whereby non-physiological amines capable of depressing ornithine decarboxylase activity by this natural feedback mechanism can be readily identified for further evaluation of their potential use in the experimental and medical control of polyamine biosynthesis. PMID:7150232

  4. Putrescine and spermidine control degradation and synthesis of ornithine decarboxylase in Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, G.R.; Seyfzadeh, M.; Davis, R.H.

    1988-07-15

    Neurospora crassa mycelia, when starved for polyamines, have 50-70-fold more ornithine decarboxylase activity and enzyme protein than unstarved mycelia. Using isotopic labeling and immunoprecipitation, we determined the half-life and the synthetic rate of the enzyme in mycelia differing in the rates of synthesis of putrescine, the product of ornithine decarboxylase, and spermidine, the main end-product of the polyamine pathway. When the pathway was blocked between putrescine and spermidine, ornithine decarboxylase synthesis rose 4-5-fold, regardless of the accumulation of putrescine. This indicates that spermidine is a specific signal for the repression of enzyme synthesis. When both putrescine and spermidine synthesis were reduced, the half-life of the enzyme rapidly increased 10-fold. The presence of either putrescine or spermidine restored the normal enzyme half-life of 55 min. Tests for an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitory protein (antizyme) were negative. The regulatory mechanisms activated by putrescine and spermidine account for most or all of the regulatory amplitude of this enzyme in N. crassa.

  5. Molecular analysis of the glutamate decarboxylase locus in Streptococcus thermophilus ST110

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GABA ('-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermented da...

  6. Detection and transfer of the glutamate decarboxylase gene in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is generated from glutamate by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and characterized by hypotensive, diuretic and tranquilizing effects in humans and animals. The production of GABA by lactic acid starter bacteria would enhance the functionality of fermen...

  7. Coexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Lactobacillus brevis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 is able to metabolize xylose into lactate and acetate but not ethanol. In an attempt to transform L. brevis into an ethanologen that uses xylose, a Gram-positive gene for pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvat...

  8. INDUCTION BY CHLOROFORM OF TWO FORMS OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE IN RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in rat liver was separated into two species by DEAE - Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. The activity of both species of ODC was increased at least 20 fold by chloroform treatment of the rats. The major species, peak A contained 75% of the ODC ac...

  9. Structural and Mechanistic Studies on Klebsiella pneumoniae 2-Oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-11-12

    The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin was recently shown to proceed via three enzymatic steps. The final conversion is a decarboxylation of the unstable intermediate 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (OHCU) and is catalyzed by OHCU decarboxylase. Here we present the structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase in unliganded form and with bound allantoin. These structures provide evidence that ligand binding organizes the active site residues for catalysis. Modeling of the substrate and intermediates provides additional support for this hypothesis. In addition we characterize the steady state kinetics of this enzyme and report the first OHCU decarboxylase inhibitor, allopurinol, a structural isomer of hypoxanthine. This molecule is a competitive inhibitor of K. pneumoniae OHCU decarboxylase with a K{sub i} of 30 {+-} 2 {micro}m. Circular dichroism measurements confirm structural observations that this inhibitor disrupts the necessary organization of the active site. Our structural and biochemical studies also provide further insights into the mechanism of catalysis of OHCU decarboxylation.

  10. Cyclic AMP-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase of glioma and neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, U

    1975-01-01

    The activity of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17; L-ornithine carboxy-lyase) of C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells increases significantly when confluent cultures are treated with compounds that increase cellular cAMP levels. These include norepinephrine or isoproterenol, and prostaglandin E1 or adenosine, which stimulate ornithine decarboxylase activity in C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells, respectively. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is also elevated in confluent C6-BU-1 glioma cells treated with dibutyrylcAMP and theophylline, or after the glioma cells are fed with a serum-depleted medium in the presence of catecholamines and inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The activity of the enzyme increases 500- to 1000-fold, 2-6 hr after stationary-phase N115 neuroblastoma cells are fed with a serum-free medium, supplemented with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenosine, or prostaglandin E1. This stimulation is antagonized by carbamoyl choline and is blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. These results suggest that the synthesis of ornithine decarboxylase of C6-BU-1 glioma and N115 neuroblastoma cells is controlled by cAMP. PMID:171652

  11. EFFECT OF CHLOROFORM ON HEPATIC AND RENAL DNA SYNTHESIS AND ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to male mice and rats resulted in a dose-dependent increase in hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. Maximal induction of the enzyme in mice was 10-fold and occurred at 375 mg/kg chloroform; in rats it was 52-fold and occ...

  12. Analysis of antibody reactivity against cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, in endocrine autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Skldberg, Filip; Rorsman, Fredrik; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Husebye, Eystein S; Gustafsson, Jan; Kmpe, Olle

    2004-04-01

    The structurally related group II pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent amino acid decarboxylases glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) are known autoantigens in endocrine disorders. We report, for the first time, the prevalence of serum autoantibody reactivity against cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), an enzyme that shares 50% amino acid identity with the 65- and 67-kDa isoforms of GAD (GAD-65 and GAD-67), in endocrine autoimmune disease. Three of 83 patients (3.6%) with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) were anti-CSAD positive in a radioimmunoprecipitation assay. Anti-CSAD antibodies cross-reacted with GAD-65, and the anti-CSAD-positive sera were also reactive with AADC and HDC. The low frequency of anti-CSAD reactivity is in striking contrast to the prevalence of antibodies against GAD-65, AADC, and HDC in APS1 patients, suggesting that different mechanisms control the immunological tolerance toward CSAD and the other group II decarboxylases. Moreover, CSAD may be a useful mold for the construction of recombinant chimerical antigens in attempts to map conformational epitopes on other group II PLP-dependent amino acid decarboxylases. PMID:15070923

  13. Substrate Specificity of Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Dependent 2-Oxo-Acid Decarboxylases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Ktter, Peter; Pronk, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Fusel alcohols are precursors and contributors to flavor and aroma compounds in fermented beverages, and some are under investigation as biofuels. The decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids is a key step in the Ehrlich pathway for fusel alcohol production. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, five genes share sequence similarity with genes encoding thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxo-acid decarboxylases (2ODCs). PDC1, PDC5, and PDC6 encode differentially regulated pyruvate decarboxylase isoenzymes; ARO10 encodes a 2-oxo-acid decarboxylase with broad substrate specificity, and THI3 has not yet been shown to encode an active decarboxylase. Despite the importance of fusel alcohol production in S. cerevisiae, the substrate specificities of these five 2ODCs have not been systematically compared. When the five 2ODCs were individually overexpressed in a pdc1? pdc5? pdc6? aro10? thi3? strain, only Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the linear-chain 2-oxo acids pyruvate, 2-oxo-butanoate, and 2-oxo-pentanoate in cell extracts. The presence of a Pdc isoenzyme was also required for the production of n-propanol and n-butanol in cultures grown on threonine and norvaline, respectively, as nitrogen sources. These results demonstrate the importance of pyruvate decarboxylases in the natural production of n-propanol and n-butanol by S. cerevisiae. No decarboxylation activity was found for Thi3 with any of the substrates tested. Only Aro10 and Pdc5 catalyzed the decarboxylation of the aromatic substrate phenylpyruvate, with Aro10 showing superior kinetic properties. Aro10, Pdc1, Pdc5, and Pdc6 exhibited activity with all branched-chain and sulfur-containing 2-oxo acids tested but with markedly different decarboxylation kinetics. The high affinity of Aro10 identified it as a key contributor to the production of branched-chain and sulfur-containing fusel alcohols. PMID:22904058

  14. Characterization of transgenic mice with overexpression of spermidine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chenxu; Welsh, Patricia A.; Sass-Kuhn, Suzanne; Wang, Xiaojing; McCloskey, Diane E.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Feith, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A composite cytomegalovirus-immediate early gene enhancer/chicken ?-actin promoter (CAG) was utilized to generate transgenic mice that overexpress human spermidine synthase (SpdS) in order to determine the impact of elevated spermidine synthase activity on murine development and physiology. CAG-SpdS mice were viable and fertile and tissue SpdS activity was increased up to 9-fold. This increased SpdS activity did not result in a dramatic elevation of spermidine or spermine levels but did lead to a 1.5 to 2-fold reduction in tissue spermine:spermidine ratio in heart, muscle and liver tissues with the highest levels of SpdS activity. This new mouse model enabled simultaneous overexpression of SpdS and other polyamine biosynthetic enzymes by combining transgenic animals. The combined overexpression of both SpdS and spermine synthase (SpmS) in CAG-SpdS/CAG-SpmS bitransgenic mice did not impair viability or lead to overt developmental abnormalities but instead normalized the elevated tissue spermine:spermidine ratios of CAG-SpmS mice. The CAG-SpdS mice were bred to MHC-AdoMetDC mice with a >100-fold increase in cardiac S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) activity to determine if elevated dcAdoMet would facilitate greater spermidine accumulation in mice with SpdS overexpression. CAG-SpdS/MHC-AdoMetDC bitransgenic animals were produced at the expected frequency and exhibited cardiac polyamine levels comparable to MHC-AdoMetDC littermates. Taken together these results indicate that SpdS levels are not rate limiting in vivo for polyamine biosynthesis and are unlikely to exert significant regulatory effects on cellular polyamine content and function. PMID:21809077

  15. Active-Site Engineering Expands the Substrate Profile of the Basidiomycete l-Tryptophan Decarboxylase CsTDC.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Daniel; Gressler, Julia; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) catalyze the release of CO2 from proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic l-amino acid substrates and are involved in pathways that biosynthesize neurotransmitters or bioactive natural products. In contrast to AADCs from animals and plants, fungal AADCs have received very little attention. Here, we report on the in vitro characterization of heterologously produced Ceriporiopsis subvermispora AADC, now referred to as CsTDC, which is the first characterized basidiomycete AADC. This study identified the enzyme as a decarboxylase that is strictly specific for l-tryptophan and 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan. The tdc gene was subjected to saturation mutagenesis so as to vary the key active site residue, Gly351. Aliphatic amino acid residues, l-serine, or l-threonine at position?351 added l-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) decarboxylase activity while retaining stereospecificity and l-tryptophan decarboxylase activity. PMID:26632772

  16. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the National... Microorganisms § 173.115 Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a...

  17. Unusual space-group pseudo symmetry in crystals of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) decarboxylase is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A and catalyzes the decarboxylation of PPC to phosphopantetheine. Human PPC decarboxylase has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The Laue class of the diffraction data appears to be {bar 3}m, suggesting space group R32 with two monomers per asymmetric unit. However, the crystals belong to the space group R3 and the asymmetric unit contains four monomers. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement and refined to a current R factor of 29%. The crystal packing can be considered as two interlaced lattices, each consistent with space group R32 and with the corresponding twofold axes parallel to each other but separated along the threefold axis. Thus, the true space group is R3 with four monomers per asymmetric unit.

  18. Tyrosine- and histidine-decarboxylase positive lactic acid bacteria and enterococci in dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Sldkov, P; Petirov, E; Dohnal, V; Burdychov, R

    2010-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and enterococci were isolated immediately after stuffing (day 0), at the end of ripening (28th day) and at the end of storage (112th day) from dry fermented sausages produced by two different producers (K; R) in two diameters (4.5 and 7 cm) using either of two spice mixtures (P; H) and either of two starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus, C; Lactobacillus curvatus+Staphylococcus carnosus, F), resulting in a total of 16 different combinations. Tyrosine-decarboxylase DNA sequence (tyrdc) was identified on average in 88% and 44% of enterococci and LAB isolates, respectively at the end of ripening, the corresponding figures regarding histidine-decarboxylase gene sequence (hisdc) was 71% and 16%, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis and L. casei/paracasei, and Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as tyramine/histamine producers in the sausages. PMID:20696534

  19. Retinal GABA neurons: localization in vertebrate species using an antiserum to rabbit brain glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Brandon, C

    1985-10-01

    Retinal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons have been localized immunocytochemically using a new antiserum against rabbit brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The animals examined were: dogfish, ratfish, goldfish, catfish, turtle, chick, mouse, rat, pig, rabbit, cat and New World monkey. GAD-containing processes, observed as punctate deposits of immunochemical reaction product, formed discrete bands within the inner plexiform layers of all retinas examined. Immunoreactive, and therefore presumably GABAergic, amacrine cells were observed in all species. Displaced GABAergic amacrine cells were observed in the retinas of goldfish, catfish, turtle and chick, and sparsely in the rabbit as well. GABAergic horizontal cells were detected in catfish, goldfish, chick and turtle. Interplexiform cells in the cat and the rat were clearly immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase; this is the first report of GABAergic interplexiform cells in the rat. PMID:2994837

  20. Threonine 57 is required for the post-translational activation of Escherichia coli aspartate ?-decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michael E; Yorke, Briony A; Kershaw, Tom; Lovelock, Sarah; Lobley, Carina M C; Kilkenny, Mairi L; Smith, Alison G; Blundell, Tom L; Pearson, Arwen R; Abell, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Aspartate ?-decarboxylase is a pyruvoyl-dependent decarboxylase required for the production of ?-alanine in the bacterial pantothenate (vitamin B5) biosynthesis pathway. The pyruvoyl group is formed via the intramolecular rearrangement of a serine residue to generate a backbone ester intermediate which is cleaved to generate an N-terminal pyruvoyl group. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues adjacent to the active site, including Tyr22, Thr57 and Tyr58, reveals that only mutation of Thr57 leads to changes in the degree of post-translational activation. The crystal structure of the site-directed mutant T57V is consistent with a non-rearranged backbone, supporting the hypothesis that Thr57 is required for the formation of the ester intermediate in activation. PMID:24699660

  1. HemQ: An iron-coproporphyrin oxidative decarboxylase for protoheme synthesis in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Harry A; Gerdes, Svetlana

    2015-05-15

    Genes for chlorite dismutase-like proteins are found widely among heme-synthesizing bacteria and some Archaea. It is now known that among the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria these proteins do not possess chlorite dismutase activity but instead are essential for heme synthesis. These proteins, named HemQ, are iron-coproporphyrin (coproheme) decarboxylases that catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of coproheme III into protoheme IX. As purified, HemQs do not contain bound heme, but readily bind exogeneously supplied heme with low micromolar affinity. The heme-bound form of HemQ has low peroxidase activity and in the presence of peroxide the bound heme may be destroyed. Thus, it is possible that HemQ may serve a dual role as a decarboxylase in heme biosynthesis and a regulatory protein in heme homeostasis. PMID:25711532

  2. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Castellan Baldan, Lissandra; Williams, Kyle A; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Pogorelov, Vladimir; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Ercan-Sencicek, A Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H; Hughes, Zoë A; Krystal, John H; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W; Pittenger, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal DA levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. DA D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm histidine decarboxylase deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify HA-DA interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  3. Limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase presenting with brainstem symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Incecik, Faruk; Hergner, Ozlem M.; Y?ld?zda?, Dincer; Horoz, Ozden; Besen, Seyda

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) is a neurological syndrome that may present in association with cancer, infection, or as an isolate clinical condition often accompanying autoimmune disorders. LE associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD) is rare in children. Here, we characterized the clinical and laboratory features of a patient presenting with brainstem involvement with non-paraneoplastic LE associated with anti-GAD antibodies. In our patient, after plasma exchange, we determined a dramatic improvement of the neurological deficits. PMID:26019430

  4. Perturbation of the Monomer-Monomer Interfaces of the Benzoylformate Decarboxylase Tetramer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Forest H.; Rogers, Megan P.; Paul, Lake N.; McLeish, Michael J.

    2014-08-14

    The X-ray structure of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 shows it to be a tetramer. This was believed to be typical of all thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases until recently when the structure of KdcA, a branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis, showed it to be a homodimer. This lent credence to earlier unfolding experiments on pyruvate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that indicated that it might be active as a dimer. To investigate this possibility in BFDC, we sought to shift the equilibrium toward dimer formation. Point mutations were made in the noncatalytic monomer–monomer interfaces, but these had a minimal effect on both tetramer formation and catalytic activity. Subsequently, the R141E/Y288A/A306F variant was shown by analytical ultracentrifugation to be partially dimeric. It was also found to be catalytically inactive. Further experiments revealed that just two mutations, R141E and A306F, were sufficient to markedly alter the dimer–tetramer equilibrium and to provide an ~450-fold decrease in kcat. Equilibrium denaturation studies suggested that the residual activity was possibly due to the presence of residual tetramer. The structures of the R141E and A306F variants, determined to <1.5 Å resolution, hinted that disruption of the monomer interfaces will be accompanied by movement of a loop containing Leu109 and Leu110. As these residues contribute to the hydrophobicity of the active site and the correct positioning of the substrate, it seems that tetramer formation may well be critical to the catalytic activity of BFDC.

  5. Ornithine decarboxylase activity in chick duodenum induced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

    PubMed Central

    Shinki, T; Takahashi, N; Miyaura, C; Samejima, K; Nishii, Y; Suda, T

    1981-01-01

    The effect of cholecalciferol and its metabolites on ornithine decarboxylase activity was investigated in the duodenal mucosa of vitamin D-deficient chicks. The duodenal ornithine decarboxylase activity decreased in animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet and its retarded activity was increased dose-dependently by a single injection of cholecalciferol. Among various metabolites of cholecalciferol tested, 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [ 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3] was the most potent stimulator. Stimulation of the enzyme activity was detected as early as 2h after intravenous administration of 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 and a maximal value was attained at 6 h. The maximal value was 27 times higher than the control. In addition, treatment with 1 alpha 25 (OH)2D3 affected the duodenal content of polyamines. The content of putrescine increased to a value of three times that of the control 6 h after the hormone administration. The spermidine content did not change appreciably. The enhancement of duodenal ornithine decarboxylase activity by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 occurred in parallel with the enhancement of calcium absorption, which was first detected 3 h after the hormone administration. The enhancement appeared to be tissue-specific. It was observed in every intestinal segment, but was highest in the duodenum. Enzyme activity in other tissues was not influenced appreciably by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3. These results clearly indicate that the duodenal biosynthesis of polyamines is regulated by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3, suggesting the possibility that duodenal ornithine decarboxylase may be involved in the calcium absorption mechanism. PMID:6895593

  6. Characterization and immunolocalization of mutated ornithine decarboxylase antizyme from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Qian; Yang, Xiao; Wu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Dongjing; He, Ai; Zhan, Ximei

    2013-08-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), a prominent regulator of cell proliferation, DNA/RNA transformation and tumorigenesis, can bind to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and facilitate its degradation. Expression of OAZ requires a unique ribosomal frame shift that is regulated by levels of polyamine in the cell. In this study, we cloned an OAZ gene with the +1 ribosomal frame-shift from a fourth-stage larvae cDNA library of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We removed one nucleotide to express the gene without polyamine. The sequence analysis showed that the deleted-mutation ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (DM-AcOAZ) contained a conservative domain related to other species OAZ. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that DM-AcOAZ was expressed in L3 and L4 stages and adult female worms. More notably the expression level is the highest in the adult female stage. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that DM-AcOAZ was specifically localized in the uterus, oocyte and intestine in adult female worms. MTT assays showed that in DM-AcOAZ transfected HeLa cells, cell proliferation is inhibited. In conclusion, DM-AcOAZ may be a female-enriched protein and may involved in the cell proliferation in A. cantonensis. PMID:23816446

  7. On the mechanism of sodium ion translocation by oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Dimroth, P; Thomer, A

    1993-02-23

    Proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae catalyzed the uptake of Na+ ions upon oxaloacetate decarboxylation. The degree of coupling between the chemical and the vectorial reaction is dependent on the reconstitution conditions, and with the best preparations approaches a stoichiometry of two Na+ ions per decarboxylation of one oxaloacetate. This coupling ratio is observed only in the absence of a delta mu Na+, immediately after oxaloacetate addition. The ratio gradually declines during development of the electrochemical Na+ ion gradient and becomes zero in the steady state. The Na+ pump, however, continued to decarboxylate oxaloacetate and to catalyze Na+ influx at the apparent stoichiometry of two Na+ ions per decarboxylation event. During the steady state, this influx must be compensated by Na+ efflux of the same size. The efflux is catalyzed by the Na+ pump upon oxaloacetate decarboxylation, because in the absence of the substrate the efflux rate dropped to less than 10%. Proteoliposomes loaded with Na2SO4 catalyzed a bicarbonate-dependent uptake of 22Na+ that was completely abolished after incubation with avidin. These results suggest coupling of Na+ translocation to the carboxylation/decarboxylation of the biotin prosthetic group without the requirement for the oxaloacetate/pyruvate interconversion. The oxaloacetate-dependent transport of Na+ into proteoliposomes was inhibited by the additional presence of the beta + gamma subunits of oxaloacetate decarboxylase. A model of Na+ translocation by oxaloacetate decarboxylase based on these experimental results is proposed. PMID:8382519

  8. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Héctor; Rivas, Blanca de las; Muñoz, Rosario; Mancheño, José M.

    2007-04-01

    The enzyme p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from L. plantarum has been recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. The structure has been solved at 2.04 Å resolution by the molecular-replacement method. The substrate-inducible p-coumaric acid decarboxylase (PDC) from Lactobacillus plantarum has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and confirmed to possess decarboxylase activity. The recombinant His{sub 6}-tagged enzyme was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 12%(w/v) 2-propanol, 0.2 M sodium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.0 with 0.1 M barium chloride as an additive. Diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.04 Å resolution. Crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.15, c = 231.86 Å. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.36 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 48% solvent content, which is consistent with the presence of two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure of PDC has been determined by the molecular-replacement method. Currently, the structure of PDC complexed with substrate analogues is in progress, with the aim of elucidating the structural basis of the catalytic mechanism.

  9. Rat malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; cloning, expression in E. coli and its biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gha Young; Bahk, Young Yil; Kim, Yu Sam

    2002-03-31

    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (E.C.4.1.1.9) catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. Although the metabolic role of this enzyme has not been fully defined, it has been reported that its deficiency is associated with mild mental retardation, seizures, hypotonia, cadiomyopathy, developmental delay, vomiting, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and malonic aciduria. Here, we isolated a cDNA clone for malonyl CoA decarboxylase from a rat brain cDNA library, expressed it in E. coli, and characterized its biochemical properties. The full-length cDNA contained a single open-reading frame that encoded 491 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 54, 762 Da. Its deduced amino acid sequence revealed a 65.6% identity to that from the goose uropigial gland. The sequence of the first 38 amino acids represents a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence, and the last 3 amino acid sequences (SKL) represent peroxisomal targeting ones. The expression of malonyl CoA decarboxylase was observed over a wide range of tissues as a single transcript of 2.0 kb in size. The recombinant protein that was expressed in E. coli was used to characterize the biochemical properties, which showed a typical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation pattern. The Km and Vmax were calculated to be 68 microM and 42.6 micromol/min/mg, respectively. PMID:12297032

  10. An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with less than 14% identity. The C. guilliermondii phenolic acid decarboxylase converted the main substrates ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to the respective corresponding products. Surprisingly, the ultrafiltrate (Mr 10,000-cut-off) of the cell-free extract of C. guilliermondii remarkably activated the ferulic acid decarboxylation by the purified enzyme, whereas it was almost without effect on the p-coumaric acid decarboxylation. Gel-filtration chromatography of the ultrafiltrate suggested that an endogenous amino thiol-like compound with a molecular weight greater than Mr 1,400 was responsible for the activation. PMID:22217315

  11. Overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase increases myogenic potential of H9c2 rat myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marco; Bonavita, Francesca; Shantz, Lisa M; Guarnieri, Carlo; Giordano, Emanuele

    2010-02-01

    Myoblast differentiation into multinuclear myotubes implies the slow-down of their proliferative drive and the expression of myogenin, an early marker of myogenic differentiation. Natural polyamines-such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine-are low molecular weight organic polycations, well known as mediators involved in cell homeostasis. Many evidences in the literature point to their role in driving cellular differentiation processes. Here, we studied how polyamines may affect the differentiation of the myogenic cell line H9c2 into the muscle phenotype. Cell cultures were committed via a 7-day treatment with insulin which induced increase in the activity of ornithine decarboxylase, the first enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, consistent with myogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of polyamines in the differentiation process, cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing a stable ornithine decarboxylase, under control of a constitutive promoter. Overexpressing cells spontaneously differentiate into myotubes, without the need for induction with insulin; multinuclear myotubes and myogenin expression were apparent within 2 days of confluency of cultures. Polyamine depletion-by means of alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase-abolished the differentiation process. These observations support the evidence that polyamines are a key step involved in differentiation of muscle cells. PMID:20013009

  12. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. Metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine and ethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Prud'homme, M.P.; Moore, T.S. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by castor bean endosperm have been studied. Endosperm halves were incubated with tracer concentrations of (2-{sup 14}C) ethanolamine or ({sup 14}C)S-adenosyl-L-methionine for 10 or 30 minutes, respectively. The kinetics of appearance were followed in methyl- and dimethylethanolamine, choline, and their phospho-, CDP-, and phosphatidyl-derivatives. Methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine rapidly labeled the three methylated-ethanolamine derivatives. Radioactivity then decreased in these compounds and accumulated in phosphatidylcholine. The initial methylation utilized ethanolamine as a substrate to form methyl-ethanolamine, which was partially converted to dimethyl-ethanolamine, choline, and phosphomethylethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occurred at both phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Experiments with ethanolamine confirmed these results.

  13. Structural basis for S-adenosylmethionine binding and methyltransferase activity by mitochondrial transcription factor B1

    PubMed Central

    Guja, Kip E.; Venkataraman, Krithika; Yakubovskaya, Elena; Shi, Hui; Mejia, Edison; Hambardjieva, Elena; Karzai, A. Wali; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcription factor B (TFB) proteins are homologous to KsgA/Dim1 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases. The mammalian TFB1, mitochondrial (TFB1M) factor is an essential protein necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. TFB1M mediates an rRNA modification in the small ribosomal subunit and thus plays a role analogous to KsgA/Dim1 proteins. This modification has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions leading to maternally inherited deafness, aminoglycoside sensitivity and diabetes. Here, we present the first structural characterization of the mammalian TFB1 factor. We have solved two X-ray crystallographic structures of TFB1M with (2.1 ) and without (2.0 ) its cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. These structures reveal that TFB1M shares a conserved methyltransferase core with other KsgA/Dim1 methyltransferases and shed light on the structural basis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding and methyltransferase activity. Together with mutagenesis studies, these data suggest a model for substrate binding and provide insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer, clarifying the role of this factor in an essential process for mitochondrial function. PMID:23804760

  14. Crystal structure of biotin synthase, an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent radical enzyme.

    PubMed

    Berkovitch, Frederick; Nicolet, Yvain; Wan, Jason T; Jarrett, Joseph T; Drennan, Catherine L

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure of biotin synthase from Escherichia coli in complex with S-adenosyl-L-methionine and dethiobiotin has been determined to 3.4 angstrom resolution. This structure addresses how "AdoMet radical" or "radical SAM" enzymes use Fe4S4 clusters and S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate organic radicals. Biotin synthase catalyzes the radical-mediated insertion of sulfur into dethiobiotin to form biotin. The structure places the substrates between the Fe4S4 cluster, essential for radical generation, and the Fe2S2 cluster, postulated to be the source of sulfur, with both clusters in unprecedented coordination environments. PMID:14704425

  15. S-Adenosylmethionine-dependent radical-based modification of biological macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Atta, Mohamed; Mulliez, Etienne; Arragain, Simon; Forouhar, Farhad; Hunt, John F; Fontecave, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Proteins and RNA molecules enjoy a variety of chemically complex post-translational and post-transcriptional modifications. The chemistry at work in these reactions, which was considered to be exclusively ionic in nature has recently been shown to depend on radical mechanisms in some cases. The overwhelming majority of these radical-based reactions are catalyzed by 'Radical-SAM' enzymes. This review article highlights mechanistic and structural aspects of this class of reactions and indicates important research directions to be addressed. PMID:20951571

  16. A surprising range of modified-methionyl S-adenosylmethionine analogues support bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mojun; Wijayasinghe, Yasanandana S; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E; Blumenthal, Robert M

    2015-03-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) is an essential metabolite, serving in a very wide variety of metabolic reactions. The enzyme that produces AdoMet from l-methionine and ATP (methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT) is thus an attractive target for antimicrobial agents. We previously showed that a variety of methionine analogues are MAT substrates, yielding AdoMet analogues that function in specific methyltransfer reactions. However, this left open the question of whether the modified AdoMet molecules could support bacterial growth, meaning that they functioned in the full range of essential AdoMet-dependent reactions. The answer matters both for insight into the functional flexibility of key metabolic enzymes, and for drug design strategies for both MAT inhibitors and selectively toxic MAT substrates. In this study, methionine analogues were converted in vitro into AdoMet analogues, and tested with an Escherichia coli strain lacking MAT (?metK) but that produces a heterologous AdoMet transporter. Growth that yields viable, morphologically normal cells provides exceptionally robust evidence that the analogue functions in every essential reaction in which AdoMet participates. Overall, the S-adenosylated derivatives of all tested l-methionine analogues modified at the carboxyl moiety, and some others as well, showed in vivo functionality sufficient to allow good growth in both rich and minimal media, with high viability and morphological normality. As the analogues were chosen based on incompatibility with the reactions via which AdoMet is used to produce acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) for quorum sensing, these results support the possibility of using this route to selectively interfere with AHL biosynthesis without inhibiting bacterial growth. PMID:25717169

  17. Structural basis for S-adenosylmethionine binding and methyltransferase activity by mitochondrial transcription factor B1.

    PubMed

    Guja, Kip E; Venkataraman, Krithika; Yakubovskaya, Elena; Shi, Hui; Mejia, Edison; Hambardjieva, Elena; Karzai, A Wali; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Eukaryotic transcription factor B (TFB) proteins are homologous to KsgA/Dim1 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases. The mammalian TFB1, mitochondrial (TFB1M) factor is an essential protein necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. TFB1M mediates an rRNA modification in the small ribosomal subunit and thus plays a role analogous to KsgA/Dim1 proteins. This modification has been linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions leading to maternally inherited deafness, aminoglycoside sensitivity and diabetes. Here, we present the first structural characterization of the mammalian TFB1 factor. We have solved two X-ray crystallographic structures of TFB1M with (2.1 ) and without (2.0 ) its cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. These structures reveal that TFB1M shares a conserved methyltransferase core with other KsgA/Dim1 methyltransferases and shed light on the structural basis of S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding and methyltransferase activity. Together with mutagenesis studies, these data suggest a model for substrate binding and provide insight into the mechanism of methyl transfer, clarifying the role of this factor in an essential process for mitochondrial function. PMID:23804760

  18. A surprising range of modified-methionyl S-adenosylmethionine analogues support bacterial growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mojun; Wijayasinghe, Yasanandana S.; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) is an essential metabolite, serving in a very wide variety of metabolic reactions. The enzyme that produces AdoMet from l-methionine and ATP (methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT) is thus an attractive target for antimicrobial agents. We previously showed that a variety of methionine analogues are MAT substrates, yielding AdoMet analogues that function in specific methyltransfer reactions. However, this left open the question of whether the modified AdoMet molecules could support bacterial growth, meaning that they functioned in the full range of essential AdoMet-dependent reactions. The answer matters both for insight into the functional flexibility of key metabolic enzymes, and for drug design strategies for both MAT inhibitors and selectively toxic MAT substrates. In this study, methionine analogues were converted in vitro into AdoMet analogues, and tested with an Escherichia coli strain lacking MAT (?metK) but that produces a heterologous AdoMet transporter. Growth that yields viable, morphologically normal cells provides exceptionally robust evidence that the analogue functions in every essential reaction in which AdoMet participates. Overall, the S-adenosylated derivatives of all tested l-methionine analogues modified at the carboxyl moiety, and some others as well, showed in vivo functionality sufficient to allow good growth in both rich and minimal media, with high viability and morphological normality. As the analogues were chosen based on incompatibility with the reactions via which AdoMet is used to produce acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) for quorum sensing, these results support the possibility of using this route to selectively interfere with AHL biosynthesis without inhibiting bacterial growth. PMID:25717169

  19. Identification of an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent arsenic methyltransferase in Danio rerio

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Mohamad; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Packianathan, Charles; Qin, Jie; Hallauer, Janell; McDermott, Joseph R.; Yang, Hung-Chi; Tsai, Kan-Jen; Liu, Zijuan

    2012-07-15

    Arsenic methylation is an important cellular metabolic process that modulates arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Biomethylation of arsenic produces a series of mono-, di- and tri-methylated arsenic metabolites that can be detected in tissues and excretions. Here we report that zebrafish exposed to arsenite (As{sup III}) produces organic arsenicals, including MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V} with characteristic tissue ratios, demonstrating that an arsenic methylation pathway exists in zebrafish. In mammals, cellular inorganic arsenic is methylated by a SAM-dependent arsenic methyltransferase, AS3MT. A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase homolog, As3mt, was identified by sequence alignment. Western blotting analysis showed that As3mt was universally expressed in zebrafish tissues. Prominent expression in liver and intestine correlated with methylated arsenic metabolites detected in those tissues. As3mt was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli for in vitro functional studies. Our results demonstrated that As3mt methylated As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} as an end product and produced MMA{sup III} and MMA{sup V} as intermediates. The activity of As3mt was inhibited by elevated concentrations of the substrate As{sup III} as well as the metalloid selenite, which is a well-known antagonistic micronutrient of arsenic toxicity. The activity As3mt was abolished by substitution of either Cys160 or Cys210, which corresponds to conserved cysteine residues in AS3MT homologs, suggesting that they are involved in catalysis. Expression in zebrafish of an enzyme that has a similar function to human and rodent orthologs in catalyzing intracellular arsenic biomethylation validates the applicability of zebrafish as a valuable vertebrate model for understanding arsenic-associated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Zebrafish methylated As{sup III} to MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V}. ► A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase (As3mt) was purified in E. coli. ► As3mt catalyzed biomethylation of As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} and produced toxic intermediates. ► As3mt activity is inhibited by elevated substrate concentrations and selenite. ► C160 and C165 are predicted as As{sup III} binding sites.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Effects on Ethanol Production, Pyruvate Decarboxylase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities in Anaerobic Sweet Potato Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling A.; Hammett, Larry K.; Pharr, David M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varied anaerobic atmospheres on the metabolism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) roots was studied. The internal gas atmospheres of storage roots changed rapidly when the roots were submerged under water. O2 and N2 gases disappeared quickly and were replaced by CO2. There were no appreciable differences in gas composition among the four cultivars that were studied. Under different anaerobic conditions, ethanol concentration in the roots was highest in a CO2 environment, followed by submergence and a N2 environment in all the cultivars except one. A positive relationship was found between ethanol production and pyruvate decarboxylase activity from both 100% CO2-treated and 100% N2-treated roots. CO2 atmospheres also resulted in higher pyruvate decarboxylase activity than did N2 atmospheres. Concentrations of CO2 were higher within anaerobic roots than those in the ambient anaerobic atmosphere. The level of pyruvate decarboxylase and ethanol in anaerobic roots was proportional to the ambient CO2 concentration. The measurable activity of pyruvate decarboxylase that was present in the roots was about 100 times less than that of alcohol dehydrogenase. Considering these observations, it is suggested that the rate-limiting enzyme for ethanol biosynthesis in sweet potato storage roots under anoxia is likely to be pyruvate decarboxylase rather than alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:16662798

  1. Combination treatment for allergic conjunctivitis - Plant derived histidine decarboxylase inhibitor and H1 antihistaminic drug.

    PubMed

    Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2015-08-01

    Aim of present investigation was to study the effect of catechin and the combination of catechin and cetirizine in ovalbumin induced animal model of allergic conjunctivitis. Guinea pigs were divided into 5 groups: normal control, disease control, disease treated with catechin 100 mg/kg, disease treated with cetirizine 10 mg/kg, disease treated with combination of catechin and cetirizine, 50 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg respectively. Sensitization was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin for the period of 14 day. Simultaneously, catechin was administered orally for 14 days while, cetirizine was administered at the day of experiment. Determination of clinical scoring, mast cell and blood histamine content, histidine decarboxylase activity from stomach was carried out. Vascular permeability was measured by dye leakage after secondary challenge of allergen and conjunctival tissues were subjected for histopathological examinations. Treatment with catechin, cetirizine and combination showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in clinical scoring and vascular permeability. While, catechin 100 mg/kg and catechin 50 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in histamine content in mast and blood. The treatment also showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the histidine decarboxylase enzyme activity. However, cetirizine group did not show any difference in enzyme activity as well as histamine content. Histopathological examination also showed improvement in ulceration and decrease in edema and inflammation in all treatment groups. From the present study, we can conclude that catechin exhibits potent anti-allergic activity by histidine decarboxylase enzyme inhibition and combination shown significant anti-allergic activity at reduced dose by both enzyme inhibition as well as inhibition of histamine receptors. PMID:26028180

  2. Different mRNAs code for dopa decarboxylase in tissues of neuronal and nonneuronal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, M; Coge, F; Gros, F; Thibault, J

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA clone for dopa decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28) has been isolated from a rat pheochromocytoma cDNA library and the cDNA sequence has been determined. It corresponds to an mRNA of 2094 nucleotides. The length of the mRNA was measured by primer-extension of rat pheochromocytoma RNA and the 5' end of the sequence of the mRNA was confirmed by the PCR. A probe spanning the translation initiation site of the mRNA was used to hybridize with mRNAs from various organs of the rat. S1 nuclease digestion of the mRNAs annealed with this probe revealed two classes of mRNAs. The comparison of the cDNA sequence and published sequences for rat liver, human pheochromocytoma, and Drosophila dopa decarboxylase supported the conclusion that two mRNAs are produced: one is specific for tissue of neuronal origin and the other is specific for tissues of nonneuronal (mesodermal or endodermal) origin. The neuronal mRNA contains a 5' untranslated sequence that is highly conserved between human and rat pheochromocytoma including a GA stretch. The coding sequence and the 3' untranslated sequence of mRNAs from rat liver and pheochromocytoma are identical. The rat mRNA differs only in the 5' untranslated region. Thus a unique gene codes for dopa decarboxylase and this gene gives rise to at least two transcripts presumably in response to different signals during development. Images PMID:2006153

  3. Biochemical Evaluation of the Decarboxylation and Decarboxylation-Deamination Activities of Plant Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylases*

    PubMed Central

    Torrens-Spence, Michael P.; Liu, Pingyang; Ding, Haizhen; Harich, Kim; Gillaspy, Glenda; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Plant aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzymes are capable of catalyzing either decarboxylation or decarboxylation-deamination on various combinations of aromatic amino acid substrates. These two different activities result in the production of arylalkylamines and the formation of aromatic acetaldehydes, respectively. Variations in product formation enable individual enzymes to play different physiological functions. Despite these catalytic variations, arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing AAADs are indistinguishable without protein expression and characterization. In this study, extensive biochemical characterization of plant AAADs was performed to identify residues responsible for differentiating decarboxylation AAADs from aldehyde synthase AAADs. Results demonstrated that a tyrosine residue located on a catalytic loop proximal to the active site of plant AAADs is primarily responsible for dictating typical decarboxylase activity, whereas a phenylalanine at the same position is primarily liable for aldehyde synthase activity. Mutagenesis of the active site phenylalanine to tyrosine in Arabidopsis thaliana and Petroselinum crispum aromatic acetaldehyde synthases primarily converts the enzymes activity from decarboxylation-deamination to decarboxylation. The mutation of the active site tyrosine to phenylalanine in the Catharanthus roseus and Papaver somniferum aromatic amino acid decarboxylases changes the enzymes decarboxylation activity to a primarily decarboxylation-deamination activity. Generation of these mutant enzymes enables the production of unusual AAAD enzyme products including indole-3-acetaldehyde, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, and phenylethylamine. Our data indicates that the tyrosine and phenylalanine in the catalytic loop region could serve as a signature residue to reliably distinguish plant arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing AAADs. Additionally, the resulting data enables further insights into the mechanistic roles of active site residues. PMID:23204519

  4. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. Results A gene coding for a putative glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was identified in the genome of L. reuteri 100-23. Different from the organization of genetic loci coding for glutamate decarboxylase in other lactic acid bacteria, gadB was located adjacent to a putative glutaminase gene, gls3. An isogenic deletion mutant, L. reuteri ?gadB, was generated by a double crossover method. L. reuteri 100-23 but not L. reuteri ?gadB converted glutamate to ?-aminobutyrate (GABA) in phosphate butter (pH 2.5). In sourdough, both strains converted glutamine to glutamate but only L. reuteri 100-23 accumulated GABA. Glutamate addition to phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, improved survival of L. reuteri 100-23 100-fold. However, survival of L. reuteri ?gadB remained essentially unchanged. The disruption of gadB did not affect growth of L. reuteri in mMRS or in sourdough. However, the wild type strain L. reuteri 100-23 displaced L. reuteri ?gadB after 5 cycles of fermentation in back-slopped sourdough fermentations. Conclusions The conversion of glutamate to GABA by L. reuteri 100-23 contributes to acid resistance and to competitiveness in industrial sourdough fermentations. The organization of the gene cluster for glutamate conversion, and the availability of amino acids in cereals imply that glutamine rather than glutamate functions as the substrate for GABA formation. The exceptional coupling of glutamine deamidation to glutamate decarboxylation in L. reuteri likely reflects adaptation to cereal substrates. PMID:21995488

  5. Identification of a non-mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity (PSD2) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Trotter, P J; Voelker, D R

    1995-03-17

    Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD1) plays a central role in the biosynthesis of aminophospholipids in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes by catalyzing the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine. Recent reports (Trotter, P. J., Pedretti, J., and Voelker, D. R. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 21416-21424; Clancey, C. J., Chang, S.-C., and Dowhan, W. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 24580-24590) described the cloning of a yeast structural gene for this enzyme (PSD1) and the creation of the null allele. Based on the phenotype of strains containing a null allele for PSD1 (psd1-delta 1::TRP1) it was hypothesized that yeast have a second phosphatidylserine decarboxylase. The present studies demonstrate the presence of a second enzyme activity (denoted PSD2), which, depending on the method of evaluation, accounts for 4-12% of the total cellular phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity found in wild type. Recessive mutations resulting in loss of this enzyme activity (denoted psd2) in cells containing the psd1-delta 1::TRP1 null allele also result in ethanolamine auxotrophy. When incubated with [3H]serine these double mutants accumulate label in phosphatidylserine, while very little (< 5%) is converted to phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, these mutants have a approximately 70% decrease in the amount of total phosphatidylethanolamine even when grown in the presence of exogenous ethanolamine. Strains containing psd1 or psd2 mutations were utilized for the subcellular localization of the PSD2 enzyme activity. Unlike the PSD1 activity, the PSD2 enzyme activity does not localize to the mitochondria, but to a low density subcellular compartment with fractionation properties similar to both vacuoles and Golgi. PMID:7890739

  6. Purification and partial characterization of the glycine decarboxylase multienzyme complex from Eubacterium acidaminophilum.

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, W; Andreesen, J R

    1989-01-01

    The proteins P1, P2, and P4 of the glycine cleavage system have been purified from the anaerobic, glycine-utilizing bacterium Eubacterium acidaminophilum. By gel filtration, these proteins were determined to have Mrs of 225,000, 15,500, and 49,000, respectively. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, protein P1 was determined to have two subunits with Mrs of 59,500 and 54,100, indicating an alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer, whereas the proteins P2 and P4 showed only single bands with estimated Mrs of 15,500 and 42,000, respectively. In reconstitution assays, proteins P1, P2, P4 and the previously reported lipoamide dehydrogenase (P3) had to be present to achieve glycine decarboxylase or synthase activity. All four glycine decarboxylase proteins exhibited highest activities when NADP+ was used as the electron acceptor or when NADPH was used as the electron donor in the glycine synthase reaction. The oxidation of glycine depended on the presence of tetrahydrofolate, dithioerythreitol, NAD(P)+, and pyridoxal phosphate. The latter was loosely bound to the purified protein P1, which was able to catalyze the glycine-bicarbonate exchange reaction only in combination with protein P2. Protein P2 could not be replaced by lipoic acid or lipoamide, although lipoic acid was determined to be a constituent (0.66 mol/mol of protein) of protein P2. Glycine synthase activity of the four isolated proteins and in crude extracts was low and reached only 12% of glycine decarboxylase activity. Antibodies raised against P1 and P2 showed cross-reactivity with crude extracts of Clostridium cylindrosporum. PMID:2495273

  7. Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus.

    PubMed

    Legaz, M E; Vicente, C

    1983-02-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1), l-arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and agmatine amidinohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.11) activities spontaneously decay in Evernia prunastri thalli incubated on 40 millimolar l-arginine used as inducer of the three enzymes if dithiothreitol is not added to the media. Lichen thalli accumulate both chloroatranorin and evernic acid in parallel to the loss of activity. These substances behave as inactivators of the enzymes at a range of concentrations between 2 and 20 micromolar, whereas several concentrations of dithiothreitol reverse, to some extent, the in vitro inactivation. PMID:16662821

  8. Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, l-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Amidinohydrolase in Evernia prunastri Thallus 1

    PubMed Central

    Legaz, María Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    1983-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1), l-arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), and agmatine amidinohydrolase (EC 3.5.3.11) activities spontaneously decay in Evernia prunastri thalli incubated on 40 millimolar l-arginine used as inducer of the three enzymes if dithiothreitol is not added to the media. Lichen thalli accumulate both chloroatranorin and evernic acid in parallel to the loss of activity. These substances behave as inactivators of the enzymes at a range of concentrations between 2 and 20 micromolar, whereas several concentrations of dithiothreitol reverse, to some extent, the in vitro inactivation. PMID:16662821

  9. Study of pyruvate decarboxylase and thiamine kinase from brewer's yeast by SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskevich, Sergei A.; Chernikevich, Ivan P.; Gachko, Gennedy A.; Kivach, Leonid N.; Strekal, Nataliya D.

    1993-06-01

    The Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of holopyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and thiamine kinase (ThK) adsorbed on silver electrode were obtained. In contrast to the Raman, the SERS spectrum of PDC contained no modes of tryptophan residues, it indicates a removal of this moiety from the surface. In the SERS spectrum of ThK the bands belonging to ligands bound to the protein were observed. A correlation between the SERS signal intensity and the enzymatic activity of the ThK separate fraction and found. The influence of amino acids on SERS spectra of thiamine (Th) was studied to determine the possible composition on microsurrounding of coenzyme.

  10. Apraxia in anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase-associated stiff person syndrome: link to corticobasal degeneration?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lauren N; Subramony, S H; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is associated with asymmetrical rigidity as well as asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is characterized by muscle stiffness and gait difficulties. Whereas patients with CBS have several forms of pathology, many patients with SPS have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-ab), but these 2 disorders have not been reported to coexist. We report 2 patients with GAD-ab-positive SPS who also had signs suggestive of CBS, including asymmetrical limb rigidity associated with both asymmetrical limb-kinetic and ideomotor apraxia. Future studies should evaluate patients with CBS for GAD-ab and people with SPS for signs of CBS. PMID:25100431

  11. Targeting Ornithine Decarboxylase for the Prevention of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Bailey et al. report in this issue of the journal (beginning on page XXX) one of the first successful trials of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) prevention. Oral -difluoromethyl-dl-ornithine (DFMO) reduced new BCCs in patients with a prior history of non-melanoma skin cancer. DFMO is an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. This perspective on Bailey et al. discusses our knowledge of the contribution of polyamines to BCC pathogenesis, how this knowledge advanced the development of a new method to prevent BCCs, and prospects for future studies of DFMO in BCC prevention. PMID:20051367

  12. Cloning, expression and characterization of the ornithine decarboxylase gene from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rishikesh; Rafia, Sheikh; Saran, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a rate limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis that decarboxylates ornithine to form the diamine putrescine. We report here the isolation, expression and characterization of a homolog of ODC from Dictyostelium discoideum. DdODC is conserved and shows sequence and structural homology with that from human. Both ODC transcript and protein are expressed at all stages of development and show high expression in prestalk/stalk cells. It is cytosolic and predominantly perinuclear in localization. Both overexpression of DdODC and putrescine treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation. PMID:25896203

  13. Polyamine formation by arginine decarboxylase as a transducer of hormonal, environmental and stress stimuli in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Flores, H. E.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates polyamines including putrescine in the regulation of such diverse plant processes as cell division, embryogenesis and senescence. We find that the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, which controls the rate of putrescine formation in some plant systems, is activated by light acting through P(r) phytochrome as a receptor, by the plant hormone gibberellic acid, by osmotic shock and by other stress stimuli. We therefore propose arginine decarboxylase as a possible transducer of the various initially received tropistic stimuli in plants. The putrescine formed could act by affecting cytoskeletal components.

  14. Glutamate decarboxylase from barley embryos and roots. General properties and the occurrence of three enzymic forms.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, K; Slaughter, J C

    1975-06-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase in extracts of barley has a Km value for L-glutamate of 22 mM and is activated by the addition of pyridoxal phosphate by up to 3.5 times. Sucrose-density-gradient experiments indicate the presence of two enzyme forms with molecular weights 256000 and 120000. The lower-molecular-weight form appears to be relatively inactive and spontaneously associates to the higher-molecular-weight form on storage. The enzyme is inhibited by thiol reagents and the distribution of activity on density gradients is altered in favour of the lower-molecular-weight form by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. After removal of the 2-mercaptoethanol spontaneous association to the higher-molecular-weight form occurs. The presence of oxygen in the extraction buffer and in the water during imbibition leads to a relative increase in the higher-molecular-weight form compared with situations where oxygen is excluded. In contrast, glutamate decarboxylase in extracts of 3-day-old barley roots has a Km value for L-glutamate of 3.1 mM and is activated up to 10% by addition of pyridoxal phosphate. The root enzyme occurs as a single species with molecular weight 310000 and this is unaffected by 2-mercaptoethanol although thiol reagents do act as weak inhibitors. The molecular weight is also unaffected by the presence or absence of oxygen in the extraction buffers. PMID:1167156

  15. Extraction and Partial Characterization of the Glycine Decarboxylase Multienzyme Complex from Pea Leaf Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Sarojini, G.; Oliver, David J.

    1983-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase has been successfully solubilized from pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria as an acetone powder. The enzyme was dependent on added dithiothreitol and pyridoxal phosphate for maximal activity. The enzyme preparation could catalyze the exchange of CO2 into the carboxyl carbon of glycine, the reverse of the glycine decarboxylase reaction by converting serine, NH4+, and CO2 into glycine, and 14CO2 release from [1-14C]glycine. The half-maximal concentrations for the glycine-bicarbonate exchange reaction were 1.7 millimolar glycine, 16 millimolar NaH14CO2, and 0.006 millimolar pyridoxal phosphate. The enzyme (glycine-bicarbonate exchange reaction) was active in the assay conditions for 1 hour and could be stored for over 1 month. The enzymic mechanism appeared similar to that reported for the enzyme from animals and bacteria but some quantitative differences were noted. These included the tenacity of binding to the mitochondrial membrane, the concentration of pyridoxal phosphate needed for maximum activity, the requirement for dithiothreitol for maximum activity, and the total amount of activity present. Now that this enzyme has been solubilized, a more detailed understanding of this important step in photorespiration should be possible. PMID:16662959

  16. Characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its role in nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Simab; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2016-02-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) (EC 4.1.1.15), an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified enzyme was expressed as a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 53 and 55kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography, respectively. The enzyme activity was pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent with an optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 30C. The catalytic properties of this enzyme were, Km=19.6mM; kcat=100.7s(-1); and kcat/Km=5.1mM(-1)s(-1). The transcription levels of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism were up-regulated in the ?gad strain. The mutant showed approximately 4- and 8-fold increases in the transcript levels of kgd and gabdh encoding a novel ?-ketoglutarate decarboxylase and ?-aminobutanal dehydrogenase, respectively. Overall results suggested that in Synechocystis lacking a functional GAD, the ?-aminobutanal dehydrogenase might serve as an alternative catalytic pathway for GABA synthesis. PMID:26730883

  17. Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Is Crucial for Brain Development and Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shih, De-Fen; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Min, Ming-Yuan; Lai, Wen-Sung; Yang, Chianne-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Lee, Shyh-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase (ddc), in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Ddc by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) reduced brain volume and body length. We observed increased brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons in ddc morphants (ddc MO-injected embryos). Seizure-like activity was also detected in ddc morphants in a dose-dependent manner. ddc morphants had less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that could be rescued by injection of ddc plasmids. In addition, eye movement was also significantly impaired in ddc morphants. Collectively, loss of Ddc appears to result in similar phenotypes as that of ADCC deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of AADC deficiency in children. PMID:23940784

  18. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  19. The mitochondrial glycine cleavage system. Purification and properties of glycine decarboxylase from chicken liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, K; Kikuchi, G

    1980-12-25

    Glycine decarboxylase, tentatively called P-protein and considered a constituent of the glycine cleavage system, was purified to apparent homogeneity from chicken liver mitochondria. P-protein is a homodimer having a Mr = approximately 200,000 and consisting of identical subunits with Mr = approximately 100,000. Each subunit appears to contain an equimolar pyridoxal 5'-phosphate which is bound to the protein, possibly through a protonated aldimine linkage. The isoelectric point of P-protein was 7.2. P-protein could bind glycine, showing a Kd of 33 mM for it, and could catalyze glycine decarboxylation even though the rate of decarboxylation catalyzed by P-protein alone was extremely low. The product of glycine decarboxylation was methylamine and the Km for glycine. Methylamine could bind to P-protein, giving a Kd value of 63 mM, and it inhibited the glycine decarboxylation. P-protein alone could also slightly catalyze the exchange of carboxyl carbon of glycine with CO2 and the exchange appeared to obey a ping-pong mechanism. Both glycine decarboxylation and the glycine-CO2 exchange catalyzed by P-protein were stimulated 100-fold or more by the addition of lipoic acid, which is a functional group of H-protein. We may define P-protein as glycine decarboxylase although P-protein alone exhibits only very low catalytic activities. PMID:7440562

  20. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  1. NUTRITIONAL FACTORS STIMULATING THE FORMATION OF LYSINE DECARBOXYLASE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Maretzki, Andrew; Mallette, M. F.

    1962-01-01

    Maretzki, Andrew (Pennsylvania State University, University Park) and M. F. Mallette. Nutritional factors stimulating the formation of lysine decarboxylase in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 83:720726. 1962 Inclusion of complex nitrogen sources in the induction medium was shown to be necessary for the synthesis of appreciable amounts of l-lysine decarboxylase by Escherichia coli B. Hy-case, a commercial acid hydrolyzate of casein, was especially effective in enzyme production, which was assayed manometrically after lysis of the bacteria from without by bacteriophage. Partial fractionation of the Hy-case, identification of the free amino acids, and addition of these amino acids to test media revealed stimulatory effects by methionine, threonine, proline, leucine, and tyrosine. A full complement of amino acids did not match the enzyme levels reached in the presence of Hy-case. Certain peptide fractions obtained from this mixture supplemented the effects of the amino acids in such a way as to suggest direct incorporation of peptide rather than transport or protective roles. Added purines, pyrimidines, iron, and water-soluble vitamins were without effect. Neither carbohydrates nor phosphorylated materials could be detected in the stimulatory fractions. PMID:14469751

  2. Mutants of the cruciferous plant Arabidopsis thaliana lacking glycine decarboxylase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, C R; Ogren, W L

    1982-01-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyn. (a small plant in the crucifer family) that lacks glycine decarboxylase activity owing to a recessive nuclear mutation has been isolated on the basis of a growth requirement for high concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Mitochondria isolated from leaves of the mutant did not exhibit glycine-dependent O2 consumption, did not release 14CO2 from [14C]glycine, and did not catalyse the glycine-bicarbonate exchange reaction that is considered to be the first partial reaction associated with glycine cleavage. Photosynthesis in the mutant was decreased after illumination under atmospheric conditions that promote partitioning of carbon into intermediates of the photorespiratory pathway, but was not impaired under non-photorespiratory conditions. Thus glycine decarboxylase activity is not required for any essential function unrelated to photorespiration. The photosynthetic response of the mutant in photorespiratory conditions is probably caused by an increased rate of glyoxylate oxidation, which results from the sequestering of all readily transferable amino groups in a metabolically inactive glycine pool, and by a depletion of intermediates from the photosynthesis cycle. The rate of release of 14CO2 from exogenously applied [14C]glycollate was 14-fold lower in the mutant than in the wild type, suggesting that glycine decarboxylation is the only significant source of photorespiratory CO2. PMID:6807291

  3. Analysis of catalytic determinants of diaminopimelate and ornithine decarboxylases using alternate substrates.

    PubMed

    Fogle, Emily J; Toney, Michael D

    2011-09-01

    Diaminopimelate decarboxylase (DAPDC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes that are critical to microbial growth and pathogenicity. The latter is the target of drugs that cure African sleeping sickness, while the former is an attractive target for antibacterials. These two enzymes share the (?/?)(8) (i.e., TIM barrel) fold with alanine racemase, another pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme critical to bacterial survival. The active site structural homology between DAPDC and ODC is striking even though DAPDC catalyzes the decarboxylation of a D stereocenter with inversion of configuration and ODC catalyzes the decarboxylation of an L stereocenter with retention of configuration. Here, the structural and mechanistic bases of these interesting properties are explored using reactions of alternate substrates with both enzymes. It is concluded that simple binding determinants do not control the observed stereochemical specificities for decarboxylation, and a concerted decarboxylation/proton transfer at C? of the D stereocenter of diaminopimelate is a possible mechanism for the observed specificity with DAPDC. PMID:21640851

  4. Purification and characterization of a ferulic acid decarboxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Z; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

    1994-01-01

    A ferulic acid decarboxylase enzyme which catalyzes the decarboxylation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene was purified from Pseudomonas fluorescens UI 670. The enzyme requires no cofactors and contains no prosthetic groups. Gel filtration estimated an apparent molecular mass of 40.4 (+/- 6%) kDa, whereas sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a molecular mass of 20.4 kDa, indicating that ferulic acid decarboxylase is a homodimer in solution. The purified enzyme displayed an optimum temperature range of 27 to 30 degrees C, exhibited an optimum pH of 7.3 in potassium phosphate buffer, and had a Km of 7.9 mM for ferulic acid. This enzyme also decarboxylated 4-hydroxycinnamic acid but not 2- or 3-hydroxycinnamic acid, indicating that a hydroxy group para to the carboxylic acid-containing side chain is required for the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme was inactivated by Hg2+, Cu2+, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are necessary for enzyme activity. Diethyl pyrocarbonate, a histidine-specific inhibitor, did not affect enzyme activity. Images PMID:7928951

  5. Internal Proton Transfer in the External Pyridoxal 5?-Phosphate Schiff Base in Dopa Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-lin; Gao, Jiali

    2010-01-01

    Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations of dopa decarboxylase have been carried out to elucidate the factors that contribute to the tautomeric equilibrium of the intramolecular proton transfer in the external PLPL-dopa Schiff base. The presence of a carboxylate anion on the ?-carbon of the Schiff base stabilizes the zwitterions and shifts the equilibrium in favor of the oxoenamine tautomer (protonated Schiff base). Moreover, protonation of the PLP pyridine nitrogen further drives the equilibrium toward the oxoenamine direction. On the other hand, solvent effects favor the hydroxyimine configuration, although the equilibrium favors the oxoenamine isomer with a methyl group as the substituent on the imino nitrogen. In dopa decarboxylase, the hydroxyimine form of the PLP(H+)L-dopa Schiff base is predicted to be the major isomer with a relative free energy of ?1.3 kcal/mol over that of the oxoenamine isomer. Both Asp271 and Lys303 stabilize the hydroxyimine configuration through hydrogen-bonding interactions with the pyridine nitrogen of the PLP and the imino nitrogen of the Schiff base, respectively. Interestingly, Thr246 plays a double role in the intramolecular proton transfer process, in which it initially donates a hydrogen bond to the phenolate oxygen in the oxoenamine configuration and then switches to a hydrogen bond acceptor from the phenolic hydroxyl group in the hydroxyimine tautomer. PMID:19938875

  6. Influence of ornithine decarboxylase antizymes and antizyme inhibitors on agmatine uptake by mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lpez-Contreras, Andrs J; Lambertos, Ana; Dardonville, Christophe; Cremades, Asuncin; Peafiel, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Agmatine (4-aminobutylguanidine), a dicationic molecule at physiological pH, exerts relevant modulatory actions at many different molecular target sites in mammalian cells, having been suggested that the administration of this compound may have therapeutic interest. Several plasma membrane transporters have been implicated in agmatine uptake by mammalian cells. Here we report that in kidney-derived COS-7 cell line, at physiological agmatine levels, the general polyamine transporter participates in the plasma membrane translocation of agmatine, with an apparent Km of 44 7 M and Vmax of 17.3 3.3 nmol h(-1) mg(-1) protein, but that at elevated concentrations, agmatine can be also taken up by other transport systems. In the first case, the physiological polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine), several diguanidines and bis(2-aminoimidazolines) and the polyamine transport inhibitor AMXT-1501 markedly decreased agmatine uptake. In cells transfected with any of the three ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (AZ1, AZ2 and AZ3), agmatine uptake was dramatically reduced. On the contrary, transfection with antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1 and AZIN2) markedly increased the transport of agmatine. Furthermore, whereas putrescine uptake was significantly decreased in cells transfected with ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the accumulation of agmatine was stimulated, suggesting a trans-activating effect of intracellular putrescine on agmatine uptake. All these results indicate that ODC and its regulatory proteins (antizymes and antizyme inhibitors) may influence agmatine homeostasis in mammalian tissues. PMID:25655388

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the inducible lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alexopoulos, Eftichia; Kanjee, Usheer; Snider, Jamie; Houry, Walid A.; Pai, Emil F.

    2008-08-01

    The structure of the decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase from E. coli was determined by SIRAS using a hexatantalum dodecabromide (Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}) derivative. Model building and refinement are under way. The decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI) from Escherichia coli has been crystallized in space groups C2 and C222{sub 1}; the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+} cluster was used to derivatize the C2 crystals. The method of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) as implemented in SHELXD was used to solve the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-derivatized structure to 5 Å resolution. Many of the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-binding sites had twofold and fivefold noncrystallographic symmetry. Taking advantage of this feature, phase modification was performed in DM. The electron-density map of LdcI displays many features in agreement with the low-resolution negative-stain electron-density map [Snider et al. (2006 ▶), J. Biol. Chem.281, 1532–1546].

  8. Structural analysis of mevalonate-3-kinase provides insight into the mechanisms of isoprenoid pathway decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Vinokur, Jeffrey M; Korman, Tyler P; Sawaya, Michael R; Collazo, Michael; Cascio, Duillio; Bowie, James U

    2015-01-01

    In animals, cholesterol is made from 5-carbon building blocks produced by the mevalonate pathway. Drugs that inhibit the mevalonate pathway such as atorvastatin (lipitor) have led to successful treatments for high cholesterol in humans. Another potential target for the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis is mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of (R)-mevalonate diphosphate, followed by decarboxylation to yield isopentenyl pyrophosphate. We recently discovered an MDD homolog, mevalonate-3-kinase (M3K) from Thermoplasma acidophilum, which catalyzes the identical phosphorylation of (R)-mevalonate, but without concomitant decarboxylation. Thus, M3K catalyzes half the reaction of the decarboxylase, allowing us to separate features of the active site that are required for decarboxylation from features required for phosphorylation. Here we determine the crystal structure of M3K in the apo form, and with bound substrates, and compare it to MDD structures. Structural and mutagenic analysis reveals modifications that allow M3K to bind mevalonate rather than mevalonate diphosphate. Comparison to homologous MDD structures show that both enzymes employ analogous Arg or Lys residues to catalyze phosphate transfer. However, an invariant active site Asp/Lys pair of MDD previously thought to play a role in phosphorylation is missing in M3K with no functional replacement. Thus, we suggest that the invariant Asp/Lys pair in MDD may be critical for decarboxylation rather than phosphorylation. PMID:25422158

  9. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme...) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations...

  10. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.115...

  11. Absence of malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase in mice increases cardiac glucose oxidation and protects the heart from ischemic injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute pharmacological inhibition of cardiac malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) protects the heart from ischemic damage by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation and stimulating glucose oxidation. However, it is unknown whether chronic inhibition of MCD results in altered cardiac function, energy metabo...

  12. Elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase activities in cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Eilert, U; De Luca, V; Constabel, F; Kurz, W G

    1987-05-01

    Treatment of one cell line (No. 615) of Catharanthus roseus c.v. Little Delicata with an elicitor preparation of autoclaved and homogenized Pythium aphanidermatum culture resulted in rapid accumulation of indole alkaloids. Alkaloid formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase. The induction of these two enzyme activities occurred when cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium or treatment with fungal elicitors. Treatment of this cell line with translational or transcriptional inhibitors prevented the Pythium-induced increases of enzyme activity as well as alkaloid accumulation. When cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium the induction of strictosidine synthase activity preceded that of tryptophan decarboxylase by many hours even when cells were also treated with Pythium elicitor. Results suggested that tryptophan decarboxylase induction proceeds only when endogenous tryptamine levels were decreased by two-third. The internal cellular level of tryptamine, therefore, could regulate expression of tryptophan decarboxylase, whereas induction of strictosidine synthase or of another enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway could control channeling of tryptamine into alkaloids. The results demonstrate that fungal elicitors can be used to facilitate studies of the factors which regulate expression of indole alkaloid pathway enzymes and their ultimate pathway products. PMID:3579315

  13. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT): an alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in pig conceptuses and uteri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine, a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines, is critical for implantation and development of the conceptus. We first reported that the arginine decarboxylase (ADC)/agmatinase(AGMAT) pathway as an alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in the ovine conceptuses...

  14. STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF CHLOROFORM STIMULATION OF RAT HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE (ODC) (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    It was previously reported that chloroform is a very potent stimulator of rat hepatic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. In an attempt to more thoroughly understand the mechanism of the stimulation, the effects of a series of pharmacologic, physiologic and toxicologic manipu...

  15. POSTNATAL METHYL MERCURY EXPOSURE: EFFECTS ON ONTOGENY OF RENAL AND HEPATIC ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE RESPONSES TO TROPHIC STIMULI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of postnatal methylmercury exposure on the ongoteny of kidney and liver responsiveness to trophic stimuli were examined. Increased ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was used as an index of tissue stimulation. In the rat, kidney ODC responsiveness to growth hormon...

  16. CONFIRMATIONAL IDENTIFICATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, A COMPARISON OF GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC ASSAYS FOR GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASE AND B-D-GLUCURONIDASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotypic and phenotypic assays for glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and B-D-glucuronidase (GUD) were compared for their abilities to detect various strains of Escherichia coli and to discriminate among other bacterial species. Test strains included nonpathogenic E.coli, three major...

  17. COMPARISON OF ENHANCEMENT OF GGTASE-POSITIVE FOCI AND INDUCTION OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE IN RAT LIVER BY BARBITURATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by barbiturates and the ability of barbiturates to enhance neoplastic progression of chemically initiated cancer was examined in rat liver. All seven barbiturates induced ODC with barbital (7.7 fold increase) and phenobarbital (5.7 f...

  18. Repeated immobilization stress alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Feng, Yang-Zheng; Regunathan, Soundar; Bissette, Garth

    2008-12-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of L-arginine catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase, has been proposed as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. In the present study, we examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated immobilization-induced morphological changes in brain tissues and possible effects of immobilization stress on endogenous agmatine levels and arginine decarboxylase expression in rat brains. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2h immobilization stress daily for 7 days. This paradigm significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and the glutamate efflux in the hippocampus as measured by in vivo microdialysis. Immunohistochemical staining with beta-tubulin III showed that repeated immobilization caused marked morphological alterations in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex that were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50mg/kg/day), i.p.). Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls. The increased endogenous agmatine levels, ranging from 92 to 265% of controls, were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. These results demonstrate that the administration of exogenous agmatine protects the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex against neuronal insults caused by repeated immobilization. The parallel increase in endogenous brain agmatine and arginine decarboxylase protein levels triggered by repeated immobilization indicates that the endogenous agmatine system may play an important role in adaptation to stress as a potential neuronal self-protection mechanism. PMID:18832001

  19. Syndromic intellectual disability: a new phenotype caused by an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase gene (DDC) variant.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Claudio; Wischmeijer, Anita; Pippucci, Tommaso; Fusco, Carlo; Diquigiovanni, Chiara; Nukas, Margit; Sauk, Martin; Kurg, Ants; Rivieri, Francesca; Blau, Nenad; Hoffmann, Georg F; Chaubey, Alka; Schwartz, Charles E; Romeo, Giovanni; Bonora, Elena; Garavelli, Livia; Seri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The causative variant in a consanguineous family in which the three patients (two siblings and a cousin) presented with intellectual disability, Marfanoid habitus, craniofacial dysmorphisms, chronic diarrhea and progressive kyphoscoliosis, has been identified through whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. WES study identified a homozygous DDC variant in the patients, c.1123C>T, resulting in p.Arg375Cys missense substitution. Mutations in DDC cause a recessive metabolic disorder (aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, AADC, deficiency, OMIM #608643) characterized by hypotonia, oculogyric crises, excessive sweating, temperature instability, dystonia, severe neurologic dysfunction in infancy, and specific abnormalities of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In our family, analysis of neurotransmitters and their metabolites in patient's CSF shows a pattern compatible with AADC deficiency, although the clinical signs are different from the classic form. Our work expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with DDC variants, which therefore can cause an additional novel syndrome without typical movement abnormalities. PMID:25597765

  20. Discovery and characterization of gut microbiota decarboxylases that can produce the neurotransmitter tryptamine

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brianna B.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Cimermancic, Peter; Donia, Mohamed S.; Zimmermann, Michael; Taketani, Mao; Ishihara, Atsushi; Kashyap, Purna C.; Fraser, James S.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Several recent studies describe the influence of the gut microbiota on host brain and behavior. However, the mechanisms responsible for microbiota-nervous system interactions are unknown. Using a combination of genetics, biochemistry, and crystallography, we identify and characterize two phylogenetically distinct enzymes found in the human microbiome that decarboxylate tryptophan to form the β-arylamine neurotransmitter tryptamine. Although this enzymatic activity is exceedingly rare among bacteria more broadly, analysis of the Human Microbiome Project data demonstrates that at least 10% of the human population harbors at least one bacterium encoding a tryptophan decarboxylase in their gut community. Our results uncover a previously unrecognized enzymatic activity that can give rise to host-modulatory compounds and suggests a potential direct mechanism by which gut microbiota can influence host physiology, including behavior. PMID:25263219

  1. Expression, Immobilization and Enzymatic Properties of Glutamate Decarboxylase Fused to a Cellulose-Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyemin; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Juwhan; Lee, Hyeokwon; Kim, Chunsuk; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), was fused to the cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and a linker of Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase II. To prevent proteolysis of the fusion protein, the native linker was replaced with a S3N10 peptide known to be completely resistant to E. coli endopeptidase. The CBD-GAD expressed in E. coli was successfully immobilized on Avicel, a crystalline cellulose, with binding capacity of 33 2 nmolCBD-GAD/gAvicel and the immobilized enzymes retained 60% of their initial activities after 10 uses. The results of this report provide a feasible alternative to produce GABA using immobilized GAD through fusion to CBD. PMID:22312257

  2. Intrathecal-specific glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies at low titers in autoimmune neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Chu, Kon; Byun, Jung-Ick; Moon, Jangsup; Lim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Il; Jeon, Daejong; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-15

    Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad-Abs) are implicated in various neurological syndromes. The present study aims to identify intrathecal-specific GAD-Abs and to determine clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes. Nineteen patients had GAD-Abs in cerebrospinal fluid but not in paired serum samples. Neurological syndromes included limbic encephalitis, temporal lobe epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic dysfunction, and stiff-person syndrome. Immunotherapy had beneficial effects in 57.1% of patients, and the patients with limbic encephalitis responded especially well to immunotherapy. Intrathecal-specific antibodies to GAD at low titers may appear as nonspecific markers of immune activation within the central nervous system rather than pathogenic antibodies causing neuronal dysfunction. PMID:26711563

  3. Extralimbic autoimmune encephalitis associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies: an underdiagnosed entity?

    PubMed

    Najjar, Souhel; Pearlman, Daniel; Najjar, Amanda; Ghiasian, Vahid; Zagzag, David; Devinsky, Orrin

    2011-07-01

    Nonparaneoplastic glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADAb)-related autoimmune encephalitis is a syndrome characterized by refractory seizures, progressive cognitive deficits, and psychiatric manifestations. The limbic subtype is well described, has characteristic affective and memory disturbances, and typical mesial temporal MRI abnormalities. We found only one single case report of the extralimbic subtype. We report clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of two additional cases with contrast-enhancing lesions. One of our cases presented as vasculitis, and the other imitated a tumor. Pathological evidence of both vasculitis and encephalitis has never been previously reported in any inflammatory condition affecting the brain. Our cases confirm prior reports that immune therapy can better control seizures associated with GADAb autoimmune encephalitis, and support the rationale for assaying for GADAb titers in patients with etiologically unclear extralimbic lesions and refractory epilepsy, independent of seizure types. PMID:21620774

  4. Suppression of ornithine decarboxylase promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yo-Hsian; Lin, Kuan-Lian; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chen, Yuhsin; Sie, Min-Hua; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2015-07-22

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis. Suppression of ODC by its irreversible inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), or by RNA interference through siRNA, enhanced osteogenic gene expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and accelerated matrix mineralization of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Besides, adipogenic gene expression and lipid accumulation was attenuated, indicating that the enhanced osteogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of adipogenesis when ODC was suppressed. A decrease in the intracellular polyamine content of hBMSCs during osteogenic induction was observed, suggesting that the level of endogenous polyamines is regulated during differentiation of hBMSCs. This study elucidates the role of polyamine metabolism in the lineage commitment of stem cells and provides a potential new indication for DFMO as bone-stimulating drug. PMID:26140984

  5. Targeting ornithine decarboxylase in Myc-induced lymphomagenesis prevents tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Jonas A; Keller, Ulrich B; Baudino, Troy A; Yang, Chunying; Norton, Sara; Old, Jennifer A; Nilsson, Lisa M; Neale, Geoffrey; Kramer, Debora L; Porter, Carl W; Cleveland, John L

    2005-05-01

    Checkpoints that control Myc-mediated proliferation and apoptosis are bypassed during tumorigenesis. Genes encoding polyamine biosynthetic enzymes are overexpressed in B cells from E mu-Myc transgenic mice. Here, we report that disabling one of these Myc targets, Ornithine decarboxylase (Odc), abolishes Myc-induced suppression of the Cdk inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), thereby impairing Myc's proliferative, but not apoptotic, response. Moreover, lymphoma development was markedly delayed in E mu-Myc;Odc(+/-) transgenic mice and in E mu-Myc mice treated with the Odc inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Strikingly, tumors ultimately arising in E mu-Myc;Odc(+/-) transgenics lacked deletions of Arf, suggesting that targeting Odc forces other routes of transformation. Therefore, Odc is a critical Myc transcription target that regulates checkpoints that guard against tumorigenesis and is an effective target for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:15894264

  6. [Simultaneous demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase and synaptophysin in paraffin sections of rat cerebellum].

    PubMed

    Korzhevskiy, D E; Gilerovich, Ye G; Kirik, O V; Alekseyeva, O S; Grigoriyev, I P

    2015-01-01

    The article presents highly reproducible and inexpensive protocol for simultaneous demonstration of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), the key enzyme of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and synaptophysin (SYP), a marker protein of synaptic vesicles using confocal laser microscopy. In the cerebellar cortex, GAD labels Purkinje cells and pinceaux in their basal parts and is unevenly distributed in the neuropil of molecular and granular layers. SYP clearly marks the contours of large dendrites of Purkinje cells in molecular layer, while in the granular layers it labels parts of cerebellar glomeruli--the terminals of the mossy fibers. GAD-immunopositive structures (GABA-ergic axons of stellate cells--Golgi cells) are often located at periphery of the glomeruli. In the peripheral zone of the glomeruli, colocalization of GAD- and SYP-immunopositive structures was observed, suggesting the presence of GABA-ergic synapses in this zone. PMID:25958733

  7. Epidermal growth factor stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Moriarity, D M; DiSorbo, D M; Litwack, G; Savage, C R

    1981-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) bound specifically to the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRF/5. Treatment of these cells with nanomolar concentrations of EGF for 4-6 hr resulted in a 2- to 6-fold increase in ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) activity. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate also produced an increase in enzyme activity in these cells and exhibited an additive effect with EGF. It did not inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled EGF to these cells. The stimulation of enzyme activity by EGF was not inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, although these agents did cause a significant decrease in enzyme levels when added without EGF. Also, colchicine, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, and methylamine, compounds that inhibit EGF degradation in various cells types, did not interfere with the ability of EGF to elevate enzyme levels in the human hepatoma cells. PMID:6265908

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the inducible lysine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Alexopoulos, E.; Kanjee, U.; Snider, J.; Houry, W.A.; Pai, E.F.

    2010-02-11

    The decameric inducible lysine decarboxylase (LdcI) from Escherichia coli has been crystallized in space groups C2 and C222{sub 1}; the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+} cluster was used to derivatize the C2 crystals. The method of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) as implemented in SHELXD was used to solve the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-derivatized structure to 5 {angstrom} resolution. Many of the Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}{sup 2+}-binding sites had twofold and fivefold noncrystallographic symmetry. Taking advantage of this feature, phase modification was performed in DM. The electron-density map of LdcI displays many features in agreement with the low-resolution negative-stain electron-density map [Snider et al. (2006), J. Biol. Chem. 281, 1532-1546].

  9. Amphetamine and vigabatrin down regulate aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Buckland, P R; Spurlock, G; McGuffin, P

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) has previously been shown to be up-regulated at the level of its protein activity and its mRNA abundance by antipsychotic drugs. Its activity has also been shown to be down-regulated by dopamine agonists including amphetamine. In this study we have injected rats for up to 32 days with amphetamine and the anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin, both of which can cause psychosis with similarities to schizophrenia. We have shown that AADC mRNA levels are reduced in most brain regions by both drugs. Cocaine and other non-psychotogenic anti-epileptic drugs had no effect in this paradigm. Two products of this enzyme are implicated in psychotogenesis. PMID:8717341

  10. Relationship between RNA polymerase I activity and ornithine decarboxylase in rat liver tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Urata, M; Suzuki, N; Hosoya, T

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between RNA polymerase I and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), three lines of experiments were performed, with the following results. The glucocorticoid-induced increase of RNA polymerase I in rat liver nuclei was not abolished by administration of inhibitors of ODC synthesis and activity, namely 1,3-diaminopropane and 2-difluoromethylornithine respectively. Anti-ODC antibody did not cross-react with RNA polymerase I solubilized from rat liver nucleoli, indicating the absence of a common protein sequence in these enzymes. The ODC preparation which was treated with transglutaminase in the presence of putrescine could not stimulate the activity of RNA polymerase I in nuclei of liver and prostate. All these results suggest that the increases in ODC protein or activity are not a prerequisite to the increase in RNA polymerase I after hormonal or physiological stimuli, but rather that the increases in both enzymes are separate responses to the primary stimuli. PMID:2882747

  11. Reversibility of cerebellar GABAergic synapse impairment induced by anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazuyuki; Mitoma, Hiroshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2008-08-15

    Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GAD-Abs) are found in some patients with cerebellar ataxia. We reported previously that CSF IgGs depress cerebellar GABAergic synaptic transmissions by a presynaptic mechanism. Using whole-cell recordings from rat cerebellar slices, we found in the present study that CSF IgG-induced depressive effects were abolished by absorption of GAD-Abs using recombinant GAD. Furthermore, forskolin, an activator of cAMP, recovered the CSF IgG-induced reduction of GABA release. Our results provide evidence that GAD-Abs in the CSF elicited physiopathological effects on cerebellar GABA synapses in vitro and that such synaptic impairment was reversible. PMID:18534624

  12. Regioselective Enzymatic β-Carboxylation of para-Hydroxy- styrene Derivatives Catalyzed by Phenolic Acid Decarboxylases

    PubMed Central

    Wuensch, Christiane; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steinkellner, Georg; Gross, Johannes; Fuchs, Michael; Hromic, Altijana; Lyskowski, Andrzej; Fauland, Kerstin; Gruber, Karl; Glueck, Silvia M; Faber, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We report on a ‘green’ method for the utilization of carbon dioxide as C1 unit for the regioselective synthesis of (E)-cinnamic acids via regioselective enzymatic carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrenes. Phenolic acid decarboxylases from bacterial sources catalyzed the β-carboxylation of para-hydroxystyrene derivatives with excellent regio- and (E/Z)-stereoselectivity by exclusively acting at the β-carbon atom of the C=C side chain to furnish the corresponding (E)-cinnamic acid derivatives in up to 40% conversion at the expense of bicarbonate as carbon dioxide source. Studies on the substrate scope of this strategy are presented and a catalytic mechanism is proposed based on molecular modelling studies supported by mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the active site. PMID:26190963

  13. Some Aspects of Yeast Anaerobic Metabolism Examined by the Inhibition of Pyruvate Decarboxylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Earl V.

    1998-10-01

    Incubation of yeast cells with various sugars in aqueous alkaline phosphate solutions under anaerobic conditions results in the accumulation of pyruvate in the cell medium after short periods of up to 15 minutes. This accumulation of pyruvate as the end product of glycolysis results from the inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase under the conditions. This pyruvate production can be readily measured in the cell-free medium by a spectrophotometric assay using lactic dehydrogenase and NADH. The production of pyruvate can be directly related to the ability of the yeast cells to metabolize particular carbon sources provided. Comparison of pyruvate production by yeast from a variety of common sugars, for example, provides students with a means to assess what sugars are readily utilized by this organism. An additional advantage for student laboratory studies is the availability of Sacchromyces cerevisiae at minimal cost as dry granules which are easily weighed and quickly activated.

  14. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  15. Histidine decarboxylase deficiency causes Tourette syndrome: parallel findings in humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Lissandra Castellan; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Crowley, Michael; Anderson, George M.; Loring, Erin; Gorczyca, Roxanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Krusong, Kuakarun; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Bloch, Michael H.; Hughes, Zo A.; Krystal, John H.; Mayes, Linda; de Araujo, Ivan; Ding, Yu-Shin; State, Matthew W.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating core phenomenology of TS; these were mitigated by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol, a proven pharmacotherapy, and by HA infusion into the brain. Prepulse inhibition was impaired in both mice and humans carrying Hdc mutations. HA infusion reduced striatal dopamine (DA) levels; in Hdc knockout mice, striatal DA was increased and the DA-regulated immediate early gene Fos was upregulated. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding was altered both in mice and in humans carrying the Hdc mutation. These data confirm HDC deficiency as a rare cause of TS and identify histamine-dopamine interactions in the basal ganglia as an important locus of pathology. PMID:24411733

  16. Maternal immune activation alters glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in the brains of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Cassella, Sarah N; Hemmerle, Ann M; Lundgren, Kerstin H; Kyser, Tara L; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Bronson, Stefanie L; Richtand, Neil M; Seroogy, Kim B

    2016-03-01

    Activation of the maternal innate immune system, termed "maternal immune activation" (MIA), represents a common environmental risk factor for schizophrenia. Whereas evidence suggests dysregulation of GABA systems may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a role for MIA in alteration of GABAergic systems is less clear. Here, pregnant rats received either the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid or vehicle injection on gestational day 14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) mRNA expression was examined in male offspring at postnatal day (P)14, P30 and P60. At P60, GAD67 mRNA was elevated in hippocampus and thalamus and decreased in prefrontal cortex of MIA offspring. MIA-induced alterations in GAD expression could contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:26830319

  17. The Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Secretes a Soluble Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishith; Hartmann, Anne; Lucius, Richard; Voelker, Dennis R.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite capable of causing fatal infections in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. Examination of the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) metabolism of T. gondii reveals that the parasite secretes a soluble form of PtdSer decarboxylase (TgPSD1), which preferentially decarboxylates liposomal PtdSer with an apparent Km of 67 ?m. The specific enzyme activity increases by 3-fold during the replication of T. gondii, and soluble phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (PSD) accounts for ?20% of the total PSD, prior to the parasite egress from the host cells. Extracellular T. gondii secreted ?20% of its total PSD activity at 37 C, and the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester) inhibited the process by 50%. Cycloheximide, brefeldin A, ionic composition of the medium, and exogenous PtdSer did not modulate the enzyme secretion, which suggests a constitutive discharge of a presynthesized pool of PSD in axenic T. gondii. TgPSD1 consists of 968 amino acids with a 26-amino acid hydrophobic peptide at the N terminus and no predicted membrane domains. Parasites overexpressing TgPSD1-HA secreted 10-fold more activity compared with the parental strain. Exposure of apoptotic Jurkat cells to transgenic parasites demonstrated interfacial catalysis by secreted TgPSD1 that reduced host cell surface exposure of PtdSer. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that TgPSD1 resides in the dense granules of T. gondii and is also found in the parasitophorous vacuole of replicating parasites. Together, these findings demonstrate novel features of the parasite enzyme because a secreted, soluble, and interfacially active form of PSD has not been previously described for any organism. PMID:22563079

  18. Structure and Mechanism of Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FDC1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Lee, Soon Goo

    2015-01-01

    The nonoxidative decarboxylation of aromatic acids occurs in a range of microbes and is of interest for bioprocessing and metabolic engineering. Although phenolic acid decarboxylases provide useful tools for bioindustrial applications, the molecular bases for how these enzymes function are only beginning to be examined. Here we present the 2.35-Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC1; UbiD) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FDC1 shares structural similarity with the UbiD family of enzymes that are involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. The position of 4-vinylphenol, the product of p-coumaric acid decarboxylation, in the structure identifies a large hydrophobic cavity as the active site. Differences in the β2e-α5 loop of chains in the crystal structure suggest that the conformational flexibility of this loop allows access to the active site. The structure also implicates Glu285 as the general base in the nonoxidative decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by FDC1. Biochemical analysis showed a loss of enzymatic activity in the E285A mutant. Modeling of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-decaprenylbenzoate, a partial structure of the physiological UbiD substrate, in the binding site suggests that an ∼30-Å-long pocket adjacent to the catalytic site may accommodate the isoprenoid tail of the substrate needed for ubiquinone biosynthesis in yeast. The three-dimensional structure of yeast FDC1 provides a template for guiding protein engineering studies aimed at optimizing the efficiency of aromatic acid decarboxylation reactions in bioindustrial applications. PMID:25862228

  19. Molecular and functional analyses of amino acid decarboxylases involved in cuticle tanning in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Gehrke, Stevin H; Kanost, Michael R; Kramer, Karl J

    2009-06-12

    Aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC) provide beta-alanine and dopamine used in insect cuticle tanning. beta-Alanine is conjugated with dopamine to yield N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD), a substrate for the phenol oxidase laccase that catalyzes the synthesis of cuticle protein cross-linking agents and pigment precursors. We identified ADC and DDC genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tc), and investigated their functions. TcADC mRNA was most abundant prior to the pupal-adult molt. Injection of TcADC double-stranded (ds) RNA (dsTcADC) into mature larvae resulted in depletion of NBAD in pharate adults, accumulation of dopamine, and abnormally dark pigmentation of the adult cuticle. Injection of beta-alanine, the expected product of ADC, into dsTcADC-treated pupae rescued the pigmentation phenotype, resulting in normal rust-red color. A similar pattern of catechol content consisting of elevated dopamine and depressed NBAD was observed in the genetic black mutants of Tribolium, in which levels of TcADC mRNA were drastically reduced. Furthermore, from the Tribolium black mutant and dsTcADC-injected insects both exhibited similar changes in material properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis of elytral cuticle from beetles with depleted TcADC transcripts revealed diminished cross-linking of cuticular components, further confirming the important role of oxidation products of NBAD as cross-linking agents during cuticle tanning. Injection of dsTcDDC into larvae produced a lethal pupal phenotype, and the resulting grayish pupal cuticle exhibited many small patches of black pigmentation. When dsTcDDC was injected into young pupae, the resulting adults had abnormally dark brown body color, but there was little mortality. Injection of dsTcDDC resulted in more than a 5-fold increase in levels of DOPA, indicating that lack of TcDDC led to accumulation of its substrate, DOPA. PMID:19366687

  20. 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE (MPTP)-INDUCED ASTROGLIOSIS DOES NOT REQUIRE ACTIVATION OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanical injury to the brain results in enhanced immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that is markedly inhibited by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase. n the current study, systemic exposure of mice to the d...

  1. TROPHIC CONTROL OF THE ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE/POLYAMINE SYSTEM IN NEONATAL RAT CEREBELLUM: REGIONALLY-SELECTIVE EFFECTS OF NEONATAL LESIONS CAUSED BY 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Norepinephrine has been hypothesized as a trophic factor influencing postnatal development of the cerebellum. n the current study, neonatal rats were given 6-hydroxydopanine (6-OHDA) to destroy noradrenergic projections and the effects on the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyami...

  2. Sbi00515, a Protein of Unknown Function from Streptomyces bingchenggensis, Highlights the Functional Versatility of the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Lisa S; Hoppe, Robert W; Ochsenwald, Jenna M; Berndt, Robert T; Severin, Geoffrey B; Schwabacher, Alan W; Silvaggi, Nicholas R

    2015-06-30

    The acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) is a group of ~4000 enzymes that, until recently, was thought to be homogeneous in terms of the reaction catalyzed. Bioinformatic analysis shows that the ADCSF consists of up to seven families that differ primarily in their active site architectures. The soil-dwelling bacterium Streptomyces bingchenggensis BCW-1 produces an ADCSF enzyme of unknown function that shares a low level of sequence identity (~20%) with known acetoacetate decarboxylases (ADCs). This enzyme, Sbi00515, belongs to the MppR-like family of the ADCSF because of its similarity to the mannopeptimycin biosynthetic protein MppR from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Herein, we present steady state kinetic data that show Sbi00515 does not catalyze the decarboxylation of any ?- or ?-keto acid tested. Rather, we show that Sbi00515 catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate with a number of aldehydes, followed by dehydration of the presumed aldol intermediate. Thus, Sbi00515 is a pyruvate aldolase-dehydratase and not an acetoacetate decarboxylase. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structures of Sbi00515 in complexes with formate and pyruvate. The structures show that the overall fold of Sbi00515 is nearly identical to those of both ADC and MppR. The pyruvate complex is trapped as the Schiff base, providing evidence that the Schiff base chemistry that drives the acetoacetate decarboxylases has been co-opted to perform a new function, and that this core chemistry may be conserved across the superfamily. The structures also suggest possible catalytic roles for several active site residues. PMID:26039798

  3. Lysine Decarboxylase Catalyzes the First Step of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Coevolved with Alkaloid Production in Leguminosae[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Katayama, Kae; Ikeura, Emi; Oikawa, Akira; Toyooka, Kiminori; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2012-01-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the first-step in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which form a distinct, large family of plant alkaloids. A cDNA of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC) was isolated by differential transcript screening in QA-producing and nonproducing cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius. We also obtained L/ODC cDNAs from four other QA-producing plants, Sophora flavescens, Echinosophora koreensis, Thermopsis chinensis, and Baptisia australis. These L/ODCs form a phylogenetically distinct subclade in the family of plant ornithine decarboxylases. Recombinant L/ODCs from QA-producing plants preferentially or equally catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-lysine and l-ornithine. L. angustifolius L/ODC (La-L/ODC) was found to be localized in chloroplasts, as suggested by the transient expression of a fusion protein of La-L/ODC fused to the N terminus of green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells and hairy roots produced enhanced levels of cadaverine-derived alkaloids, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing (La-L/ODC) produced enhanced levels of cadaverine, indicating the involvement of this enzyme in lysine decarboxylation to form cadaverine. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein modeling studies revealed a structural basis for preferential LDC activity, suggesting an evolutionary implication of L/ODC in the QA-producing plants. PMID:22415272

  4. Lysine decarboxylase catalyzes the first step of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis and coevolved with alkaloid production in leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Bunsupa, Somnuk; Katayama, Kae; Ikeura, Emi; Oikawa, Akira; Toyooka, Kiminori; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2012-03-01

    Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) catalyzes the first-step in the biosynthetic pathway of quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), which form a distinct, large family of plant alkaloids. A cDNA of lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC) was isolated by differential transcript screening in QA-producing and nonproducing cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius. We also obtained L/ODC cDNAs from four other QA-producing plants, Sophora flavescens, Echinosophora koreensis, Thermopsis chinensis, and Baptisia australis. These L/ODCs form a phylogenetically distinct subclade in the family of plant ornithine decarboxylases. Recombinant L/ODCs from QA-producing plants preferentially or equally catalyzed the decarboxylation of L-lysine and L-ornithine. L. angustifolius L/ODC (La-L/ODC) was found to be localized in chloroplasts, as suggested by the transient expression of a fusion protein of La-L/ODC fused to the N terminus of green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells and hairy roots produced enhanced levels of cadaverine-derived alkaloids, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing (La-L/ODC) produced enhanced levels of cadaverine, indicating the involvement of this enzyme in lysine decarboxylation to form cadaverine. Site-directed mutagenesis and protein modeling studies revealed a structural basis for preferential LDC activity, suggesting an evolutionary implication of L/ODC in the QA-producing plants. PMID:22415272

  5. Immunofluorescently labeling glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 coupled with confocal imaging for identifying GABAergic somata in the rat dentate gyrus-A comparison with labeling glutamic acid decarboxylase 67.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochen; Gao, Fei; Zhu, Jianchun; Guo, Enpu; Song, Xueying; Wang, Shuanglian; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2014-11-01

    As ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized by two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), namely, GAD65 and GAD67, immunohistochemically targeting either isoform of GAD is theoretically useful for identifying GABAergic cell bodies. In practice, targeting GAD67 remains to be a popular choice. However, identifying GABAergic cell bodies with GAD67 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, especially in the hilus, is not without pitfalls. In the present study, we compared the characteristics of GAD65 immunoreactivity to GAD67 immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus and examined perikaryal expression of GAD65 in four neurochemically prevalent subgroups of interneurons in the hilus. Experiments were done in normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats and GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. Horizontal hippocampal slices cut from the ventral portion of hippocampi were immunofluorescently stained and scanned using a confocal microscope. Immunoreactivity for both GAD67 and GAD65 was visible throughout the dentate gyrus. Perikaryal GAD67 immunoreactivity was denser but variable in terms of distribution pattern and intensity among cells whereas perikaryal GAD65 immunoreactivity displayed similar distribution pattern and staining intensity. Among different layers of the dentate gyrus, GAD67 immunoreactivity was densest in the hilus despite GAD65 immunoreactivity being more intense in the granule cell layer. Co-localization experiments showed that GAD65, but not GAD67, was expressed in all hilar calretinin (CR)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-positive somata. Labeling CR, nNOS, PV, and SOM in sections obtained from GAD67-GFP knock-in mice revealed that a large portion of SOM-positive cells had weak GFP expression. In addition, double labeling of GAD65/GABA and GAD67/GABA showed that nearly all of GABA-immunoreactive cells had perikaryal GAD65 expression whereas more than one-tenth of GABA-immunoreactive cells lacked perikaryal GAD67 immunoreactivity. Inhibition of axonal transport with colchicine dramatically improved perikaryal GAD65 immunoreactivity in GABAergic cells without significant augmentation to be seen in granule cells. Double labeling GAD65 and GAD67 in the sections obtained from colchicine-pretreated animals confirmed that a portion of GAD65-immunoreactive cells had weak or even no GAD67 immunoreactivity. We conclude that for confocal imaging, immunofluorescently labeling GAD65 for identifying GABAergic somata in the hilus of the dentate gyrus has advantages over labeling GAD67 in terms of easier recognition of perikaryal labeling and more consistent expression in GABAergic somata. Inhibition of axonal transport with colchicine further improves perikaryal GAD65 labeling, making GABAergic cells more distinguishable. PMID:25058170

  6. Herbacetin Is a Novel Allosteric Inhibitor of Ornithine Decarboxylase with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Joon; Roh, Eunmiri; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Oi, Naomi; Lim, Do Young; Kim, Myoung Ok; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Pugliese, Angelo; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chen, Hanyong; Cho, Eun Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kang, Sun Chul; Paul, Souren; Kang, Hee Eun; Jung, Ji Won; Lee, Sung-Young; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Reddy, Kanamata; Yeom, Young Il; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2016-03-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the first step of polyamine biosynthesis that is associated with cell growth and tumor formation. Existing catalytic inhibitors of ODC have lacked efficacy in clinical testing or displayed unacceptable toxicity. In this study, we report the identification of an effective and nontoxic allosteric inhibitor of ODC. Using computer docking simulation and an in vitro ODC enzyme assay, we identified herbacetin, a natural compound found in flax and other plants, as a novel ODC inhibitor. Mechanistic investigations defined aspartate 44 in ODC as critical for binding. Herbacetin exhibited potent anticancer activity in colon cancer cell lines expressing high levels of ODC. Intraperitoneal or oral administration of herbacetin effectively suppressed HCT116 xenograft tumor growth and also reduced the number and size of polyps in a mouse model of APC-driven colon cancer (ApcMin/+). Unlike the well-established ODC inhibitor DFMO, herbacetin treatment was not associated with hearing loss. Taken together, our findings defined the natural product herbacetin as an allosteric inhibitor of ODC with chemopreventive and antitumor activity in preclinical models of colon cancer, prompting its further investigation in clinical trials. Cancer Res; 76(5); 1146-57. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26676750

  7. Levels of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) in erythrocytes of Italian porphyria cutanea tarda patients.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Dario; Martinez di Montemuros, Franco; Fargion, Silvia; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Fiorelli, Gemino; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2002-02-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is a human metabolic disorder due to the acquired or genetic impairment of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activity, the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. A classification of inherited and non-inherited forms is based on the enzyme activity levels in red blood cells (RBC). Clinical manifestations of PCT are often precipitated by triggering factors such as alcohol, drug abuse, estrogens, virus infections, hepatotoxic chemicals and hepatic siderosis. We measured URO-D activity in RBC from a large sample of Italian PCT patients in order to define the enzyme activity distribution and to attempt a correlation among activity, risk factors and clinical outcome. Three classes of patients with low, normal and over-normal URO-D activity were defined according to control values. Low URO-D levels were present in 25.8% of patients, suggesting the familial form of PCT (type II). In this group, the outcome of PCT seems to be less influenced by risk factors. Patients with over-normal URO-D activity in RBC deserve further investigation. PMID:11929044

  8. Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine import by hypoxia in pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Babal, Pavel; Ruchko, Mykhaylo; Ault-Ziel, Kathryn; Cronenberg, Lauren; Olson, Jack W; Gillespie, Mark N

    2002-04-01

    In rat lung and cultured lung vascular cells, hypoxia decreases ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and increases polyamine import. In this study, we used rat cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells to explore the mechanism of hypoxia-induced reduction in ODC activity and determined whether this event was functionally related to the increase in polyamine import. Two strategies known to suppress proteasome-mediated ODC degradation, lactacystin treatment and use of cells expressing a truncated ODC incapable of interacting with the proteasome, prevented the hypoxia-induced decrease in ODC activity. Interestingly, though, cellular abundance of the 24-kDa antizyme, a known physiological accelerator of ODC degradation, was not increased by hypoxia. These observations suggest that an antizyme-independent ODC degradation pathway contributes to hypoxia-induced reductions of ODC activity. When reductions in ODC activity in hypoxia were prevented by the proteasome inhibitor strategies, hypoxia failed to increase polyamine transport. The induction of polyamine transport in hypoxic pulmonary artery endothelial cells thus seems to require decreased ODC activity as an initiating event. PMID:11880311

  9. Transcriptional regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the male mouse amygdala by dietary phyto-oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, K V; Yanagawa, Y; Stork, O

    2015-04-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are biologically active components of many human and laboratory animal diets. In the present study, we investigated, in adult male mice with C57BL/6 genetic background, the effects of a reduced phyto-oestrogens intake on anxiety-related behaviour and associated gene expression in the amygdala. After 6 weeks on a low-phyto-oestrogen diet (< 20 ?g/g cumulative phyto-oestrogen content), animals showed reduced centre exploration in an open-field task compared to their littermates on a soybean-based standard diet (300 ?g/g). Freezing behaviour in an auditory fear memory task, in contrast, was not affected. We hypothesised that this mildly increased anxiety may involve changes in the function of GABAergic local circuit neurones in the amygdala. Using GAD67(+/GFP) mice, we could demonstrate reduced transcription of the GAD67 gene in the lateral and basolateral amygdala under the low-phyto-oestrogen diet. Analysis of mRNA levels in microdissected samples confirmed this regulation and demonstrated concomitant changes in expression of the second glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) isoform, GAD65, as well as the anxiolytic neuropeptide Y. These molecular and behavioural alterations occurred without apparent changes in circulating oestrogens or testosterone levels. Our data suggest that expression regulation of interneurone-specific gene products in the amygdala may provide a mechanism for the control of anxiety-related behaviour through dietary phyto-oestrogens. PMID:25650988

  10. Targeting Ornithine Decarboxylase by ?-Difluoromethylornithine Inhibits Tumor Growth by Impairing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cong; Geng, Zhe; Dominguez, Donye; Chen, Siqi; Fan, Jie; Qin, Lei; Long, Alan; Zhang, Yi; Kuzel, Timothy M; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-15

    ?-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) is currently used in chemopreventive regimens primarily for its conventional direct anticarcinogenesic activity. However, little is known about the effect of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibition by DFMO on antitumor immune responses. We showed in this study that pharmacologic blockade of ODC by DFMO inhibited tumor growth in intact immunocompetent mice, but abrogated in the immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) mice, suggesting that antitumor effect of DFMO is dependent on the induction of adaptive antitumor T cell immune responses. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells impeded the tumor-inhibiting advantage of DFMO. Moreover, DFMO treatment enhanced antitumor CD8(+) T cell infiltration and IFN-? production and augmented the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. Importantly, DFMO impaired Gr1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) suppressive activity through at least two mechanisms, including reducing arginase expression and activity and inhibiting the CD39/CD73-mediated pathway. MDSCs were one primary cellular target of DFMO as indicated by both adoptive transfer and MDSC-depletion analyses. Our findings establish a new role of ODC inhibition by DFMO as a viable and effective immunological adjunct in effective cancer treatment, thereby adding to the growing list of chemoimmunotherapeutic applications of these agents. PMID:26663722

  11. Human ?-amino-?-carboxymuconate-?-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD): a structural and mechanistic unveiling.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lu; Liu, Fange; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Li, Tingfeng; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Liu, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Human ?-amino-?-carboxymuconate-?-semialdehyde decarboxylase determines the fate of tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway by controlling the quinolinate levels for de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis. The unstable nature of its substrate has made gaining insight into its reaction mechanism difficult. Our electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic study on the Cu-substituted human enzyme suggests that the native substrate does not directly ligate to the metal ion. Substrate binding did not result in a change of either the hyperfine structure or the super-hyperfine structure of the EPR spectrum. We also determined the crystal structure of the human enzyme in its native catalytically active state (at 1.99 resolution), a substrate analogue-bound form (2.50 resolution), and a selected active site mutant form with one of the putative substrate binding residues altered (2.32 resolution). These structures illustrate that each asymmetric unit contains three pairs of dimers. Consistent with the EPR findings, the ligand-bound complex structure shows that the substrate analogue does not directly coordinate to the metal ion but is bound to the active site by two arginine residues through noncovalent interactions. PMID:25392945

  12. Formation of Hexacoordinate Mn(III) in Bacillus subtilis Oxalate Decarboxylase Requires Catalytic Turnover.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen; Wilcoxen, Jarett; Britt, R David; Richards, Nigel G J

    2016-01-26

    Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) catalyzes the disproportionation of oxalic acid monoanion into CO2 and formate. The enzyme has long been hypothesized to utilize dioxygen to form mononuclear Mn(III) or Mn(IV) in the catalytic site during turnover. Recombinant OxDC, however, contains only tightly bound Mn(II), and direct spectroscopic detection of the metal in higher oxidation states under optimal catalytic conditions (pH 4.2) has not yet been reported. Using parallel mode electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we now show that substantial amounts of Mn(III) are indeed formed in OxDC, but only in the presence of oxalate and dioxygen under acidic conditions. These observations provide the first direct support for proposals in which Mn(III) removes an electron from the substrate to yield a radical intermediate in which the barrier to C-C bond cleavage is significantly decreased. Thus, OxDC joins a small list of enzymes capable of stabilizing and controlling the reactivity of the powerful oxidizing species Mn(III). PMID:26744902

  13. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders. PMID:25841792

  14. Histidine decarboxylases and their role in accumulation of histamine in tuna and dried saury.

    PubMed

    Kanki, Masashi; Yoda, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2007-03-01

    Histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) such as Photobacterium phosphoreum and Raoultella planticola possess histidine decarboxylase (HDC), which converts histidine into histamine. Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) is attributable to the ingestion of fish containing high levels of histamine produced by HPB. Because freezing greatly decreases the histamine-producing ability of HPB, especially of P. phosphoreum, it has been speculated that HFP is caused by HDC itself from HPB cells autolyzing during frozen storage, even when HPB survive frozen storage. Here we constructed recombinant HDCs of P. phosphoreum, Photobacterium damselae, R. planticola, and Morganella morganii and investigated the ability of HDCs to produce sufficient histamine to cause HFP. To elucidate the character of these HDCs, we examined the specific activity of each recombinant HDC at various temperatures, pH levels, and NaCl concentrations. Further, we also investigated the stability of each HDC under different conditions (in reaction buffer, tuna, and dried saury) at various temperatures. P. damselae HDC readily produced sufficient histamine to cause HFP in fish samples. We consider that if HDC is implicated as an independent cause of HFP in frozen-thawed fish, the most likely causative agent is HDC of P. damselae. PMID:17220267

  15. Human ?-amino-?-carboxymuconate-?-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD): A structural and mechanistic unveiling

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lu; Liu, Fange; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Li, Tingfeng; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Liu, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Human ?-amino-?-carboxymuconate-?-semialdehyde decarboxylase determines the fate of tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway by controlling the quinolinate levels for de novo NAD biosynthesis. The unstable nature of its substrate has made gaining insight into its reaction mechanism difficult. Our electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic study on the catalytically active, Cu-substituted enzyme suggests that the native substrate does not directly ligate to the metal ion. Substrate binding did not result in a change of either the hyperfine structure or the super-hyperfine structure of the EPR spectrum. We also determined the crystal structure of the enzyme in its native state (at 1.99 resolution), a substrate analogue-bound form (2.50 resolution), and a selected active site mutant form with one of the putative substrate binding residues altered (2.32 resolution). These structures illustrate that each asymmetric unit contains 3 pairs of dimers. Consistent with the EPR findings, the ligand-bound complex structure shows that the substrate analogue does not directly coordinate to the metal ion but is bound to the active site by two ariginine residues through non-covalent interactions. PMID:25392945

  16. Structural basis of Ornithine Decarboxylase inactivation and accelerated degradation by polyamine sensor Antizyme1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Donghui; Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Tang, Xuhua; He, Yang; Vanessa Tan, Qianmin; Zhang, Neng; Song, Haiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis in humans. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of polyamines has a cytotoxic effect on cells and elevated level of ODC activity is associated with cancer development. To maintain normal cellular proliferation, regulation of polyamine synthesis is imposed by Antizyme1 (AZ1). The expression of AZ1 is induced by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism in response to increased intracellular polyamines. AZ1 regulates polyamine homeostasis by inactivating ODC activity and enhancing its degradation. Here, we report the structure of human ODC in complex with N-terminally truncated AZ1 (cAZ1). The structure shows cAZ1 binding to ODC, which occludes the binding of a second molecule of ODC to form the active homodimer. Consequently, the substrate binding site is disrupted and ODC is inactivated. Structural comparison shows that the binding of cAZ1 to ODC causes a global conformational change of ODC and renders its C-terminal region flexible, therefore exposing this region for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Our structure provides the molecular basis for the inactivation of ODC by AZ1 and sheds light on how AZ1 promotes its degradation. PMID:26443277

  17. Detection of autoantibodies to the 65-kD isoform of glutamate decarboxylase by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lhder, F; Woltanski, K P; Mauch, L; Haubruck, H; Kohnert, K D; Rjasanowski, I; Michaelis, D; Ziegler, M

    1994-06-01

    Autoantibodies (AAb) to glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) occur with a high prevalence in sera of newly diagnosed type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to establish a GAD-AAb radioimmunoassay using 125I-labelled GAD65 and to evaluate this assay in a cross-sectional study with newly diagnosed type I diabetic patients (diabetes duration < 6 weeks). Furthermore, subjects at high risk of developing type I diabetes and individuals suffering from other autoimmune diseases were examined in this assay. For GAD-AAb detection, 125I-labelled GAD65 was incubated with 10 microliters of human serum overnight on ice. Thirty of 51 (59%) type I diabetic patients but none of the 54 healthy blood donors tested were found to be positive. A displacement step using 100,000 g supernatant from rat brain containing or not containing GAD showed the specificity of the binding of 125I-GAD65. Concerning the individuals at high risk of developing diabetes. 9/12 (75%) islet cell antibody (ICA)-positive non-diabetic and 4/34 (12%) ICA-negative subjects with metabolic abnormalities were GAD-AAb positive. These results show the association between type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and the occurrence of GAD65-AAb, which possibly predicts a risk of developing the disease. PMID:8205257

  18. Partial purification and characterization of arginine decarboxylase from avocado fruit, a thermostable enzyme.

    PubMed

    Winer, L; Vinkler, C; Apelbaum, A

    1984-09-01

    A partially purified preparation of arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism in plants, was isolated from avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Fuerte) fruit. The preparation obtained from the crude extract after ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and heat treatment, had maximal activity between pH 8.0 and 9.0 at 60 degrees C, in the presence of 1.2 millimolar MnCl(2), 2 millimolar dithiothreitol, and 0.06 millimolar pyridoxal phosphate. The K(m), of arginine for the decarboxylation reaction was determined for enzymes prepared from the seed coat of both 4-week-old avocado fruitlet and fully developed fruit, and was found to have a value of 1.85 and 2.84 millimolar, respectively. The value of V(app) (max) of these enzymes was 1613 and 68 nanomoles of CO(2) produced per milligram of protein per hour for the fruitlet and the fully developed fruit, respectively. Spermine, an end product of polyamine metabolism, caused less than 5% inhibition of the enzyme from fully developed fruit and 65% inhibition of the enzyme from the seed coat of 4-week-old fruitlets at 1 millimolar under similar conditions. The effect of different inhibitors on the enzyme and the change in the nature of the enzyme during fruit development are discussed. PMID:16663805

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of the cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CAD) gene from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Kanamasa, Shin; Dwiarti, Lies; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2008-08-01

    A filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus produces itaconic acid, which is predicted to be derived from cis-aconitic acid via catalysis by cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (CAD) in the carbon metabolism of the fungus. To clarify the enzyme's function and a pathway for itaconic acid biosynthesis, we cloned a novel gene encoding the enzyme. The open reading frame of this gene (CAD1) consists of 1,529 bp encoding 490 amino acids and is interrupted by a single intron. Among the identified proteins in the database, the primary structure of the protein encoded by CAD1 shared high identity with the MmgE/PrpD family of proteins, including a number of 2-methylcitrate dehydratases of bacteria. The cloned gene excluding an intron was introduced into the expression plasmid pAUR-CAD1 controlled by the ADH1 promoter. The CAD activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was confirmed by directly detecting itaconic acid as a product from cis-aconitic acid as a substrate. This result reveals for the first time that this gene encodes CAD, which is essential for itaconic acid production in A. terreus. PMID:18584171

  20. A highly sensitive high-throughput luminescence assay for malonyl-CoA decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Chu; Wang, Minghan; Kim, Ki Won; Busby, James; Yamane, Harvey; Zondlo, James; Yuan, Chester; Young, Stephen W; Xiao, Shou-Hua

    2008-05-01

    Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and thereby regulates malonyl-CoA levels in cells. Malonyl-CoA is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, a key enzyme involved in the mitochondrial uptake of fatty acids for oxidation. Abnormally high rates of fatty acid oxidation contribute to ischemic damage. Inhibition of MCD leads to increased malonyl-CoA and therefore decreases fatty acid oxidation, representing a novel approach for the treatment of ischemic heart injury. The commonly used MCD assay monitors the production of NADH fluorometrically, which is not ideal for library screening due to potential fluorescent interference by certain compounds. Here we report a luminescence assay for MCD activity. This assay is less susceptible to fluorescent interference by compounds. Furthermore, it is 150-fold more sensitive, with a detection limit of 20 nM acetyl-CoA, compared to 3 muM in the fluorescence assay. This assay is also amenable to automation for high-throughput screening and yields excellent assay statistics (Z' > 0.8). In addition, it can be applied to the screening for inhibitors of any other enzymes that generate acetyl-CoA. PMID:18294446

  1. Terminal Olefin (1-Alkene) Biosynthesis by a Novel P450 Fatty Acid Decarboxylase from Jeotgalicoccus Species ?

    PubMed Central

    Rude, Mathew A.; Baron, Tarah S.; Brubaker, Shane; Alibhai, Murtaza; Del Cardayre, Stephen B.; Schirmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Terminal olefins (1-alkenes) are natural products that have important industrial applications as both fuels and chemicals. However, their biosynthesis has been largely unexplored. We describe a group of bacteria, Jeotgalicoccus spp., which synthesize terminal olefins, in particular 18-methyl-1-nonadecene and 17-methyl-1-nonadecene. These olefins are derived from intermediates of fatty acid biosynthesis, and the key enzyme in Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456 is a terminal olefin-forming fatty acid decarboxylase. This enzyme, Jeotgalicoccus sp. OleT (OleTJE), was identified by purification from cell lysates, and its encoding gene was identified from a draft genome sequence of Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456 using reverse genetics. Heterologous expression of the identified gene conferred olefin biosynthesis to Escherichia coli. OleTJE is a P450 from the cyp152 family, which includes bacterial fatty acid hydroxylases. Some cyp152 P450 enzymes have the ability to decarboxylate and to hydroxylate fatty acids (in ?- and/or ?-position), suggesting a common reaction intermediate in their catalytic mechanism and specific structural determinants that favor one reaction over the other. The discovery of these terminal olefin-forming P450 enzymes represents a third biosynthetic pathway (in addition to alkane and long-chain olefin biosynthesis) to convert fatty acid intermediates into hydrocarbons. Olefin-forming fatty acid decarboxylation is a novel reaction that can now be added to the catalytic repertoire of the versatile cytochrome P450 enzyme family. PMID:21216900

  2. Substrate Shuttling Between Active Sites of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase in Not Required to Generate Coproporphyrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Warby, C; Whitby, F; Kushner, J; Hill, C

    2009-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D; EC 4.1.1.37), the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is required for the production of heme, vitamin B12, siroheme, and chlorophyll precursors. URO-D catalyzes the sequential decarboxylation of four acetate side chains in the pyrrole groups of uroporphyrinogen to produce coproporphyrinogen. URO-D is a stable homodimer, with the active-site clefts of the two subunits adjacent to each other. It has been hypothesized that the two catalytic centers interact functionally, perhaps by shuttling of reaction intermediates between subunits. We tested this hypothesis by construction of a single-chain protein (single-chain URO-D) in which the two subunits were connected by a flexible linker. The crystal structure of this protein was shown to be superimposable with wild-type activity and to have comparable catalytic activity. Mutations that impaired one or the other of the two active sites of single-chain URO-D resulted in approximately half of wild-type activity. The distributions of reaction intermediates were the same for mutant and wild-type sequences and were unaltered in a competition experiment using I and III isomer substrates. These observations indicate that communication between active sites is not required for enzyme function and suggest that the dimeric structure of URO-D is required to achieve conformational stability and to create a large active-site cleft.

  3. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of the Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene is affected by heat shock.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J; Beall, C J; Hirsh, J

    1993-01-01

    The Drosophila dopa decarboxylase gene, Ddc, is expressed in the hypoderm and in a small number of cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The unique Ddc primary transcript is alternatively spliced in these two tissues. We investigated whether Ddc splicing in the CNS is a general property of the CNS or a unique property of the cells that normally express Ddc by expressing the Ddc primary transcript ubiquitously under the control of an Hsp70 heat shock promoter. Under basal expression conditions, Ddc splicing shows normal tissue specificity, indicating that the regulation of Ddc splicing in the CNS is tissue specific rather than cell specific. Previous studies have shown that severe heat shock blocks mRNA splicing in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cells. Our results show that splicing of the heat shock-inducible Hsp83 transcript is very resistant to heat shock. In contrast, under either mild or severe heat shock, the splicing specificity of the heat shock-induced Ddc primary transcript is affected, leading to the accumulation of inappropriately high levels of the CNS splice form in non-CNS tissues. The chromosomal Ddc transcript is similarly affected. These results show unexpected heterogeneity in the splicing of individual mRNAs as a response to heat shock and suggest that the Ddc CNS-specific splicing pathway is the default. Images PMID:8336700

  4. The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dopa Decarboxylase Gene Cluster of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Stathakis, D. G.; Pentz, E. S.; Freeman, M. E.; Kullman, J.; Hankins, G. R.; Pearlson, N. J.; Wright, TRF.

    1995-01-01

    We report the complete molecular organization of the Dopa decarboxylase gene cluster. Mutagenesis screens recovered 77 new Df(2L)TW130 recessive lethal mutations. These new alleles combined with 263 previously isolated mutations in the cluster to define 18 essential genes. In addition, seven new deficiencies were isolated and characterized. Deficiency mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and P-element-mediated germline transformation experiments determined the gene order for all 18 loci. Genomic and cDNA restriction endonuclease mapping, Northern blot analysis and DNA sequencing provided information on exact gene location, mRNA size and transcriptional direction for most of these loci. In addition, this analysis identified two transcription units that had not previously been identified by extensive mutagenesis screening. Most of the loci are contained within two dense subclusters. We discuss the effectiveness of mutagens and strategies used in our screens, the variable mutability of loci within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, the cytological and molecular organization of the Ddc gene cluster, the validity of the one band-one gene hypothesis and a possible purpose for the clustering of genes in the Ddc region. PMID:8647399

  5. Identification and characterization of barley mutants lacking glycine decarboxylase and carboxyl esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lewis, K.; Lea, P. )

    1990-05-01

    A barley mutant has been isolated, from a selection of fifty air-sensitive seed-lines, using a standard gel stain technique which lacks carboxyl esterase activity, but has normal levels of carbonic anhydrase. In addition, two barley mutants lacking the ability to convert glycine to serine in the mitochondria, have been characterized. Both plants accumulate glycine in air and are unable to metabolize ({sup 14}C)glycine in the short-term. When ({sup 14}C)glycine was supplied over 2h LaPr 85/55 metabolized 90%, whereas the second mutant (LaPr 87/30) metabolized 10%. Results indicate that the mutation in LaPr 85/55 is almost certainly in the glycine transporter into the mitochondrion. The mutation in LaPr 87/30 has been shown, using western blotting, to be in both the P and H proteins, two of four proteins which comprise glycine decarboxylase (P, H, T and L).

  6. Ornithine decarboxylase regulates the activity and localization of rhoA via polyamination

    SciTech Connect

    Maekitie, Laura T.; Kanerva, Kristiina; Andersson, Leif C.

    2009-04-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. Polyamines and ODC are connected to cell proliferation and transformation. Resting cells display a low ODC activity while normal, proliferating cells display fluctuations in ODC activity that coincide with changes in the actin cytoskeleton during the cell cycle. Cancerous cells display constitutively elevated ODC activity. Overexpression of ODC in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts induces a transformed phenotype. The cytoskeletal rearrangements during cytokinesis and cell transformation are intimately coupled to the ODC activity but the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. In this study we investigated how ODC and polyamines influence the organization of the cytoskeleton. Given that the small G-proteins of the rho family are key modulators of the actin cytoskeleton, we investigated the molecular interactions of rhoA with ODC and polyamines. Our results show that transglutaminase-catalyzed polyamination of rhoA regulates its activity. The polyamination status of rhoA crucially influences the progress of the cell cycle as well as the rate of transformation of rat fibroblasts infected with temperature-sensitive v-src. We also show that ODC influences the intracellular distribution of rhoA. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which ODC and polyamines regulate the dynamics of the cytoskeleton during cell proliferation and transformation.

  7. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity, polyamines, and compensatory renal hypertrophy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.H.; Etheredge, S.B.; Lin, Shanyan; Ribstein, J.; Marton, L.J. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1988-08-01

    The authors determined the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in compensatory renal hypertrophy (CRH) by relating renal ODC activity and polyamine content to kidney size, expressed as a percent of body weight, 1 wk after unilateral nephrectomy (UN). In normal rats, renal ODC activity increased after UN; 1 wk later the remaining kidney weight had increased. Renal concentration of putrescine, the product of ODC's decarboxylation of ornithine, was increased 3, 8, and 48 h after UN, but concentrations of polyamines synthesized later in the pathway, spermidine and spermine, were not appreciably affected. Pretreatment with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC inhibited both base-line renal ODC activity and putrescine concentration as well as increases stimulated by UN, although concentrations of spermidine and spermine were not decreased. In hypophysectomized rats, both increased renal ODC activity and CRH occurred as well, indicating that these two consequences of UN do not require intact pituitary function. Thus stimulation of renal ODC activity and putrescine content do not appear critical to the process of CRH after UN.

  8. Variant tricarboxylic acid cycle in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Identification of ?-ketoglutarate decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jing; Bryk, Ruslana; Itoh, Manabu; Suematsu, Makoto; Nathan, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has adapted its metabolism for persistence in the human macrophage. The adaptations are likely to involve Mtb's core intermediary metabolism, whose enzymes have been little studied. The tricarboxylic acid cycle is expected to yield precursors for energy, lipids, amino acids, and heme. The genome sequence of Mtb H37Rv predicts the presence of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, but we recently found that ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KDH) activity is lacking in Mtb lysates. Here we showed that citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, fumarase, malate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase, but not KDH, are present, raising the possibility of separate oxidative and reductive half-cycles. As a potential link between the half-cycles, we found that Rv1248c, annotated as encoding SucA, the putative E1 component of KDH, instead encodes ?-ketoglutarate decarboxylase (Kgd) and produces succinic semialdehyde. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity was detected in Mtb lysates and recapitulated with recombinant proteins GabD1 (encoded by Rv0234c) and GabD2 (encoded by Rv1731). Kgd and GabD1 or GabD2 form an alternative pathway from ?-ketoglutarate to succinate. Rv1248c, which is essential or required for normal growth of Mtb [Sassetti, C., Boyd, D. H. & Rubin, E. J. (2003) Mol. Microbiol 48, 77-84] is the first gene shown to encode a Kgd. Kgd is lacking in humans and may represent a potential target for chemotherapy of tuberculosis. PMID:16027371

  9. Simultaneous Silencing of Two Arginine Decarboxylase Genes Alters Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Chávez-Martínez, Ana I; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A; Maruri-López, Israel; Urano, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2) catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA biological functions, mutants in PA biosynthesis have been generated; however, the double adc1/adc2 mutant is not viable in A. thaliana. In this study, we generated non-lethal A. thaliana lines through an artificial microRNA that simultaneously silenced the two ADC genes (amiR:ADC). The generated transgenic lines (amiR:ADC-L1 and -L2) showed reduced AtADC1 and AtADC2 transcript levels. For further analyses the amiR:ADC-L2 line was selected. We found that the amiR:ADC-L2 line showed a significant decrease of their PA levels. The co-silencing revealed a stunted growth in A. thaliana seedlings, plantlets and delay in its flowering rate; these phenotypes were reverted with PA treatment. In addition, amiR:ADC-L2 plants displayed two seed phenotypes, such as yellow and brownish seeds. The yellow mutant seeds were smaller than adc1, adc2 mutants and wild type seeds; however, the brownish were the smallest seeds with arrested embryos at the torpedo stage. These data reinforce the importance of PA homeostasis in the plant development processes. PMID:27014322

  10. Structural basis of Ornithine Decarboxylase inactivation and accelerated degradation by polyamine sensor Antizyme1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Donghui; Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Tang, Xuhua; He, Yang; Vanessa Tan, Qianmin; Zhang, Neng; Song, Haiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis in humans. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis. Excessive accumulation of polyamines has a cytotoxic effect on cells and elevated level of ODC activity is associated with cancer development. To maintain normal cellular proliferation, regulation of polyamine synthesis is imposed by Antizyme1 (AZ1). The expression of AZ1 is induced by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism in response to increased intracellular polyamines. AZ1 regulates polyamine homeostasis by inactivating ODC activity and enhancing its degradation. Here, we report the structure of human ODC in complex with N-terminally truncated AZ1 (cAZ1). The structure shows cAZ1 binding to ODC, which occludes the binding of a second molecule of ODC to form the active homodimer. Consequently, the substrate binding site is disrupted and ODC is inactivated. Structural comparison shows that the binding of cAZ1 to ODC causes a global conformational change of ODC and renders its C-terminal region flexible, therefore exposing this region for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Our structure provides the molecular basis for the inactivation of ODC by AZ1 and sheds light on how AZ1 promotes its degradation. PMID:26443277

  11. PET-positive extralimbic presentation of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-associated encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Gotaro; Inaba, Michiko; Bruno, Michiko K

    2014-09-01

    Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis has been reported mostly as limbic encephalitis. Only few cases with extralimbic involvement are reported with limited investigation. Here, we report an extensive investigation with MRI, PET, and pathological examination. A 66-year-old Japanese female with a history of hypothyroidism, colon cancer, pheochromocytoma, and thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. MRI showed multiple hyperintense lesions and PET showed hypermetabolic lesions in the brain. Biopsy showed non-specific gliosis, microglial proliferation, and perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Various neuronal antibodies were negative, except for anti-GAD antibody. Anti-GAD antibody-associated encephalitis is an increasingly recognised CNS disease. Pathophysiology of this encephalitis is unclear. While PET showed hypermetabolic lesions, the biopsy showed non-specific changes. The treatments may include immunosuppressants, IVIg, and plasma exchange. One should consider to measure this antibody, in addition to others, when autoimmune encephalitis is suspected [Published with video sequences] . PMID:25042574

  12. Disruption of the acetoacetate decarboxylase gene in solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum increases the butanol ratio.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Xu, Chongmao; Dong, Feng; Yang, Yunliu; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A possible way to improve the economic efficacy of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is to increase the butanol ratio by eliminating the production of other by-products, such as acetone. The acetoacetate decarboxylase gene (adc) in the hyperbutanol-producing industrial strain Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 was disrupted using TargeTron technology. The butanol ratio increased from 70% to 80.05%, with acetone production reduced to approximately 0.21 g/L in the adc-disrupted mutant (2018adc). pH control was a critical factor in the improvement of cell growth and solvent production in strain 2018adc. The regulation of electron flow by the addition of methyl viologen altered the carbon flux from acetic acid production to butanol production in strain 2018adc, which resulted in an increased butanol ratio of 82% and a corresponding improvement in the overall yield of butanol from 57% to 70.8%. This study presents a general method of blocking acetone production by Clostridium and demonstrates the industrial potential of strain 2018adc. PMID:19560551

  13. Functional and conformational transitions of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Shakeel; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir; Bhosale, Siddharth; Gaikwad, Sushama

    2016-02-01

    Functional and conformational transitions of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD), a key enzyme of mevalonate pathway in isoprenoid biosynthesis, from Bacopa monniera (BmMDD), cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli were studied under thermal, chemical and pH-mediated denaturation conditions using fluorescence and Circular dichroism spectroscopy. Native BmMDD is a helix dominant structure with 45% helix and 11% sheets and possesses seven tryptophan residues with two residues exposed on surface, three residues partially exposed and two situated in the interior of the protein. Thermal denaturation of BmMDD causes rapid structural transitions at and above 40C and transient exposure of hydrophobic residues at 50C, leading to aggregation of the protein. An acid induced molten globule like structure was observed at pH 4, exhibiting altered but compact secondary structure, distorted tertiary structure and exposed hydrophobic residues. The molten globule displayed different response at higher temperature and similar response to chemical denaturation as compared to the native protein. The surface tryptophans have predominantly positively charged amino acids around them, as indicated by higher KSV for KI as compared to that for CsCl. The native enzyme displayed two different lifetimes, ?1 (1.2030.036ns) and ?2 (3.4730.12ns) indicating two populations of tryptophan. PMID:26657583

  14. Phosphatidylethanolamine from phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 is essential for autophagy under cadmium stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kannan; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potent toxic element used in several industries and in the process contaminates air, soil, and water. Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cd increases the major phospholipids, and profound increase was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In yeast, there are four different pathways contributing to the biosynthesis of PE, and contribution to PE pool through phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 (psd2) is not significant in normal conditions. Upon Cd exposure, psd2Δ strain showed a significant decrease in major phospholipids including PE. When exposed to Cd, wild-type (WT) cells depicted an increase in ER stress and autophagy, whereas in psd2, ER stress was noted but autophagy process was impaired. The supplementation of ethanolamine did not overcome the Cd stress and also the autophagy process, whereas overexpression of PSD2 in psd2Δ increased the cellular tolerance, PE levels, and the autophagy process against Cd stress. From our studies, we can suggest that PSD2 of S. cerevisiae has an important role in PE synthesis and in autophagy process under Cd stress. PMID:23743710

  15. Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment modifies glutamic acid decarboxylase activity during rat brain postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Urea-Guerrero, Mnica Elisa; Lpez-Prez, Silvia Josefina; Beas-Zrate, Carlos

    2003-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) produces neurodegeneration in several brain regions when it is administered to neonatal rats. From an early embryonic age to adulthood, GABA neurons appear to have functional glutamatergic receptors, which could convert them in an important target for excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Changes in the activity of the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), have been shown after different neuronal insults. Therefore, this work evaluates the effect of neonatal MSG treatment on GAD activity and kinetics in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat brain during postnatal development. Neonatal MSG treatment decreased GAD activity in the cerebral cortex at 21 and 60 postnatal days (PD), mainly due to a reduction in the enzyme affinity (K(m)). In striatum, the GAD activity and the enzyme maximum velocity (V(max)) were increased at PD 60 after neonatal MSG treatment. Finally, in the hippocampus and cerebellum, the GAD activity and V(max) were increased, but the K(m) was found to be lower in the experimental group. The results could be related to compensatory mechanisms from the surviving GABAergic neurons, and suggest a putative adjustment in the GAD isoform expression throughout the development of the postnatal brain, since this enzyme is regulated by the synaptic activity under physiological and/or pathophysiological conditions. PMID:12470699

  16. Partial purification and characterization of a novel histidine decarboxylase from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Tian, Mixia

    2015-08-18

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Enterobacter aerogenes DL-1 was purified in a three-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100, and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The partially purified enzyme showed a single protein band of 52.4 kD on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum pH for HDC activity was 6.5, and the enzyme was stable between pH 4 and 8. Enterobacter aerogenes HDC had optimal activity at 40C and retained most of its activity between 4 and 50C. HDC activity was reduced in the presence of numerous tested compounds. Particularly with SDS, it significantly (p<0.01) inhibited enzyme activity. Conversely, Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) showed prominent activation effects (p<0.01) with activity increasing to 117.20% and 123.42%, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that K m and V max values of the enzyme for L-histidine were 0.21mM and 71.39mol/min, respectively. In comparison with most HDCs from other microorganisms and animals, HDC from E. aerogenes DL-1 displayed higher affinity and greater reaction velocity toward L-histidine. PMID:25036745

  17. Seizures produced by pilocarpine: neuropathological sequelae and activity of glutamate decarboxylase in the rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Turski, L; Cavalheiro, E A; Sieklucka-Dziuba, M; Ikonomidou-Turski, C; Czuczwar, S J; Turski, W A

    1986-11-19

    Morphological analysis of brains from rats receiving a convulsant dose of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, pilocarpine hydrochloride (380 mg/kg), revealed a widespread damage to the forebrain as assessed by light microscopy 5-7 days after seizures. The substantia nigra, olfactory cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, septum, temporal cortex and thalamus underwent prominent morphological injury and cell loss. A concurrent assessment of the activity of L-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) synthesizing enzyme, demonstrated marked deficits in GAD activity in the brain regions undergoing morphological insult. Diazepam, 10 mg/kg, and scopolamine hydrochloride, 10 mg/kg, administered 30 min prior to the injection of pilocarpine, 380 mg/kg, prevented acute behavioral and electrographic, and long-term morphological and biochemical sequelae of seizures. These findings suggest that the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, and the anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, diazepam, may aid in preventing extensive brain damage related to pathological muscarinic cholinergic overactivity. The similarity of the topography of the damage and deficits in the GAD activity in brains of rats treated with pilocarpine indicates that GABAergic neurons are lost in the subregions of the brain preferentially sensitive to the convulsant action of pilocarpine. PMID:3801899

  18. Induction of histidine decarboxylase in macrophages inhibited by the novel NF-{kappa}B inhibitor (-)-DHMEQ

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Eriko Ninomiya, Yoko; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2009-02-06

    Histamine often causes inflammation, and this amine is produced by histidine decarboxylase (HDC). We found that (-)-DHMEQ, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced histamine production and HDC induction in mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7. However, as there is no {kappa}B site in the HDC promoter, we studied the mechanism of inhibition. Knockdown of the transcription factor C/EBP{beta} reduced the HDC expression in LPS-treated cells. (-)-DHMEQ inhibited the C/EBP{beta} transcriptional activity in a reporter assay and in an electrophoresis mobility shift assay. But it did not inhibit the in vitro binding of C/EBP{beta} to DNA. It also did not lower the nuclear amount of C/EBP{beta}. On the other hand, the addition of recombinant p65, a component of NF-{kappa}B, enhanced the activity of C/EBP{beta} acting as a cofactor in vitro. Then, we found that (-)-DHMEQ lowered the nuclear amount of p65. Thus, inhibition of the C/EBP{beta} activity by (-)-DHMEQ would be due to a reduction in the amount of nuclear p65, which has a co-activator activity for C/EBP{beta} that is essential for the HDC induction. (-)-DHMEQ may be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent by lowering the histamine production in the body.

  19. Isolation of an atypically small lipoamide dehydrogenase involved in the glycine decarboxylase complex from Eubacterium acidaminophilum.

    PubMed Central

    Freudenberg, W; Dietrichs, D; Lebertz, H; Andreesen, J R

    1989-01-01

    The lipoamide dehydrogenase of the glycine decarboxylase complex was purified to homogeneity (8 U/mg) from cells of the anaerobe Eubacterium acidaminophilum that were grown on glycine. In cell extracts four radioactive protein fractions labeled with D-[2-14C]riboflavin could be detected after gel filtration, one of which coeluted with lipoamide dehydrogenase activity. The molecular mass of the native enzyme could be determined by several methods to be 68 kilodaltons, and an enzyme with a molecular mass of 34.5 kilodaltons was obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot analysis of cell extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide or linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resulted in a single fluorescent band. NADPH instead of NADH was the preferred electron donor of this lipoamide dehydrogenase. This was also indicated by Michaelis constants of 0.085 mM for NADPH and 1.1 mM for NADH at constant lipoamide and enzyme concentrations. The enzyme exhibited no thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase, or mercuric reductase activity. Immunological cross-reactions were obtained with cell extracts of Clostridium cylindrosporum, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium sticklandii, and bacterium W6, but not with extracts of other glycine- or purine-utilizing anaerobic or aerobic bacteria, for which the lipoamide dehydrogenase has already been characterized. Images PMID:2537814

  20. Glutamate Decarboxylase 67 Deficiency in a Subset of GABAergic Neurons Induces Schizophrenia-Related Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Miwa, Hideki; Kakizaki, Toshikazu; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Mikuni, Masahiko; Tanahira, Chiyoko; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio

    2015-09-01

    Decreased expression of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) in a subset of GABAergic neurons, including parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons, has been observed in postmortem brain studies of schizophrenics and in animal models of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether and how the perturbations of GAD67-mediated GABA synthesis and signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we generated the mice lacking GAD67 primarily in PV neurons and characterized them with focus on schizophrenia-related parameters. We found that heterozygous mutant mice exhibited schizophrenia-related behavioral abnormalities such as deficits in prepulse inhibition, MK-801 sensitivity, and social memory. Furthermore, we observed reduced inhibitory synaptic transmission, altered properties of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in pyramidal neurons, and increased spine density in hippocampal CA1 apical dendrites, suggesting a possible link between GAD67 deficiency and disturbed glutamatergic excitatory synaptic functions in schizophrenia. Thus, our results indicate that the mice heterozygous for GAD67 deficiency primarily in PV neurons share several neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities with schizophrenia, offering a novel tool for addressing the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:25904362

  1. Elevated production of melatonin in transgenic rice seeds expressing rice tryptophan decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Park, Sangkyu; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Kim, Young-Soon; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-04-01

    A major goal of plant biotechnology is to improve the nutritional qualities of crop plants through metabolic engineering. Melatonin is a well-known bioactive molecule with an array of health-promoting properties, including potent antioxidant capability. To generate melatonin-rich rice plants, we first independently overexpressed three tryptophan decarboxylase isogenes in the rice genome. Melatonin levels were altered in the transgenic lines through overexpression of TDC1, TDC2, and TDC3; TDC3 transgenic seed (TDC3-1) had melatonin concentrations 31-fold higher than those of wild-type seeds. In TDC3 transgenic seedlings, however, only a doubling of melatonin content occurred over wild-type levels. Thus, a seed-specific accumulation of melatonin appears to occur in TDC3 transgenic lines. In addition to increased melatonin content, TDC3 transgenic lines also had enhanced levels of melatonin intermediates including 5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptamine, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. In contrast, expression levels of melatonin biosynthetic mRNA did not increase in TDC3 transgenic lines, indicating that increases in melatonin and its intermediates in these lines are attributable exclusively to overexpression of the TDC3 gene. PMID:24433490

  2. Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria Caused by a Novel Homoallelic Mutation in Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase Gene in Egyptian Patients.

    PubMed

    Farrag, M S; Mikula, I; Richard, E; Saudek, V; De Verneuil, H; Martsek, P

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are metabolic disorders resulting from mutations in haem biosynthetic pathway genes. Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP) is a rare type of porphyria caused by the deficiency of the fifth enzyme (uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, UROD) in this pathway. The defect in the enzymatic activity is due to biallelic mutations in the UROD gene. Currently, 109 UROD mutations are known. The human disease has an early onset, manifesting in infancy or early childhood with red urine, skin photosensitivity in sun-exposed areas, and hypertrichosis. Similar defects and links to photosensitivity and hepatopathy exist in several animal models, including zebrafish and mice. In the present study, we report a new mutation in the UROD gene in Egyptian patients with HEP. We show that the homozygous c.T163A missense mutation leads to a substitution of a conserved phenylalanine (amino acid 55) for isoleucine in the enzyme active site, causing a dramatic decrease in the enzyme activity (19 % of activity of wild-type enzyme). Inspection of the UROD crystal structure shows that Phe-55 contacts the substrate and is located in the loop that connects helices 2 and 3. Phe-55 is strictly conserved in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic UROD. The F55I substitution likely interferes with the enzyme-substrate interaction. PMID:26789143

  3. [Spectroscopic study of the structure and intramolecular mobility of yeast pyruvate decarboxylase].

    PubMed

    Maskevich, S A; Maskevich, A A; Kivach, L N; Chernikevich, I P; Zabrodskaia, S V; Oparin, D A

    1993-12-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorimetry were used to study the properties of holo- and apopyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1, PDC) from Brewer's yeast after interaction with substrate (pyruvate), cofactor (thiamine diphosphate, ThDP) and Mg2+ ions. The analysis of the enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence as well as of its complex with the probe 2-(p-toluidinylnaphthalene)-6-sulphonate (TNS) revealed that ThDP was found at the polar region of the PDC active sites, inducing a decrease in the mobility of the protein's nearest surroundings. The fluorescent probe had three different sites of binding to the protein apoform, two of which being located at the catalytic site and having different rotation freedom. The study of the PDC complex with thiochrome pyrophosphate, a ThDP structural analogue, pointed to the occurrence of a non-polar region of the enzyme active site for pyruvate absorption besides the polar region. The binding of pyruvate to the protein does not depend upon the cofactor's binding. On the basis of the fluorescent studies a model of the ThDP and pyruvate arrangement at the PDC active site is suggested. PMID:8117333

  4. Targeting ornithine decarboxylase reverses the LIN28/Let-7 axis and inhibits glycolytic metabolism in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Ann M; Rich, Maria E; Grawe, Anissa Pedersen; Peck, Anderson S; Zhao, Ping; Chang, Anthony Ting-Tung; Bond, Jeffrey P; Sholler, Giselle Saulnier

    2015-01-01

    LIN28 has emerged as an oncogenic driver in a number of cancers, including neuroblastoma (NB). Overexpression of LIN28 correlates with poor outcome in NB, therefore drugs that impact the LIN28/Let-7 pathway could be beneficial in treating NB patients. The LIN28/Let-7 pathway affects many cellular processes including the regulation of cancer stem cells and glycolytic metabolism. Polyamines, regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) modulate eIF-5A which is a direct regulator of the LIN28/Let-7 axis. We propose that therapy inhibiting ODC will restore balance to the LIN28/Let-7 axis, suppress glycolytic metabolism, and decrease MYCN protein expression in NB. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) is an inhibitor of ODC in clinical trials for children with NB. In vitro experiments using NB cell lines, BE(2)-C, SMS-KCNR, and CHLA90 show that DFMO treatment reduced LIN28B and MYCN protein levels and increased Let-7 miRNA and decreased neurosphere formation. Glycolytic metabolic activity decreased with DFMO treatment in vivo. Additionally, sensitivity to DFMO treatment correlated with LIN28B overexpression (BE(2)-C>SMS-KCNR>CHLA90). This is the first study to demonstrate that DFMO treatment restores balance to the LIN28/Let-7 axis and inhibits glycolytic metabolism and neurosphere formation in NB and that PET scans may be a meaningful imaging tool to evaluate the therapeutic effects of DFMO treatment. PMID:25415050

  5. Cloning and primary structure of a human islet isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase from chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsen, A.E.; Hagopian, W.A.; Grubin, C.E.; Dube, S.; Disteche, C.M.; Adler, D.A.; Baermeier, H.; Lernmark, A. ); Mathewes, S.; Grant, F.J.; Foster, D. )

    1991-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase which catalyzes formation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamic acid, is detectable in different isoforms with distinct electrophoretic and kinetic characteristics. GAD has also been implicated as an autoantigen in the vastly differing autoimmune disease stiff-man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Despite the differing GAD isoforms, only one type of GAD cDNA (GAD-1), localized to a syntenic region of chromosome 2, has been isolated from rat, mouse, and cat. Using sequence information from GAD-1 to screen a human pancreatic islet cDNA library, the authors describe the isolation of an additional GAD cDNA (GAD-2), which was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 10. Genomic Southern blotting with GAD-2 demonstrated a hybridization pattern different form that detected by GAD-1. GAD-2 recognizes a 5.6-kilobase transcript in both islets and brain, in contrast to GAD-1, which detects a 3.7-kilobase transcript in brain only. The deduced 585-amino acid sequence coded for by GAD-2 shows < 65% identify to previously published, highly conserved GAD-1 brain sequences, which show > 96% deduced amino acid sequence homology among the three species.

  6. Overexpression of Tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa decarboxylase associated with pupal melanization in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has been found in a wide range of species, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely elusive. In this study, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the pupal melanism in Spodoptera exigua. The full length cDNA sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC), two key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of melanin, were cloned, and their temporal expression patterns in the integument were compared during the larval-pupal metamorphosis process of the S. exigua wild type (SEW) and melanic mutant (SEM) strains. No amino acid change in the protein sequence of TH and DDC was found between the two strains. Both DDC and TH were significantly over-expressed in the integument of the SEM strain at late-prepupa and 0 h pupa, respectively, compared with those of the SEW strain. Feeding 5th instar larvae of SEM with diets incorporated with 1 mg/g of the DDC inhibitor L-α-Methyl-DOPA and 0.75 mg/g of the TH inhibitor 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) resulted in 20% pupae with partially-rescued phenotype and 68.2% of pupae with partially- or fully-rescued phenotype, respectively. These results indicate that overexpressions of TH and DDC are involved in the pupal melanization of S. exigua. PMID:26084938

  7. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  8. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of ?-alanine and N-?-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of ?-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  9. Transcriptional Response to Deletion of the Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase Psd1p in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gsell, Martina; Mascher, Gerald; Schuiki, Irmgard; Ploier, Birgit; Hrastnik, Claudia; Daum, Gnther

    2013-01-01

    In the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of the essential phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is accomplished by a network of reactions which comprises four different pathways. The enzyme contributing most to PE formation is the mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 1 (Psd1p) which catalyzes conversion of phosphatidylserine (PS) to PE. To study the genome wide effect of an unbalanced cellular and mitochondrial PE level and in particular the contribution of Psd1p to this depletion we performed a DNA microarray analysis with a ?psd1 deletion mutant. This approach revealed that 54 yeast genes were significantly up-regulated in the absence of PSD1 compared to wild type. Surprisingly, marked down-regulation of genes was not observed. A number of different cellular processes in different subcellular compartments were affected in a ?psd1 mutant. Deletion mutants bearing defects in all 54 candidate genes, respectively, were analyzed for their growth phenotype and their phospholipid profile. Only three mutants, namely ?gpm2, ?gph1 and ?rsb1, were affected in one of these parameters. The possible link of these mutations to PE deficiency and PSD1 deletion is discussed. PMID:24146988

  10. Phosphatidylserine synthase and phosphatidylserine decarboxylase are essential for cell wall integrity and virulence in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Lien; Montedonico, Anthony E; Kauffman, Sarah; Dunlap, John R; Menn, Fu-Min; Reynolds, Todd B

    2010-03-01

    Phospholipid biosynthetic pathways play crucial roles in the virulence of several pathogens; however, little is known about how phospholipid synthesis affects pathogenesis in fungi such as Candida albicans. A C. albicans phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase mutant, cho1 Delta/Delta, lacks PS, has decreased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and is avirulent in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The cho1 Delta/Delta mutant exhibits defects in cell wall integrity, mitochondrial function, filamentous growth, and is auxotrophic for ethanolamine. PS is a precursor for de novo PE biosynthesis. A psd1 Delta/Delta psd2 Delta/Delta double mutant, which lacks the PS decarboxylase enzymes that convert PS to PE in the de novo pathway, has diminished PE levels like those of the cho1 Delta/Delta mutant. The psd1 Delta/Delta psd2 Delta/Delta mutant exhibits phenotypes similar to those of the cho1 Delta/Delta mutant; however, it is slightly more virulent and has less of a cell wall defect. The virulence losses exhibited by the cho1 Delta/Delta and psd1 Delta/Delta psd2 Delta/Delta mutants appear to be related to their cell wall defects which are due to loss of de novo PE biosynthesis, but are exacerbated by loss of PS itself. Cho1p is conserved in fungi, but not mammals, so fungal PS synthase is a potential novel antifungal drug target. PMID:20132453

  11. Characterization of Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) from Lactobacillus sakei A156 Isolated from Jeot-gal.

    PubMed

    Sa, Hyun Deok; Park, Ji Yeong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Lee, Kang Wook; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-05-01

    A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing microorganism was isolated from jeot-gal (anchovy), a Korean fermented seafood. The isolate, A156, produced GABA profusely when incubated in MRS broth with monosodium glutamate (3% (w/v)) at 37C for 48 h. A156 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The GABA conversion yield was 86% as determined by GABase enzyme assay. The gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was cloned by PCR. gadC encoding a glutamate/GABA antiporter was located immediately upstream of gadB. The operon structure of gadCB was confirmed by RT-PCR. gadB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and recombinant GAD was purified. The purified GAD was 54.4 kDa in size by SDS-PAGE. Maximum GAD activity was observed at pH 5.0 and 55C and the activity was dependent on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The Km and Vmax of GAD were 0.045 mM and 0.011 mM/min, respectively, when glutamate was used as the substrate. PMID:25791853

  12. Simultaneous Silencing of Two Arginine Decarboxylase Genes Alters Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rangel, Diana; Chávez-Martínez, Ana I.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída A.; Maruri-López, Israel; Urano, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are small aliphatic polycations that are found ubiquitously in all organisms. In plants, PAs are involved in diverse biological processes such as growth, development, and stress responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the arginine decarboxylase enzymes (ADC1 and 2) catalyze the first step of PA biosynthesis. For a better understanding of PA biological functions, mutants in PA biosynthesis have been generated; however, the double adc1/adc2 mutant is not viable in A. thaliana. In this study, we generated non-lethal A. thaliana lines through an artificial microRNA that simultaneously silenced the two ADC genes (amiR:ADC). The generated transgenic lines (amiR:ADC-L1 and -L2) showed reduced AtADC1 and AtADC2 transcript levels. For further analyses the amiR:ADC-L2 line was selected. We found that the amiR:ADC-L2 line showed a significant decrease of their PA levels. The co-silencing revealed a stunted growth in A. thaliana seedlings, plantlets and delay in its flowering rate; these phenotypes were reverted with PA treatment. In addition, amiR:ADC-L2 plants displayed two seed phenotypes, such as yellow and brownish seeds. The yellow mutant seeds were smaller than adc1, adc2 mutants and wild type seeds; however, the brownish were the smallest seeds with arrested embryos at the torpedo stage. These data reinforce the importance of PA homeostasis in the plant development processes. PMID:27014322

  13. Structural analysis of Bacillus pumilus phenolic acid decarboxylase, a lipocalin-fold enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Matte, Allan; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Abokitse, Kofi; Lau, Peter C.K.

    2012-04-30

    The decarboxylation of phenolic acids, including ferulic and p-coumaric acids, to their corresponding vinyl derivatives is of importance in the flavoring and polymer industries. Here, the crystal structure of phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) from Bacillus pumilus strain UI-670 is reported. The enzyme is a 161-residue polypeptide that forms dimers both in the crystal and in solution. The structure of PAD as determined by X-ray crystallography revealed a -barrel structure and two -helices, with a cleft formed at one edge of the barrel. The PAD structure resembles those of the lipocalin-fold proteins, which often bind hydrophobic ligands. Superposition of structurally related proteins bound to their cognate ligands shows that they and PAD bind their ligands in a conserved location within the -barrel. Analysis of the residue-conservation pattern for PAD-related sequences mapped onto the PAD structure reveals that the conservation mainly includes residues found within the hydrophobic core of the protein, defining a common lipocalin-like fold for this enzyme family. A narrow cleft containing several conserved amino acids was observed as a structural feature and a potential ligand-binding site.

  14. Ornithine decarboxylase and extracellular polyamines regulate microvascular sprouting and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharzewska, Paulina; Welch, Johanna E.; Svensson, Katrin J.; Belting, Mattias

    2010-10-01

    The polyamines are essential for cancer cell proliferation during tumorigenesis. Targeted inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), i.e. a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, by {alpha}-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has shown anti-neoplastic activity in various experimental models. This activity has mainly been attributed to the anti-proliferative effect of DFMO in cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence that unperturbed ODC activity is a requirement for proper microvessel sprouting ex vivo as well as the migration of primary human endothelial cells. DFMO-mediated ODC inhibition was reversed by extracellular polyamine supplementation, showing that anti-angiogenic effects of DFMO were specifically related to polyamine levels. ODC inhibition was associated with an abnormal morphology of the actin cytoskeleton during cell spreading and migration. Moreover, our data suggest that de-regulated actin cytoskeleton dynamics in DFMO treated endothelial cells may be related to constitutive activation of the small GTPase CDC42, i.e. a well-known regulator of cell motility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. These insights into the potential role of polyamines in angiogenesis should stimulate further studies testing the combined anti-tumor effect of polyamine inhibition and established anti-angiogenic therapies in vivo.

  15. Detection of mutations in the glycine decarboxylase gene in patients with nonketotic hyperglycinaemia.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Loryn; Edkins, Edward; Greed, Lawrence; Lewis, Barry

    2005-02-01

    Nonketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial glycine cleavage enzyme. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the P-protein, one of the four components of the glycine cleavage enzyme, also known as glycine decarboxylase (GLDC). Previous studies searching for causative mutations in NKH patients have only looked for a limited number of specific mutations or only screened part of the gene, and in many cases either no mutation or only one mutation was found, which is of limited use for prenatal diagnosis. In this study, we describe the screening of the entire GLDC gene in 3 NKH families by D-HPLC analysis of all 25 exons, identifying two point mutations and two large deletions (exon 8 and exons 2-15) using a combination of D-HPLC analysis, long range PCR, Southern blot and sequencing. For complete prenatal testing both mutations need to be identified, and we suggest that screening of the entire gene as well as deletional analysis should be considered in those subjects where only one mutation has been identified. PMID:15670722

  16. Highly active and stable oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na? pump complex for structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Michio; Li, Xiaodan

    2015-11-01

    The oxaloacetate decarboxylase primary Na(+) pump (Oad) produces energy for the surviving of some pathogenic bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Oad composes of three subunits: Oad-?, a biotinylated soluble subunit and catalyzes the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate; Oad-?, a transmembrane subunit and functions as a Na(+) pump; and Oad-?, a single transmembrane ?-helical anchor subunit and assembles Oad-?/?/? complex. The molecular mechanism of Oad complex coupling the exothermic decarboxylation to generate the Na(+) electrochemical gradient remains unsolved. Our biophysical and biochemical studies suggested that the stoichiometry of Oad complex from Vibrio cholerae composed of ?, ?, ? in 4:2:2 stoichiometry not that of 4:4:4. The high-resolution structure determination of the Oad complex would reveal the energetic transformation mechanism from the catalytical soluble ? subunit to membrane ? subunit. Sufficient amount stable, conformational homogenous and active Oad complex with the right stoichiometry is the prerequisite for structural analysis. Here we report an easy and reproducible protocol to obtain high quantity and quality Oad complex protein for structural analysis. PMID:25986323

  17. Glycine decarboxylase deficiency causes neural tube defects and features of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Jin; Leung, Kit-Yi; Savery, Dawn; Hutchin, Tim; Prunty, Helen; Heales, Simon; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Brosnan, John T.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) acts in the glycine cleavage system to decarboxylate glycine and transfer a one-carbon unit into folate one-carbon metabolism. GLDC mutations cause a rare recessive disease non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Mutations have also been identified in patients with neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the relationship between NKH and NTDs is unclear. We show that reduced expression of Gldc in mice suppresses glycine cleavage system activity and causes two distinct disease phenotypes. Mutant embryos develop partially penetrant NTDs while surviving mice exhibit post-natal features of NKH including glycine accumulation, early lethality and hydrocephalus. In addition to elevated glycine, Gldc disruption also results in abnormal tissue folate profiles, with depletion of one-carbon-carrying folates, as well as growth retardation and reduced cellular proliferation. Formate treatment normalizes the folate profile, restores embryonic growth and prevents NTDs, suggesting that Gldc deficiency causes NTDs through limiting supply of one-carbon units from mitochondrial folate metabolism. PMID:25736695

  18. Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase gene expression by the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1.

    PubMed Central

    Moshier, J A; Skunca, M; Wu, W; Boppana, S M; Rauscher, F J; Dosescu, J

    1996-01-01

    The importance of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to cell proliferation is underscored by the complex array of cell-specific mechanisms invoked to regulate its synthesis and activity. Misregulation of ODC has severe negative consequences on normal cell function, including the acquisition of tumorigenic growth properties by cells overexpressing ODC. We hypothesize that ODC gene expression is a candidate target for the anti-proliferative function of certain tumor suppressors. Here we show that the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1 binds to multiple sites within the human ODC promoter, as determined by DNase I protection and methylation interference assays. The expression of WT1 in transfected HCT 116, NIH/3T3 and HepG2 cells represses activity of the ODC promoter controlling expression of a luciferase reporter gene. In contrast WT1 expression enhances ODC promoter activity in SV40-transfected HepG2 cells. Both the extent of modulation of ODC gene expression and the mediating WT1 binding elements are cell specific. Constructs expressing WT1 deletion mutants implicate two regions required for repressor function, as well as an intrinsic activation domain. Understanding the regulation of ODC gene expression by WT1 may provide valuable insights into the roles of both WT1 and ODC in development and tumorigenesis. PMID:8604351

  19. Tryptamine-induced resistance in tryptophan decarboxylase transgenic poplar and tobacco plants against their specific herbivores.

    PubMed

    Gill, Rishi I S; Ellis, Brian E; Isman, Murray B

    2003-04-01

    The presence of amines and their derivatives in plant tissues is known to influence insect feeding and reproduction. The enzyme tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of tryptophan to tryptamine, which is both a bioactive amine and a precursor of other indole derivatives. Transgenic poplar and tobacco plants ectopically expressing TDC1 accumulated elevated levels of tryptamine without affecting plant growth and development. This accumulation was consistently associated with adverse effects on feeding behavior and physiology of Malacosoma disstria Hub. (forest tent caterpillar, FTC) and Manduca sexta L. (tobacco hornworm, THW). Behavior studies with FTC and THW larvae showed that acceptability of the leaf tissue to larvae was inversely related to foliar tryptamine levels. Physiological studies with FTC and THW larvae showed that consumption of leaf tissue from the transgenic lines is deleterious to larvae growth, apparently due to a postingestive mechanism. Thus, ectopic expression of TDC1 can allow sufficient tryptamine to accumulate in poplar and tobacco leaf tissue to suppress significantly the growth of insect pests that normally feed on these plants. PMID:12775143

  20. The gene PatG involved in the biosynthesis pathway of patulin, a food-borne mycotoxin, encodes a 6-methylsalicylic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tadrist, Souria; Laffitte, Joelle; Jamin, Emilien L; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by fungal genera such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It induces neurological, gastrointestinal and immunological effects, which is why patulin belongs to a short list of mycotoxins whose level in food is regulated in many countries around the world. Recently, a cluster gathering 15 genes involved in the biosynthesis of patulin has been identified in Aspergillus clavatus, but so far, only 4 genes encoding 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase, m-cresol hydroxylase, m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol hydroxylase and isoepoxydon dehydrogenase have been characterized. Previous studies have shown the involvement of a decarboxylase in the transformation of 6-methylsalicylic acid, the first stable patulin precursor, into m-cresol. In this study a putative decarboxylase gene, PatG, was identified in the genome sequence of A. clavatus. This gene is located near two P450 cytochrome genes PatH and PatI responsible respectively for the hydroxylation of m-cresol and m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. This decarboxylase encoded by PatG (ACLA_093620) consists of 325 amino acids. The search for putative conserved domain revealed that the gene product belongs to the AminoCarboxyMuconate Semialdehyde Decarboxylase (ACMSD) related protein family. This family includes decarboxylases such as the γ-resorcylate decarboxylase or o-pyrocatechuate decarboxylase. The substrates of these enzymes display strong structural similarities with 6-methylsalicylic acid. PatG was strongly expressed during patulin production whereas it was very weakly expressed in non-patulin permissive conditions. The coding sequence was used to enable heterologous expression of functional enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The presence of decarboxylase was confirmed by Western blot. The bioconversion assays showed that PATG catalyzed the decarboxylation of 6-methylsalicylic acid into m-cresol. These results confirm for the first time that 6-methylsalicylic acid is the substrate for PATG, the 6-methylsalicylic acid decarboxylase. With this study, the four genes involved in the four first steps of patulin biosynthesis pathway (acetate→gentisyl alcohol) are now identified. PMID:24334092

  1. Identification in Haloferax volcanii of Phosphomevalonate Decarboxylase and Isopentenyl Phosphate Kinase as Catalysts of the Terminal Enzyme Reactions in an Archaeal Alternate Mevalonate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    VanNice, John C.; Skaff, D. Andrew; Keightley, Andrew; Addo, James K.; Wyckoff, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    Mevalonate (MVA) metabolism provides the isoprenoids used in archaeal lipid biosynthesis. In synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the classical MVA pathway involves decarboxylation of mevalonate diphosphate, while an alternate pathway has been proposed to involve decarboxylation of mevalonate monophosphate. To identify the enzymes responsible for metabolism of mevalonate 5-phosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate in Haloferax volcanii, two open reading frames (HVO_2762 and HVO_1412) were selected for expression and characterization. Characterization of these proteins indicated that one enzyme is an isopentenyl phosphate kinase that forms isopentenyl diphosphate (in a reaction analogous to that of Methanococcus jannaschii MJ0044). The second enzyme exhibits a decarboxylase activity that has never been directly attributed to this protein or any homologous protein. It catalyzes the synthesis of isopentenyl phosphate from mevalonate monophosphate, a reaction that has been proposed but never demonstrated by direct experimental proof, which is provided in this account. This enzyme, phosphomevalonate decarboxylase (PMD), exhibits strong inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate monophosphate but negligible inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (a potent inhibitor of the classical mevalonate pathway), reinforcing its selectivity for monophosphorylated ligands. Inhibition by the fluorinated analog also suggests that the PMD utilizes a reaction mechanism similar to that demonstrated for the classical MVA pathway decarboxylase. These observations represent the first experimental demonstration in H. volcanii of both the phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase reactions that are required for an alternate mevalonate pathway in an archaeon. These results also represent, to our knowledge, the first identification and characterization of any phosphomevalonate decarboxylase. PMID:24375100

  2. Identification in Haloferax volcanii of phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase as catalysts of the terminal enzyme reactions in an archaeal alternate mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Vannice, John C; Skaff, D Andrew; Keightley, Andrew; Addo, James K; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Miziorko, Henry M

    2014-03-01

    Mevalonate (MVA) metabolism provides the isoprenoids used in archaeal lipid biosynthesis. In synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the classical MVA pathway involves decarboxylation of mevalonate diphosphate, while an alternate pathway has been proposed to involve decarboxylation of mevalonate monophosphate. To identify the enzymes responsible for metabolism of mevalonate 5-phosphate to isopentenyl diphosphate in Haloferax volcanii, two open reading frames (HVO_2762 and HVO_1412) were selected for expression and characterization. Characterization of these proteins indicated that one enzyme is an isopentenyl phosphate kinase that forms isopentenyl diphosphate (in a reaction analogous to that of Methanococcus jannaschii MJ0044). The second enzyme exhibits a decarboxylase activity that has never been directly attributed to this protein or any homologous protein. It catalyzes the synthesis of isopentenyl phosphate from mevalonate monophosphate, a reaction that has been proposed but never demonstrated by direct experimental proof, which is provided in this account. This enzyme, phosphomevalonate decarboxylase (PMD), exhibits strong inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate monophosphate but negligible inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (a potent inhibitor of the classical mevalonate pathway), reinforcing its selectivity for monophosphorylated ligands. Inhibition by the fluorinated analog also suggests that the PMD utilizes a reaction mechanism similar to that demonstrated for the classical MVA pathway decarboxylase. These observations represent the first experimental demonstration in H. volcanii of both the phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase reactions that are required for an alternate mevalonate pathway in an archaeon. These results also represent, to our knowledge, the first identification and characterization of any phosphomevalonate decarboxylase. PMID:24375100

  3. Deficiency in phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity in the psd1 psd2 psd3 triple mutant of Arabidopsis affects phosphatidylethanolamine accumulation in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Annika; von Orlow, Melanie; Rontein, Denis; Hanson, Andrew D; Drmann, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) decarboxylase is involved in the synthesis of the abundant phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), particularly in mitochondria, in many organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animals. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three genes with sequence similarity to PS decarboxylases, and the respective gene products were functionally characterized after heterologous expression in yeast and Escherichia coli. While the PSD1 protein localizes to mitochondria, PSD2 and PSD3 are found in the endomembrane system. To study the role of PSD genes in plant phospholipid metabolism, Arabidopsis insertional mutants for psd1, psd2, and psd3 were obtained. The single mutants were decreased in PS decarboxylase activity to various extents, but mutant plants showed no obvious growth or morphological phenotype. A triple mutant, psd1 psd2 psd3, was generated that was totally devoid of PS decarboxylase activity. While the phospholipid composition in whole leaves was unchanged, the PE content in isolated mitochondria of psd1 psd2 psd3 was decreased. Therefore, the predominant proportion of PE in Arabidopsis is synthesized by alternative pathways, but a significant amount of mitochondrial PE is derived from the PS decarboxylase reaction. These results imply that, similar to yeast and animal cells, a specific phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria exists in plants. PMID:17449644

  4. Refractory status epilepticus and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in adults: presentation, treatment and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Vines, Brannon L; Miller, David W; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Amara, Amy W

    2016-03-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been implicated in refractory epilepsy. The association with refractory status epilepticus in adults has been rarely described. We discuss our experience in managing three adult patients who presented with refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. Case series with retrospective chart and literature review. Three patients without pre-existing epilepsy who presented to our institution with generalized seizures between 2013 and 2014 were identified. Seizures proved refractory to first and second-line therapies and persisted beyond 24 hours. Patient 1 was a 22-year-old female who had elevated serum GAD-Ab titres at 0.49 mmol/l (normal: <0.02) and was treated with multiple immuno- and chemotherapies, with eventual partial seizure control. Patient 2 was a 61-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l. EEG showed persistent generalized periodic discharges despite maximized therapy with anticonvulsants but no immunotherapy, resulting in withdrawal of care and discharge to nursing home. Patient 3 was a 50-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l, and was discovered to have pulmonary sarcoidosis. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in seizure resolution. Due to the responsiveness to immunotherapy, there may be an association between GAD-Abs and refractory seizures, including refractory status epilepticus. Causation cannot be established since GAD-Abs may be elevated secondary to concurrent autoimmune diseases or formed de novo in response to GAD antigen exposure by neuronal injury. Based on this report and available literature, there may be a role for immuno- and chemotherapy in the management of refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. PMID:26878120

  5. Substrate Distortion and the Catalytic Reaction Mechanism of 5-Carboxyvanillate Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, Anna; Patskovsky, Yury; Fedorov, Alexander A; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Fedorov, Elena V; Toro, Rafael; Hillerich, Brandan; Seidel, Ronald D; Richards, Nigel G J; Almo, Steven C; Raushel, Frank M

    2016-01-27

    5-Carboxyvanillate decarboxylase (LigW) catalyzes the conversion of 5-carboxyvanillate to vanillate in the biochemical pathway for the degradation of lignin. This enzyme was shown to require Mn(2+) for catalytic activity and the kinetic constants for the decarboxylation of 5-carboxyvanillate by the enzymes from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 (kcat = 2.2 s(-1) and kcat/Km = 4.0 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) and Novosphingobium aromaticivorans (kcat = 27 s(-1) and kcat/Km = 1.1 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) were determined. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were determined in the presence and absence of ligands bound in the active site. The structure of LigW from N. aromaticivorans, bound with the substrate analogue, 5-nitrovanillate (Kd = 5.0 nM), was determined to a resolution of 1.07 . The structure of this complex shows a remarkable enzyme-induced distortion of the nitro-substituent out of the plane of the phenyl ring by approximately 23. A chemical reaction mechanism for the decarboxylation of 5-carboxyvanillate by LigW was proposed on the basis of the high resolution X-ray structures determined in the presence ligands bound in the active site, mutation of active site residues, and the magnitude of the product isotope effect determined in a mixture of H2O and D2O. In the proposed reaction mechanism the enzyme facilitates the transfer of a proton to C5 of the substrate prior to the decarboxylation step. PMID:26714575

  6. Corroborative cobalt and zinc model compounds of alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconic-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD).

    PubMed

    Gtjens, Jessica; Mullins, Christopher S; Kampf, Jeff W; Thury, Pierre; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2009-01-01

    We have synthesised and characterised a series of new Co(II) complexes (1-4, 6, 7) and one new Zn(II) complex (5) employing N(3)- and N(3)O-donor ligands [biap: N,N-bis(2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)amino-propane, KBPZG: potassium N,N-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl) glycinate, KBPZA: potassium N,N-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl) alaninate, KB(i)PrPZG: potassium N,N-bis(3,5-di-iso-propylpyrazolylmethyl) glycinate, and KB((t)BuM)PZG: potassium N,N-bis(3-methyl-5-tert-butyl-pyrazolylmethyl)glycinate] as structural models of the metalloenzyme alpha-amino-beta-carboxymuconic-epsilon-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD). These complexes were characterised by several techniques including X-ray crystallographic analysis, X-band EPR, and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The crystal structures of 1, 2, 6,7 revealed that they exist as mononuclear Co(II) complexes with trigonal-bipyramidal geometry in the solid state. Compounds 3 and 5 form infinite polymeric chains of Co(II) or Zn(II) complexes, respectively, linked by the pendant carboxylate arms of the BPZG(-) ligand. By comparing the degree of distortion in the penta-coordinate complexes, defined by the Addison-parameter tau, with the value determined for the five-coordinate centres found in the active site of ACMSD, it could be seen that complexes 5 and 7 are very good matches for the geometry of the zinc(II) centre in monomer A of the native enzyme. All complexes could be seen as model compounds for the active site of the enzyme ACMSD, where the Co(II) complexes reflected the structural flexibility found in case of two histidine (His177 and His228) residues found in the active site of the enzyme. PMID:19081971

  7. Expression of properly folded human glutamate decarboxylase 65 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Papouchado, M L; Valdez, S N; Ghiringhelli, D; Poskus, E; Ermácora, M R

    1997-06-01

    Autoantibodies to the islet-cell 65-kDa variant of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) are found in most insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients many years before the appearance of clinical symptoms of the disease. As IDDM-preventive therapies may be available in the future, an international effort is taking place to develop widely applicable anti-GAD immunochemical tests. These tests would help to detect individuals at risk before the full installation of the disease and to enroll them in prevention programs. Autoantibodies to GAD65 are mostly directed to conformational epitopes, and the enzyme is a complex molecule with a prosthetic group and 15 cysteine residues. Thus, the conformational integrity of GAD65 is essential for an appropriate anti-GAD assay. Isolation of large amounts of GAD65 from pancreas or other tissues is impractical, and no successful production of properly folded GAD65 has been reported in bacteria. Native recombinant GAD65 for immunochemical tests is usually obtained from eukaryotic expression systems. Since the large-scale production of a recombinant protein in an eukaryotic system is expensive and technically difficult, we investigated the expression of GAD65 in Escherichia coli as an alternative. A number of DNA constructs intended to export the enzyme to the periplasmic space or to improve its cytoplasmic solubility were designed and tested. Our results provide a solution to the two main problems associated with the expression of GAD65 in E. coli: misfolding, leading to the formation of inclusion bodies; and the presence of alternative initiation sites for translation that causes the preferential production of truncated variants of GAD65. We describe here the production of properly folded, fully active, and immunochemically competent GAD65 as an N-terminal fusion protein with thioredoxin. An account of the reactivity of the produced protein with sera of six IDDM patients is also presented. PMID:9208924

  8. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity, polyamines, and compensatory renal hypertrophy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, M H; Etheredge, S B; Lin, S Y; Ribstein, J; Marton, L J

    1988-08-01

    We determined the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in compensatory renal hypertrophy (CRH) by relating renal ODC activity and polyamine content to kidney size, expressed as a percent of body weight, 1 wk after unilateral nephrectomy (UN). In normal rats, renal ODC activity increased from 11.0 +/- 7.4 (SD) to 36.7 +/- 15.4 pmol 14CO2.min-1.g wet wt-1 3 h after UN (P less than 0.002); 1 wk later the remaining kidney weight had increased from 0.38 to 0.46% body weight (P less than 0.001). Renal concentration of putrescine, the product of ODC's decarboxylation of ornithine, was increased 3, 8, and 48 h after UN, but concentrations of polyamines synthesized later in the pathway, spermidine and spermine, were not appreciably affected. Pretreatment with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC, as a 1% drinking water solution inhibited both base-line renal ODC activity and putrescine concentration as well as increases stimulated by UN, although concentrations of spermidine and spermine were not decreased. In these rats, CRH still occurred, since kidney weight increased from 0.36 to 0.46% (P less than 0.001). A 2% DFMO solution caused depletion of all three polyamines, but CRH took place nevertheless. In hypophysectomized rats, both increased renal ODC activity and CRH occurred as well, indicating that these two consequences of UN do not require intact pituitary function. Although increased renal ODC activity and CRH after UN are correlated in normal and hypophysectomized rats, CRH takes place in rats treated with DFMO despite inhibition of ODC activity and depletion of polyamines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3136663

  9. Spermidine mediates degradation of ornithine decarboxylase by a non-lysosomal, ubiquitin-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.R.; Gerner, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of spermidine-induced ornithine decarboxylase (OCD, E.C. 4.1.1.17) inactivation was investigated using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, maintained in serum-free medium, which display a stabilization of ODC owing to the lack of accumulation of putrescine and spermidine. Treatment of cells with 10 ..mu..M exogenous spermidine leads to rapid decay of ODC activity accompanied by a parallel decrease in enzyme protein. Analysis of the decay of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled ODC and separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed no detectable modification in ODC structure during enhanced degradation. Spermidine-mediated inactivation of ODC occurred in a temperature-dependent manner exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics over a temperature range of 22-37/sup 0/C. In cultures treated continuously, an initial lag was observed after treatment with spermidine, followed by a rapid decline in activity as an apparent critical concentration of intracellular spermidine was achieved. Treating cells at 22/sup 0/C for 3 hours with 10 ..mu.. M spermidine, followed by removal of exogenous polyamine, and then shifting to varying temperatures, resulted in rates of ODC inactivation identical with that determined with a continuous treatment. Arrhenius analysis showed that polyamine mediated inactivation of ODC occurred with an activation energy of approximately 16 kcal/mol. Treatment of cells with lysosomotrophic agents had no effect of ODC degradation. ODC turnover was not dependent on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These data support the hypothesis that spermidine regulates ODC degradation via a mechanism requiring new protein synthesis, and that this occurs via a non-lysosomal, ubiquitin-independent pathway.

  10. Histidine decarboxylase and urinary methylimidazoleacetic acid in gastric neuroendocrine cells and tumours

    PubMed Central

    Tsolakis, Apostolos V; Grimelius, Lars; Granerus, Göran; Stridsberg, Mats; Falkmer, Sture E; Janson, Eva T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study histidine decarboxylase (HDC) expression in normal and neoplastic gastric neuroendocrine cells in relationship to the main histamine metabolite. METHODS: Control tissues from fundus (n = 3) and corpus (n = 3) mucosa of six patients undergoing operations for gastric adenocarcinoma, biopsy and/or gastric surgical specimens from 64 patients with primary gastric neuroendocrine tumours (GNETs), as well as metastases from 22 of these patients, were investigated using conventional immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence with commercial antibodies vs vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2), HDC and ghrelin. The urinary excretion of the main histamine metabolite methylimidazoleacetic acid (U-MeImAA) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography in 27 of the 64 patients. RESULTS: In the gastric mucosa of the control tissues, co-localization studies identified neuroendocrine cells that showed immunoreactivity only to VMAT-2 and others with reactivity only to HDC. A third cell population co-expressed both antigens. There was no co-expression of HDC and ghrelin. Similar results were obtained in the foci of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with chronic atrophic gastritis type A and also in the tumours. The relative incidence of the three aforementioned markers varied in the tumours that were examined using conventional immunohistochemistry. All of these GNETs revealed both VMAT-2 and HDC immunoreactivity, and their metastases showed an immunohistochemical pattern and frequency similar to that of their primary tumours. In four patients, increased U-MeImAA excretion was detected, but only two of the patients exhibited related endocrine symptoms. CONCLUSION: Human enterochromaffin-like cells appear to partially co-express VMAT-2 and HDC. Co-expression of VMAT-2 and HDC might be required for increased histamine production in patients with GNETs. PMID:26715806

  11. Snapshot of a Reaction Intermediate: Analysis of Benzoylformate Decarboxylase in Complex with a Benzoylphosphonate Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gabriel S.; Kneen, Malea M.; Chakraborty, Sumit; Baykal, Ahmet T.; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; Ruby, David I.; Petsko, Gregory A.; Kenyon, George L.; McLeish, Michael J.; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2009-04-22

    Benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) is a thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent enzyme acting on aromatic substrates. In addition to its metabolic role in the mandelate pathway, BFDC shows broad substrate specificity coupled with tight stereo control in the carbon-carbon bond-forming reverse reaction, making it a useful biocatalyst for the production of chiral-hydroxy ketones. The reaction of methyl benzoylphosphonate (MBP), an analogue of the natural substrate benzoylformate, with BFDC results in the formation of a stable analogue (C2{alpha}-phosphonomandelyl-ThDP) of the covalent ThDP-substrate adduct C2{alpha}-mandelyl-ThDP. Formation of the stable adduct is confirmed both by formation of a circular dichroism band characteristic of the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomeric form of ThDP (commonly observed when ThDP forms tetrahedral complexes with its substrates) and by high-resolution mass spectrometry of the reaction mixture. In addition, the structure of BFDC with the MBP inhibitor was solved by X-ray crystallography to a spatial resolution of 1.37 {angstrom} (PDB ID 3FSJ). The electron density clearly shows formation of a tetrahedral adduct between the C2 atom of ThDP and the carbonyl carbon atom of the MBP. This adduct resembles the intermediate from the penultimate step of the carboligation reaction between benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The combination of real-time kinetic information via stopped-flow circular dichroism with steady-state data from equilibrium circular dichroism measurements and X-ray crystallography reveals details of the first step of the reaction catalyzed by BFDC. The MBP-ThDP adduct on BFDC is compared to the recently solved structure of the same adduct on benzaldehyde lyase, another ThDP-dependent enzyme capable of catalyzing aldehyde condensation with high stereospecificity.

  12. Epilepsy and hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by glutamate decarboxylase inhibitors in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Patricia; Tapia, Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme responsible for GABA synthesis, requires pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. Thiosemicarbazide (TSC) and ?-glutamyl-hydrazone (PLPGH) inhibit the free PLP-dependent isoform (GAD65) activity after systemic administration, leading to epilepsy in mice and in young, but not in adult rats. However, the competitive GAD inhibitor 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) induces convulsions in both immature and adult rats. In the present study we tested comparatively the epileptogenic and neurotoxic effects of PLPGH, TSC and MPA, administered by microdialysis in the hippocampus of adult awake rats. Cortical EEG and motor behavior were analyzed during the next 2h, and aspartate, glutamate and GABA were measured by HPLC in the microdialysis-collected fractions. Twenty-four hours after drug administration rats were fixed for histological analysis of the hippocampus. PLPGH or TSC did not affect the motor behavior, EEG or cellular morphology, although the extracellular concentration of GABA was decreased. In contrast, MPA produced intense wet-dog shakes, EEG epileptiform discharges, a >75% reduction of extracellular GABA levels and remarkable neurodegeneration of the CA1 region, with >80% neuronal loss. The systemic administration of the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 30 min before MPA did not prevent the MPA-induced epilepsy but significantly protected against its neurotoxic effect, reducing neuronal loss to <30%. We conclude that in adult awake rats, drugs acting on PLP availability have only a weak effect on GABA neurotransmission, whereas direct GAD inhibition produced by MPA induces hyperexcitation leading to epilepsy and hippocampal neurodegeneration. Because this degeneration was prevented by the blockade of NMDA receptors, we conclude that it is due to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity consequent to disinhibition of the hippocampal excitatory circuits. PMID:26354164

  13. Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jennifer L; DeMars, Paul L; Collins, Lindsay M; Stoner, Julie A; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Feasley, Christa L; Haddock, James A; Levine, Martin

    2012-10-19

    Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(), Emulsigen(), Polygen or Carbigen were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen() (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may provide protection from gingivitis if procedures are optimized. PMID:22975025

  14. Structural Basis for Nucleotide Binding and Reaction Catalysis in Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; McWhorter, William J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2012-09-17

    Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes the final step of the mevalonate pathway, the Mg{sup 2+}-ATP dependent decarboxylation of mevalonate 5-diphosphate (MVAPP), producing isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Synthesis of IPP, an isoprenoid precursor molecule that is a critical intermediate in peptidoglycan and polyisoprenoid biosynthesis, is essential in Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus spp.), and thus the enzymes of the mevalonate pathway are ideal antimicrobial targets. MDD belongs to the GHMP superfamily of metabolite kinases that have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, yet the crystallization of GHMP kinase ternary complexes has proven to be difficult. To further our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of GHMP kinases with the purpose of developing broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that target the substrate and nucleotide binding sites, we report the crystal structures of wild-type and mutant (S192A and D283A) ternary complexes of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD. Comparison of apo, MVAPP-bound, and ternary complex wild-type MDD provides structural information about the mode of substrate binding and the catalytic mechanism. Structural characterization of ternary complexes of catalytically deficient MDD S192A and D283A (k{sub cat} decreased 10{sup 3}- and 10{sup 5}-fold, respectively) provides insight into MDD function. The carboxylate side chain of invariant Asp{sup 283} functions as a catalytic base and is essential for the proper orientation of the MVAPP C3-hydroxyl group within the active site funnel. Several MDD amino acids within the conserved phosphate binding loop ('P-loop') provide key interactions, stabilizing the nucleotide triphosphoryl moiety. The crystal structures presented here provide a useful foundation for structure-based drug design.

  15. Variants Downstream of the Ornithine Decarboxylase Gene Influence Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Aspirin Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Elizabeth L.; Mott, Leila A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Baron, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased mucosal polyamine levels and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity are associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, and aspirin treatment reduces risk. Previous studies suggest that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of the ODC gene (rs2302615) may be associated with adenoma risk and/or response to aspirin chemoprevention. However, a comprehensive investigation of common genetic variation in the region of ODC gene is lacking. Using a tag SNP approach, we investigated associations between genotype or haplotype and adenoma risk among a cohort of 792 white non-Hispanic participants in a randomized trial of aspirin. Generalized linear regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for age and sex. The false discovery rate was used to account for multiple testing. Interactions terms were used to assess whether genotype modified the effect of aspirin treatment. Of 15 SNPs analyzed, 7 were statistically significantly associated with adenoma risk. However, in multiple SNP regression models, only 2 of these, located downstream of the gene, were independently associated with risk: rs11694911 (1.29 RR, 1.081.53 95% CI, P=0.005) and rs2430420 (1.20 RR, 1.031.40 95% CI, P=0.022). In addition, there was evidence that rs2430420 and rs28362380 modified the effect of aspirin treatment, whereas the previously investigated SNP, rs2302615, had no statistically significant main effect or interaction with aspirin treatment. Our findings suggest that common genetic variants located downstream (3) of the ODC gene influence risk of colorectal adenoma and may also impact the efficacy of aspirin chemoprevention. PMID:21930798

  16. Novel Interaction of Ornithine Decarboxylase with Sepiapterin Reductase Regulates Neuroblastoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Ingo; Geerts, Dirk; Feith, David J.; Mocz, Gabor; Koster, Jan; Bachmann, Andr S.

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the sentinel enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Both ODC and polyamines regulate cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and has been implicated in neurological diseases but not yet in cancer. In this study, we present compelling evidence that native ODC and SPR physically interact, and we defined the individual amino acid residues involved in both enzymes using in silico protein-protein docking simulations. The resulting heterocomplex is a surprisingly compact structure, featuring two energetically and structurally equivalent binding modes both in monomer and dimer conformations. The novel interaction between ODC and SPR proteins was confirmed under physiological conditions by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Importantly, we showed that siRNA-mediated knock-down of SPR expression significantly reduced endogenous ODC enzyme activity in NB cells, thus demonstrating the biological relevance of the ODC-SPR interaction. Finally, in a cohort of 88 human NB tumors we found that high SPR mRNA expression correlated significantly with poor survival prognosis using a Kaplan-Meier analysis (Logrank test P = 5 10?4), suggesting an oncogenic role for SPR in NB tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we showed that ODC binds SPR and thus propose a new concept in which two well-characterized biochemical pathways converge via the interaction of two enzymes. We identified SPR as a novel regulator of ODC enzyme activity, and based on clinical evidence present a model in which SPR drives ODC-mediated malignant progression in NB. PMID:24096079

  17. Chemical-genetic induction of Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Defects in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance. Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) has been a target of investigation because it reduces the concentration of malonyl-CoA, a metabolite that inhibits fatty acid oxidation. The in vivo role of muscle MCD expression in the development of insulin resistance remains unclear. Results To determine the role of MCD in skeletal muscle of diet induced obese and insulin resistant mouse models we generated mice expressing a muscle specific transgene for MCD (Tg-fMCDSkel) stabilized posttranslationally by the small molecule, Shield-1. Tg-fMCDSkel and control mice were placed on either a high fat or low fat diet for 3.5months. Obese and glucose intolerant as well as lean control Tg-fMCDSkel and nontransgenic control mice were treated with Shield-1 and changes in their body weight and insulin sensitivity were determined upon induction of MCD. Inducing MCD activity >5-fold in skeletal muscle over two weeks did not alter body weight or glucose intolerance of obese mice. MCD induction further potentiated the defects in insulin signaling of obese mice. In addition, key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation were suppressed following MCD induction. Conclusion Acute induction of MCD in the skeletal muscle of obese and glucose intolerant mice did not improve body weight and decreased insulin sensitivity compared to obese nontransgenic controls. Induction of MCD in skeletal muscle resulted in a suppression of mitochondrial oxidative genes suggesting a redundant and metabolite driven regulation of gene expression. PMID:25152047

  18. Forebrain neurons that project to the gustatory parabrachial nucleus in rat lack glutamic acid decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Lundy, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that GABA might mediate the inhibitory influence of centrifugal inputs on taste-evoked responses in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Previous studies show that activation of the gustatory cortex (GC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH) inhibits PBN taste responses, GABAergic neurons are present in these forebrain regions, and GABA reduces the input resistance of PBN neurons. The present study investigated the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD_67 ir) in GC, BNST, CeA, and LH neurons that project to the PBN in rats. After anesthesia (50 mg/kg Nembutal ip), injections of the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) were made in the physiologically defined gustatory PBN. Brain tissue containing the above forebrain structures was processed and examined for FG and GAD_67 ir. Similar to previous studies, each forebrain site contained retrograde labeled neurons. Our results suggest further that the major source of input to the PBN taste region is the CeA (608 total cells) followed by GC (257 cells), LH (106 cells), and BNST (92 cells). This suggests a differential contribution to centrifugal control of PBN taste processing. We further show that despite the presence of GAD_67 neurons in each forebrain area, co-localization was extremely rare, occurring only in 3 out of 1,063 FG labeled cells. If we assume that the influence of centrifugal input is mediated by direct projections to the gustatory region of the PBN, then GABAergic forebrain neurons apparently are not part of this descending pathway. PMID:17989138

  19. Elevated Ornithine Decarboxylase Levels Activate ATM - DNA Damage Signaling in Normal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gang; DeFeo, Karen; Hayes, Candace S.; Woster, Patrick M.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura; Gilmour, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of increased expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a key rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, on cell survival in primary cultures of keratinocytes isolated from the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice (Ker/ODC) and their normal littermates (Ker/Norm). Although elevated levels of ODC and polyamines stimulate proliferation of keratinocytes, Ker/ODC undergo apoptotic cell death within days of primary culture unlike Ker/Norm that continue to proliferate. Phosphorylation of ATM and its substrate p53 are significantly induced both in Ker/ODC and in K6/ODC transgenic skin. ChIP analyses show that the increased level of p53 in Ker/ODC is accompanied by increased recruitment of p53 to the Bax proximal promoter. ATM activation is polyamine-dependent since DFMO, a specific inhibitor of ODC activity, blocks its phosphorylation. Ker/ODC also display increased generation of H2O2, acrolein-lysine conjugates, and protein oxidation products as well as polyamine-dependent DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay and the expression of the phosphorylated form of the histone variant ?H2AX. Both ROS generation and apoptotic cell death of Ker/ODC may, at least in part, be due to induction of a polyamine catabolic pathway that generates both H2O2 and cytotoxic aldehydes, since spermine oxidase (SMO) levels are induced in Ker/ODC. In addition, treatment with MDL 72,527, an inhibitor of SMO, blocks the production of H2O2 and increases the survival of Ker/ODC. These results demonstrate a novel activation of the ATM/DNA damage signaling pathway in response to increased ODC activity in nontumorigenic keratinocytes. PMID:18381427

  20. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for altered expression of ornithine decarboxylase in overproducing variant cells.

    PubMed Central

    McConlogue, L; Dana, S L; Coffino, P

    1986-01-01

    We selected and characterized a series of mouse S49 cell variants that overproduce ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Previously, we described variants that have an amplified ODC gene and produce about 500-fold more ODC than the wild-type cells of origin (L. McConlogue and P. Coffino, J. Biol. Chem. 258:12083-12086, 1983). We examined a series of independent variants that overproduce ODC to a lesser degree and found that a number of mechanisms other than gene amplification are responsible for the increased ODC activity. Variants were selected for resistance to 0.1 mM difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ODC, by either a single or a multistep process. All showed increased ODC activity and increased ODC mRNA steady-state levels. The half-life of the enzyme was not increased in any of the variants. In one class of variant the increase of ODC mRNA was sufficient to account for ODC overproduction. In a second class, the rate of synthesis of ODC polypeptide per ODC mRNA was at least four- to eightfold higher than that in wild-type cells. Therefore, these variants were altered in the translatability of ODC mRNA. Southern analysis showed that gene amplification does not account for the increased ODC mRNA levels in any of the variants. In both variant and wild-type cells, ODC activity was responsive to changes in polyamine pools; activity was reduced following augmentation of pool size. This change in activity was associated with modification of the rate of synthesis and degradation of ODC but no change in the level of ODC mRNA. Images PMID:3023951

  1. Inhibition of histidine decarboxylase ablates the autocrine tumorigenic effects of histamine in human cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Heather; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Onori, Paolo; White, Mellanie; Gaudio, Eugenio; Francis, Taylor; Greene, John F; Tran, Steve; Meininger, Cynthia J; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Background In several tumours the endogenous activity of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme stimulating histamine synthesis, sustains the autocrine trophic effect of histamine on cancer progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is a biliary cancer with limited treatment options. Histamine interacts with four G-protein coupled receptors, H1H4 histamine receptors (HRs). Objective To determine the effects of histamine stimulation and inhibition of histamine synthesis (by modulation of HDC) on cholangiocarcinoma growth. Methods In vitro studies were performed using multiple human cholangiocarcinoma lines. The expression levels of the histamine synthetic machinery and HRs were evaluated along with the effects of histamine stimulation and inhibition on cholangiocarcinoma proliferation. A xenograft tumour model was used to measure tumour volume after treatment with histamine or inhibition of histamine synthesis by manipulation of HDC. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was measured in cholangiocarcinoma cells concomitant with the evaluation of the expression of CD31 in endothelial cells in the tumour microenvironment. Results Cholangiocarcinoma cells display (1) enhanced HDC and decreased monoamine oxidase B expression resulting in increased histamine secretion; and (2) increased expression of H1H4 HRs. Inhibition of HDC and antagonising H1HR decreased histamine secretion in Mz-ChA-1 cells. Long-term treatment with histamine increased proliferation and VEGF expression in cholangiocarcinoma that was blocked by HDC inhibitor and the H1HR antagonist. In nude mice, histamine increased tumour growth (up to 25%) and VEGF expression whereas inhibition of histamine synthesis (by reduction of HDC) ablated the autocrine stimulation of histamine on tumour growth (~80%) and VEGF expression. No changes in angiogenesis (evaluated by changes in CD31 immunoreactivity) were detected in the in vivo treatment groups. Conclusion The novel concept that an autocrine loop (consisting of enhanced histamine synthesis by HDC) sustains cholangiocarcinoma growth is proposed. Drug targeting of HDC may be important for treatment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:21873469

  2. Calpain Cleavage of Brain Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 Is Pathological and Impairs GABA Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Buddhala, Chandana; Suarez, Marjorie; Modi, Jigar; Prentice, Howard; Ma, Zhiyuan; Tao, Rui; Wu, Jang Yen

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that the GABA synthesizing enzyme, L-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) is cleaved to form its truncated form (tGAD65) which is 23 times more active than the full length form (fGAD65). The enzyme responsible for cleavage was later identified as calpain. Calpain is known to cleave its substrates either under a transient physiological stimulus or upon a sustained pathological insult. However, the precise role of calpain cleavage of fGAD65 is poorly understood. In this communication, we examined the cleavage of fGAD65 under diverse pathological conditions including rats under ischemia/reperfusion insult as well as rat brain synaptosomes and primary neuronal cultures subjected to excessive stimulation with high concentration of KCl. We have shown that the formation of tGAD65 progressively increases with increasing stimulus concentration both in rat brain synaptosomes and primary rat embryo cultures. More importantly, direct cleavage of synaptic vesicle - associated fGAD65 by calpain was demonstrated and the resulting tGAD65 bearing the active site of the enzyme was detached from the synaptic vesicles. Vesicular GABA transport of the newly synthesized GABA was found to be reduced in calpain treated SVs. Furthermore, we also observed that the levels of tGAD65 in the focal cerebral ischemic rat brain tissue increased corresponding to the elevation of local glutamate as indicated by microdialysis. Moreover, the levels of tGAD65 was also proportional to the degree of cell death when the primary neuronal cultures were exposed to high KCl. Based on these observations, we conclude that calpain-mediated cleavage of fGAD65 is pathological, presumably due to decrease in the activity of synaptic vesicle - associated fGAD65 resulting in a decrease in the GABA synthesis - packaging coupling process leading to reduced GABA neurotransmission. PMID:22427928

  3. Role of Glutamate Decarboxylase-like Protein 1 (GADL1) in Taurine Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingyang; Ge, Xiaomei; Ding, Haizhen; Jiang, Honglin; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript concerns the tissue-specific transcription of mouse and cattle glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and the biochemical activities of human GADL1 recombinant protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that GADL1 appears late in evolution, only being found in reptiles, birds, and mammals. RT-PCR determined that GADL1 mRNA is transcribed at high levels in mouse and cattle skeletal muscles and also in mouse kidneys. Substrate screening determined that GADL1, unlike its name implies, has no detectable GAD activity, but it is able to efficiently catalyze decarboxylation of aspartate, cysteine sulfinic acid, and cysteic acid to ?-alanine, hypotaurine, and taurine, respectively. Western blot analysis verified the presence of GADL1 in mouse muscles, kidneys, C2C12 myoblasts, and C2C12 myotubes. Incubation of the supernatant of fresh muscle or kidney extracts with cysteine sulfinic acid resulted in the detection of hypotaurine or taurine in the reaction mixtures, suggesting the possible involvement of GADL1 in taurine biosynthesis. However, when the tissue samples were incubated with aspartate, no ?-alanine production was observed. We proposed several possibilities that might explain the inactivation of ADC activity of GADL1 in tissue protein extracts. Although ?-alanine-producing activity was not detected in the supernatant of tissue protein extracts, its potential role in ?-alanine synthesis cannot be excluded. There are several inhibitors of the ADC activity of GADL1 identified. The discovery of GADL1 biochemical activities, in conjunction with its expression and activities in muscles and kidneys, provides some tangible insight toward establishing its physiological function(s). PMID:23038267

  4. Evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase can negatively modulate ornithine decarboxylase activity in cardiac myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Passariello, Catherine L; Gottardi, Davide; Cetrullo, Silvia; Zini, Maddalena; Campana, Gabriele; Tantini, Benedetta; Pignatti, Carla; Flamigni, Flavio; Guarnieri, Carlo; Caldarera, Claudio M; Stefanelli, Claudio

    2012-04-01

    The responses of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) to isoproterenol have been examined in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, AMPK represents the link between cell growth and energy availability whereas ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is essential for all growth processes and it is thought to have a role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Isoproterenol rapidly induced ODC activity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts by promoting the synthesis of the enzyme protein and this effect was counteracted by inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The increase in enzyme activity became significant between 15 and 30min after the treatment. At the same time, isoproterenol stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK? catalytic subunits (Thr172), that was associated to an increase in acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (Ser72) phosphorylation. Downregulation of both ?1 and ?2 isoforms of the AMPK catalytic subunit by siRNA to knockdown AMPK enzymatic activity, led to superinduction of ODC in isoproterenol-treated cardiomyoblasts. Downregulation of AMPK? increased ODC activity even in cells treated with other adrenergic agonists and in control cells. Analogue results were obtained in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells transfected with a shRNA construct against AMPK?. In conclusion, isoproterenol quickly activates in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts two events that seem to contrast one another. The first one, an increase in ODC activity, is linked to cell growth, whereas the second, AMPK activation, is a homeostatic mechanism that negatively modulates the first. The modulation of ODC activity by AMPK represents a mechanism that may contribute to control cell growth processes. PMID:22230191

  5. The Arginine Decarboxylase Pathways of Host and Pathogen Interact to Impact Inflammatory Pathways in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Dalluge, Joseph J.; Welchlin, Cole W.; Hughes, John; Han, Wei; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Laguna, Theresa A.; Williams, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    The arginine decarboxylase pathway, which converts arginine to agmatine, is present in both humans and most bacterial pathogens. In humans agmatine is a neurotransmitter with affinities towards ?2-adrenoreceptors, serotonin receptors, and may inhibit nitric oxide synthase. In bacteria agmatine serves as a precursor to polyamine synthesis and was recently shown to enhance biofilm development in some strains of the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We determined agmatine is at the center of a competing metabolism in the human lung during airways infections and is influenced by the metabolic phenotypes of the infecting pathogens. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was used to measure agmatine in human sputum samples from patients with cystic fibrosis, spent supernatant from clinical sputum isolates, and from bronchoalvelolar lavage fluid from mice infected with P. aeruginosa agmatine mutants. Agmatine in human sputum peaks during illness, decreased with treatment and is positively correlated with inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of the agmatine metabolic phenotype in clinical sputum isolates revealed most deplete agmatine when grown in its presence; however a minority appeared to generate large amounts of agmatine presumably driving sputum agmatine to high levels. Agmatine exposure to inflammatory cells and in mice demonstrated its role as a direct immune activator with effects on TNF-? production, likely through NF-?B activation. P. aeruginosa mutants for agmatine detection and metabolism were constructed and show the real-time evolution of host-derived agmatine in the airways during acute lung infection. These experiments also demonstrated pathogen agmatine production can upregulate the inflammatory response. As some clinical isolates have adapted to hypersecrete agmatine, these combined data would suggest agmatine is a novel target for immune modulation in the host-pathogen dynamic. PMID:25350753

  6. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Suren B; Eubig, Paul A; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6?mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAA?1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAA?1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. PMID:26543103

  7. The UDP-Glucuronate Decarboxylase Gene Family in Populus: Structure, Expression, and Association Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiaxing; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-01-01

    In woody crop plants, the oligosaccharide components of the cell wall are essential for important traits such as bioenergy content, growth, and structural wood properties. UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UXS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of UDP-xylose for the formation of xylans during cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we isolated a multigene family of seven members (PtUXS1-7) encoding UXS from Populus tomentosa, the first investigation of UXSs in a tree species. Analysis of gene structure and phylogeny showed that the PtUXS family could be divided into three groups (PtUXS1/4, PtUXS2/5, and PtUXS3/6/7), consistent with the tissue-specific expression patterns of each PtUXS. We further evaluated the functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in PtUXS1. In total, 243 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, with a high frequency of SNPs (1/18 bp) and nucleotide diversity (πT = 0.01033, θw = 0.01280). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD did not extend over the entire gene (r2<0.1, P<0.001, within 700 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analysis showed that nine SNPs (Q <0.10) and 12 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood property traits in the association population (426 individuals), with 2.70% to 12.37% of the phenotypic variation explained. Four significant single-marker associations (Q <0.10) were validated in a linkage mapping population of 1200 individuals. Also, RNA transcript accumulation varies among genotypic classes of SNP10 was further confirmed in the association population. This is the first comprehensive study of the UXS gene family in woody plants, and lays the foundation for genetic improvements of wood properties and growth in trees using genetic engineering or marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23613749

  8. Mesomere-derived glutamate decarboxylase-expressing blastocoelar mesenchyme cells of sea urchin larvae

    PubMed Central

    Katow, Hideki; Katow, Tomoko; Abe, Kouki; Ooka, Shioh; Kiyomoto, Masato; Hamanaka, Gen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ontogenetic origin of blastocoelar glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-expressing cells (GADCs) in larvae of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was elucidated. Whole-mount in situ hybridisation (WISH) detected transcription of the gene that encodes GAD in H. pulcherrimus (Hp-gad) in unfertilised eggs and all blastomeres in morulae. However, at and after the swimming blastula stage, the transcript accumulation was particularly prominent in clumps of ectodermal cells throughout the embryonic surface. During the gastrula stage, the transcripts also accumulated in the endomesoderm and certain blastocoelar cells. Consistent with the increasing number of Hp-gad transcribing cells, immunoblot analysis indicated that the relative abundance of Hp-Gad increased considerably from the early gastrula stage until the prism stage. The expression pattern of GADCs determined by immunohistochemistry was identical to the pattern of Hp-gad transcript accumulation determined using WISH. In early gastrulae, GADCs formed blastocoelar cell aggregates around the blastopore with primary mesenchyme cells. The increase in the number of blastocoelar GADCs was inversely proportional to the number of ectodermal GADCs ranging from a few percent of total GADCs in early gastrulae to 80% in late prism larvae; this depended on ingression of ectodermal GADCs into the blastocoel. Some of the blastocoelar GADCs were fluorescein-positive in the larvae that developed from the 16-cell stage chimeric embryos; these comprised fluorescein-labeled mesomeres and unlabelled macromeres and micromeres. Our finding indicates that some of the blastocoelar GADCs are derived from the mesomeres and thus they are the new group of mesenchyme cells, the tertiary mesenchyme cells. PMID:24357228

  9. Targeted overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase enhances beta-adrenergic agonist-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Shantz, L M; Feith, D J; Pegg, A E

    2001-01-01

    These studies were designed to determine the consequences of constitutive overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in the heart. Induction of ODC is known to occur in response to agents that induce cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether high ODC levels are sufficient for the development of a hypertrophic phenotype. Transgenic mice were generated with cardiac-specific expression of a stable ODC protein using the alpha-myosin heavy-chain promoter. Founder lines with >1000-fold overexpression of ODC in the heart were established, resulting in a 50-fold overaccumulation of putrescine, 4-fold elevation in spermidine, a slight increase in spermine and accumulation of large amounts of cadaverine compared with littermate controls. Despite these significant alterations in polyamines, myocardial hypertrophy, as measured by ratio of heart to body weight, did not develop, although atrial natriuretic factor RNA was slightly elevated in transgenic ventricles. However, stimulation of beta-adrenergic signalling by isoproterenol resulted in severe hypertrophy and even death in ODC-overexpressing mice without further altering polyamine levels, compared with only a mild hypertrophy in littermates. When beta1-adrenergic stimulation was blocked by simultaneous treatment with isoproterenol and the beta1 antagonist atenolol, a significant, although reduced, hypertrophy was still present in the hearts of transgenic mice, suggesting that both beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors contribute to the hypertrophic phenotype. Therefore these mice provide a model to study the in vivo co-operativity between high ODC activity and activation of other pathways leading to hypertrophy in the heart. PMID:11485548

  10. Association between the ornithine decarboxylase G316A polymorphism and breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    XU, LINPING; LONG, JIANPING; WANG, PENG; LIU, KANGDONG; MAI, LING; GUO, YONGJUN

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a significant rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, required for normal cell growth, and is highly expressed in various malignancies, including colorectal and breast cancer. In the present study, the associations between the ODC G316A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and breast cancer-specific survival were investigated. In addition, the functional effects of this SNP were examined in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The present study recruited 300 stage IIII breast cancer cases, which were diagnosed at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Zhengzhou, China) between 2002 and 2003, with follow-up visits conducted until May 2013. ODC G316A was genotyped (ODC GG vs. ODC AG/AA) in the 300 cases and the association of the genotypes with cancer-specific survival was analyzed. In the MCF-7 cell line, the ODC allele-specific binding of E-box transcription factors was determined using western blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Survival differences were observed between the two genotypes: Compared with the ODC GG genotype, patients with ODC GA/AA exhibited significantly higher survival rates (P<0.05). In cultured cells, the ODC SNP, which is flanked by two E-boxes, appeared to predict ODC promoter activity. Furthermore, the E-box activator c-MYC and repressor MAX interactor 1 were found to preferentially bind to ODC minor A-alleles compared with major G-alleles, in cultured MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that the regulation of ODC may affect survival in breast cancer patients and indicate a model in which the ODC SNP may be protective for breast adenoma recurrence and detrimental for survival following a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:26171056

  11. Eflornithine (DFMO) Prevents Progression of Pancreatic Cancer by Modulating Ornithine Decarboxylase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B.; Madka, Venkateshwar; Ritchie, Rebekah L.; Brewer, Misty; Biddick, Laura; Patlolla, Jagan Mohan R.; Sadeghi, Michael; Lightfoot, Stan; Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the key rate limiting enzyme in the polyamine synthesis pathway and it is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. We found that polyamine synthesis and modulation of ODC signaling occurs at early stages of pancreatic precursor lesions and increases as the tumor progresses in Kras activated p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Interest in use of the ODC inhibitor Eflornithine (DFMO) as a cancer chemopreventive agent has increased in recent years since ODC was shown to be transactivated by the c-myc oncogene and to cooperate with the ras oncogene in malignant transformation of epithelial tissues. We tested the effects of DFMO on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in genetically engineered Kras mice. The KrasG12D/+ mice fed DFMO at 0.1 and 0.2 % in the diet showed a significant inhibition (p<0.0001) of PDAC incidence compared with mice fed control diet. Pancreatic tumor weights were decreased by 3143% (p<0.030.001) with both doses of DFMO. DFMO at 0.1 and 0.2 % caused a significant suppression (27 and 31%, P<0.020.004) of PanIN 3 lesions (carcinoma in situ). DFMO-treated pancreas exhibited modulated ODC pathway components along with decreased proliferation and increased expression of p21/p27 as compared with pancreatic tissues derived from mice fed control diet. In summary, our preclinical data indicate that DFMO has potential for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer and should be evaluated in other PDAC models and in combination with other drugs in anticipation of future clinical trials. PMID:25248858

  12. Functional Roles of the Dimer-Interface Residues in Human Ornithine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Yun; Liu, Yi-Liang; Lin, Chih-Li; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to putrescine and is the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. ODC is a dimeric enzyme, and the active sites of this enzyme reside at the dimer interface. Once the enzyme dissociates, the enzyme activity is lost. In this paper, we investigated the roles of amino acid residues at the dimer interface regarding the dimerization, protein stability and/or enzyme activity of ODC. A multiple sequence alignment of ODC and its homologous protein antizyme inhibitor revealed that 5 of 9 residues (residues 165, 277, 331, 332 and 389) are divergent, whereas 4 (134, 169, 294 and 322) are conserved. Analytical ultracentrifugation analysis suggested that some dimer-interface amino acid residues contribute to formation of the dimer of ODC and that this dimerization results from the cooperativity of these interface residues. The quaternary structure of the sextuple mutant Y331S/Y389D/R277S/D332E/V322D/D134A was changed to a monomer rather than a dimer, and the Kd value of the mutant was 52.8 M, which is over 500-fold greater than that of the wild-type ODC (ODC_WT). In addition, most interface mutants showed low but detectable or negligible enzyme activity. Therefore, the protein stability of these interface mutants was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. These results indicate that these dimer-interface residues are important for dimer formation and, as a consequence, are critical for enzyme catalysis. PMID:25140796

  13. Human Monoclonal Islet Cell Antibodies From a Patient with Insulin- Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Reveal Glutamate Decarboxylase as the Target Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Wiltrud; Endl, Josef; Eiermann, Thomas H.; Brandt, Michael; Kientsch-Engel, Rosemarie; Thivolet, Charles; Jungfer, Herbert; Scherbaum, Werner A.

    1992-09-01

    The autoimmune phenomena associated with destruction of the β cell in pancreatic islets and development of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) include circulating islet cell antibodies. We have immortalized peripheral blood lymphocytes from prediabetic individuals and patients with newly diagnosed IDDM by Epstein-Barr virus transformation. IgG-positive cells were selected by anti-human IgG-coupled magnetic beads and expanded in cell culture. Supernatants were screened for cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies using the conventional indirect immunofluorescence test on cryostat sections of human pancreas. Six islet cell-specific B-cell lines, originating from a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM, could be stabilized on a monoclonal level. All six monoclonal islet cell antibodies (MICA 1-6) were of the IgG class. None of the MICA reacted with human thyroid, adrenal gland, anterior pituitary, liver, lung, stomach, and intestine tissues but all six reacted with pancreatic islets of different mammalian species and, in addition, with neurons of rat cerebellar cortex. MICA 1-6 were shown to recognize four distinct antigenic epitopes in islets. Islet cell antibody-positive diabetic sera but not normal human sera blocked the binding of the monoclonal antibodies to their target epitopes. Immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled human islet cell extracts revealed that a protein of identical size to the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) was a target of all MICA. Furthermore, antigen immunotrapped by the MICA from brain homogenates showed glutamate decarboxylase enzyme activity. MICA 1-6 therefore reveal glutamate decarboxylase as the predominant target antigen of cytoplasmic islet cell autoantibodies in a patient with newly diagnosed IDDM.

  14. Mechanism of Citrate Metabolism by an Oxaloacetate Decarboxylase-Deficient Mutant of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2011-01-01

    Citrate metabolism in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis IL1403(pFL3) results in the formation of two end products from the intermediate pyruvate, acetoin and acetate (A. M. Pudlik and J. S. Lolkema, J. Bacteriol. 193:706–714, 2011). Pyruvate is formed from citrate following uptake by the transporter CitP through the subsequent actions of citrate lyase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase. The present study describes the metabolic response of L. lactis when oxaloacetate accumulates in the cytoplasm. The oxaloacetate decarboxylase-deficient mutant ILCitM(pFL3) showed nearly identical rates of citrate consumption, but the end product profile in the presence of glucose shifted from mainly acetoin to only acetate. In addition, in contrast to the parental strain, the mutant strain did not generate proton motive force. Citrate consumption by the mutant strain was coupled to the excretion of oxaloacetate, with a yield of 80 to 85%. Following citrate consumption, oxaloacetate was slowly taken up by the cells and converted to pyruvate by a cryptic decarboxylase and, subsequently, to acetate. The transport of oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CitP. The parental strain IL1403(pFL3) containing CitP consumed oxaloacetate, while the original strain, IL1403, not containing CitP, did not. Moreover, oxaloacetate consumption was enhanced in the presence of l-lactate, indicating exchange between oxaloacetate and l-lactate catalyzed by CitP. Hence, when oxaloacetate inadvertently accumulates in the cytoplasm, the physiological response of L. lactis is to excrete oxaloacetate in exchange with citrate by an electroneutral mechanism catalyzed by CitP. Subsequently, in a second step, oxaloacetate is taken up by CitP and metabolized to pyruvate and acetate. PMID:21665973

  15. Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase detected in diabetes-prone BB/OK rats do not distinguish onset of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, M; Schlosser, M; Hamann, J; Vieregge, P; Lhder, F; Klting, I; Ziegler, B

    1994-01-01

    The diabetes syndrome of the BB rat resembles human Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes including the prevalence of autoantibodies to the 64 kDa Beta-cell autoantigen, which has been identified as glutamate decarboxylase. This study aimed at detecting the prevalence and level of glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies in 120-day-old diabetic and non-diabetic diabetes-prone BB/OK rats compared to those of sex- and age-matched diabetes-resistant LEW.1A rats. The antibodies were detected using semipurified glutamate decarboxylase from rat brain in two immunoassays, a direct and a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For the last assay autoantibody-containing immunoglobulins of a serum from a patient with the stiff-man syndrome were used to bind specifically the enzyme as autoantigen in plastic wells. The antibody levels measured as optical density at 490 nm (x +/- SD)/prevalence of the diabetic group (120 +/- 29 days of age) of BB/OK rats 0.57 +/- 0.29 (n = 51)/88% as well as those of the nondiabetic group (121 +/- 26 days of age) with 0.51 +/- 0.29 (n = 32)/97% was significantly increased (p < 0.01) compared to those of the diabetes-resistant control group 0.15 +/- 0.06 (n = 29)/0%. Furthermore in a 209 +/- 27-day-old group (n = 21) of non-diabetic but diabetes-prone BB/OK rats the autoantibody levels of 1.21 +/- 0.39 vs 0.51 +/- 0.26 were further significantly enhanced (p < 0.01). These results were confirmed by a sandwich assay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8056059

  16. Thermophilic, reversible gamma-resorcylate decarboxylase from Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005: purification, molecular characterization, and expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Fukuhara, Nobuhiro; Oikawa, Tadao

    2004-10-01

    We found the occurrence of thermophilic reversible gamma-resorcylate decarboxylase (gamma-RDC) in the cell extract of a bacterium isolated from natural water, Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005, and purified the enzyme to homogeneity. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be about 151 kDa by gel filtration, and that of the subunit was 37.5 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; in other words, the enzyme was a homotetramer. The enzyme was induced specifically by the addition of gamma-resorcylate to the medium. The enzyme required no coenzyme and did not act on 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate, 2-hydroxybenzoate, or 3-hydroxybenzoate. It was relatively thermostable to heat treatment, and its half-life at 50 degrees C was estimated to be 122 min; furthermore, it catalyzed the reverse carboxylation of resorcinol. The values of k(cat)/K(m) (mMu(-1) . s(-1)) for gamma-resorcylate and resorcinol at 30 degrees C and pH 7 were 13.4 and 0.098, respectively. The enzyme contains 327 amino acid residues, and sequence identities were found with those of hypothetical protein AGR C 4595p from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 (96% identity), 5-carboxyvanillate decarboxylase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis (32%), and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylases from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 (26%), Rattus norvegicus (26%), and Homo sapiens (25%). The genes (graA [1,230 bp], graB [888 bp], and graC [1,056 bp]) that are homologous to those in the resorcinol pathway also exist upstream and downstream of the gamma-RDC gene. Judging from these results, the resorcinol pathway also exists in Rhizobium sp. strain MTP-10005, and gamma-RDC probably catalyzes a reaction just before the hydroxylase in it does. PMID:15466039

  17. Improved conversion of cinnamaldehyde derivatives to diol compounds via a pyruvate decarboxylase-dependent mechanism in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Shunichi; Negishi, Yukari; Sekiya, Yusuke; Nakajima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is stereospecifically converted to (2S,3R) 5-phenylpent-4-ene-2,3-diol, an important starting material for the synthesis of biologically active compounds, by the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Immobilization of the yeast in calcium alginate capsules suppressed the formation of by-products and increased accumulation of the diol compounds. The mechanism of cinnamaldehyde conversion was investigated by using recombinant strains of Escherichia coli and S.cerevisiae carrying the pyruvate decarboxylase gene PDC1. As a result, condensation of the substrate with acetaldehyde was enhanced by PDC and flow to the diol product was altered. PMID:26228910

  18. The Biosynthesis of Thiol- and Thioether-containing Cofactors and Secondary Metabolites Catalyzed by Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur atoms are present as thiol and thioether functional groups in amino acids, coenzymes, cofactors, and various products of secondary metabolic pathways. The biosynthetic pathways for several sulfur-containing biomolecules require the substitution of sulfur for hydrogen at unreactive aliphatic or electron-rich aromatic carbon atoms. Examples discussed in this review include biotin, lipoic acid, methylthioether modifications found in some nucleic acids and proteins, and thioether cross-links found in peptide natural products. Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes use an iron-sulfur cluster to catalyze the reduction of SAM to methionine and a highly reactive 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical; this radical can abstract hydrogen atoms at unreactive positions, facilitating the introduction of a variety of functional groups. Radical SAM enzymes that catalyze sulfur insertion reactions contain a second iron-sulfur cluster that facilitates the chemistry, either by donating the cluster's endogenous sulfide or by binding and activating exogenous sulfide or sulfur-containing substrates. The use of radical chemistry involving iron-sulfur clusters is an efficient anaerobic route to the generation of carbon-sulfur bonds in cofactors, secondary metabolites, and other natural products. PMID:25477512

  19. Boron (B) deprivation increases plasma homocysteine and decreases liver S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diverse effects of B deprivation suggest that B affects a biomolecule involved in a variety of biochemical reactions. An experiment was conducted to determine whether dietary B affects the liver concentration of SAM, a frequently used enzyme substrate, especially for methylation reactions that y...

  20. Conformational Heterogeneity of the SAM-I Riboswitch Transcriptional ON State: A Chaperone-like Role for S-adenosylmethionine

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Kim, Joohyun; Jha, Shantenu; Aboul-ela, Fareed

    2016-01-01

    Riboswitches are promising targets for the design of novel antibiotics and engineering of portable genetic regulatory elements. There is evidence that variability in riboswitch properties allows tuning of expression for genes involved in different stages of biosynthetic pathways by mechanisms that are not currently understood. Here we explore the mechanism for tuning of SAM-I riboswitch folding. Most SAM-I riboswitches function at the transcriptional level by sensing the cognate ligand S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). SAM-I riboswitches orchestrate the biosynthetic pathways of cysteine, methionine and SAM, etc. We use base pair probability predictions to examine the secondary structure folding landscape of several SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We predict different folding behaviors for different SAM-I riboswitch sequences. We identify several decoy base pairing interactions involving 5 riboswitch residues that can compete with the formation of a P1 helix, a component of the ligand-bound transcription OFF state, in the absence of SAM. We hypothesize that blockage of these interactions through SAM contacts contributes to stabilization of the OFF state in the presence of ligand. We also probe folding patterns for a SAM-I riboswitch RNA using constructs with different 3 truncation points experimentally. Folding was monitored through fluorescence, susceptibility to base-catalyzed cleavage, nuclear magnetic resonance and indirectly through SAM binding. We identify key decision windows at which SAM can affect the folding pathway toward the OFF state. The presence of decoy conformations and differential sensitivities to SAM at different transcript lengths are crucial for SAM-I riboswitches to modulate gene expression in the context of global cellular metabolism. PMID:22425639

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of MppR, an Enduracididine Biosynthetic Enzyme from Streptomyces hygroscopicus: Functional Diversity in the Acetoacetate Decarboxylase-Like Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Hoppe, Robert W.; Goebel, Neal C.; Sayyed, Bilal H.; Voegtline, Tyler J.; Schwabacher, Alan W.; Zabriskie, T. Mark; Silvaggi, Nicholas R.

    2013-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid enduracididine is a critical component of the mannopeptimycins, cyclic glycopeptide antibiotics with activity against drug-resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Enduracididine is produced in Streptomyces hygroscopicus by three enzymes, MppP, MppQ, and MppR. Based on primary sequence analysis, MppP and Q are pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent aminotransferases; MppR shares low, but significant, sequence identity with acetoacetate decarboxylase. The exact reactions catalyzed by each enzyme, and the intermediates involved in the route to enduracididine are currently unknown. Herein we present biochemical and structural characterization of MppR that demonstrates a catalytic activity for this enzyme and provides clues about its role in enduracididine biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis shows that MppR belongs to a previously uncharacterized family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily (ADCSF) and suggests that MppR-like enzymes may catalyze reactions diverging from the well-characterized, prototypical ADCSF decarboxylase activity. MppR shares a high degree of structural similarity with acetoacetate decarboxylase, though the respective quaternary structures differ markedly and structural differences in the active site explain the observed loss of decarboxylase activity. The crystal structure of MppR in the presence of a mixture of pyruvate and 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde shows that MppR catalyzes the aldol condensation of these compounds and subsequent dehydration. Surprisingly, the structure of MppR in the presence of a mixture of "4-hydroxy-2-ketoarginine" and "2-ketoenduracididine" shows only the correct 4R-enantiomer of "2-ketoenduracididine" bound to the enzyme. These data, together with bioinformatic analysis of MppR homologs, identifies a novel family within the acetoacetate decarboxylase-like superfamily with divergent active site structure and, consequently, biochemical function. PMID:23758195

  2. A Second 5-Carboxyvanillate Decarboxylase Gene, ligW2, Is Important for Lignin-Related Biphenyl Catabolism in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xue; Masai, Eiji; Kasai, Daisuke; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao

    2005-01-01

    A lignin-related biphenyl compound, 5,5?-dehydrodivanillate (DDVA), is degraded to 5-carboxyvanillate (5CVA) by the enzyme reactions catalyzed by DDVA O-demethylase (LigX), meta-cleavage oxygenase (LigZ), and meta-cleavage compound hydrolase (LigY) in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. 5CVA is then transformed to vanillate by a nonoxidative 5CVA decarboxylase and is further degraded through the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway. A 5CVA decarboxylase gene, ligW, was isolated from SYK-6 (X. Peng, E. Masai, H. Kitayama, K. Harada, Y, Katayama, and M. Fukuda, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4407-4415, 2002). However, disruption of ligW slightly affected the 5CVA decarboxylase activity and the growth rate on DDVA of the mutant, suggesting the presence of an alternative 5CVA decarboxylase gene. Here we isolated a second 5CVA decarboxylase gene, ligW2, which consists of a 1,050-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 39,379 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence encoded by ligW2 exhibits 37% identity with the sequence encoded by ligW. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction product from 5CVA catalyzed by LigW2 in the presence of deuterium oxide, LigW2 was indicated to be a nonoxidative decarboxylase of 5CVA, like LigW. After disruption of ligW2, both the growth rate on DDVA and the 5CVA decarboxylase activity of the mutant were decreased to approximately 30% of the wild-type levels. The ligW ligW2 double mutant lost both the ability to grow on DDVA and the 5CVA decarboxylase activity. These results indicate that both ligW and ligW2 contribute to 5CVA degradation, although ligW2 plays the more important role in the growth of SYK-6 cells on DDVA. PMID:16151081

  3. Sunscreens block the induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase by ultraviolet-B radiation: a new way of evaluating sunscreen efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gange, R W; Mendelson, R

    1982-08-01

    Two proprietary sunscreen preparations containing para-aminobenzoic acid and sulisobenzone, respectively, were tested for their ability to block the induction of ornithine decarboxylase by medium wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. Both preparations were effective, the sunscreen treated animals requiring more radiation for ornithine decarboxylase induction. The UV dose-dependent gradients were reduced by a mean factor of 7.35 (sulisobenzone) and 15 (PABA). These figures correlate well with other in vivo sunscreen assays. This new method provides a simple and reproducible way of evaluating sunscreens in vivo. PMID:6980660

  4. Structure of the Homodimeric Glycine Decarboxylase P-protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Suggests a Mechanism for Redox Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Hasse, Dirk; Andersson, Evalena; Carlsson, Gunilla; Masloboy, Axel; Hagemann, Martin; Bauwe, Hermann; Andersson, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase, or P-protein, is a pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme in one-carbon metabolism of all organisms, in the glycine and serine catabolism of vertebrates, and in the photorespiratory pathway of oxygenic phototrophs. P-protein from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an ?2 homodimer with high homology to eukaryotic P-proteins. The crystal structure of the apoenzyme shows the C terminus locked in a closed conformation by a disulfide bond between Cys972 in the C terminus and Cys353 located in the active site. The presence of the disulfide bridge isolates the active site from solvent and hinders the binding of PLP and glycine in the active site. Variants produced by substitution of Cys972 and Cys353 by Ser using site-directed mutagenesis have distinctly lower specific activities, supporting the crucial role of these highly conserved redox-sensitive amino acid residues for P-protein activity. Reduction of the 353972 disulfide releases the C terminus and allows access to the active site. PLP and the substrate glycine bind in the active site of this reduced enzyme and appear to cause further conformational changes involving a flexible surface loop. The observation of the disulfide bond that acts to stabilize the closed form suggests a molecular mechanism for the redox-dependent activation of glycine decarboxylase observed earlier. PMID:24121504

  5. The role of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in bacillamide C biosynthesis by Bacillus atrophaeus C89

    PubMed Central

    Yuwen, Lei; Zhang, Feng-Li; Chen, Qi-Hua; Lin, Shuang-Jun; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    For biosynthesis of bacillamide C by Bacillus atrophaeus C89 associated with South China sea sponge Dysidea avara, it is hypothesized that decarboxylation from L-tryptophan to tryptamine could be performed before amidation by the downstream aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) to the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) gene cluster for biosynthesizing bacillamide C. The structural analysis of decarboxylases' known substrates in KEGG database and alignment analysis of amino acid sequence of AADC have suggested that L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine are the potential substrates of AADC. The enzymatic kinetic experiment of the recombinant AADC proved that L-tryptophan is a more reactive substrate of AADC than L-phenylalanine. Meanwhile, the AADC-catalyzed conversion of L-tryptophan into tryptamine was confirmed by means of HPLC and LC/MS. Thus during bacillamide C biosynthesis, the decarboxylation of L-tryptophan to tryptamine is likely conducted first under AADC catalysis, followed by the amidation of tryptamine with the carboxylic product of NRPS gene cluster. PMID:23628927

  6. Amino acid decarboxylase activity and other chemical characteristics as related to freshness loss in iced cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrero, M Manuela; Duflos, Guillaume; Malle, Pierre; Bouquelet, Stéphane

    2002-07-01

    Biogenic amine levels and other biochemical indicators were measured to study the safety of and the loss of freshness in iced Atlantic cod. Biogenic amine content exhibited high variability during iced storage of Atlantic cod. Ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activity apparently increased at the end of the storage period. Amino acid activity was probably generated by endogenous amino acid decarboxylases of raw fish. No statistical differences were observed in the total volatile base fraction or in the ammonia or monomethylamine contents during iced storage. However, trimethylamine contents showed a significant exponential relationship with time and sensory score. Cod formed inosine as the major metabolite of IMP. The H and G indices showed a linear relationship with time and sensory score and served as good indicators of cod freshness quality. However, the K, Ki, and P indices showed a logarithmic relationship with time and sensory score. IMP, K, Ki, and P served as indicators of freshness lost during the early stages of chilled storage of cod. PMID:12117250

  7. Structural Characterization of the Molecular Events during a Slow Substrate?Product Transition in Orotidine 5?-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P.; Pai, Emil F.

    2009-04-06

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Cg1458: a novel oxaloacetate decarboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tingting; Wang, Yu; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

    2011-08-01

    Oxaloacetate decarboxylase catalyses the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate to pyruvate and CO(2). Recently, the Corynebacterium glutamicum gene product Cg1458 was determined to be a soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase. To elucidate the mechanism of oxaloacetate decarboxylation by Cg1458, recombinant Cg1458 was purified and crystallized. The best crystal was grown from 0.2?M MgCl(2), 0.1?M Bis-Tris pH 6.0, 25%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop method. The crystals belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 124.1, c = 73.6?. The crystals are most likely to contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit, with a V(M) value of 2.27?(3)?Da(-1). A full data set was collected at 1.9? resolution using synchrotron radiation on beamline BL17U of SSRF, Shanghai, China. Structure-solution attempts by molecular replacement were successful with PDB entries 3qdf or 2dfu as the template. PMID:21821907

  9. Fatal malonyl CoA decarboxylase deficiency due to maternal uniparental isodisomy of the telomeric end of chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Malvagia, S; Papi, L; Morrone, A; Donati, M A; Ciani, F; Pasquini, E; la Marca, G; Scholte, H R; Genuardi, M; Zammarchi, E

    2007-11-01

    Malonic aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, encoded by the MLYCD gene. We report on a patient with clinical presentation in the neonatal period. Metabolic investigations led to a diagnosis of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, confirmed by decreased activity in cultured fibroblasts. High doses of carnitine and a diet low in lipids led to a reduction in malonic acid excretion, and to an improvement in his clinical conditions, but at the age of 4 months he died suddenly and unexpectedly. No autopsy was performed. Molecular analysis of the MLYCD gene performed on the proband's RNA and genomic DNA identified a previously undescribed mutation (c.772-775delACTG) which was homozygous. This mutation was present in his mother but not in his father; paternity was confirmed by microsatellite analysis. A hypothesis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) was investigated using fourteen microsatellite markers on chromosome 16, and the results confirmed maternal UPD. Maternal isodisomy of the 16q24 region led to homozygosity for the MLYCD mutant allele, causing the patient's disease. These findings are relevant for genetic counselling of couples with a previously affected child, since the recurrence risk in future pregnancies is dramatically reduced by the finding of UPD. In addition, since the patient had none of the clinical manifestations previously associated with maternal UPD 16, this case provides no support for the existence of maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 16 with a major effect on phenotype. PMID:17535268

  10. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD).

    PubMed

    Reymond, I; Sergeant, A; Tappaz, M

    1996-06-01

    The taurine biosynthesis enzyme, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), was purified to homogeneity from rat liver. Three CSD peptides generated by tryptic cleavage were isolated and partially sequenced. Two of them showed a marked homology with glutamate decarboxylase and their respective position on the CSD amino acid sequence was postulated accordingly. Using appropriate degenerated primers derived from these two peptides, a PCR amplified DNA fragment was generated from liver poly(A)+ mRNA, cloned and used as a probe to screen a rat liver cDNA library. Three cDNAs, length around 1800 bp, were isolated which all contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 493 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 55.2 kDa close to the experimental values for CSD. The encoded protein contained the sequence of the three peptides isolated from homogenous liver CSD. Our data confirm and significantly extend those recently published (Kaisaki et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1262, 79-82). Indeed, an additional base pair found 1371 bp downstream from the initiation codon led to a shift in the open reading frame which extended the carboxy-terminal end by 15 amino acid residues and altogether modified 36 amino acids. The validity of this correction is supported by the finding that the corrected reading frame encoded a peptide issued from CSD tryptic cleavage that was not encoded anywhere in the CSD sequence previously reported. PMID:8679699

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-06-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1})

  12. Two UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylases involved in the biosynthesis of a bacterial exopolysaccharide in Paenibacillus elgii.

    PubMed

    Li, Ou; Qian, Chao-Dong; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Wang, Pin-Mei; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2015-04-01

    Xylose is described as a component of bacterial exopolysaccharides in only a limited number of bacterial strains. A bacterial strain, Paenibacillus elgii, B69 was shown to be efficient in producing a xylose-containing exopolysaccharide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the genes encoding the uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronic acid decarboxylase required for the synthesis of UDP-xylose, the precursor of the exopolysaccharide. Two sequences, designated as Peuxs1 and Peuxs2, were found as the candidate genes for such enzymes. The activities of the UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylases were proven by heterologous expression and real-time nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The intracellular activity and effect of these genes on the synthesis of exopolysaccharide were further investigated by developing a thymidylate synthase based knockout system. This system was used to substitute the conventional antibiotic resistance gene system in P. elgii, a natural multi-antibiotic resistant strain. Results of intracellular nucleotide sugar analysis showed that the intracellular UDP-xylose and UDP-glucuronic acid levels were affected in Peuxs1 or Peuxs2 knockout strains. The knockout of either Peuxs1 or Peuxs2 reduced the polysaccharide production and changed the monosaccharide ratio. No polysaccharide was found in the Peuxs1/Peuxs2 double knockout strain. Our results show that P. elgii can be efficient in forming UDP-xylose, which is then used for the synthesis of xylose-containing exopolysaccharide. PMID:25573472

  13. Structural Basis of Enzymatic Activity for the Ferulic Acid Decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an “open-closed” mechanism involving a pocket of 8×8×15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer. PMID:21283705

  14. Structural basis of enzymatic activity for the ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) from Enterobacter sp. Px6-4.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen; Yang, Jinkui; Lou, Zhiyong; Liang, Lianming; Sun, Yuna; Huang, Jingwen; Li, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ferulic acid decarboxylase (FADase) catalyzes the transformation of ferulic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (4-vinylguaiacol) via non-oxidative decarboxylation. Here we report the crystal structures of the Enterobacter sp. Px6-4 FADase and the enzyme in complex with substrate analogues. Our analyses revealed that FADase possessed a half-opened bottom β-barrel with the catalytic pocket located between the middle of the core β-barrel and the helical bottom. Its structure shared a high degree of similarity with members of the phenolic acid decarboxylase (PAD) superfamily. Structural analysis revealed that FADase catalyzed reactions by an "open-closed" mechanism involving a pocket of 8 × 8 × 15 Å dimension on the surface of the enzyme. The active pocket could directly contact the solvent and allow the substrate to enter when induced by substrate analogues. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the E134A mutation decreased the enzyme activity by more than 60%, and Y21A and Y27A mutations abolished the enzyme activity completely. The combined structural and mutagenesis results suggest that during decarboxylation of ferulic acid by FADase, Trp25 and Tyr27 are required for the entering and proper orientation of the substrate while Glu134 and Asn23 participate in proton transfer. PMID:21283705

  15. Surfactant-induced chronic pruritus: Role of L-histidine decarboxylase expression and histamine production in epidermis.

    PubMed

    Inami, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Atsushi; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Shampoo and cleansers containing anionic surfactants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) often cause pruritus in humans. Daily application of 1-10% SDS for 4 days induced hind-paw scratching (an itch-related behaviour) in a concentration-dependent manner, and 10% SDS also caused dermatitis, skin dryness, barrier disruption, and an increase in skin surface pH in mice. SDS-induced scratching was inhibited by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the H histamine receptor antagonist terfenadine. Mast-cell deficiency did not inhibit SDS-induced scratching, although it almost completely depleted histamine in the dermis. Treatment with SDS increased the histamine content of the epidermis, but not that of the dermis. SDS treatment increased the gene expression and post-translation processing of L-histidine decarboxylase in the epidermis. The present results suggest that repeated application of SDS induces itch through increased production of epidermal histamine, which results from an increase in the gene expression and post-translation processing of L-histidine decarboxylase. PMID:24603881

  16. Ascorbic acid inhibits ferric nitrilotriacetate induction of ornithine decarboxylase, DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansar, S; Iqbal, M

    2015-11-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound with antioxidant properties used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. In this study, the effect of AA on ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats has been examined. Fe-NTA alone enhances ornithine decarboxylase activity to 4.5-fold and tritiated thymidine incorporation in DNA to 3.6-fold in livers compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. The enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 3.02- and 1.88-fold, respectively, at a higher dose of 2 mg AA per day per animal, compared with the Fe-NTA-treated groups. Fe-NTA treatment also enhanced the hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation to 1.7-fold compared to saline-treated controls. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving pretreatment of AA. The present data shows that AA can reciprocate the toxic effects of Fe-NTA and can serve as a potent chemopreventive agent to suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:23863956

  17. Aspartate decarboxylase (PanD) as a new target of pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wanliang; Chen, Jiazhen; Feng, Jie; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Shuo; Weng, Xinhua; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a frontline anti-tuberculosis drug that plays a crucial role in the treatment of both drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). PZA is a prodrug that is converted to its active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), by a nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase encoded by the pncA gene, the mutation of which is the major cause of PZA resistance. Although RpsA (ribosomal protein S1, involved in trans-translation) has recently been shown to be a target of POA/PZA, whole-genome sequencing has identified mutations in the panD gene encoding aspartate decarboxylase in PZA-resistant strains lacking pncA and rpsA mutations. To gain more insight into a possible new target of PZA, we isolated 30 POA-resistant mutants lacking mutations in pncA and rpsA from M. tuberculosis in vitro, and whole-genome sequencing of 3 mutants identified various mutations in the panD gene. Additionally, sequencing analysis revealed that the remaining 27 POA-resistant mutants all harbored panD mutations affecting the C-terminus of the PanD protein, with PanD M117I being the most frequent mutation (24/30, 80%). Conditional overexpression of panD from M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis or E. coli, or of M. tuberculosis mutant PanD M117I, all conferred resistance to POA and PZA in M. tuberculosis. ?-alanine and pantothenate, which are downstream products of PanD, were found to antagonize the antituberculosis activity of POA. In addition, the activity of the M. tuberculosis PanD enzyme was inhibited by POA at therapeutically relevant concentrations in a concentration-dependent manner but was not inhibited by the prodrug PZA or the control compound nicotinamide. These findings suggest that PanD represents a new target of PZA/POA. These results have implications for a better understanding of this peculiar persister drug and for the design of new drugs targeting M. tuberculosis persisters for improved treatment. PMID:26038753

  18. Antibodies to Inhibitory Synaptic Proteins in Neurological Syndromes Associated with Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Hernndez, Eugenia; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Sabater, Lidia; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) associate to different neurological syndromes. It is unknown if the diversity in syndrome association represents epitopes in different immunodominant domains or co-existence of antibodies to other proteins of the inhibitory synapsis. We examined the serum and CSF of 106 patients with anti-GAD related syndromes (39 cerebellar ataxia, 32 stiff-person syndrome [SPS], 18 epilepsy, and 17 limbic encephalitis [LE]). GAD65-ab titres were quantified by ELISA. Immunoblot was used to determine if the antibody-targeted epitopes of GAD65 and GAD67 were linear. A cell-based assay (CBA) with HEK293 cells expressing the GAD65 N-terminal, central catalytic domain, or C-terminal was used to investigate the immunodominant domains. Antibodies to GAD67, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAaR), glycine receptor (GlyR), GABAaR-associated protein (GABARAP), and gephyrin were determined with CBA. GAD-ab internalization was investigated using cultured rat hippocampal neurons. CSF GAD65-ab titres were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia and LE compared to those with SPS (p = 0.02). GAD67-ab were identified in 81% of sera and 100% of CSF. GAD65-ab recognized linear epitopes in 98% of the patients and GAD67-ab in 42% (p<0.001). The GAD65 catalytic domain was recognized by 93% of sera, and the three domains by 22% of sera and 74% of CSF (p<0.001). Six patients had GABAaR-ab and another 6 had GlyR-ab without association to distinctive symptoms. None of the patients had gephyrin- or GABARAP-ab. GAD65-ab were not internalized by live neurons. Overall, these findings show that regardless of the neurological syndrome, the CSF immune response against GAD is more widespread than that of the serum and that there is no specific association between clinical phenotype and the presence of antibodies against other proteins of the inhibitory synapsis. PMID:25774787

  19. Mechanism of the Orotidine 5’-Monophosphate Decarboxylase-Catalyzed Reaction: Evidence for Substrate Destabilization†

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kui K.; Wood, B. McKay; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Imker, Heidi J.; Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.; Almo, Steven C.; Gerlt, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5’-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (kcat/knon, 7.1 × 1016) and proficiency [(kcat/KM)/knon, 4.8 × 1022 M−1] is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (≥ 1010). The origin of the “missing” contribution, ≤ 107 (∼1017 total - ≥ 1010), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency [Wu, N., Mo, Y., Gao, J., and Pai, E. F. (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 2017−2022]. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of kcat for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analog) but have little effect on the value of kex for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis á vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and exchange provide additional evidence for a carbanionic intermediate as well as the involvement of Asp 70 in substrate destabilization. PMID:19435314

  20. Calmodulin-dependent and calmodulin-independent glutamate decarboxylases in apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous, non-proteinaceous amino acid GABA (?-aminobutyrate) accumulates in plants subjected to abiotic stresses such as chilling, O2 deficiency and elevated CO2. Recent evidence indicates that controlled atmosphere storage causes the accumulation of GABA in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit, and now there is increasing interest in the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. Here, we investigated whether this phenomenon could be mediated via Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) activation of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity. Results GAD activity in cell-free extracts of apple fruit was stimulated by Ca2+/CaM at physiological pH, but not at the acidic pH optimum. Based on bioinformatics analysis of the apple genome, three apple GAD genes were identified and their expression determined in various apple organs, including fruit. Like recombinant Arabidopsis GAD1, the activity and spectral properties of recombinant MdGAD1 and MdGAD2 were regulated by Ca2+/CaM at physiological pH and both enzymes possessed a highly conserved CaM-binding domain that was autoinhibitory. In contrast, the activity and spectral properties of recombinant MdGAD3 were not affected by Ca2+/CaM and they were much less sensitive to pH than MdGAD1, MdGAD2 and Arabidopsis GAD1; furthermore, the C-terminal region neither bound CaM nor functioned as an autoinhibitory domain. Conclusions Plant GADs typically differ from microbial and animal GAD enzymes in possessing a C-terminal 3050 amino acid residue CaM-binding domain. To date, rice GAD2 is the only exception to this generalization; notably, the C-terminal region of this enzyme still functions as an autoinhibitory domain. In the present study, apple fruit were found to contain two CaM-dependent GADs, as well as a novel CaM-independent GAD that does not possess a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. PMID:24074460

  1. Fern L-methionine decarboxylase: Kinetics and mechanism of decarboxylation and abortive transamination

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Stevenson, D.E.; Gani, D. )

    1990-08-21

    L-Methionine decarboxylase from Dryopteris filix-mas catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-methionine and a range of straight- and branched-chain L-amino acids to give the corresponding amine products. The deuterium solvent isotope effects for the decarboxylation of (2S)-methionine are {sup D}(V/K) = 6.5 and {sup D}V = 2.3, for (2S)-valine are {sup D}(V/K) = 1.9 and {sup D}V = 2.6, and for (2S)-lecuine are {sup D}(V/K) = 2.5 and {sup D}V = 1.0 at pL 5.5. At pL 6.0 and above, where the value of k{sub cat} for all of the substrates is low, the solvent isotope effects on V{sub max} for methionine are 1.1-1.2 whereas the effects on V/K remain unchanged, indicating that the solvent-sensitive transition state occurs before the first irreversible step, carbon dioxide desorption. At very high concentration, the product amine can promote transamination of the coenzyme. However, the reaction occurs infrequently and does not influence the partitioning between decarboxylation and substrate-mediated abortive transamination under steady-state turnover conditions. The partition ratio, normal catalytic versus abortive events, can be determined from the amount of substrate consumed by a known amount of enzyme at infinite time, and the rate of inactivation can be determined by measuring the decrease in enzyme activity with respect to time. Experiments conducted in deuterium oxide allowed the solvent isotope effects for the partition ratio and the abortive reaction to be determined. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopic analysis of 3-(methylthio)-1-aminopropane isolated from incubations conducted in 50 molar % deuterium oxide at pL 4.8 and at pL 6.5 indicated that the proton donor was monoprotic and, therefore, is probably the imidazolium side chain of a histidine residue.

  2. Evidence for a Dual Role of an Active Site Histidine in ?-Amino-?-Carboxymuconate-?-Semialdehyde Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lu; Fielding, Andrew J.; Chen, Yan; Li, Tingfeng; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hosler, Jonathan P.; Chen, Lirong; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Que, Lawrence; Liu, Aimin

    2012-01-01

    The previously reported crystal structures of ?-amino-?-carboxymuconate-?-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD) show a five-coordinate Zn(II)(His)3(Asp)(OH2) active site. The water ligand is H-bonded to a conserved His228 residue adjacent to the metal center in ACMSD from Pseudomonas fluorescences (PfACMSD). Site directed mutagenesis of His228 to tyrosine and glycine in the present study results in complete or significant loss of activity. Metal analysis shows that H228Y and H228G contain iron rather than zinc, indicating that this residue plays a role in metal selectivity of the protein. As-isolated H228Y displays a blue color, which is not seen in wild-type ACMSD. Quinone staining and resonance Raman analyses indicate that the blue color originates from Fe(III)-tyrosinate ligand-to-metal-charge- transfer (LMCT). Co(II)-substituted H228Y ACMSD is brown in color and exhibits an EPR spectrum showing a high-spin Co(II) center with a well-resolved 59Co (I = 7/2) eight-line hyperfine splitting pattern. The X-ray crystal structures of the as-isolated Fe-H228Y (2.8 ), Co- (2.4 ) and Znsubstituted H228Y (2.0 resolution) support the spectroscopic assignment of metal ligation of the Tyr228 residue. The crystal structure of Zn-H228G (2.6 ) was also solved. These four structures show that the water ligand present in WT Zn-ACMSD is either missing (Fe-H228Y, Co-H228Y, and Zn- H228G) or disrupted (Zn-H228Y) in response to His228 mutation. Together, these results highlight the importance of His228 for PfACMSDs metal specificity as well as maintaining a water molecule as ligand of the metal center. His228 is thus proposed to play a role in activating the metal-bound water ligand for subsequent nucleophilic attack on the substrate. PMID:22746257

  3. Identification of a tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdcA) in Streptococcus thermophilus 1TT45 and analysis of its expression and tyramine production in milk.

    PubMed

    La Gioia, Federica; Rizzotti, Lucia; Rossi, Franca; Gardini, Fausto; Tabanelli, Giulia; Torriani, Sandra

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a tyrosine decarboxylase gene (tdcA) was identified in 1 among 83 Streptococcus thermophilus strains tested. Its sequence, nearly identical to that of a tdcA of Lactobacillus curvatus, indicated a horizontal gene transfer event. Transcription in milk and the formation of critical levels of tyramine were observed in the presence of tyrosine. PMID:21131517

  4. CHLOROFORM INDUCED MULTIPLE FORMS OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE: DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF FORMS TO ENHANCEMENT BY DIETHYL MALEATE AND INHIBITION BY ODC-ANTIZYME

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously reported that chloroform induces rat liver ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). In both male and female rat liver this induction is dose-dependent and maximal 18 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (Savage et al., 1982). To distinct forms of the enzyme are induced ...

  5. EARLY BIOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF ADVERSE EFFECTS OF A NEUROBEHAVIORAL TERATOGEN: INFLUENCE OF PRENATAL METHYLMERCURY EXPOSURE ON ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE IN BRAIN AND OTHER TISSUES OF FETAL AND NEONATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an enzymatic regulator of macromolecule synthesis, has proven useful as a biochemical marker for teratologic events. Daily administration of methylmercury (0.5 or 1 mg/kg s.c.) to pregnant rats during the second and third trimesters had a profound e...

  6. Significant enhancement of methionol production by co-expression of the aminotransferase gene ARO8 and the decarboxylase gene ARO10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sheng; Lang, Tiandan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Li; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2015-03-01

    Methionol is an important volatile sulfur flavor compound, which can be produced via the Ehrlich pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aminotransferase and decarboxylase are essential enzymes catalyzing methionol biosynthesis. In this work, two aminotransferase genes ARO8 and ARO9 and one decarboxylase gene ARO10 were introduced into S. cerevisiae S288c, respectively, via an expression vector. Over-expression of ARO8 resulted in higher aminotransferase activity than that of ARO9. And the cellular decarboxylase activity was remarkably increased by over-expression of ARO10. A co-expression vector carrying both ARO8 and ARO10 was further constructed to generate the recombinant strain S810. Shaking flask experiments showed that the methionol yield from S810 reached 1.27 g L(-1), which was increased by 51.8 and 68.8% compared to that from the wild-type strain and the control strain harboring the empty vector. The fed-batch fermentation by strain S810 produced 3.24 g L(-1) of methionol after 72 h of cultivation in a bioreactor. These results demonstrated that co-expression of ARO8 and ARO10 significantly boosted the methionol production. It is the first time that more than 3.0 g L(-1) of methionol produced by genetically engineered yeast strain was reported by co-expression of the aminotransferase and decarboxylase via the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:25743068

  7. Low-pH Rescue of Acid-Sensitive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Strains by a Rhamnose-Regulated Arginine Decarboxylase System

    PubMed Central

    Willingham, Crystal; Kong, Wei; Curtiss, Roy; Roland, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    For Salmonella, transient exposure to gastric pH prepares invading bacteria for the stresses of host-cell interactions. To resist the effects of low pH, wild-type Salmonella enterica uses the acid tolerance response and the arginine decarboxylase acid resistance system. However, arginine decarboxylase is typically repressed under routine culture conditions, and for many live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, the acid tolerance response is unable to provide the necessary protection. The objective of this study was to enhance survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains at pHs 3.0 and 2.5 to compensate for the defects in the acid tolerance response imposed by mutations in rpoS, phoPQ, and fur. We placed the arginine decarboxylase system (adiA and adiC) under the control of the ParaBAD or PrhaBAD promoter to provide inducible acid resistance when cells are grown under routine culture conditions. The rhamnose-regulated promoter PrhaBAD was less sensitive to the presence of its cognate sugar than the arabinose-regulated promoter ParaBAD and provided tighter control over adiA expression. Increased survival at low pH was only observed when adiA and adiC were coregulated by rhamnose and depended on the presence of rhamnose in the culture medium and arginine in the challenge medium. Rhamnose-regulated acid resistance significantly improved the survival of ΔaroD and ΔphoPQ mutants at pHs 3 and 2.5 but only modestly improved the survival of a fur mutant. The construction of the rhamnose-regulated arginine decarboxylase system allowed us to render S. Typhi acid resistant (to pH 2.5) on demand, with survival levels approximately equivalent to that of the native arginine decarboxylase system. PMID:23645603

  8. A microassay for the determination of soluble and membrane-bound glutamate decarboxylase activity--influences of cations, lipid composition, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate on the glutamate decarboxylase binding to liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hagel, C.; Fleissner, A.; Seifert, R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radiochemical microassay for soluble and membrane-bound glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is described. Up to 180 samples can be determined per day with a variation coefficient of 2%. The method detects newly synthesized gamma-amino-n-butyric acid in the picomole range and can easily be applied to other enzymes whose substrate and product differ by charge. In an aqueous homogenate of brain (1 + 10; w/v) about 15% of the total GAD activity are spun down by centrifugation (1 h, 100,000g) increasing to 35% of the total GAD activity in solutions with 8 mM calcium chloride or 100 mM potassium acetate. There is similar dependence on the cation concentration when GAD binds to phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) as well as dependence on lipid concentration and lipid composition. The coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate has no influence on GAD binding to liposomes.

  9. Physiological relation between respiration activity and heterologous expression of selected benzoylformate decarboxylase variants in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD) from Pseudomonas putida is a biotechnologically interesting biocatalyst. It catalyses the formation of chiral 2-hydroxy ketones, which are important building blocks for stereoselective syntheses. To optimise the enzyme function often the amino acid composition is modified to improve the performance of the enzyme. So far it was assumed that a relatively small modification of the amino acid composition of a protein does not significantly influence the level of expression or media requirements. To determine, which effects these modifications might have on cultivation and product formation, six different BFD-variants with one or two altered amino acids and the wild type BFD were expressed in Escherichia coli SG13009 pKK233-2. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) as parameter for growth and metabolic activity of the different E. coli clones was monitored on-line in LB, TB and modified PanG mineral medium with the Respiratory Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS). Results Although the E. coli clones were genetically nearly identical, the kinetics of their metabolic activity surprisingly differed in the standard media applied. Three different types of OTR curves could be distinguished. Whereas the first type (clones expressing Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr or Leu476Pro) had typical OTR curves, the second type (clones expressing the wild type BFD, Ser181Thr or His281Ala) showed an early drop of OTR in LB and TB medium and a drastically reduced maximum OTR in modified PanG mineral medium. The third type (clone expressing Leu476Gln) behaved variable. Depending on the cultivation conditions, its OTR curve was similar to the first or the second type. It was shown, that the kinetics of the metabolic activity of the first type depended on the concentration of thiamine, which is a cofactor of BFD, in the medium. It was demonstrated that the cofactor binding strength of the different BFD-variants correlated with the differences in metabolic activity of their respective host strain. Conclusions The BFD-variants with high cofactor binding affinity (wild type, His281Ala, Ser181Thr) obviously extract thiamine from the medium and bind it tightly to the enzyme. This might explain the hampered growth of these clones. In contrast, growth of clones expressing variants with low cofactor binding affinity (Leu476His, Leu476Pro, Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr) is not impaired. Leu476Gln has an intermediate cofactor binding strength, thus, growth of its host strain depends on the specific cultivation conditions. This paper shows that slight differences of the amino acid composition can affect protein expression and cultivation and might require an adaptation of media components. Effects such as the observed are hardly foreseeable and difficult to detect in conventional screening processes. Via small scale experiments with on-line measurements in shake flasks such effects influencing the cultivation and product formation can be detected and avoided. PMID:20958977

  10. Stereochemically specific proton transfer in decarboxylation of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids by 4-hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase from Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Hashidoko, Y; Tahara, S

    1998-11-15

    The stereochemical specificity in the decarboxylation of E-4-hydroxycinnamic acid catalyzed by E-4-hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase (4-HCD) of Klebsiella oxytoca was investigated. Unlike the pyrolytic decarboxylation of 8-deuterated E-4-hydroxycinnamic acid to yield an equimolecular mixture of 8-Z- and 8-E-deuterated 4-hydroxystyrenes, treating 8-deuterated E-4-hydroxycinnamic acid with the enzyme in H2O-based buffer yielded 8-Z-deuterated 4-hydroxystyrene selectively. The specific E-orientation in catalysis and the substrate specificity requiring 4-OH in the substrates suggest that decarboxylation by K. oxytoca 4-HCD occurs via a para-quinone methide intermediate. Stereoselective protonation and the liberation of CO2 by an intermediary molecule are most likely the key reaction steps in the stereochemical specificity of the newly incorporated hydrogen. PMID:9808764

  11. Seven novel point mutations in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) gene in patients with familial porphyria cutanea tarda (f-PCT).

    PubMed

    Cappellini, M D; Martinez di Montemuros, F; Tavazzi, D; Fargion, S; Pizzuti, A; Comino, A; Cainelli, T; Fiorelli, G

    2001-04-01

    In this work, we describe seven novel molecular defects in the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene responsible for familial porphyria cutanea tarda in Italian subjects with reduced erythrocyte URO-D activity. Four of these molecular abnormalities (R142Q, L161Q, S219F, P235S) are missense mutations, one (Q206X) is a nonsense mutation, one (IVS8-1 G>C) is a splicing defect causing the exon 9 deletion and one (1107 G>A) is located in the 3' untranslated region of UROD gene. All the amino acid substitutions fall in conserved regions in several organisms suggesting an important role in catalysis or in the protein structure stabilization. Three of these mutations have been detected in more than one subject. These results suggest a molecular heterogeneity at the UROD locus in Italian PCT patients although recurrent mutations have been identified. PMID:11295834

  12. Aromatic amino Acid decarboxylase deficiency not responding to pyridoxine and bromocriptine therapy: case report and review of response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfadhel, Majid; Kattan, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency (MIM #608643) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of monoamines. It is caused by a mutation in the DDC gene that leads to a deficiency in the AADC enzyme. The clinical features of this condition include a combination of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin deficiencies, and a patient may present with hypotonia, oculogyric crises, sweating, hypersalivation, autonomic dysfunction, and progressive encephalopathy with severe developmental delay. We report the case of an 8-month-old boy who presented with the abovementioned symptoms and who was diagnosed with AADC deficiency based on clinical, biochemical, and molecular investigations. Treatment with bromocriptine and pyridoxine showed no improvement. These data support the findings observed among previously reported cohorts that showed poor response of this disease to current regimens. Alternative therapies are needed to ameliorate the clinical complications associated with this disorder. PMID:24453523

  13. Inhibition of Morganella morganii Histidine Decarboxylase Activity and Histamine Accumulation in Mackerel Muscle Derived from Filipendula ulumaria Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yoko; Yasukata, Fumiko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Ito, Mikiko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Ueno, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, also known as meadowsweet, is an herb; its extract was examined for the prevention of histamine production, primarily that caused by contaminated fish. The efficacy of meadowsweet was assessed using two parameters: inhibition of Morganella morganii histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and inhibition of histamine accumulation in mackerel. Ellagitannins from F. ulmaria (rugosin D, rugosin A methyl ester, tellimagrandin II, and rugosin A) were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of human HDC; and in the present work, these compounds inhibited M. morganii HDC, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.5, 4.4, 6.1, and 6.8 μM, respectively. Application of the extracts (at 2 wt%) to mackerel meat yielded significantly decreased histamine accumulation compared with treatment with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Hence, F. ulmaria exhibits inhibitory activity against bacterial HDC and might be effective for preventing food poisoning caused by histamine. PMID:26939657

  14. Engineering Salidroside Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root Cultures of Rhodiola crenulata Based on Metabolic Characterization of Tyrosine Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lingjiang; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Fei; Zheng, Weilie; Quan, Hong; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min; Huang, Wenlin; Liu, Wanhong; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine decarboxylase initializes salidroside biosynthesis. Metabolic characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase gene from Rhodiola crenulata (RcTYDC) revealed that it played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis. Recombinant 53 kDa RcTYDC converted tyrosine into tyramine. RcTYDC gene expression was induced coordinately with the expression of RcUDPGT (the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis) in SA/MeJA treatment; the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was dramatically upregulated by SA, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. MeJA also significantly increased the expression of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT in hairy root cultures. The tissue profile of RcTYDC and RcUDPGT was highly similar: highest expression levels found in stems, higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots. The gene expressing levels were consistent with the salidroside accumulation levels. This strongly suggested that RcTYDC played an important role in salidroside biosynthesis in R. crenulata. Finally, RcTYDC was used to engineering salidroside biosynthetic pathway in R. crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines showed much higher expression levels of RcTYDC than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produced tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which were respectively 3.216.84, 1.502.19 and 1.273.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines. In conclusion, RcTYDC overexpression promoted tyramine biosynthesis that facilitated more metabolic flux flowing toward the downstream pathway and as a result, the intermediate tyrosol was accumulated more that led to the increased production of the end-product salidroside. PMID:24124492

  15. Evolution and multiplicity of arginine decarboxylases in polyamine biosynthesis and essential role in Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Matthew; Hanfrey, Colin C; Murray, Ewan J; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; Michael, Anthony J

    2010-12-10

    Arginine decarboxylases (ADCs; EC 4.1.1.19) from four different protein fold families are important for polyamine biosynthesis in bacteria, archaea, and plants. Biosynthetic alanine racemase fold (AR-fold) ADC is widespread in bacteria and plants. We report the discovery and characterization of an ancestral form of the AR-fold ADC in the bacterial Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes phyla. The ancestral AR-fold ADC lacks a large insertion found in Escherichia coli and plant AR-fold ADC and is more similar to the lysine biosynthetic enzyme meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase, from which it has evolved. An E. coli acid-inducible ADC belonging to the aspartate aminotransferase fold (AAT-fold) is involved in acid resistance but not polyamine biosynthesis. We report here that the acid-inducible AAT-fold ADC has evolved from a shorter, ancestral biosynthetic AAT-fold ADC by fusion of a response regulator receiver domain protein to the N terminus. Ancestral biosynthetic AAT-fold ADC appears to be limited to firmicute bacteria. The phylogenetic distribution of different forms of ADC distinguishes bacteria from archaea, euryarchaeota from crenarchaeota, double-membraned from single-membraned bacteria, and firmicutes from actinobacteria. Our findings extend to eight the different enzyme forms carrying out the activity described by EC 4.1.1.19. ADC gene clustering reveals that polyamine biosynthesis employs diverse and exchangeable synthetic modules. We show that in Bacillus subtilis, ADC and polyamines are essential for biofilm formation, and this appears to be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved function of polyamines in bacteria. Also of relevance to human health, we found that arginine decarboxylation is the dominant pathway for polyamine biosynthesis in human gut microbiota. PMID:20876533

  16. Overproduction of Threonine Aldolase Circumvents the Biosynthetic Role of Pyruvate Decarboxylase in Glucose-Limited Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Winkler, Aaron A.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2003-01-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase-negative (Pdc?) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae require small amounts of ethanol or acetate to sustain aerobic, glucose-limited growth. This nutritional requirement has been proposed to originate from (i) a need for cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) for lipid and lysine biosynthesis and (ii) an inability to export mitochondrial acetyl-CoA to the cytosol. To test this hypothesis and to eliminate the C2 requirement of Pdc? S. cerevisiae, we attempted to introduce an alternative pathway for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. The addition of l-carnitine to growth media did not restore growth of a Pdc? strain on glucose, indicating that the C2 requirement was not solely due to the inability of S. cerevisiae to synthesize this compound. The S. cerevisiae GLY1 gene encodes threonine aldolase (EC 4.1.2.5), which catalyzes the cleavage of threonine to glycine and acetaldehyde. Overexpression of GLY1 enabled a Pdc? strain to grow under conditions of carbon limitation in chemostat cultures on glucose as the sole carbon source, indicating that acetaldehyde formed by threonine aldolase served as a precursor for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. Fractionation studies revealed a cytosolic localization of threonine aldolase. The absence of glycine in these cultures indicates that all glycine produced by threonine aldolase was either dissimilated or assimilated. These results confirm the involvement of pyruvate decarboxylase in cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. The Pdc? GLY1 overexpressing strain was still glucose sensitive with respect to growth in batch cultivations. Like any other Pdc? strain, it failed to grow on excess glucose in batch cultures and excreted pyruvate when transferred from glucose limitation to glucose excess. PMID:12676688

  17. Malate decarboxylases: evolution and roles of NAD(P)-ME isoforms in species performing C(4) and C(3) photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Maier, Alexandra; Zell, Martina B; Maurino, Veronica G

    2011-05-01

    In the C(4) pathway of photosynthesis two types of malate decarboxylases release CO(2) in bundle sheath cells, NADP- and NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME and NAD-ME), located in the chloroplasts and the mitochondria of these cells, respectively. The C(4) decarboxylases involved in C(4) photosynthesis did not evolve de novo; they were recruited from existing housekeeping isoforms. NADP-ME housekeeping isoforms would function in the control of malate levels during hypoxia, pathogen defence responses, and microspore separation, while NAD-ME participates in the respiration of malate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Recently, the existence of three enzymatic NAD-ME entities in Arabidopsis, occurring by alternative association of two subunits, was described as a novel mechanism to regulate NAD-ME activity under changing metabolic environments. The C(4) NADP-ME is thought to have evolved from a C(3) chloroplastic ancestor, which in turn would have evolved from an ancient cytosolic enzyme. In this way, the C(4) NADP-ME would have emerged through gene duplication, acquisition of a new promoter, and neo-functionalization. In contrast, there would exist a unique NAD-ME in C(4) plants, which would have been adapted to perform a dual function through changes in the kinetic and regulatory properties of the C(3) ancestors. In addition to this, for the evolution of C(4) NAD-ME, insertion of promoters or enhancers into the single-copy genes of the C(3) ancestors would have changed the expression without gene duplication. PMID:21459769

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analyses of the homodimeric glycine decarboxylase (P-protein) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hasse, Dirk; Hagemann, Martin; Andersson, Inger; Bauwe, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase, or P-protein, is a major enzyme that is involved in the C1 metabolism of all organisms and in the photorespiratory pathway of plants and cyanobacteria. The protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a homodimer with a mass of 215?kDa. Recombinant glycine decarboxylase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal-affinity, ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Crystals of P-protein that diffracted to a resolution of 2.1? were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291?K. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 96.30, b = 135.81, c = 179.08?. PMID:20124719

  19. Modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the normal and regenerating rat liver by various doses of the peptide morphogen of Hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Yarygin, K.N.; Kazimirskii, A.N.; Kositskii, G.I.; Rubina, A.Yu.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Pylaev, A.S.

    1986-11-01

    In this investigation, changes in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were studied in the normal and regenerating liver of rats receiving injections of various doses of Hydra peptide morphogen (HPM). Activity of ODC was determined by a radioisotope method based on liberation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)-ornithine. The results indicate in the author's opinion that HPM may have a role in the regulation of anabolic processes and, in particular, of regenerative processes in mammals.

  20. Alleviation of low temperature sweetening in potato by expressing Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase gene and stress-inducible rd29A : A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pinhero, Reena; Pazhekattu, Rinu; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Liu, Qiang; Yada, Rickey Y

    2011-04-01

    The acceptability of potatoes for processing chips and French fries is largely dependent on the color of the finished product. Most potato cultivars and varieties stored at temperatures below 9-10C are subjected to low temperature sweetening (LTS) which result in the production of bitter-tasting, dark colored chips and French fries which are unacceptable to consumers. However, storing tubers at low temperatures (i.e., <10C) has many advantages such as lowered weight loss during storage, natural control of sprouting, and reduction/elimination of chemical sprout inhibitors. Our earlier research results on LTS suggested a role for pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) in LTS-tolerance. In the present study, the role of PDC was examined whereby the potato variety Snowden was transformed with Arabidopsis cold-inducible pyruvate decarboxylase gene 1 (AtPDC1) under the control of promoter rd29A. Two transgenic plants were selected and storage studies were conducted on tubers harvested from one of the transgenic lines grown under green house conditions. Transgenic tubers showed higher Agtron chip color score indicating lighter chip and lower reducing sugar and sucrose concentrations compared to the untransformed tubers during the storage periods studied at 12C and 5C. These results suggest that overexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase gene resulted in low temperature sweetening tolerance in the transgenic Snowden. PMID:23573000

  1. Mapping of catalytically important residues in the rat L-histidine decarboxylase enzyme using bioinformatic and site-directed mutagenesis approaches.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, John V; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Moya-García, Aurelio A; Langlois, Michael R; Wang, Timothy C

    2004-01-01

    HDC (L-histidine decarboxylase), the enzyme responsible for the catalytic production of histamine from L-histidine, belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of vitamin B6-dependent enzymes known as the group II decarboxylases. Yet despite the obvious importance of histamine, mammalian HDC enzymes remain poorly characterized at both the biochemical and structural levels. By comparison with the recently described crystal structure of the homologous enzyme L-DOPA decarboxylase, we have been able to identify a number of conserved domains and motifs that are important also for HDC catalysis. This includes residues that were proposed to mediate events within the active site, and HDC proteins carrying mutations in these residues were inactive when expressed in reticulocyte cell lysates reactions. Our studies also suggest that a significant change in quartenary structure occurs during catalysis. This involves a protease sensitive loop, and incubating recombinant HDC with an L-histidine substrate analogue altered enzyme structure so that the loop was no longer exposed for tryptic proteolysis. In total, 27 mutant proteins were used to test the proposed importance of 34 different amino acid residues. This is the most extensive mutagenesis study yet to identify catalytically important residues in a mammalian HDC protein sequence and it provides a number of novel insights into the mechanism of histamine biosynthesis. PMID:14961766

  2. A metabolic strategy to enhance long-term survival by Phx1 through stationary phase-specific pyruvate decarboxylases in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Bähler, Jürg; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2014-07-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the stationary phase-specific transcription factor Phx1 contributes to long-term survival, stress tolerance, and meiosis. We identified Phx1-dependent genes through transcriptome analysis, and further analyzed those related with carbohydrate and thiamine metabolism, whose expression decreased in ∆phx1. Consistent with mRNA changes, the level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and TPP-utilizing pyruvate decarboxylase activity that converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde were also reduced in the mutant. Therefore, Phx1 appears to shift metabolic flux by diverting pyruvate from the TCA cycle and respiration to ethanol fermentation. Among the four predicted genes for pyruvate decarboxylase, only the Phx1-dependent genes (pdc201+ and pdc202+) contributed to long-term survival as judged by mutation and overexpression studies. These findings indicate that the Phx1-mediated long-term survival is achieved primarily through increasing the synthesis and activity of pyruvate decarboxylase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that Phx1 curtailed respiration when cells entered stationary phase. Introduction of Δphx1 mutation compromised the long-lived phenotypes of Δpka1 and Δsck2 mutants that are devoid of pro-aging kinases of nutrient-signalling pathways, and of the Δpyp1 mutant with constitutively activated stress-responsive kinase Sty1. Therefore, achievement of long-term viability through both nutrient limitation and anti-stress response appears to be dependent on Phx1. PMID:25102102

  3. A metabolic strategy to enhance long-term survival by Phx1 through stationary phase-specific pyruvate decarboxylases in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Bähler, Jürg; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2014-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the stationary phase-specific transcription factor Phx1 contributes to long-term survival, stress tolerance, and meiosis. We identified Phx1-dependent genes through transcriptome analysis, and further analyzed those related with carbohydrate and thiamine metabolism, whose expression decreased in Δphx1. Consistent with mRNA changes, the level of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and TPP-utilizing pyruvate decarboxylase activity that converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde were also reduced in the mutant. Therefore, Phx1 appears to shift metabolic flux by diverting pyruvate from the TCA cycle and respiration to ethanol fermentation. Among the four predicted genes for pyruvate decarboxylase, only the Phx1-dependent genes (pdc201+ and pdc202+) contributed to long-term survival as judged by mutation and overexpression studies. These findings indicate that the Phx1-mediated long-term survival is achieved primarily through increasing the synthesis and activity of pyruvate decarboxylase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that Phx1 curtailed respiration when cells entered stationary phase. Introduction of Δphx1 mutation compromised the long-lived phenotypes of Δpka1 and Δsck2 mutants that are devoid of pro-aging kinases of nutrient-signalling pathways, and of the Δpyp1 mutant with constitutively activated stress-responsive kinase Sty1. Therefore, achievement of long-term viability through both nutrient limitation and anti-stress response appears to be dependent on Phx1. PMID:25102102

  4. Activation of 3':5'-cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and induction of ornithine decarboxylase as early events in induction of mixed-function oxygenases.

    PubMed Central

    Byus, C V; Costa, M; Sipes, I G; Brodie, B B; Russell, D H

    1976-01-01

    The parenteral administration of a single dose of 3-methylcholanthrene to rats caused an increase in the liver of the concentration of 3', 5'-cAMP and of the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). These events were followed by an increased activity of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lase, EC 4.1.1.17), the enzyme that controls the biosynthesis of polyamines. Finally, the activity of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, as well as the amount of cytochrome P-448, was increased. Similarly, after the administration of phenobarbital, there was first an increase in the cAMP concentration and in the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, then the induction of ornithine decarboxylase, and finally, an enhanced activity of ethylmorphine N-demethylase and an increased content of cytochrome P-450. These data suggest that the drug-induced processes in liver that increase the activities of the oxidative, and presumably other, drug-metabolizing enzymes include the following sequence of events: (1) increase in cAMP concentration and/or activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase; (2) induction of ornithine decarboxylase; and, (3) induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:177981

  5. Polyamine and ornithine metabolism during the germination of conidia of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, L; McKinnon, I M; Winther, M

    1976-01-01

    1. The activities of ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and ornithine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase were studied during the first 24 h of conidial germination in Aspergillus nidulans. 2. Increases (over 100-fold) in the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase occurred during the emergence of the germ-tube and before the doubling of DNA and this was followed by a sharp fall in the activities of both enzymes by 16h. 3. The increase in ornithine decarboxylase could be largely suppressed if 0.6 mM-putrescine was added to the growth medium. 4. Low concentrations of cycloheximide, which delayed germination by 2h, caused a corresponding delay in the changes in ornithine decarboxylase activity. 5. Ornithine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity increased steadily during the first 24h of germination. 6. Ornithine or arginine in the growth medium induced higher activity of ornithine-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, but did not affect ornithine decarboxylase activity. 7. The significance of these enzyme changes during germination is discussed. PMID:791270

  6. Measurement of the number of ornithine decarboxylase molecules in rat and mouse tissues under various physiological conditions by binding of radiolabelled ?-difluoromethylornithine

    PubMed Central

    Seely, James E.; Ps, Hannu; Pegg, Anthony E.

    1982-01-01

    The binding of ?-difluoromethylornithine, an irreversible inhibitor, to ornithine decarboxylase was used to investigate the amount of enzyme present in rat liver under various conditions and in mouse kidney after treatment with androgens. Maximal binding of the drug occurred on incubation of the tissue extract for 60min with 3?m-difluoromethyl[5-14C]ornithine in the presence of pyridoxal phosphate. Under these conditions, only one protein became labelled, and this corresponded to ornithine decarboxylase, having Mr about 100000 and subunit Mr about 55000. Treatment of rats with thioacetamide or carbon tetrachloride or by partial hepatectomy produced substantial increases in ornithine decarboxylase activity and parallel increases in the amount of enzyme protein as determined by the extent of binding of difluoromethyl[5-14C]ornithine. Similarly, treatment with cycloheximide or 1,3-diaminopropane greatly decreased both the enzyme activity and the amount of difluoromethyl-[5-14C]ornithine bound to protein. In all cases, the ratio of drug bound to activity was 26fmol/unit, where 1 unit corresponds to 1nmol of substrate decarboxylated in 30min. These results indicate that even after maximal induction of the enzyme in rat liver there is only about 1ng of enzyme present per mg of protein. When mice were treated with androgens there was a substantial increase in renal ornithine decarboxylase activity, the magnitude of which depended on the strain. There was an excellent correspondence between the amount of activity present and the capacity to bind labelled ?-difluoromethylornithine in the mouse kidney extracts, but in this case the ratio of drug bound to activity was 14fmol/unit, suggesting that the mouse enzyme has a higher catalytic-centre activity. After androgen induction, the mouse kidney extracts contain about 170ng of enzyme/mg of protein. These results indicate that titration with ?-difluoromethylornithine provides a valuable method by which to quantify the amount of active ornithine decarboxylase present in mammalian tissues, and that the androgen-treated mouse kidney is a much better source for purification of the enzyme than is rat liver. PMID:6816220

  7. Manipulating pyruvate decarboxylase by addition of enzyme regulators during fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Songserm, Pajareeya; Boonkong, Wasinee; Sooksai, Sarintip; Kodama, Kentaro; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2014-11-01

    Ethanol was found as the major by-product in lactate fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Several methods have been conducted in order to limit ethanol formation, thus increasing the lactate yield. The direct way to suppress ethanol production can be done by inhibition of the responsible enzymes in the related pathway. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) are responsible for ethanol production in R. oryzae. Shunting the ethanol production pathway by targeting at PDC was attempted in this study. Three compounds including 4-methylpyrazole, glyoxylic acid, and 3-hydroxypyruvate with the in vitro reversible inhibitory effect on PDC were selected from the literature and were used to regulate the living cell of R. oryzae during the fermentation. The results show that 0.1 mM 4-methylpyrazole of which the structure resembled a thiazolium ring in thiamine diphosphate, PDC cofactor, and 1.0 ?m 3-hydroxypyruvate, pyruvate analog, effectively hampered ethanol production. Further observation on the enzyme expression indicated that these two regulators not only targeted PDC but also caused changes in ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. This was perhaps due to the living cell of R. oryzae that responded to the presence of the regulators to balance the pyruvate flux and subsequently maintain its metabolic activities. PMID:25149454

  8. Molecular identification and characterization of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene family associated with latex regeneration and stress response in rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Wang, Chuang; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-02-01

    In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs not only under anaerobic conditions but also under aerobic conditions, and involves carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the first and the key enzyme of ethanolic fermentation, which branches off the main glycolytic pathway at pyruvate. Here, four PDC genes were isolated and identified in a rubber tree, and the protein sequences they encode are very similar. The expression patterns of HbPDC4 correlated well with tapping-simulated rubber productivity in virgin rubber trees, indicating it plays an important role in regulating glycometabolism during latex regeneration. HbPDC1, HbPDC2 and HbPDC3 had striking expressional responses in leaves and bark to drought, low temperature and high temperature stresses, indicating that the HbPDC genes are involve in self-protection and defense in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses during rubber tree growth and development. To understand ethanolic fermentation in rubber trees, it will be necessary to perform an in-depth study of the regulatory pathways controlling the HbPDCs in the future. PMID:25532122

  9. Crystal Structures of Malonyl-Coenzyme A Decarboxylase Provide Insights into Its Catalytic Mechanism and Disease-Causing Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D.Sean; Forouhar, Farhad; Tran, TimothyH.; Vollmar, Melanie; Kim, YiSeul; Lew, Scott; Neely, Helen; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Shen, Yang; Xiao, Rong; Acton, ThomasB.; Everett, JohnK.; Cannone, Giuseppe; Puranik, Sriharsha; Savitsky, Pavel; Krojer, Tobias; Pilka, EwaS.; Kiyani, Wasim; Lee, WenHwa; Marsden, BrianD.; vonDelft, Frank; Allerston, CharlesK.; Spagnolo, Laura; Gileadi, Opher; Montelione, GaetanoT.; Oppermann, Udo; Yue, WyattW.; Tong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) is found from bacteria to humans, has important roles in regulating fatty acid metabolism and food intake, and is an attractive target for drug discovery. We report here four crystal structures of MCD from human, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Agrobacterium vitis, and Cupriavidus metallidurans at up to 2.3 resolution. The MCD monomer contains an N-terminal helical domain involved in oligomerization and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The four structures exhibit substantial differences in the organization of the helical domains and, consequently, the oligomeric states and intersubunit interfaces. Unexpectedly, the MCD catalytic domain is structurally homologous to those of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, especially the curacin A polyketide synthase catalytic module, with a conserved His-Ser/Thr dyad important for catalysis. Our structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, provide a molecular basis for understanding pathogenic mutations and catalysis, as well as a template for structure-based drug design. PMID:23791943

  10. Differential regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase gene expression after extinction of a recent memory vs. intermediate memory.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Susan; Ilenseer, Jasmin; Sosulina, Ludmila; Lesting, Jrg; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-05-01

    Extinction reduces fear to stimuli that were once associated with an aversive event by no longer coupling the stimulus with the aversive event. Extinction learning is supported by a network comprising the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Previous studies implicate a critical role of GABA in extinction learning, specifically the GAD65 isoform of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). However, a detailed analysis of changes in gene expression of GAD in the subregions comprising the extinction network has not been undertaken. Here, we report changes in gene expression of the GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms of GAD, as measured by relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR, in subregions of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex 24-26 h after extinction of a recent (1-d) or intermediate (14-d) fear memory. Our results show that extinction of a recent memory induces a down-regulation of Gad65 gene expression in the hippocampus (CA1, dentate gyrus) and an up-regulation of Gad67 gene expression in the infralimbic cortex. Extinguishing an intermediate memory increased Gad65 gene expression in the central amygdala. These results indicate a differential regulation of Gad gene expression after extinction of a recent memory vs. intermediate memory. PMID:22511241

  11. Enhanced production of recombinant Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase through optimization of induction strategy and addition of pyridoxine.

    PubMed

    Su, Lingqia; Huang, Yan; Wu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the optimization of recombinant Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) production from engineered E. coli BL21(DE3) in a 3-L fermentor. Investigation of different induction strategies revealed that induction was optimal when the temperature was maintained at 30C, the inducer (lactose) was fed at a rate of 0.2gL(-1)h(-1), and protein expression was induced when the cell density (OD600) reached 50. Under these conditions, the GAD activity of 1273.8UmL(-1) was achieved. Because GAD is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, the effect of supplementing the medium with pyridoxine hydrochloride (PN), a cheap and stable PLP precursor, on GAD production was also investigated. When the culture medium was supplemented with PN to a concentration of 2mM at the initiation of protein expression, and then again 10h later, the GAD activity reached 3193.4UmL(-1), which represented the highest GAD production ever reported. PMID:26364229

  12. Active site binding modes of inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase from docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Addo, James K; Skaff, D Andrew; Miziorko, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) is an attractive therapeutic target for antibacterial drug development. In this work, we discuss a combined docking and molecular dynamics strategy toward inhibitor binding to bacterial MDD. The docking parameters utilized in this study were first validated with observations for the inhibitors 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP) and diphosphoglycolylproline (DPGP) using existing structures for the Staphylococcus epidermidis enzyme. The validated docking protocol was then used to predict structures of the inhibitors bound to Staphylococcus aureus MDD using the unliganded crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus MDD. We also investigated a possible interactions improvement by combining this docking method with molecular dynamics simulations. Thus, the predicted docking structures were analyzed in a molecular dynamics trajectory to generate dynamic models and reinforce the predicted binding modes. FMVAPP is predicted to make more extensive contacts with S. aureus MDD, forming stable hydrogen bonds with Arg144, Arg193, Lys21, Ser107, and Tyr18, as well as making stable hydrophobic interactions with Tyr18, Trp19, and Met196. The differences in predicted binding are supported by experimentally determined Ki values of 0.23??0.02 and 34??8?M, for FMVAPP and DPGP, respectively. The structural information coupled with the kinetic characterization obtained from this study should be useful in defining the requirements for inhibition as well as in guiding the selection of active compounds for inhibitor optimization. PMID:26680991

  13. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  14. Effects of over-expression of strictosidine synthase and tryptophan decarboxylase on alkaloid production by cell cultures of Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Canel, C; Lopes-Cardoso, M I; Whitmer, S; van der Fits, L; Pasquali, G; van der Heijden, R; Hoge, J H; Verpoorte, R

    1998-07-01

    Cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don were genetically engineered to over-express the enzymes strictosidine synthase (STR; EC 4.3.3.2) and tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC; EC 4.1.1.28), which catalyze key steps in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). The cultures established after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation showed wide phenotypic diversity, reflecting the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway. Cultures transgenic for Str consistently showed tenfold higher STR activity than wild-type cultures, which favored biosynthetic activity through the pathway. Two such lines accumulated over 200 mg.L-1 of the glucoalkaloid strictosidine and/or strictosidine-derived TIAs, including ajmalicine, catharanthine, serpentine, and tabersonine, while maintaining wild-type levels of TDC activity. Alkaloid accumulation by highly productive transgenic lines showed considerable instability and was strongly influenced by culture conditions, such as the hormonal composition of the medium and the availability of precursors. High transgene-encoded TDC activity was not only unnecessary for increased productivity, but also detrimental to the normal growth of the cultures. In contrast, high STR activity was tolerated by the cultures and appeared to be necessary, albeit not sufficient, to sustain high rates of alkaloid biosynthesis. We conclude that constitutive over-expression of Str is highly desirable for increased TIA production. However, given its complexity, limited intervention in the TIA pathway will yield positive results only in the presence of a favorable epigenetic environment. PMID:9640666

  15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid production using immobilized glutamate decarboxylase followed by downstream processing with cation exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production technique using his-tag mediated immobilization of Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA. The GAD was obtained at 1.43 g/L from GAD-overexpressed E. coli fermentation and consisted of 59.7% monomer, 29.2% dimer and 2.3% tetramer with a 97.6% soluble form of the total GAD. The harvested GAD was immobilized to metal affinity gel with an immobilization yield of 92%. Based on an investigation of specific enzyme activity and reaction characteristics, glutamic acid (GA) was chosen over monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a substrate for immobilized GAD, resulting in conversion of 2.17 M GABA in a 1 L reactor within 100 min. The immobilized enzymes retained 58.1% of their initial activities after ten consecutive uses. By using cation exchange chromatography followed by enzymatic conversion, GABA was separated from the residual substrate and leached GAD. As a consequence, the glutamic acid was mostly removed with no detectable GAD, while 91.2% of GABA was yielded in the purification step. PMID:23322022

  16. Ach1 is involved in shuttling mitochondrial acetyl units for cytosolic C2 provision in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking pyruvate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Zhang, Yiming; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-05-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is not only an essential intermediate in central carbon metabolism, but also an important precursor metabolite for native or engineered pathways that can produce many products of commercial interest such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals or biofuels. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetyl-CoA is compartmentalized in the cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome and nucleus, and cannot be directly transported between these compartments. With the acetyl-carnitine or glyoxylate shuttle, acetyl-CoA produced in peroxisomes or the cytoplasm can be transported into the cytoplasm or the mitochondria. However, whether acetyl-CoA generated in the mitochondria can be exported to the cytoplasm is still unclear. Here, we investigated whether the transfer of acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm can occur using a pyruvate decarboxylase negative, non-fermentative yeast strain. We found that mitochondrial Ach1 can convert acetyl-CoA in this compartment into acetate, which crosses the mitochondrial membrane before being converted into acetyl-CoA in the cytosol. Based on our finding we propose a model in which acetate can be used to exchange acetyl units between mitochondria and the cytosol. These results will increase our fundamental understanding of intracellular transport of acetyl units, and also help to develop microbial cell factories for many kinds of acetyl-CoA derived products. PMID:25852051

  17. ICE1 of Poncirus trifoliata functions in cold tolerance by modulating polyamine levels through interacting with arginine decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhu, Dexin; Fu, Xingzheng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Qian; Moriguchi, Takaya; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    ICE1 (Inducer of CBF Expression 1) encodes a MYC-like basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor that acts as a central regulator of cold response. In this study, we elucidated the function and underlying mechanisms of PtrICE1 from trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. PtrICE1 was upregulated by cold, dehydration, and salt, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PtrICE1 was localized in the nucleus and could bind to a MYC-recognizing sequence. Ectopic expression of PtrICE1 in tobacco and lemon conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stresses at either chilling or freezing temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that 21 proteins belonged to the PtrICE1 interactome, in which PtADC (arginine decarboxylase) was confirmed as a bona fide protein interacting with PtrICE1. Transcript levels of ADC genes in the transgenic lines were slightly elevated under normal growth condition but substantially increased under cold conditions, consistent with changes in free polyamine levels. By contrast, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2 and O2 –, was appreciably alleviated in the transgenic lines under cold stress. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were detected in the transgenic lines under cold conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PtrICE1 plays a positive role in cold tolerance, which may be due to modulation of polyamine levels through interacting with the ADC gene. PMID:25873670

  18. Disruption of pknG enhances production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing glutamate decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a building block of the biodegradable plastic polyamide 4, is synthesized from glucose by Corynebacterium glutamicum that expresses Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) B encoded by gadB. This strain was engineered to produce GABA more efficiently from biomass-derived sugars. To enhance GABA production further by increasing the intracellular concentration of its precursor glutamate, we focused on engineering pknG (encoding serine/threonine protein kinase G), which controls the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Odh) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle branch point leading to glutamate synthesis. We succeeded in expressing GadB in a C. glutamicum strain harboring a deletion of pknG. C. glutamicum strains GAD and GAD ∆pknG were cultured in GP2 medium containing 100 g L−1 glucose and 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. Strain GAD∆pknG produced 31.1 ± 0.41 g L−1 (0.259 g L−1 h−1) of GABA in 120 hours, representing a 2.29-fold higher level compared with GAD. The production yield of GABA from glucose by GAD∆pknG reached 0.893 mol mol−1. PMID:24949255

  19. Reduction of Oxalate Levels in Tomato Fruit and Consequent Metabolic Remodeling Following Overexpression of a Fungal Oxalate Decarboxylase1[W

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-01-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  20. Antisense expression of Gossypium hirsutum UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase in Arabidopsis leads to changes in cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D M; Pan, Y X; Zhang, Y; Li, Z K; Wu, L Q; Liu, H W; Zhang, G Y; Wang, X F; Ma, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase (UDP-xylose synthase; UXS, EC 4.1.1.35) is an essential enzyme of the non-cellulosic polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, using transient expression of fluorescently labeled Gossypium hirsutum UXS (GhUXS3) protein in onion epidermal cells, we observed that this protein was distributed in the cytoplasm. The GhUXS3 cDNA of cotton was expressed in an antisense orientation in Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Homozygous plants showing down-regulation of UXS were analyzed with northern blots. Compared to the untransformed control, transgenic plant showed shorter roots, earlier blossom formation, and delayed senescence. Biochemical analysis indicated that levels of rhamnose, mannose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and cellulose were reduced in some of the down-regulated antisense plants. These results suggest that GhUXS3 regulates the conversion of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and modulates their composition in plant cell walls. We also discuss a possible cellular function for GhUXS in determining the quality of cotton fibers. PMID:26909959

  1. Hyperleptinemia, visceral adiposity, and decreased glucose tolerance in mice with a targeted disruption of the histidine decarboxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Flp, Andrs K; Fldes, Anna; Buzs, Edit; Hegyi, Krisztina; Mikls, Ildik H; Romics, Lszl; Kleiber, Monika; Nagy, Andrs; Falus, Andrs; Kovcs, Krisztina J

    2003-10-01

    Histamine has been referred to as an anorexic factor that decreases appetite and fat accumulation and affects feeding behavior. Tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons have been implicated in central mediation of peripheral metabolic signals such as leptin, and centrally released histamine inhibits ob gene expression. Here we have characterized the metabolic phenotype of mice that completely lack the ability to produce histamine because of targeted disruption of the key enzyme in histamine biosynthesis (histidine decarboxylase, HDC). Histochemical analyses confirmed the lack of HDC mRNA, histamine immunoreactivity, and histaminergic innervation throughout the brain of gene knockout mouse. Aged histamine-deficient (HDC-/-) mice are characterized by visceral adiposity, increased amount of brown adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia. Histamine-deficient animals are not hyperphagic but gain more weight and are calorically more efficient than wild-type controls. These metabolic changes presumably are due to the impaired regulatory loop between leptin and hypothalamic histamine that results in orexigenic dominance through decreased energy expenditure, attenuated ability to induce uncoupling protein-1 mRNA in the brown adipose tissue and defect in mobilizing energy stores. Our results further support the role of histamine in regulation of energy homeostasis. PMID:12960041

  2. QSAR study of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase inhibitors using GA-MLR and a new strategy of consensus modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Lei, Beilei; Liu, Huanxiang; Li, Shuyan; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Mancang; Gramatica, Paola

    2008-12-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of a series of structural diverse malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) inhibitors have been investigated by using the predictive single model as well as the consensus analysis based on a new strategy proposed by us. Self-organizing map (SOM) neural network was employed to divide the whole data set into representative training set and test set. Then a multiple linear regressions (MLR) model population was built based on the theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithm using the training set. In order to analyze the diversity of these models, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was employed to explore the model space based on the Hamming distance matrix calculated from each two models. In this space, Q(2) (cross-validated R(2)) guided model selection (QGMS) strategy was performed to select submodels. Then consensus modeling was built by two strategies, average consensus model (ACM) and weighted consensus model (WCM), where each submodel had a different weight according to the contribution of model expressed by MLR regression coefficients. The obtained results prove that QGMS is a reliable and practical method to guide the submodel selection in consensus modeling building and our weighted consensus model (WCM) strategy is superior to the simple ACM. PMID:18484640

  3. Overexpression and optimization of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus plantarum?Taj-Apis362 for high gamma-aminobutyric acid production.

    PubMed

    Tajabadi, Naser; Baradaran, Ali; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Rahim, Raha A; Bakar, Fatimah A; Manap, Mohd Yazid A; Mohammed, Abdulkarim S; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive compound biosynthesized by microorganisms through decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In this study, a full-length GAD gene was obtained by cloning the template deoxyribonucleic acid to pTZ57R/T vector. The open reading frame of the GAD gene showed the cloned gene was composed of 1410 nucleotides and encoded a 469 amino acids protein. To improve the GABA-production, the GAD gene was cloned into pMG36e-LbGAD, and then expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum?Taj-Apis362 cells. The overexpression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and GAD activity, showing a 53?KDa protein with the enzyme activity increased by sevenfold compared with the original GAD activity. The optimal fermentation conditions for GABA production established using response surface methodology were at glutamic acid concentration of 497.973?mM, temperature 36C, pH 5.31 and time 60?h. Under the conditions, maximum GABA concentration obtained (11.09?mM) was comparable with the predicted value by the model at 11.23?mM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful cloning (clone-back) and overexpression of the LbGAD gene from L.?plantarum to L.?plantarum cells. The recombinant Lactobacillus could be used as a starter culture for direct incorporation into a food system during fermentation for production of GABA-rich products. PMID:25757029

  4. Genetic basis of stage-specific melanism: a putative role for a cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in insect pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Saenko, S V; Jernimo, M A; Beldade, P

    2012-01-01

    Melanism, the overall darkening of the body, is a widespread form of animal adaptation to particular environments, and includes bookcase examples of evolution by natural selection, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth. The major components of the melanin biosynthesis pathway have been characterized in model insects, but little is known about the genetic basis of life-stage specific melanism such as cases described in some lepidopteran species. Here, we investigate two melanic mutations of Bicyclus anynana butterflies, called Chocolate and melanine, that exclusively affect pigmentation of the larval and adult stages, respectively. Our analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns reveals that the larval and adult melanic phenotypes are due to alleles at different, independently segregating loci. Our linkage mapping analysis excludes the pigmentation candidate gene black as the melanine locus, and implicates a gene encoding a putative pyridoxal phosphate-dependant cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase as the Chocolate locus. We show variation in coding sequence and in expression levels for this candidate larval melanism locus. This is the first study that suggests a biological function for this gene in insects. Our findings open up exciting opportunities to study the role of this locus in the evolution of adaptive variation in pigmentation, and the uncoupling of regulation of pigment biosynthesis across developmental stages with different ecologies and pressures on body coloration. PMID:22234245

  5. Evaluation of Brachypodium distachyon L-Tyrosine Decarboxylase Using L-Tyrosine Over-Producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Shuhei; Shirai, Tomokazu; Mochida, Keiichi; Matsuda, Fumio; Oyama, Sachiko; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that herbaceous biomass is a versatile gene resource, we focused on the model plant Brachypodium distachyon, and screened the B. distachyon for homologs of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), which is involved in the modification of aromatic compounds. A total of 5 candidate genes were identified in cDNA libraries of B. distachyon and were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate TDC expression and tyramine production. It is suggested that two TDCs encoded in the transcripts Bradi2g51120.1 and Bradi2g51170.1 have L-tyrosine decarboxylation activity. Bradi2g51170.1 was introduced into the L-tyrosine over-producing strain of S. cerevisiae that was constructed by the introduction of mutant genes that promote deregulated feedback inhibition. The amount of tyramine produced by the resulting transformant was 6.6-fold higher (approximately 200 mg/L) than the control strain, indicating that B. distachyon TDC effectively converts L-tyrosine to tyramine. Our results suggest that B. distachyon possesses enzymes that are capable of modifying aromatic residues, and that S. cerevisiae is a suitable host for the production of L-tyrosine derivatives. PMID:25996877

  6. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding calcium/calmodulin-dependent glutamate decarboxylase from Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Kwon, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ki; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chanhui; Park, Sang Un

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), synthesized by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), plays an important role in plants. To study the molecular mechanism of GAD regulation and to examine the levels of GABA in Scutellaria baicalensis, we isolated cDNA clones (SbGAD1 and 2) encoding GAD from S. baicalensis. The open reading frames of SbGADI and 2 were 1,503 and 1,494 bp long and had 450 and 497 amino acid residues, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis was performed to show the variation of transcript levels among different organs of S. baicalensis. Transcript levels of SbGAD1 and 2 were highest in the root and flower, respectively. The GABA content of different parts (ranked in descending order) was as follows: leaf > flower > stem > root. We concluded that the expression pattern of SbGAD1 and 2 did not match the accumulation pattern of GABA in different organs. We presume that GABA biosynthesis might be more controlled by SbGAD2 than SbGADI. These data will aid in future studies that seek to understand the mechanisms underlying GABA biosynthesis, an important amino acid that is synthesized by the GAD enzyme. To explain adequately the GABA biosynthesis mechanisms in S. baicalensis, the enzyme activities of SbGAD1 and 2 should be determined in the near future. PMID:24273854

  7. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Production Using Immobilized Glutamate Decarboxylase Followed by Downstream Processing with Cation Exchange Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungwoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production technique using his-tag mediated immobilization of Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA. The GAD was obtained at 1.43 g/L from GAD-overexpressed E. coli fermentation and consisted of 59.7% monomer, 29.2% dimer and 2.3% tetramer with a 97.6% soluble form of the total GAD. The harvested GAD was immobilized to metal affinity gel with an immobilization yield of 92%. Based on an investigation of specific enzyme activity and reaction characteristics, glutamic acid (GA) was chosen over monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a substrate for immobilized GAD, resulting in conversion of 2.17 M GABA in a 1 L reactor within 100 min. The immobilized enzymes retained 58.1% of their initial activities after ten consecutive uses. By using cation exchange chromatography followed by enzymatic conversion, GABA was separated from the residual substrate and leached GAD. As a consequence, the glutamic acid was mostly removed with no detectable GAD, while 91.2% of GABA was yielded in the purification step. PMID:23322022

  8. [Study of the structure of the histidine decarboxylase of Micrococcus sp. n. by the method of circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Mardashev, S R; Kharitonenkov, I G; Semina, L A; Gonchar, N A

    1976-02-01

    Ring dichroism spectra (RD) of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) from Micrococcus sp. n. at the regions of peptide bonds (200-240 nm) and aromatic amino acids (250-300 nm) absorption are studied. The treatment of RD spectra according to methods of Greenfield-Fasman, Saksena-Vetlaufer and Mayer permits to conclude that at the pH range within 4-8 the content of ordered structures of alpha-helix type comprises 20%, that of beta-structure type-40%, while the rest 40% are represented with polypeptide chain in a disordered globular state. When pH is varied from 1 to 12, the content of alpha-helices decreases from 17 to 5%. There are two distinct dichroic bands in the spectrum of aromatic chromophores absorption (at 270 and 290 nm), the former containing tirosine, tryptophane and phenylalanine residues and the latter being induced with triptophane residues. The study of HDC RD spectra at the regions of peptide bonds and aromatic acids absorption at different temperatures has shown that a part of triptophane, tyrosine and phenylalanine residues is in an ordered structure of the alpha-helix type. The HDC undergoes irreversible changes under heating to 70 degrees and in 8 M urea. 5 M guanidine chloride eliminates the ordered HDC structure, while sodium dodecylsulphate at concentrations up to 1% does not affect the enzyme structure. PMID:6076

  9. SIRT4 coordinates the balance between lipid synthesis and catabolism by repressing malonyl CoA decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Galle; German, Natalie J; Saha, Asish K; de Boer, Vincent C J; Davies, Michael; Koves, Timothy R; Dephoure, Noah; Fischer, Frank; Boanca, Gina; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Lovitch, Scott B; Sharpe, Arlene H; Kurland, Irwin J; Steegborn, Clemens; Gygi, Steven P; Muoio, Deborah M; Ruderman, Neil B; Haigis, Marcia C

    2013-06-01

    Lipid metabolism is tightly controlled by the nutritional state of the organism. Nutrient-rich conditions increase lipogenesis, whereas nutrient deprivation promotes fat oxidation. In this study, we identify the mitochondrial sirtuin, SIRT4, as a regulator of lipid homeostasis. SIRT4 is active in nutrient-replete conditions to repress fatty acid oxidation while promoting lipid anabolism. SIRT4 deacetylates and inhibits malonyl CoA decarboxylase (MCD), an enzyme that produces acetyl CoA from malonyl CoA. Malonyl CoA provides the carbon skeleton for lipogenesis and also inhibits fat oxidation. Mice lacking SIRT4 display elevated MCD activity and decreased malonyl CoA in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Consequently, SIRT4 KO mice display deregulated lipid metabolism, leading to increased exercise tolerance and protection against diet-induced obesity. In sum, this work elucidates SIRT4 as an important regulator of lipid homeostasis, identifies MCD as a SIRT4 target, and deepens our understanding of the malonyl CoA regulatory axis. PMID:23746352

  10. Studies on polyamine and ornithine metabolism in rat colon: effects of two synergistically. Acting inducers of ornithine decarboxylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in rat colon mucosa was determined by the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from radiolabeled ornithine in the presence (total enzyme) or absence (holoenzyme) of added pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP). Total leucine incorporation into acid-precipitable protein over 30 minute was calculated by dividing the /sup 3/H-leucine in protein by the specific activity of the intracellular leucine. Amino acids, polyamines, and PLP-semicarbazide were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography. Ornithine aminotransaminase activity (OAT) was measured as the quantity of pyrolline (5-carboxy) produced from alpha-ketoglutarate and ornithine. After 10 weeks on a high or no vitamin B/sub 6/ diet, no change in basal ODC activity was seen; however, sodium deoxycholate instillation in vitamin B/sub 6/ deficient rats led to a large increase in total but not holo-ODC activity. In rats fed normal chow diet, no increases in mucosal PLP levels were seen after either treatment. Increases in general protein synthesis rate could not account for the peaks in ODC activity after either stimulus. Putrescine increases were proportional to peaks of ODC activity after either stimulus, while spermine levels remained depressed for 18 hours after starvation/refeeding. Ornithine levels were increased after either stimulus, and this increase was linked to decreases in OAT activity, indicating short-term coordination of overall ornithine metabolism to favor polyamine biosynthesis.

  11. Comparative sequencing and association studies of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Speight, G; Turic, D; Austin, J; Hoogendoorn, B; Cardno, A G; Jones, L; Murphy, K C; Sanders, R; McCarthy, G; Jones, I; McCandless, F; McGuffin, P; Craddock, N; Owen, M J; Buckland, P; O'Donovan, M C

    2000-05-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is a relatively non specific enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of several classical neurotransmitters including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; serotonin). AADC does not catalyse the rate limiting step in either pathway, but is rate limiting in the synthesis of 2-phenylethylamine (2PE) which is a positive modulator of dopaminergic transmission and a candidate natural psychotogenic compound.1 We and others have proposed that polymorphism in AADC resulting in altered 2PE activity might contribute to the pathogenesis of psychosis. In order to test this hypothesis, we have used denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)3 to screen 3943 bases of the AADC gene and its promoter regions for variants that might affect protein structure or expression in 15 unrelated people with schizophrenia, and 15 unrelated people with bipolar disorder. Three polymorphisms were identified by DHPLC: a insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5' UTR of the neuronal specific mRNA (g.-33-30delAGAG, bases 586-589 of GenBank M77828), a T>A variant in the non-neuronal exon 1 (g. -67T>A, GenBank M88070), and a G>A polymorphism within intron 8 (g. IVS8 +75G>A, GenBank M84598). Case-control analysis did not suggest that genetic polymorphism in the AADC gene is associated with liability for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. PMID:10889538

  12. Lack of Association Between Polymorphisms in Dopa Decarboxylase and Dopamine Receptor-1 Genes With Childhood Autism in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Yang, Aiping; Yang, Guohui; Yang, Wenjun; Lei, Heyue; Quan, Jianjun; Zhang, Zengyu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in childhood autism. This study is to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1) genes with childhood autism, in a Chinese Han population. A total of 211 autistic children and 250 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. The severity of disease was determined by Children Autism Rating Scale scores. TaqMan Probe by real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine genotypes and allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6592961 in DDC and rs251937 in DRD1. Case-control and case-only studies were respectively performed, to determine the contribution of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms to the predisposition of disease and its severity. Our results showed that there was no significant association of the genotypes and allele frequencies of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms concerning childhood autism and its severity. More studies with larger samples are needed to corroborate their predicting roles. PMID:26337060

  13. The Krebs Cycle Enzyme α-Ketoglutarate Decarboxylase Is an Essential Glycosomal Protein in Bloodstream African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Steven; Szempruch, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    α-Ketoglutarate decarboxylase (α-KDE1) is a Krebs cycle enzyme found in the mitochondrion of the procyclic form (PF) of Trypanosoma brucei. The bloodstream form (BF) of T. brucei lacks a functional Krebs cycle and relies exclusively on glycolysis for ATP production. Despite the lack of a functional Krebs cycle, α-KDE1 was expressed in BF T. brucei and RNA interference knockdown of α-KDE1 mRNA resulted in rapid growth arrest and killing. Cell death was preceded by progressive swelling of the flagellar pocket as a consequence of recruitment of both flagellar and plasma membranes into the pocket. BF T. brucei expressing an epitope-tagged copy of α-KDE1 showed localization to glycosomes and not the mitochondrion. We used a cell line transfected with a reporter construct containing the N-terminal sequence of α-KDE1 fused to green fluorescent protein to examine the requirements for glycosome targeting. We found that the N-terminal 18 amino acids of α-KDE1 contain overlapping mitochondrion- and peroxisome-targeting sequences and are sufficient to direct localization to the glycosome in BF T. brucei. These results suggest that α-KDE1 has a novel moonlighting function outside the mitochondrion in BF T. brucei. PMID:25416237

  14. Reduction of oxalate levels in tomato fruit and consequent metabolic remodeling following overexpression of a fungal oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Ghosh, Rajgourab; Ghosh, Sudip; Narula, Kanika; Tayal, Rajul; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2013-05-01

    The plant metabolite oxalic acid is increasingly recognized as a food toxin with negative effects on human nutrition. Decarboxylative degradation of oxalic acid is catalyzed, in a substrate-specific reaction, by oxalate decarboxylase (OXDC), forming formic acid and carbon dioxide. Attempts to date to reduce oxalic acid levels and to understand the biological significance of OXDC in crop plants have met with little success. To investigate the role of OXDC and the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation in a heterotrophic, oxalic acid-accumulating fruit, we generated transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants expressing an OXDC (FvOXDC) from the fungus Flammulina velutipes specifically in the fruit. These E8.2-OXDC fruit showed up to a 90% reduction in oxalate content, which correlated with concomitant increases in calcium, iron, and citrate. Expression of OXDC affected neither carbon dioxide assimilation rates nor resulted in any detectable morphological differences in the transgenic plants. Comparative proteomic analysis suggested that metabolic remodeling was associated with the decrease in oxalate content in transgenic fruit. Examination of the E8.2-OXDC fruit proteome revealed that OXDC-responsive proteins involved in metabolism and stress responses represented the most substantially up- and down-regulated categories, respectively, in the transgenic fruit, compared with those of wild-type plants. Collectively, our study provides insights into OXDC-regulated metabolic networks and may provide a widely applicable strategy for enhancing crop nutritional value. PMID:23482874

  15. Genetic basis of stage-specific melanism: a putative role for a cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in insect pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Saenko, S V; Jerónimo, M A; Beldade, P

    2012-06-01

    Melanism, the overall darkening of the body, is a widespread form of animal adaptation to particular environments, and includes bookcase examples of evolution by natural selection, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth. The major components of the melanin biosynthesis pathway have been characterized in model insects, but little is known about the genetic basis of life-stage specific melanism such as cases described in some lepidopteran species. Here, we investigate two melanic mutations of Bicyclus anynana butterflies, called Chocolate and melanine, that exclusively affect pigmentation of the larval and adult stages, respectively. Our analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns reveals that the larval and adult melanic phenotypes are due to alleles at different, independently segregating loci. Our linkage mapping analysis excludes the pigmentation candidate gene black as the melanine locus, and implicates a gene encoding a putative pyridoxal phosphate-dependant cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase as the Chocolate locus. We show variation in coding sequence and in expression levels for this candidate larval melanism locus. This is the first study that suggests a biological function for this gene in insects. Our findings open up exciting opportunities to study the role of this locus in the evolution of adaptive variation in pigmentation, and the uncoupling of regulation of pigment biosynthesis across developmental stages with different ecologies and pressures on body coloration. PMID:22234245

  16. Direct transcriptional stimulation of the ornithine decarboxylase gene by Fos in PC12 cells but not in fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Wrighton, C; Busslinger, M

    1993-01-01

    We have established rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines stably expressing the estrogen-activatable transcription factor FosER to identify genes that can be regulated by c-Fos in this neuronal cell type. Induction of ectopic c-Fos activity in PC12 cells increased the mRNA levels of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and tyrosine hydroxylase genes with similar kinetics and to the same maximal level as nerve growth factor treatment. In both cases the rate of transcription initiation was increased. Induction of the ODC gene occurred even in the absence of protein synthesis, indicating direct regulation by FosER. ODC expression, however, was not induced by a mutant FosER protein containing a proline insertion in the basic region of the c-Fos moiety, demonstrating the requirement for a functional DNA-binding domain. These data show that FosER, and by extrapolation c-Fos, can directly activate transcription of the endogenous ODC gene in PC12 cells by binding to cis-regulatory sequences. Activation of the ODC gene was unexpectedly transient, as transcripts returned to the basal level after prolonged exposure of PC12 cells to FosER activity. Furthermore, ODC transcription was not at all induced by FosER in rat fibroblasts. To account for this cell-specific action of FosER, we propose that stimulation of the ODC gene by FosER requires either (i) cooperation with another transcription factor(s) or (ii) a specific pattern of modification which is present in PC12 cells but not in otherwise unstimulated fibroblasts. One or both of these mechanisms may be employed by cells to achieve selective gene activation in response to apparently stereotyped induction of c-fos. Images PMID:8101634

  17. Multifaceted interactions and regulation between antizyme and its interacting proteins cyclin D1, ornithine decarboxylase and antizyme inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Li; Chen, Hui-Yi; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and antizyme inhibitor (AZI) promote cell growth. ODC and CCND1 can be degraded through antizyme (AZ)-mediated 26S proteasomal degradation. This paper describes a mechanistic study of the molecular interactions between AZ and its interacting proteins. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the binary AZ-CCND1 complex and the respective binding sites of AZ and CCND1 were determined. Our data indicate that CCND1 has a 4-fold lower binding affinity for AZ than does ODC and an approximately 40-fold lower binding affinity for AZ than does AZI. The Kd values of AZ-CCND1, AZ-ODC and AZ-AZI were 0.81, 0.21 and 0.02 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, the Kd values for CCND1 binding to the AZ N-terminal peptide (AZ34124) and AZ C-terminal peptide (AZ100228) were 0.92 and 8.97 ?M, respectively, indicating that the binding site of CCND1 may reside at the N-terminus of AZ, rather than the C-terminus. Our data also show that the ODC-AZ-CCND1 ternary complex may exist in equilibrium. The Kd values of the [AZ-CCND1]-ODC and [AZ-ODC]-CCND1 complexes were 1.26 and 4.93 ?M, respectively. This is the first paper to report the reciprocal regulation of CCND1 and ODC through AZ-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation. PMID:26172301

  18. Combined administration of testosterone plus an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor as a selective prostate-sparing anabolic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jasuja, Ravi; Costello, James C; Singh, Rajan; Gupta, Vandana; Spina, Catherine S; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jang, Hyeran; Li, Hu; Serra, Carlo; Guo, Wen; Chauhan, Pratibha; Narula, Navjot S; Guarneri, Tyler; Ergun, Ayla; Travison, Thomas G; Collins, James J; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-01-01

    Because of its anabolic effects on muscle, testosterone is being explored as a function-promoting anabolic therapy for functional limitations associated with aging; however, concerns about testosterones adverse effects on prostate have inspired efforts to develop strategies that selectively increase muscle mass while sparing the prostate. Testosterones promyogenic effects are mediated through upregulation of follistatin. We show here that the administration of recombinant follistatin (rFst) increased muscle mass in mice, but had no effect on prostate mass. Consistent with the results of rFst administration, follistatin transgenic mice with constitutively elevated follistatin levels displayed greater muscle mass than controls, but had similar prostate weights. To elucidate signaling pathways regulated differentially by testosterone and rFst in prostate and muscle, we performed microarray analysis of mRNAs from prostate and levator ani of castrated male mice treated with vehicle, testosterone, or rFst. Testosterone and rFst shared the regulation of many transcripts in levator ani; however, in prostate, 593 transcripts in several growth-promoting pathways were differentially expressed after testosterone treatment, while rFst showed a negligible effect with only 9 transcripts differentially expressed. Among pathways that were differentially responsive to testosterone in prostate, we identified ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), an enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, as a testosterone-responsive gene that is unresponsive to rFst. Accordingly, we administered testosterone with and without ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an Odc1 inhibitor, to castrated mice. DFMO selectively blocked testosterones effects on prostate, but did not affect testosterones anabolic effects on muscle. Co-administration of testosterone and Odc1 inhibitor presents a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate-sparing anabolic therapy. PMID:24305501

  19. Expression patterns conferred by tyrosine/dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase promoters from opium poppy are conserved in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Facchini, P J; Penzes-Yost, C; Samanani, N; Kowalchuk, B

    1998-09-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) contains a large family of tyrosine/dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (tydc) genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Eight members from two distinct gene subfamilies have been isolated, tydc1, tydc4, tydc6, tydc8, and tydc9 in one group and tydc2, tydc3, and tydc7 in the other. The tydc8 and tydc9 genes were located 3.2 kb apart on one genomic clone, suggesting that the family is clustered. Transcripts for most tydc genes were detected only in roots. Only tydc2 and tydc7 revealed expression in both roots and shoots, and TYDC3 mRNAs were the only specific transcripts detected in seedlings. TYDC1, TYDC8, and TYDC9 mRNAs, which occurred in roots, were not detected in elicitor-treated opium poppy cultures. Expression of tydc4, which contains a premature termination codon, was not detected under any conditions. Five tydc promoters were fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in a binary vector. All constructs produced transient GUS activity in microprojectile-bombarded opium poppy and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell cultures. The organ- and tissue-specific expression pattern of tydc promoter-GUS fusions in transgenic tobacco was generally parallel to that of corresponding tydc genes in opium poppy. GUS expression was most abundant in the internal phloem of shoot organs and in the stele of roots. Select tydc promoter-GUS fusions were also wound induced in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of developmental and inducible tydc regulation are conserved across plant species. PMID:9733527

  20. Glutamate decarboxylase-dependent acid resistance in Brucella spp.: distribution and contribution to fitness under extremely acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Maria Alessandra; Bastianelli, Daniela; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Khler, Stephan; Cloeckaert, Axel; De Biase, Daniela; Occhialini, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Brucella is an expanding genus of major zoonotic pathogens, including at least 10 genetically very close species occupying a wide range of niches from soil to wildlife, livestock, and humans. Recently, we have shown that in the new species Brucella microti, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system (GAD system) contributes to survival at a pH of 2.5 and also to infection in mice by the oral route. In order to study the functionality of the GAD system in the genus Brucella, 47 isolates, representative of all known species and strains of this genus, and 16 strains of the closest neighbor genus, Ochrobactrum, were studied using microbiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches. In agreement with the genome sequences, the GAD system of classical species was not functional, unlike that of most strains of Brucella ceti, Brucella pinnipedialis, and newly described species (B. microti, Brucella inopinata BO1, B. inopinata-like BO2, and Brucella sp. isolated from bullfrogs). In the presence of glutamate, these species were more acid resistant in vitro than classical terrestrial brucellae. Expression in trans of the gad locus from representative Brucella species in the Escherichia coli MG1655 mutant strain lacking the GAD system restored the acid-resistant phenotype. The highly conserved GAD system of the newly described or atypical Brucella species may play an important role in their adaptation to acidic external and host environments. Furthermore, the GAD phenotype was shown to be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish these latter Brucella strains from Ochrobactrum and from classical terrestrial pathogenic Brucella species, which are GAD negative. PMID:25381237

  1. Association between a polymorphism of the 65K-glutamate decarboxylase gene and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect

    Kure, S.; Aoki, Y.; Narisawa, K.

    1994-09-01

    Autoimmunity against 65K-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65), one of two forms of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme, is commonly associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). To study the predisposing effect of the GAD65 genotype on IDDM, we performed a case-control study screening an association between a newly-identified GAD65 polymorphism and IDDM in the Japanese population. The identified polymorphism was a microsatellite that was located in an intron near the 3{prime} end of the GAD65 gene consisting of variable numbers of a (CA)-dinucleotide repeat. We amplified the polymorphic region by polymerase chain reaction, and, for each individual in the control group (n=254) and the IDDM group (n=108), determined a pair of (CA)-repeat numbers, each number derived from one or the other of their alleles. In both groups we found 13 allelic variants with different repeat numbers, ranging from 19 to 31 repeats of the (CA) dinucleotide. The most frequent allelic variant in the IDDM group was 20 repeats; (CA){sub 20}. A higher frequency of a genotype containing two (CA){sub 20} alleles (p=0.005) was observed in the IDDM group (41.7%) compared with the control group (26.8%). Odds ratio (a 95% confidence interval) for a heterozygote or a homozygote of (CA){sub 20} versus a subject without (CA){sub 20} was 1.2 (0.66-2.25) and 2.23 (1.18-4.21), respectively. No significant association was observed between the (CA)-repeat genotype and the appearance of anti-GAD antibodies in the patients whose duration of the diabetes was less than 4 years (n=35). Therefore, genetic variations in GAD65 appears to be associated with IDDM susceptibility.

  2. Secondary. beta. -deuterium isotope effects in decarboxylation and elimination reactions of. cap alpha. -lactylthiamin: intrinsic isotope effects of pyruvate decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Kluger, R.; Brandl, M.

    1986-11-26

    The reactions of the adduct of pyruvate and thiamine, lactylthiamin (2-(lact-2-yl)thiamine), are accurate nonenzymic models for reactions of intermediates formed during catalysis by pyruvate decarboxylase. The enzymatic reaction generates lactylthiamin diphosphate from pyruvate and thiamine diphosphate. ..beta..-Deuterium isotope effects were determined for the nonenzymic reactions, and the results were related to isotope effects on the enzymic reaction. 2-(Lact-2-yl-..beta..-d/sub 3/) thiamine was prepared by condensation of methyl pyruvate-d/sub 3/ with thiamine followed by hydrolysis. The isotope effect for decarboxylation of lactylthiamin in acidic solution at 25/sup 0/C (k/sub H3//k/sub D3/) is 1.09 (standard deviation (SD) 0.015) in pH 3.8, 0.5 M sodium acetate: isotope effect = 1.095 (SD 0.014) in 0.001 M HCl. The reaction was also studied using 38% ethanolic aqueous sodium acetate (pH 3.8 before mixing with ethanol) since the enzymic sites are less polar than water and the reaction is significantly accelerated by the cosolvent. The isotope effect is within statistical range of that for the reaction in water, 1.105 (SD 0.016), indicating that acceleration by the solvent does not change the extent of hyperconjugative stabilization of the transition state relative to the ground state. The isotope effect for the base-catalyzed elimination of pyruvate from lactylthiamin was determined from kinetic studies by using multiwavelength analysis for reactions in pH 11 sodium carbonate solution. The isotope effect (k/sub H3//k/sub D3/) is 1.12 (SD 0.01), which is slightly higher than the effect on decarboxylation.

  3. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Manto, Mario; Honnorat, Jrme; Hampe, Christiane S.; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; Lpez-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Delgado-Garca, Jos Mara; Saitow, Fumihito; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct GAD autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal GAD antibodies. We found that GAD autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15) recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by GAD autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10) or limbic encephalitis (n = 4). We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal GAD antibody representing this epitope specificity; (1) disrupted in vitro the association of GAD with ?-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles; (2) depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect; (3) significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task; (4) markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm; and (5) induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of GAD by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such GAD antibodies could be envisioned. PMID:25870548

  4. Time-dependent effects of dexamethasone on glutamate binding, ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine levels in the transected spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, S; Coirini, H; Gonzalez Deniselle, M C; Gonzalez, S; Calandra, R; De Nicola, A F

    1995-10-01

    Evidence exists that the spinal cord is a glucocorticoid-responsive tissue, and glucocorticoids have beneficial effects in cases of spinal cord injury. Using sham-operated rats, spinal cord transected (TRX) rats, and TRX animals receiving dexamethasone (DEX) 5 min or 24 h post-lesion, we have examined the following GC-sensitive parameters 6 h after DEX treatment: (1) binding of glutamate to NMDA-sensitive receptors; (2) the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC); and (3) levels of polyamines. We found that glutamate binding in the dorsal horn (Laminae 1-2) and central canal were upregulated in TRX rats, whereas DEX had an additional stimulatory effect. 24 h post-lesion, glutamate binding was unmodified in TRX or TRX+DEX rats. ODC activity was increased 10-fold in rats killed on the day of transection but only 2-fold 24 h post-lesion. DEX reduced ODC activity on transection day but highly increased it when given 24 h after surgery. The content of the polyamines spermidine and spermine were unchanged after TRX or DEX treatment, in contrast to putrescine which increased in TRX rats and further increased in TRX+DEX rats when measured the day post-lesion. Thus, parallel increases in ODC and putrescine 1 day after the lesion, suggest that glucocorticoid effects on growth responses due to polyamines may develop at a late period. The changes of glutamate binding in the dorsal horn and central canal due to early glucocorticoid treatment, further suggest hormonal modulation of neurotransmission in sensitive areas of the deafferented spinal cord. PMID:7577724

  5. Reducing biogenic-amine-producing bacteria, decarboxylase activity, and biogenic amines in raw milk cheese by high-pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Javier; del Olmo, Ana; Picn, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar; Nuez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Biogenic amines may reach concentrations of public health concern in some cheeses. To minimize biogenic amine buildup in raw milk cheese, high-pressure treatments of 400 or 600 MPa for 5 min were applied on days 21 and 35 of ripening. On day 60, counts of lactic acid bacteria, enterococci, and lactobacilli were 1 to 2 log units lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 4 to 6 log units lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa than in control cheese. At that time, aminopeptidase activity was 16 to 75% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 56 to 81% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa than in control cheese, while the total free amino acid concentration was 35 to 53% higher in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 3 to 15% higher in cheeses treated at 600 MPa, and decarboxylase activity was 86 to 96% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 93 to 100% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. Tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine were the most abundant amines in control cheese. The total biogenic amine concentration on day 60, which reached a maximum of 1.089 mg/g dry matter in control cheese, was 27 to 33% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 40 to 65% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. On day 240, total biogenic amines attained a concentration of 3.690 mg/g dry matter in control cheese and contents 11 to 45% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 73 to 76% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. Over 80% of the histidine and 95% of the tyrosine had been converted into histamine and tyramine in control cheese by day 60. Substrate depletion played an important role in the rate of biogenic amine buildup, becoming a limiting factor in the case of some amino acids. PMID:23241980

  6. Androgen-regulated genes differentially modulated by the androgen receptor coactivator L-dopa decarboxylase in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Margiotti, Katia; Wafa, Latif A; Cheng, Helen; Novelli, Giuseppe; Nelson, Colleen C; Rennie, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor is a ligand-induced transcriptional factor, which plays an important role in normal development of the prostate as well as in the progression of prostate cancer to a hormone refractory state. We previously reported the identification of a novel AR coactivator protein, L-dopa decarboxylase (DDC), which can act at the cytoplasmic level to enhance AR activity. We have also shown that DDC is a neuroendocrine (NE) marker of prostate cancer and that its expression is increased after hormone-ablation therapy and progression to androgen independence. In the present study, we generated tetracycline-inducible LNCaP-DDC prostate cancer stable cells to identify DDC downstream target genes by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Results Comparison of induced DDC overexpressing cells versus non-induced control cell lines revealed a number of changes in the expression of androgen-regulated transcripts encoding proteins with a variety of molecular functions, including signal transduction, binding and catalytic activities. There were a total of 35 differentially expressed genes, 25 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated, in the DDC overexpressing cell line. In particular, we found a well-known androgen induced gene, TMEPAI, which wasup-regulated in DDC overexpressing cells, supporting its known co-activation function. In addition, DDC also further augmented the transcriptional repression function of AR for a subset of androgen-repressed genes. Changes in cellular gene transcription detected by microarray analysis were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion Taken together, our results provide evidence for linking DDC action with AR signaling, which may be important for orchestrating molecular changes responsible for prostate cancer progression. PMID:17553164

  7. Reducing Biogenic-Amine-Producing Bacteria, Decarboxylase Activity, and Biogenic Amines in Raw Milk Cheese by High-Pressure Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Javier; del Olmo, Ana; Picón, Antonia; Gaya, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amines may reach concentrations of public health concern in some cheeses. To minimize biogenic amine buildup in raw milk cheese, high-pressure treatments of 400 or 600 MPa for 5 min were applied on days 21 and 35 of ripening. On day 60, counts of lactic acid bacteria, enterococci, and lactobacilli were 1 to 2 log units lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 4 to 6 log units lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa than in control cheese. At that time, aminopeptidase activity was 16 to 75% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 56 to 81% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa than in control cheese, while the total free amino acid concentration was 35 to 53% higher in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 3 to 15% higher in cheeses treated at 600 MPa, and decarboxylase activity was 86 to 96% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 93 to 100% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. Tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine were the most abundant amines in control cheese. The total biogenic amine concentration on day 60, which reached a maximum of 1.089 mg/g dry matter in control cheese, was 27 to 33% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 40 to 65% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. On day 240, total biogenic amines attained a concentration of 3.690 mg/g dry matter in control cheese and contents 11 to 45% lower in cheeses treated at 400 MPa and 73 to 76% lower in cheeses treated at 600 MPa. Over 80% of the histidine and 95% of the tyrosine had been converted into histamine and tyramine in control cheese by day 60. Substrate depletion played an important role in the rate of biogenic amine buildup, becoming a limiting factor in the case of some amino acids. PMID:23241980

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-independent production of α-alkenes by OleTJE P450 fatty acid decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 OleTJE from Jeotgalicoccus sp. ATCC 8456, a new member of the CYP152 peroxygenase family, was recently found to catalyze the unusual decarboxylation of long-chain fatty acids to form α-alkenes using H2O2 as the sole electron and oxygen donor. Because aliphatic α-alkenes are important chemicals that can be used as biofuels to replace fossil fuels, or for making lubricants, polymers and detergents, studies on OleTJE fatty acid decarboxylase are significant and may lead to commercial production of biogenic α-alkenes in the future, which are renewable and more environmentally friendly than petroleum-derived equivalents. Results We report the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE for the first time. In the presence of NADPH and O2, this P450 enzyme efficiently decarboxylates long-chain fatty acids (C12 to C20) in vitro when partnering with either the fused P450 reductase domain RhFRED from Rhodococcus sp. or the separate flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. In vivo, expression of OleTJE or OleTJE-RhFRED in different E. coli strains overproducing free fatty acids resulted in production of variant levels of multiple α-alkenes, with a highest total hydrocarbon titer of 97.6 mg·l-1. Conclusions The discovery of the H2O2-independent activity of OleTJE not only raises a number of fundamental questions on the monooxygenase-like mechanism of this peroxygenase, but also will direct the future metabolic engineering work toward improvement of O2/redox partner(s)/NADPH for overproduction of α-alkenes by OleTJE. PMID:24565055

  9. Comparison of the islet cell antibody pattern of monoclonal glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies recognizing linear and conformational epitopes.

    PubMed

    Augstein, P; Schlosser, M; Ziegler, B; Hahmann, J; Mauch, L; Ziegler, M

    1996-04-01

    In order to compare the reactivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies recognizing linear and conformational epitopes as islet cell cytoplasmic antibodies (ICA), monoclonal antibodies were generated. An ELISA displacement test using two biotinylated monoclonals recognizing a linear (M61/7E11) or a conformational GAD65 epitope (M65/6B12) was performed to identify epitope regions recognized by monoclonal GAD antibodies. The GAD binding by monoclonal GAD antibodies was tested by immunofluorescence on fixed and unfixed pancreatic sections of human, rat, and mouse, and by Dot-blot experiments. 16/23 (69.6%) of the monoclonals were specifically reactive with GAD65 and 7/23 (30.4%) were reactive with both GAD isoforms. 8/16 (50%) of monoclonal GAD65 antibodies recognized a linear GAD epitope located at the N-terminus (pattern 1). 5/16 (31.3%) displaced M65/6B12, indicating the recognition of a conformational GAD epitope (pattern 2). Monoclonals belonging to patterns 1 and 2 showed strong ICA binding. 3/16 (18.8%) of monoclonals specific for GAD65 with weak or no immunostaining of pancreatic islets (pattern 3) did not inhibit the binding of both biotinylated antibodies in the displacement test, indicating other epitope specificities. In conclusion, GAD antibodies recognizing both conformational and linear epitopes of the GAD65 molecule are involved in ICA binding with strong reactivity. Furthermore, results obtained with monoclonals of pattern 3 suggest the occurrence of GAD65 epitopes partly inaccessible on cryosections, which may result in an ICA-negative test of GAD65 autoantibody positive sera. PMID:8739307

  10. Mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase from higher plants. Functional complementation in yeast, localization in plants, and overexpression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rontein, Denis; Wu, Wen-I; Voelker, Dennis R; Hanson, Andrew D

    2003-07-01

    Plants are known to synthesize ethanolamine (Etn) moieties by decarboxylation of free serine (Ser), but there is also some evidence for phosphatidyl-Ser (Ptd-Ser) decarboxylation. Database searches identified diverse plant cDNAs and an Arabidopsis gene encoding 50-kD proteins homologous to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalian mitochondrial Ptd-Ser decarboxylases (PSDs). Like the latter, the plant proteins have putative mitochondrial targeting and inner membrane sorting sequences and contain near the C terminus a Glycine-Serine-Threonine motif corresponding to the site of proteolysis and catalytic pyruvoyl residue formation. A truncated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cDNA lacking the targeting sequence and a chimeric construct in which the targeting and sorting sequences were replaced by those from yeast PSD1 both complemented the Etn requirement of a yeast psd1 psd2 mutant, and PSD activity was detected in the mitochondria of the complemented cells. Immunoblot analysis of potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria demonstrated that PSD is located in mitochondrial membranes, and mRNA analysis in Arabidopsis showed that the mitochondrial PSD gene is expressed at low levels throughout the plant. An Arabidopsis knockup mutant grew normally but had 6- to 13-fold more mitochondrial PSD mRNA and 9-fold more mitochondrial PSD activity. Total membrane PSD activity was, however, unchanged in the mutant, showing mitochondrial activity to be a minor part of the total. These results establish that plants can synthesize Etn moieties via a phospholipid pathway and have both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial PSDs. They also indicate that mitochondrial PSD is an important housekeeping enzyme whose expression is strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:12857846

  11. Crystal Structures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase Bound to Inhibitory Analogs Reveal New Insight into Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, Michael L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; McWhorter, William J.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2011-10-28

    The polyisoprenoid compound undecaprenyl phosphate is required for biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogenic Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus spp. In these organisms, the mevalonate pathway is used to produce the precursor isoprenoid, isopentenyl 5-diphosphate. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes formation of isopentenyl 5-diphosphate in an ATP-dependent irreversible reaction and is therefore an attractive target for inhibitor development that could lead to new antimicrobial agents. To facilitate exploration of this possibility, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD (1.85 {angstrom} resolution) and, to the best of our knowledge, the first structures of liganded MDD. These structures include MDD bound to the mevalonate 5-diphosphate analogs diphosphoglycolyl proline (2.05 {angstrom} resolution) and 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP; 2.2 {angstrom} resolution). Comparison of these structures provides a physical basis for the significant differences in K{sub i} values observed for these inhibitors. Inspection of enzyme/inhibitor structures identified the side chain of invariant Ser{sup 192} as making potential contributions to catalysis. Significantly, Ser {yields} Ala substitution of this side chain decreases k{sub cat} by {approx}10{sup 3}-fold, even though binding interactions between FMVAPP and this mutant are similar to those observed with wild type MDD, as judged by the 2.1 {angstrom} cocrystal structure of S192A with FMVAPP. Comparison of microbial MDD structures with those of mammalian counterparts reveals potential targets at the active site periphery that may be exploited to selectively target the microbial enzymes. These studies provide a structural basis for previous observations regarding the MDD mechanism and inform future work toward rational inhibitor design.

  12. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  13. Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis sp. nov., a pyrrolidonyl arylamidase/ornithine decarboxylase-positive bacterium isolated from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Han, Jian; McCormac, Melinda A; Li, Haijing; Stratton, Charles W

    2008-04-01

    Twelve coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates recovered from blood cultures with positive pyrrolidonyl arylamidase and ornithine decarboxylase reactions were identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis by the clinical microbiology laboratory. However, none of these 12 isolates were recognized by a S. lugdunensis translation elongation factor Tu (tuf) gene-specific probe. Under the API STAPH V4.0 identification system (bioMérieux, Durham, NC), 8 of these 12 isolates could not be identified with low discrimination scores, and 4 were identified as Kocuria varians/rosea with identification probabilities that ranged from 95.5% to 99.6%. All 12 isolates possessed identical partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, and the full 16S rRNA gene sequences of the prototype strain B006 were closely related to a tentatively assigned "Staphylococcus pettenkoferi". All 12 isolates had identical partial tuf gene sequences corresponding to 666 to 858 nucleotide positions, and the 1188-base pair full tuf sequences of B006 strain were mostly related to 2 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates with a 93.02% similarity. Two isolates, which were recovered from the same patient over a 16-day interval, were considered to be a pathogen causing an intravenous line-associated infection; the remaining 10 isolates were considered to be skin contaminants. Biochemical tests currently used in the clinical microbiology laboratory to identify S. lugdunensis appear to lack specificity in identifying these isolates. On the basis of the close biochemical reactions with S. lugdunensis and phylogenetic evidence, these isolates are proposed the designation Staphylococcus pseudolugdunensis sp. nov. PMID:18248933

  14. Assessment of the effects of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and trace elements on cognitive performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2015-01-01

    Background Homeostatic imbalance of trace elements such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) demonstrated adverse effects on brain function among older adults. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effects of trace elements and the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) in human cognitive abilities among healthy older adults. Methods A total of 100 healthy subjects (65 males, 35 females; age range; 64–96 years) were recruited for this study. Based on Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) score, the participants were classified according to cognitive performance into normal (n=45), moderate (n=30), and severe (n=25). Cognitive functioning, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), serum trace elements – Fe, Cu, Zn, Zn/Cu, and GADAs were assessed using LOTCA battery, pre-validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire, atomic absorption, and immunoassay techniques, respectively. Results Approximately 45% of the study population (n=45) had normal distribution of cognitive function and 55% of the study population (n=55) had abnormal cognitive function; they were classified into moderate (score 62–92) and severe (score 31–62). There was a significant reduction in the level of Zn and Zn/Cu ratio along with an increase in the level of Fe, Cu, and anti-GADAs in subjects of severe (P=0.01) and moderate (P=0.01) cognitive performance. LOTCA-cognitive scores correlated positively with sex, HbA1c, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zn/Cu ratio, and negatively with age, PA, body mass index, and anti-GADAs. Significant inter-correlation was reported between serum trace element concentrations and anti-GADAs which suggest producing a cognitive decline via oxidative and neural damage mechanism. Conclusion This study found significant associations among trace elements, anti-GADAs, and cognitive function in older adults. The homeostatic balance of trace elements should be recommended among older adults for better cognitive performance. PMID:26664103

  15. Overexpression of 3?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/C-4 Decarboxylases Causes Growth Defects Possibly Due to Abnormal Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Gyusik; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Choe, Sunghwa

    2012-01-01

    Sterols play crucial roles as membrane components and precursors of steroid hormones (e.g., brassinosteroids, BR). Within membranes, sterols regulate membrane permeability and fluidity by interacting with other lipids and proteins. Sterols are frequently enriched in detergent-insoluble membranes (DIMs), which organize molecules involved in specialized signaling processes, including auxin transporters. To be fully functional, the two methyl groups at the C-4 position of cycloartenol, a precursor of plant sterols, must be removed by bifunctional 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases (3?HSD/D). To understand the role of 3?HSD/D in Arabidopsis development, we analyzed the phenotypes of knock-out mutants and overexpression lines of two 3?HSD/D genes (At1g47290 and At2g26260). Neither single nor double knock-out mutants displayed a noticeable phenotype; however, overexpression consistently resulted in plants with wrinkled leaves and short inflorescence internodes. Interestingly, the internode growth defects were opportunistic; even within a plant, some stems were more severely affected than others. Endogenous levels of BRs were not altered in the overexpression lines, suggesting that the growth defect is not primarily due to a flaw in BR biosynthesis. To determine if overexpression of the sterol biosynthetic genes affects the functions of membrane-localized auxin transporters, we subjected plants to the auxin efflux carrier inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Whereas the gravity vectors of wild-type roots became randomly scattered in response to NPA treatment, those of the over-expression lines continued to grow in the direction of gravity. Overexpression of the two Arabidopsis 3?HSD/D genes thus appears to affect auxin transporter activity, possibly by altering sterol composition in the membranes. PMID:22673766

  16. Islet glutamic acid decarboxylase modified by reactive oxygen species is recognized by antibodies from patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Trigwell, S M; Radford, P M; Page, S R; Loweth, A C; James, R F; Morgan, N G; Todd, I

    2001-11-01

    The generation of an autoimmune response against islet beta-cells is central to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and this response is driven by the stimulation of autoreactive lymphocytes by components of the beta-cells themselves. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the beta-cell destruction which leads to type 1 diabetes and may modify beta-cell components so as to enhance their immunogenicity. We investigated the effects of oxidation reactions catalysed by copper or iron on the major beta-cell autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Lysates of purified rat islets were exposed to copper or iron sulphate with or without hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid. Immunostaining showed that these treatments generated high molecular weight covalently linked aggregates containing GAD. These are not formed by intermolecular disulphide bonds between cysteine residues since they cannot be resolved into monomeric form when electrophoresed under extreme reducing conditions. There was no modification of insulin or pro-insulin by ROS. The same oxidative changes to GAD could be induced in viable islet cells treated with copper sulphate and hydrogen peroxide, and thus the modifications are not an artefact of the catalysed oxidation of cell-free lysates. Sera from patients with type 1 diabetes and stiffman syndrome containing GAD antibodies reacted predominantly with the highest molecular weight modified protein band of GAD: normal human sera did not precipitate GAD. Thus, oxidatively modified aggregates of GAD react with serum antibodies of type 1 diabetes patients and some SMS patients: this is consistent with oxidative modifications of autoantigens being relevant to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. PMID:11703367

  17. Expression Patterns Conferred by Tyrosine/Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase Promoters from Opium Poppy Are Conserved in Transgenic Tobacco1

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, Peter J.; Penzes-Yost, Catherine; Samanani, Nailish; Kowalchuk, Brett

    1998-01-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) contains a large family of tyrosine/dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (tydc) genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Eight members from two distinct gene subfamilies have been isolated, tydc1, tydc4, tydc6, tydc8, and tydc9 in one group and tydc2, tydc3, and tydc7 in the other. The tydc8 and tydc9 genes were located 3.2 kb apart on one genomic clone, suggesting that the family is clustered. Transcripts for most tydc genes were detected only in roots. Only tydc2 and tydc7 revealed expression in both roots and shoots, and TYDC3 mRNAs were the only specific transcripts detected in seedlings. TYDC1, TYDC8, and TYDC9 mRNAs, which occurred in roots, were not detected in elicitor-treated opium poppy cultures. Expression of tydc4, which contains a premature termination codon, was not detected under any conditions. Five tydc promoters were fused to the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in a binary vector. All constructs produced transient GUS activity in microprojectile-bombarded opium poppy and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell cultures. The organ- and tissue-specific expression pattern of tydc promoter-GUS fusions in transgenic tobacco was generally parallel to that of corresponding tydc genes in opium poppy. GUS expression was most abundant in the internal phloem of shoot organs and in the stele of roots. Select tydc promoter-GUS fusions were also wound induced in transgenic tobacco, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of developmental and inducible tydc regulation are conserved across plant species. PMID:9733527

  18. Role of ornithine decarboxylase/polyamine pathway in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li; Ba, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyamine pathway in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and to explore its mechanism in rats. Methods: This study was randomly divided into 3 groups including sham-operation (sham) group, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group and ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) group (each group with 80 rats). In DFMO group, 300 mg/kg of DFMO was injected by tail vein 24 h before reperfusion. According to different time points (3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h) after reperfusion, each group was divided into 5 subgroups (each subgroup with 16 rats). Results: In I/R group, apoptosis began increasing 3 h after reperfusion, reached a peak 24 h after perfusion and began decreasing 48 h after perfusion. Compared with sham group, apoptosis significantly increased in I/R and DFMO groups (P<0.05). However, apoptosis was significantly lower in DFMO group than in I/R group at each time point (P<0.05). In I/R group, CHOP expression began increasing 3 h after reperfusion, reached a peak 24 h after perfusion and began decreasing 48 h after perfusion. CHOP expression was significantly lower in DFMO group than in I/R group at each time point (P<0.05). The level of polyamines was significantly higher in I/R and DFMO groups than in sham group, and in I/R group than in DFMO group 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Down-regulation of ODC/polyamine pathway may inhibit CHOP-mediated apoptosis caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays a protective role in cerebral I/R injury. PMID:26884982

  19. Pepper arginine decarboxylase is required for polyamine and ?-aminobutyric acid signaling in cell death and defense response.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2013-08-01

    The Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) effector AvrBsT induces a hypersensitive cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AvrBsT-triggered cell death are not fully understood. Here, we identified pepper arginine decarboxylase (CaADC1) as an AvrBsT-interacting protein, which is early and strongly induced in incompatible pepper-Xcv interactions. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that the CaADC1-AvrBsT complex was localized to the cytoplasm. Transient coexpression of CaADC1 with avrBsT in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves specifically enhanced AvrBsT-triggered cell death, accompanied by an accumulation of polyamines, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) bursts. Among the polyamines, spermine application strongly induced NO and H?O? bursts, ultimately leading to cell death. CaADC1 silencing in pepper leaves significantly compromised NO and H?O? accumulation and cell death induction, leading to the enhanced avirulent Xcv growth during infection. The levels of salicylic acid, polyamines, and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the expression of defense response genes during avirulent Xcv infection, were distinctly lower in CaADC1-silenced plants than those in the empty vector control plants. GABA application significantly inhibited avirulent Xcv growth in CaADC1-silenced leaves and the empty vector control plants. Together, these results suggest that CaADC1 may act as a key defense and cell death regulator via mediation of polyamine and GABA metabolism. PMID:23784462

  20. Glutamate acid decarboxylase 1 promotes metastasis of human oral cancer by ?-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is found in the GABAergic neurons of the central nervous system. Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the expression status of GAD1 and its functional mechanisms in OSCCs. Methods We evaluated GAD1 mRNA and protein expressions in OSCC-derived cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting analyses. To assess the critical functions of GAD1, i.e., cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and migration, OSCC-derived cells were treated with the shRNA and specific GAD1 inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA). GAD1 expression in 80 patients with primary OSCCs was analyzed and compared to the clinicopathological behaviors of OSCC. Results qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses detected frequent up-regulation of GAD1 in OSCC-derived cells compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. Suppression of nuclear localization of ?-catenin and MMP7 secretion was observed in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. We also found low cellular invasiveness and migratory abilities in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. In the clinical samples, GAD1 expression in the primary OSCCs was significantly (P?

  1. Identification of UV-B light-responsive regions in the promoter of the tryptophan decarboxylase gene from Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, P B; Hallard, D; Verpoorte, R; Memelink, J

    1999-11-01

    The tryptophan decarboxylase (Tdc) gene encodes a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in Catharanthus roseus. TIAs absorb ultraviolet light (UV) and putative functions in plants include a role as UV protectants. In support of this possible function we demonstrate here that UV light induces accumulation of several TIAs as well as expression of the Tdc gene in C. roseus. In addition, in tobacco a Tdc-gusA construct was found to be specifically induced by UV-B light. Lack of induction by UV-A or other wavelengths of light indicate that Tdc expression is regulated by a specific UV-B receptor and corresponding signal transduction pathway. To identify UV-responsive Tdc promoter elements, a loss-of-function analysis was performed, in which deletion derivatives were fused to the gusA reporter gene and analysed in transgenic tobacco plants. Truncation of the Tdc promoter from -1818 (relative to the start of transcription) to -160 reduced expression levels two-fold without affecting the qualitative UV response. Deletion to -37 further reduced expression levels five-fold, but the delta37 promoter also remained UV-responsive. Subsequently, the -160 to -37 region was further studied by gain-of-function experiments, in which the transcriptional activities of tetramerized subfragments fused to truncated promoters were analysed. Combination of the data identified several functional regions in the -160 to +198 promoter. The - 160 to -99 region acts as the main transcriptional enhancer. UV-responsive elements appeared to be redundant in the -160 Tdc promoter and to reside between -99 and -37 and between -37 and + 198. PMID:10608659

  2. Histidine Decarboxylase Is Identified as a Potential Biomarker of Intestinal Mucosal Injury in Patients with Acute Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Ma, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Hong-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Huan-Long

    2011-01-01

    Various biomarkers currently used for the diagnosis of intestinal mucosal injury (IMI) in patients with acute intestinal obstruction have low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, IMI, as indicated by the impaired expression of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-1, and inflammation were determined in colonic tissues of patients with 45 strangulated intestinal obstruction (STR-IO) and the adjacent normal colonic tissues of 35 patients with colon cancers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and histological examination, respectively. Then, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis coupled with linear trap quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to screen for potential biomarkers of IMI in the serum samples of 10 STR-IO, 10 simple intestinal obstruction (SIM-IO) and 10 normal healthy controls. A total of 35 protein spots were differentially expressed among the serum samples, and six of the proteins were identified as potential biomarkers. Among the six proteins, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and ceruloplasmin (CP) were elevated significantly in patients with STR-IO, compared with patients with SIM-IO and healthy controls. Thus, HDC and CP were further validated by QRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in colonic tissues, serum and urine samples. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to show the area under the curves of HDC, CP and several established biomarkers, followed by the determination of the appropriate cutoff values and their sensitivities and specificities. It was shown that for serum and urine, HDC levels achieved sensitivities and specificities compatible to or even greater than those of established biomarkers for the diagnosis of IMI in patients with acute intestinal obstruction, although further validation in a larger cohort is required. PMID:21915437

  3. Mutational analysis of the antizyme-binding element reveals critical residues for the function of ornithine decarboxylase.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ramos-Molina B; Lambertos A; López-Contreras AJ; Peñafiel R

    2013-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, is highly regulated by antizymes (AZs), small proteins that bind and inhibit ODC and increase its proteasomal degradation. Early studies delimited the putative AZ-binding element (AZBE) to the region 117-140 of ODC. The aim of the present work was to study the importance of certain residues of the region 110-142 that includes the AZBE region for the interaction between ODC and AZ1 and the ODC functionality.METHODS: Computational analysis of the protein sequences of the extended AZBE site of ODC and ODC paralogues from different eukaryotes was used to search for conserved residues. The influence of these residues on ODC functionality was studied by site directed mutagenesis, followed by different biochemical techniques.RESULTS: The results revealed that: a) there are five conserved residues in ODC and its paralogues: K115, A123, E138, L139 and K141; b) among these, L139 is the most critical one for the interaction with AZs, since its substitution decreases the affinity of the mutant protein towards AZs; c) all these conserved residues, with the exception of A123, are critical for ODC activity; d) substitutions of K115, E138 or L139 diminish the formation of ODC homodimers.CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that four of the invariant residues of the AZBE region are strongly related to ODC functionality.GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This work helps to understand the interaction between ODC and AZ1, and describes various new residues involved in ODC activity, a key enzyme for cell growth and proliferation.

  4. Enhancement of neuronal protection from oxidative stress by glutamic acid decarboxylase delivery with a defective herpes simplex virus vector.

    PubMed

    Lamigeon, C; Prod'Hon, C; De Frias, V; Michoudet, C; Jacquemont, B

    2003-11-01

    We have developed defective herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) vectors, based on amplicon plasmids with a replication-deficient mutant, as helper for the transfer of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) or beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene as control directed by HCMV promoter into neuronal-like cells (PC12) and primary neurons. GAD67 protein was detected immunochemically, while GAD67 activity in virus-producing and nonproducing cell lines was detected enzymatically or by GABA release. Infection with GAD67-expressing amplicon vectors enhanced the resistance of PC12 cells to H(2)O(2). This protection was related to increased energy metabolism, as shown by MTT reduction and ATP level, and involved the GABA shunt, as shown by the reduction in ATP level seen in the presence of gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG), a specific GABA transaminase inhibitor. Level of glutathione (GSH), which requires ATP for its synthesis, was increased by the GAD67 transgene. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase involved in the maintenance of the NADPH that can be used for the regeneration of the GSH pool, was increased by infection with amplicon vectors. Thus, replication-deficient HSV-1 and the GAD67 transgene have complementary neuroprotective effects and infection with GAD67-expressing amplicon vectors was able to protect nondifferentiated cortical neurons from glutamate toxicity mediated by oxidative stress. Such defective GAD67-expressing HSV-1, as neurotropic vector, should be helpful in neurodegenerative diseases implicating alterations of energy metabolism and oxidative stress in neuronal cells expressing GABA transaminase. PMID:14637108

  5. Overexpression and optimization of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 for high gamma-aminobutyric acid production

    PubMed Central

    Tajabadi, Naser; Baradaran, Ali; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Rahim, Raha A; Bakar, Fatimah A; Manap, Mohd Yazid A; Mohammed, Abdulkarim S; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive compound biosynthesized by microorganisms through decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In this study, a full-length GAD gene was obtained by cloning the template deoxyribonucleic acid to pTZ57R/T vector. The open reading frame of the GAD gene showed the cloned gene was composed of 1410 nucleotides and encoded a 469 amino acids protein. To improve the GABA-production, the GAD gene was cloned into pMG36e-LbGAD, and then expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 cells. The overexpression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and GAD activity, showing a 53 KDa protein with the enzyme activity increased by sevenfold compared with the original GAD activity. The optimal fermentation conditions for GABA production established using response surface methodology were at glutamic acid concentration of 497.973 mM, temperature 36°C, pH 5.31 and time 60 h. Under the conditions, maximum GABA concentration obtained (11.09 mM) was comparable with the predicted value by the model at 11.23 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful cloning (clone-back) and overexpression of the LbGAD gene from L. plantarum to L. plantarum cells. The recombinant Lactobacillus could be used as a starter culture for direct incorporation into a food system during fermentation for production of GABA-rich products. PMID:25757029

  6. Determination of evolved 14CO2 in decarboxylase reactions with application to measurement of [14C]oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Costello, J F; Smith, M

    1992-05-01

    An assay is described for the determination of the radioactive purity of [14C]oxalic acid preparations and the quantity of [14C]oxalic acid in biological samples. In this method oxalate decarboxylase is used to convert oxalate to formate and CO2. The entire procedure is carried out in a scintillation vial. The 14CO2 released in the enzymic reaction is allowed to diffuse off in a fume hood following acidification. Scintillation fluid is added to reacted and unreacted vials and the radioactivity measured. The loss of radioactivity from