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Sample records for sac tumor arising

  1. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis. PMID:22978485

  2. A subcutaneous paraspinal yolk sac tumor in a child.

    PubMed

    Tekgündüz, Sibel A; Bozkurt, Ceyhun; Sahin, Gürses; Apaydin, Sema; Ören, Ay?e C; Balkaya, Eda; Ertem, Ay?e U

    2014-03-01

    A 3-year-old girl underwent a surgery at an external center on July 2011 for a swelling in the left lumbar paravertebral subcutaneous region. The mass was completely excised and the pathologic diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor (YST). Laboratory tests revealed a serum ?-fetoprotein level of 278 IU/mL. Investigations using bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a scar tissue at the surgical site and lesions indicating metastasis at the lumbar first, second, third, and fifth vertebra. The patient was administered 5 cycles of PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) treatment. The serum ?-fetoprotein was 3 IU/mL after the treatment. The lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy results were normal. The patient continues to be in remission since June 2012. YSTs are most commonly seen in the testis, ovary, and sacrococcygeal regions. Atypical locations have been reported with the primary lesion in the stomach, diaphragm, omentum, sino-nasal region, cranial base, lungs, vagina, and penis. Our case is probably a YST with an atypical location derived from preliminary cells left under the skin because of a migration defect. PMID:24556799

  3. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

  4. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jonathan D.; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N.; Paul, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy. PMID:25657559

  5. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  6. MR Imaging Findings of Extraovarian Endocervical Mucinous Borderline Tumors Arising from Pelvic Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

    2013-01-01

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT. PMID:24265567

  7. MR imaging findings of extraovarian endocervical mucinous borderline tumors arising from pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Dong Myung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon; Kim, Mee-Ran

    2013-01-01

    We report MR imaging findings of a rare case of endocervical mucinous borderline tumor (MBT) involving the cul-de-sac and left fallopian tube arising from extensive pelvic endometriosis with pathologic correlation in a 35-year-old woman presented with vague pelvic pain. Endocervical MBT is a type of endometriosis-associated carcinoma. Imaging findings of endocervical MBT are unilocular or oligolocular cystic lesions with enhancing mural nodules, which are different from those of the more common intestinal type MBT. PMID:24265567

  8. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  9. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P?>?0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P?tumors. PMID:26074455

  10. Endolymphatic sac tumor and angiomatous lesions of the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa as a first manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Honeder, Clemens; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Matula, Christian; Czerny, Christian; Gruber, Andreas; Ramsebner, Reinhard; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2012-10-01

    In the present article we report an endolymphatic sac tumor in a 15-year-old male who had additional angiomatous lesions in the nasal and pharyngeal mucosa and was diagnosed with von Hippel-Lindau disease postoperatively. Preoperative imaging excluded cholesteatoma, but did not provide sufficient information to distinguish between jugular paraganglioma and endolymphatic sac tumor. To the authors' knowledge this is the first description of angiomatous lesions in the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract in a von Hippel-Lindau disease patient, a potentially useful finding for future radiological differential diagnosis in cases presenting with endolymphatic sac tumor. PMID:22777797

  11. Cribriform neuroepithelial tumor arising in the lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michael A; Stallings-Archer, Kandi; Marlin, Evan; Grondin, Ronald; Olshefski, Randal; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Pierson, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Cribriform neuroepithelial tumor (CRINET) is a recently recognized central nervous system neoplasm that arises in the ventricles of young children and is characterized by primitive, non-rhabdoid SMARCB1-deficient cells with prominent cribriform architecture. We report a 14-month-old male who presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging revealed a large solid and cystic mass in the lateral ventricle. Tumor cells were small, primitive appearing, and arranged in cribriform and trabecular patterns with interspersed solid cellular areas. Rhabdoid cells were absent. Immunohistochemical staining showed no SMARCB1 (INI11, BAF47, hSNF5) expression and strong epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) immunoreactivity along luminal surfaces. Electron microscopy showed epithelial characteristics, including abundant basal lamina. Genetic analysis of the tumor revealed deletion of 1 SMARCB1 allele, while the other contained an intronic point mutation predicted to disrupt splicing. This case further illustrates the distinct histopathologic and molecular genetic features of CRINET and identifies distinctive ultrastructural features. PMID:23495723

  12. Naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat strain. II. Immunogenicity of transplanted tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Middle, J.G.; Embleton, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The immunogenicity of 28 transplanted naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat was investigated at early passages in strictly syngeneic, contemporary animals. Included were nephroblastomas, histologically benign and malignant mammary tumors, soft tissue and skin tumors, 1 lymphoid tumor, and 2 gastrointestinal lesions. In no case was evidence of immunogenicity observed when animals were treated with multiple grafts of irradiated (15,000 rad) tissue or by excision of a growing tumor. A few of these tumors were further investigated by other methods of immunization, including injection at various sites of irradiated cells followed by challenge at different sites and multiple injections of mitomycin C- or Formalin-treated cells. Again no evidence of immunogenicity was seen. Attempts to immunize with viable cells mixed with BCG or Corynebacterium parvum failed due to lack of tumor suppression by these agents. Limited concomitant immunity experiments yielded similarly negative results, except in one case of a fibrosarcoma for which a slight reduction in second tumor growth was observed when primary implants were very large. Some alterations in biologic properties during transplant passage and the incidence of postexcision recurrence and metastatic spread of some of the tumors are described.

  13. Rare case of conus medullaris syndrome from a metastatic yolk sac tumor originating from the mediastinum of an adult male: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Scott D.; Shamie, Arya N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Yolk sac tumors (YST) are malignant neoplasms. They are a subtype of germ cell tumors and typically originate in the gonads although extragonadal origins of such tumors have been described. Yolk sac tumors are commonly found in the gonads of infants and children and are extremely rare in adults. The goal of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation of a rare case of metastatic extragonadal yolk sac tumor originating from the mediastinum and causing an acute conus medullaris syndrome in an adult male. Methods A 47-year old male presented to our emergency department with a one-day history of bilateral lower extremity weakness, urinary retention and bowel incontinence. Imaging revealed a destructive lesion and a burst fracture of the first lumbar vertebral body (L1) with severe spinal canal stenosis. An urgent spinal decompression and fusion was performed. Oncologic workup revealed a yolk sac tumor originating from the mediastinum. Results His neurologic function, including motor strength, bowel and bladder function improved in the postoperative period. Chemotherapy regimen of ifosfamide, etoposide and cisplatin was administered and radiation therapy was administered to the spine tumor bed. Conclusions Yolk sac tumors, although rare, should be considered in the long list differential diagnosis of an otherwise healthy male presenting with conus medullaris or spinal cord compression from metastatic disease without evidence of a testicular mass. Prompt diagnosis with urgent decompression of neural structures and stabilization of the spine may result in improvement in neurological function. PMID:26609514

  14. Neuroendocrine tumor arising de novo in the left upper thigh: a case report.

    PubMed

    P?un, Ion; Costin, Andrei; P?un, Mariana; ?enovici, Mihaela; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Constantin, Vlad Denis

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) originate in the neuroendocrine cells of the neural crest (Kulchitsky cells). If neuroendocrine tumors arising in the digestive tract or lung may occasionally result in skin metastases, primary soft tissue or skin NETs are infrequent. The current paper presents the case of an elderly woman patient with neuroendocrine tumors arising de novo in the left upper thigh, accompanied by lymph nodes metastases in the left groin and in the left pelvic sidewall, in close vicinity of the iliac vessels. The diagnosis of NET was performed based on immunohistochemical tests. Such tumors show a slow growth and, generally, have a good prognosis. It is emphasized that complete surgical excision, in some cases associated with adjuvant external radiotherapy is the optimal therapeutic modality in dealing with such lesions. PMID:26429186

  15. Pseudomyxoma peritonei and mucinous pyometral fluid arising from an ovarian borderline mucinous tumor: case report.

    PubMed

    Niwa, K; Hirose, R; Mizuno, T; Hirose, Y; Tamaya, T

    2007-01-01

    An extremely rare case of a pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) and mucinous pyometral fluid, possibly arising from an ovarian borderline mucinous tumor is reported. A 68-year-old Japanese patient received an expolatory laparatomy under a working diagnosis of a PMP, left ovarian cystic tumor and an umbilical hernia. Surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy induced a 15-month disease-free condition. PMID:17479681

  16. A case of solitary fibrous tumor arising from the palatine tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takeharu; Kodama, Kozue; Nokubi, Mitsuhiro; Gotsu, Kazuo; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kusaka, Gen; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-03-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a distinctive, relatively uncommon soft-tissue neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. It occurs at various sites; head and neck lesions are very rare. While most of these tumors have a benign course, a small number have malignant potential. We describe a rare case of SFT arising from the left palatine tonsil in a 66-year-old Japanese woman. The mass was completely resected. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD34 and bcl-2, mildly positive for phosphorylated protein kinase B and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and negative for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and p53. These findings suggested that this tumor was benign. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence during 2 years of follow-up. We believe that the candidate prognostic marker should be checked to distinguish malignant from benign SFTs. PMID:25738718

  17. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor arising from the posterior cruciate ligament: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhihong; Mao, Ping; Chen, Dongyang; Shi, Dongquan; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Jiang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The localized form of tenosynovial giant cell tumor or pigmented villonodular synovitis is rarely intraarticular in the knee. We reported a 40-year-old woman with a tenosynovial giant cell tumor arising from posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). She suffered sudden knee pain and locking without any reason for two days. A mass with a size of 1.7×0.8×0.7 cm in the fossa intercondyloidea was detected on the MRI. After one time hyperextension physical examination the patients felt sudden pain relief. During the arthroscopy examination, a loose soft tissue mass was found under the lateral meniscus. Only the synovium tissue lesion on the proximal PCL was detected. The mass had a conceivable thin pedicel and the shape matched well with the tumor bed on the PCL. The histopathology of the mass demonstrated a tenosynovial giant cell tumor. At six weeks follow-up, no clinical evidence of recurrence was noted. A Literature Review of tenosynovial giant cell tumor or pigmented villonodular synovitis arising from the PCL is present. PMID:26261570

  18. [PRIMARY MEDIASTINAL GERM CELL TUMOR ARISING IN A PATIENT WITH NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 1].

    PubMed

    Kashima, Soki; Saito, Mitsuru; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Saito, Hajime; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Numakura, Kazuyuki; Tsuruta, Hiroshi; Akihama, Susumu; Inoue, Takamitsu; Narita, Shintaro; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Shigeru; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2015-07-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a distinct genetic disorder due to the NF1 gene mutation which induces the aberrant activation of the RAS-signaling. Because RAS-related proteins function as oncogenic factors, NF1 patients frequently develop malignant tumors, especially of neural crest origin, such as peripheral nerve sheath. In addition, malignant tumors of the pancreas, colorectum, and lung have been reported to frequently arise in NF1 patients. However, the association between germ cell tumor and NF1 has not been clarified yet. A 29-year-old male with dyspnea was referred to our hospital because of the large mass in the anterior mediastinum and cervical lymph node swelling. The diagnosis was extragonadal germ cell tumor with cervical lymph node metastasis, and complete remission was obtained by multidisciplinary treatment consisted of combination chemotherapy and surgical resection. To our acknowledgement, this is the first case of extragonadal germ cell tumor in NF1 patients. We discuss the relevance between activation of the RAS-signaling and the development of germ cell tumor. PMID:26419075

  19. Carcinoid tumor arising in a mature cystic teratoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    TOSUNER, ZEYNEP; SÖNMEZ, FATMA CAV?DE; ARICI, D?LEK SEMA; DANSUK, RAMAZAN

    2015-01-01

    Mature cystic teratomas are common benign tumors of the ovary. The most common form of malignant transformation is squamous cell carcinoma, however, malignant transformation is rarely observed and cases are usually asymptomatic. Carcinoid tumors are rare tumors of the neuroendocrine system. A number of the carcinoids result in clinical syndromes due to the secretion of vasoactive substances produced by the tumor. A 75-year-old woman suffering from groin pain was admitted to the Faculty of Medicine at Bezmialem Vak?f University (Istanbul, Turkey). An adnexal mass was detected during the physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging scans exhibited an 8×7-cm mass in the right ovary. Surgical excision of the mass was performed and histopathological examination revealed a mature cystic teratoma with three germ layers. An area consisting of nests and trabeculae was evident in the cyst wall. The pathological diagnosis was of an insular and trabecular variant of carcinoid tumor arising in a mature cystic teratoma. The patient did not present with carcinoid syndrome, and no recurrence was observed after 11 months of follow-up examinations. PMID:26137048

  20. Molecular Profiling of a Rare Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor Arising in the Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Mackay, Alan; de Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Scheithauer, Bernd Walter; Berardinelli, Gustavo Noriz; Torrieri, Raul; Clara, Carlos Afonso; Feltrin, Leonir Terezinha; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Jones, Chris; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a rare and recently recognized brain tumor entity. It is histologically composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in the spinal cord. Following an immunohistochemistry validation, we further performed an extensive genomic analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. We observed the loss of 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 and 19p13.3 (encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in several chromosomes. Additionally, on chromosome 7, we identified the presence of the KIAA1549:BRAF gene fusion, which was further validated by RT-PCR and FISH. Across all mutational analyses, we detected and validated the somatic mutations of the genes MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of this RGNT suggests that MAPK pathway and methylome changes, driven by KIAA1549:BRAF fusion and MLL2 mutation, respectively, could be associated with the development of this rare tumor entity. PMID:26371886

  1. Molecular Profiling of a Rare Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor Arising in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Mackay, Alan; de Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Berardinelli, Gustavo Noriz; Torrieri, Raul; Clara, Carlos Afonso; Feltrin, Leonir Terezinha; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Jones, Chris; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a rare and recently recognized brain tumor entity. It is histologically composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in the spinal cord. Following an immunohistochemistry validation, we further performed an extensive genomic analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. We observed the loss of 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 and 19p13.3 (encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in several chromosomes. Additionally, on chromosome 7, we identified the presence of the KIAA1549:BRAF gene fusion, which was further validated by RT-PCR and FISH. Across all mutational analyses, we detected and validated the somatic mutations of the genes MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of this RGNT suggests that MAPK pathway and methylome changes, driven by KIAA1549:BRAF fusion and MLL2 mutation, respectively, could be associated with the development of this rare tumor entity. PMID:26371886

  2. A Sex Cord-stromal Tumor, Specifically a Fibroma, Arising From the Uterine Corpus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène; Rocourt, Nathalie; Aubry, Estelle; Lervat, Cyril; Kerdraon, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A 12-yr-old girl presented with lordosis and an intraperitoneal mass that revealed a tumor attached to the uterine fundus. The fallopian tubes and ovaries were spared. The mass was completely excised, and a patch of the uterine fundus and the proximal one third of the fallopian tubes were resected. The lesion was composed of bland spindle cells that were positive for sex cord-stromal markers, with particularly strong staining for inhibin and CD56, as well as patchy staining for calretinin, WT1, and steroidogenic factor 1. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with a sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically a fibroma, arising from the uterine corpus. The pathogenesis of this tumor is unclear. An ovarian origin in the context of adherence or a tumor arising from sex cord-stromal ectopic tissues cannot be excluded, but seem unlikely. The tumor might appear as a particular form of uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor. However, this tumor would differ from the presently described classical form of uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor owing to a pure stromal differentiation instead of a pure sex cord differentiation. Finally, because of the low risk for recurrence, long-term follow-up was prescribed for the patient. PMID:26166719

  3. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in the setting of cervical nerve root schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Nolan; Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley; Kirby, Patricia; Smith, Mark; Reddy, Chandan

    2015-10-01

    We present a 23-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), 17 months following the resection of a schwannoma. MPNST is rare and is usually associated with neurofibromatosis. The typical treatment of resection and radiation is difficult to achieve in the spine. PMID:26117359

  4. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) arising from the 3rd cranial nerve in infants: a clinical-radiological entity?

    PubMed

    Oh, Christopher C; Orr, Brent A; Bernardi, Bruno; Garré, Maria Luisa; Rossi, Andrea; Figà-Talamanca, Lorenzo; Robinson, Giles W; Patay, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare embryonal tumor of the central nervous system with preponderance in very young children, the majority of whom are younger than 3 years of age at diagnosis. Historically, outcomes of this aggressive disease, even with extensive multimodal therapy, have been dismal. Recent improvements have come from therapies directed exclusively towards ATRT, but misdiagnosis or delays in the correct diagnosis lead to significantly worse survival rates. ATRTs most commonly occur supratentorially but have been described in virtually all central nervous system locations, including the cerebellopontine angle cistern, meninges, and spinal canal, and extradural locations. ATRTs originating from cranial nerves are rare. Here, we describe three cases of solitary ATRT arising from the 3rd cranial nerve (CN III) or close to its origin in the midbrain, all of which presented in patients within 6 months of birth, with isolated unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and strikingly similar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. These MRI features include IV contrast enhancement, relative T2 hyposignal, and restricted water diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient images, findings which are consistent with angiogenesis and high cellularity, and hence, suggestive of malignancy. We conclude that ATRT should be placed high on the differential diagnosis list when encountering a young infant presenting with isolated, unilateral 3rd nerve palsy and a small, solitary tumor arising from CN III that demonstrates malignant conventional and diffusion-weighted imaging features on MRI. PMID:26148473

  5. Asymptotic profile of a parabolic-hyperbolic system with boundary effect arising from tumor angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ming; Peng, Hongyun; Wang, Zhi-An

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a parabolic-hyperbolic system on the half space R+ with boundary effect. The system is derived from a singular chemotaxis model describing the initiation of tumor angiogenesis. We show that the solution of the system subject to appropriate boundary conditions converges to a traveling wave profile as time tends to infinity if the initial data is a small perturbation around the wave which is shifted far away from the boundary but its amplitude can be arbitrarily large.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatments for Primary Malignant Bone Tumors Arising in the Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Ogura, Koichi; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Chuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The functional and oncologic results of eighteen patients with primary malignant periacetabular tumors were reviewed to determine the impact of surgical treatment. The reconstruction procedures were endoprosthesis (11), hip transposition (4), iliofemoral arthrodesis (2), and frozen bone autograft (1). After a mean follow-up of 62 months, 13 patients were alive and 5 had died of their disease; the 5-year overall survival rate was 67.2%. The corresponding mean MSTS scores of patients with endoprosthesis (11) and other reconstructions (7) were 42% and 55% (49%, 68%, and 50%), respectively. Overall, postoperative complications including deep infection or dislocation markedly worsened the functional outcome. Iliofemoral arthrodesis provided better function than the other procedures, whereas endoprosthetic reconstruction demonstrated poor functional outcome except for patients who were reconstructed with the adequate soft tissue coverage. Avoiding postoperative complications is highly important for achieving better function, suggesting that surgical procedures with adequate soft tissue coverage or without the massive use of nonbiological materials are preferable. Appropriate selection of the reconstructive procedures for individual patients, considering the amount of remaining bone and soft tissues, would lead to better clinical outcomes. PMID:26451129

  7. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising in diffuse-type neurofibroma: clinicopathologic characterization in a series of 9 cases.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse-type neurofibroma, an uncommon variant of neurofibroma, is associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in ?60% of cases. Typically presenting in young adults as ill-defined plaque-like dermal/subcutaneous thickening, most cases are located on the trunk or the head and neck region. Malignant transformation is extremely rare. Nine cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising in diffuse-type neurofibroma (identified in consult files) are described, including clinicopathologic features and follow-up. Five patients were male and 4 female, aged 31 to 59 years (median 49 y). All diffuse-type neurofibromas contained Meissner corpuscles, with tumor sizes ranging between 3.6 and 45 cm (median, 7.4 cm). Five patients had a clinical history of neurofibromatosis type 1, and 1 had Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. Six tumors arose on the trunk and 1 each on the leg, arm, and scalp. Increased cellularity, nuclear atypia, and mitoses (range, 1 to 63/50 high-power fields) indicated transition to MPNST, classified as low grade in 5, intermediate to high grade in 1, and high grade in 3 cases, 1 of which exhibited heterologous angiosarcomatous differentiation. S-100 expression was quite strong and diffuse in the neurofibroma components and less extensive or weaker in MPNST. Follow-up, available for all patients (median, 80.5 mo, except 1 recent case), revealed that 1 patient developed local recurrence after 9 months; 1 with metastases at the time of initial diagnosis died 1 month after tumor resection. All other patients were alive without evidence of disease at 15 to 145 months (median, 83 mo). Diffuse-type neurofibroma may show transformation to MPNST in very rare instances. It is important to be aware of possible malignant change, requiring thorough sampling of resection specimens and long-term clinical follow-up of patients with unexcised lesions. PMID:25929351

  8. Better grade of tumor differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in background of oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S

    2013-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Most of the people affected by OSMF are betel quid chewers. It is characterized by epithelial atrophy and progressive accumulation of collagen fibers in lamina propria and submucosa of the oral mucosa. 7.6% of OSMF cases undergo oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) transformation of which majority display low grade of tumor differentiation. In the present paper, a hypothesis has been proposed to correlate atrophy, turnover rate and surface keratization in OSMF with degree of tumor differentiation in OSCC. A novel hypothesis for epithelial atrophy in OSMF has also been emphasized. High proliferative activity and basal cell hyperplasia in conjunction with rapid exfoliation of superficial cells and epithelial atrophy suggest that epithelial turnover rate is very high in OSMF. Presence of surface keratinized layer in this situation suggests faster maturation or differentiation of epithelium in OSMF. Thus, the epithelial cells are genetically programmed for high turnover rate and faster differentiation or maturation to form keratin. During malignant transformation of OSMF, the transformed epithelial cells may retain the genetic memory of faster differentiation and maturation resulting in better grade of tumor differentiation. The well differentiated OSCC has good prognosis, better survival rate and less chances of recurrence of regional and distant metastasis. Studies are needed to explore the biomarkers or molecular markers associated with carcinogenesis like genetic instability, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and angiogenesis in OSCC associated with OSMF. If investigated in the suggested direction, it might provide some important clues about the pathogenesis of OSCC arising in background of OSMF and for the future development of treatment strategies. PMID:23891040

  9. CD5-Positive Primary Intraocular B-Cell Lymphoma Arising during Methotrexate and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Kenji; Inaba, Tohru; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of CD5+ primary intraocular B-cell lymphoma arising during methotrexate (MTX) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor treatment in a young patient with rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis. Case Presentation A 39-year-old woman treated with MTX and a TNF inhibitor for rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis had steroid-resistant vitreous opacity. A vitreous sample was obtained by using diagnostic vitrectomy and was categorized as class V based on cytologic examination. Flow cytometric analysis of the vitreous sample revealed that abnormal cells were CD5+, CD10–, CD19+, CD20+ and immunoglobulin light-chain kappa+, suggesting the diagnosis of CD5+ primary intraocular B-cell lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detected immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangement. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was detected in the vitreous sample by using PCR, and immunohistochemistry revealed EBV latent membrane protein-1 expression in the abnormal cells infiltrating the vitreous. Optic nerve invasion was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) may develop in patients receiving MTX and TNF inhibitor treatment. EBV infection may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PIOL arising during immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:26483672

  10. Diagnosis and management of female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) arising from ovary: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Türkçapar, Ayse Figen; Seçkin, Berna; Güngör, Tayfun; ?irvan, Levent; Mollamahmuto?lu, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) is a rare neoplasm which is usually considered as benign, although in some cases metastasis or recurrences have been reported even after a long interval following the initial diagnosis. Preoperative diagnosis of FATWO is very difficult because of the rarity of the disease and the limited literature available. In this case report, we present a case of FATWO arising from the ovary and review the literature based on the clinical characteristics and management of this rare condition. A 51- year- old postmenopausal woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an adnexal mass. After diagnostic evaluation, the patient underwent explorative laparotomy. Intra-operatively, a solid- cystic mass was found in the right ovary, the rest of the abdomen and the pelvis were normal. The ovarian mass was removed and examined with frozen-section (FS). When the frozen section proved negative for malignancy, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy were performed. The anatomic study revealed a well-capsulated mass which was 3.5×1.5 cm in diameter. Based on pathological and immunohistochemical results, the final diagnosis was concluded to be FATWO. Adjuvant therapy was not administered. Te patient was followed up after discharge from the hospital. One year after surgery she was asymptomatic. No evidences of recurrence were observed throughout this period. Although FATWOs are rare tumors, they should be kept in mind in women with an abdominal mass. They can present diagnostic difficulties and the diagnosis is based on the exclusion of other neoplasms. FATWO has malignant potential, after the initial surgical treatment patients should be appropriately followed up for possible recurrence and metastasis. PMID:24592074

  11. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-08

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  12. Submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER) for the treatment of a case of huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Wei, Li-Li; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Sha, Qi-Mei; Huang, Ya; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Xu, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic Interventional Treatment is of little trauma and less complications in the treatment of esophageal tumor and leads to faster recovery and fewer days of hospitalization. This study was aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic interventional therapy for huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria. Methods: The patient was treated by submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER). Results: The huge esophageal tumor was resected completely by STER technique, with little trauma and less complications. The size of the resected tumor was 5.5×3.5×3.0 cm. Conclusion: Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection is a safe and efficient technique for treating Huge Esophageal Tumor originating from muscularis propria layer. PMID:26629086

  13. Joint preserved reconstruction after curettage in giant cell tumor of bone arising in the distal radius: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell tumor of bone is a locally aggressive tumor. Preserved joint reconstruction for tumors in the distal radius is challenging, especially when there is extraosseous extension and less subarticular bone. Presentation of case To preserve the joint, we developed a new reconstruction technique using ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with strong compressive resistance. Discussion and conclusion Giant cell tumor of bone in the distal radius was treated by curettage and bone grafting, plus the use of ?-TCP. This new method will preserve joint junction. PMID:26492357

  14. Liposarcoma of the breast arising in a malignant phyllodes tumor: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Banys-Paluchowski, Malgorzata; Burandt, Eike; Quaas, Alexander; Wilczak, Waldemar; Geist, Stefan; Sauter, Guido; Krawczyk, Natalia; Pietzner, Klaus; Paluchowski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Liposarcoma of the breast is a very rare malignant tumor. It can clinically manifest as a palpable breast mass and mimic primary breast cancer. We report an unusual case of a 51-year-old female who presented with an asymptomatic right breast mass, which was histologically diagnosed as well differentiated liposarcoma arisen within malignant phyllodes tumor. The patient underwent breast conserving surgery, received no adjuvant treatment and is disease-free after 2 years. Radiological and histopathological features are presented and described in detail. Data from the literature are presented and therapy recommendations discussed. PMID:26468454

  15. Liposarcoma of the breast arising in a malignant phyllodes tumor: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Banys-Paluchowski, Malgorzata; Burandt, Eike; Quaas, Alexander; Wilczak, Waldemar; Geist, Stefan; Sauter, Guido; Krawczyk, Natalia; Pietzner, Klaus; Paluchowski, Peter

    2015-10-10

    Liposarcoma of the breast is a very rare malignant tumor. It can clinically manifest as a palpable breast mass and mimic primary breast cancer. We report an unusual case of a 51-year-old female who presented with an asymptomatic right breast mass, which was histologically diagnosed as well differentiated liposarcoma arisen within malignant phyllodes tumor. The patient underwent breast conserving surgery, received no adjuvant treatment and is disease-free after 2 years. Radiological and histopathological features are presented and described in detail. Data from the literature are presented and therapy recommendations discussed. PMID:26468454

  16. Recent developments in SAC2000

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M

    1997-07-01

    Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980`s for a variety of geophysical applications. Primary funding for the development of SAC2000 has been through the LLNL as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CTBT R&D program. The primary development goals for SAC2000 have been to meet the seismic signal processing and analysis needs of the DOE CTBT R&D teams and the rest of the CTBT R&D community. SAC2000`s strengths include its ability to process a diverse range of data types, its extensive, well documented signal processing capabilities (both on-line and on the web at http://www-ep.es.llnl.gov/tvp/sac.html), its macro language, and its ability to do both branch and interactive processing. Its extensive usage (over 200 institutions worldwide) had also made it much easier for researchers to develop collaborative research projects. SAC2000`s extensive signal processing capabilities include: data inspection, signal correction, and quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis. Recent development in SAC2000 include: enhanced compatibility with the CSS3.0 database schema, complete compatibility with the widely used SEED data format instrument responses, map making capabilities via an interface to GMT, a new three component polarization and phase identification tool, an external interface that allows users to define their own commands, and an interface to MATLAB that allows the user to use MATLAB commands and scripts on SAC data from within SAC2000. We have also implemented a number of commands to enhance user efficiency and numerous improvements and enhancements to many individual SAC commands. Current development in SAC2000 are motivated by the need for easy and efficient access to, and processing and interpretation of large amounts of data. We are also driven by the need to communicate results from SAC2000 to our database and other programs. Based on these needs, we have begun developing a new data structure for SAC 2000. This new structure will completely compatible with the standard SAC format but will also allow us to access, modify, and output all the information in CSS3.0 based oracle databases or CSS3.0 flat files. Given the variety of data types that are currently possible in SAC2000 and other programs, and the likelihood that additional data types or parameters will be needed in the future, we designing SAC2000`s new format to be easily extendible and anticipate incorporation of significant extensions to the CSS3.0 schema.

  17. Atypical Spitz Tumor Arising on a Congenital Linear Plaque-Type Blue Nevus: A Case Report With a Review of the Literature on Plaque-Type Blue Nevus.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, Franco; Guadagno, Antonio; Campisi, Caterina; Cabiddu, Francesco; Kutzner, Heinz; Parodi, Aurora; Fiocca, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The plaque-type blue nevus (PTBN) is a rare variant of blue nevus, of which only a few reports are described. A nodular growth within a preexistent PTBN should always alert to the possibility of malignant transformation. The authors report the first case of an atypical Spitz tumor arising on a congenital linear PTBN in a 60-year-old woman. The diagnosis of "atypical Spitz tumor" is here used to describe a microscopic "gray zone" in which it is not possible to differentiate with adequate certainty between a Spitz nevus and a spitzoid melanoma. This report adds to and summarizes the small body of literature describing PTBN and discusses diagnostic and clinical implications. PMID:25943242

  18. Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic response: Infections, tumors, and immune disorders arising on the site of healed herpetic infection.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora; Brunetti, Giampiero; Russo, Teresa; Gambardella, Alessio; Wolf, Ronni

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1/HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have several characteristics in common. Both are epidermoneurotropic, cause skin eruptions accompanied by sensory symptoms (itch, pain), damage peripheral sensory nerve fibers and cutaneous nerve endings, and interfere with neuromediator release, which can alter local mechanisms of immune control. For this reason, herpes-infected areas may become a preferential location for the subsequent onset of immunity-related skin disorders (infections, tumors, and dysimmune reactions), an event first reported by a neurologist and focused on by two brothers, a dermatologist and a pediatrician. The phenomenon therefore named Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic response (PHIR) refers to the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of a previous and already healed herpetic eruption (herpes zoster in most cases). Until now, we have been able to gather 189 well-documented cases of PHIR (all reported in the reference section), but our list is far from being complete. Some of the most emblematic cases are briefly described here. In some circumstances, the opposite of PHIR occurs, with diffuse skin disorders or eruptions that selectively spare herpes-infected areas (Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic nonresponse). Experimental investigations with patch testing have been performed in seven patients who were sensitized to nickel and had had herpes zoster in the past years. The tests were carried out bilaterally on the affected dermatomes and on the unaffected contralateral ones. The uneven immune responses we obtained have shown that the immune behavior of an herpes zoster-affected dermatome can be different from that of the corresponding contralateral dermatome, thus supporting the existence of immune dysregulation in herpes-infected areas. PMID:25160097

  19. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-08

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  20. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  1. Characterization of hematopoietic progenitors from human yolk sacs and embryos.

    PubMed

    Huyhn, A; Dommergues, M; Izac, B; Croisille, L; Katz, A; Vainchenker, W; Coulombel, L

    1995-12-15

    Hematopoiesis first arises in the extraembryonic yolk sac, and it is generally believed that yolk sac-derived stem cells migrate and seed the fetal liver at approximately week 6 of development in humans. Recently, the identification at day 8.5 to 9 of multipotential stem cells in intraembryonic sites different from the liver suggests that the establishment of hematopoiesis might be more complex than initially believed. In an attempt to understand initial steps of hematopoiesis during human ontogeny, we characterized clonogenic myeloid progenitor cells in human yolk sacs and corresponding embryos at 25 to 50 days of development. Most erythroid colonies derived from the yolk sacs differed from adult marrow-derived progenitors in that they also contained cells of the granulomacrophagic lineage, suggesting that they were pluripotent and exhibited a different response to cytokines. Furthermore, a subclass of nonerythroid progenitors generated very large granulomacrophagic colonies, some of which generated secondary erythroid colonies on replating. Analysis of the distribution of progenitors revealed that in contrast to erythroid progenitors, whose numbers were equally distributed between the yolk sac and the embryo, 80% of the nonerythroid progenitors were found in the embryo at stages II and III. Interestingly, a high proportion of nonerythroid progenitors (including high proliferative potential cells) was present in colony assays initiated with cells remaining after the liver has been removed. These findings were validated in colony assays established with CD34+ cells purified from extraembryonic yolk sacs and intraembryonic tissues. Increased knowledge about the biology of hematopoietic stem cells early in life may help to further understanding of the mechanisms associated with the restriction in proliferative and differentiative potential observed in the adult hematopoietic stem cell compartment. PMID:8541536

  2. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham-inoculated. The rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges was found. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurred prior to bacterial invasion. During meningitis, bacteria do not invade the endolymphatic sac through the dura, but solely through the endolymphatic duct, following the invasion of the vestibular system. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurs prior to, as well as concurrent with bacterial invasion. The findings support the endolymphatic sac as part of an innate immune defense system protecting the inner ear from infection. PMID:24452771

  3. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  4. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartomas arise secondary to germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 in the pleuropulmonary blastoma tumor-predisposition disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Douglas R.; Messinger, Yoav; Williams, Gretchen M.; Yang, Jiandong; Field, Amanda; Schultz, Kris Ann P.; Harney, Laura A.; Doros, Leslie A.; Dehner, Louis P.; Hill, D. Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a rare nasal tumor that typically presents in young children. We previously reported on NCMH occurrence in children with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), a rare pulmonary dysembryonic sarcoma that is the hallmark neoplasm in the PPB-associated DICER1 tumor predisposition disorder. Methods Original pathologic materials from individuals with a PPB, PPB-associated tumor and/or a DICER1 mutation were centrally reviewed by the International PPB Registry. Paraffin-embedded NCMH tumor tissue was available in three cases. Laser-capture microdissection was used to isolate mesenchymal spindle cells and cartilage in one case for Sanger sequencing of DICER1. Results Nine patients (5F/4M) had PPB and NCMH. NCMH was diagnosed at a median age of 10 years (range 6-21years). NCMH developed 4.5 - 13 years after PPB. Presenting NCMH symptoms included chronic sinusitis and nasal congestion. Five patients had bilateral tumors. Local NCMH recurrences required several surgical resections in two patients, but all nine patients were alive at 0 – 16 years of follow-up. Pathogenic germline DICER1 mutations were found in 6/8 NCMH patients tested. In 2 of the patients with germline DICER1 mutations, somatic DICER1 missense mutations were also identified in their NCMH (E1813D; n=2). Three additional PPB patients developed other nasal lesions seen in the general population (a Schneiderian papilloma, chronic sinusitis with cysts, and allergic nasal polyps with eosinophils). Two of these patients had germline DICER1 mutations. Conclusion Pathogenic germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 in NCMH establishes that the genetic etiology of NCMH is similar to PPB, despite the disparate biological potential of these neoplasms. PMID:25118636

  5. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  6. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  7. 76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. SAC control center underground structure upper floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. 72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SAC control center underground structure lower floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. 80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. SAC control center administration section third floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. SAC control center administrative section basement floor plan, drawing number not listed, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. 75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SAC control center underground structure middle floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. 79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. SAC control center administration section first floor plan, drawing number 32-02-03, dated 1 February, 1955 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. SAC control center aboveground addition partial first floor plan, drawing number AW30-02-09, dated 15 October, 1962 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  16. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5' AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-?B suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  18. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5? AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-?B suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  19. Apoptosis and Tumor Resistance Conferred by Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2009-01-01

    Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors, and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This chapter reviews a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. These SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

  20. Characterizing the Mechanical Properties of Actual SAC105, SAC305, and SAC405 Solder Joints by Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Yu, D.; Park, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the mechanical properties of three lead-free solder alloys 95.5Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405), 96.5Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305), and 98.5Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) at the solder joint scale. Several actual ChipArray ® ball grid array (CABGA) packages were cross-sectioned, polished, and used as test vehicles. Compressive tests were performed using a nanocharacterization system over the temperature range of 25°C to 105°C. Images of the cross-sectioned solder joints were recorded by microscope during the tests. The recorded images were then processed by using a digital image correlation (DIC) program to calculate the displacement and strain fields on the solder joints. Finite-element method (FEM) modeling was used to extract the Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the solder alloys over the temperature range. The methodology developed in this paper enables characterization of the mechanical properties of the actual solder joints at low strain range with high accuracy.

  1. Extraskeletal Osteochondroma Arising on the Plantar Region

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Takashi; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Omi, Tokuya; Kawana, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Extraskeletal osteochondroma is a variant of extraskeletal chondromas that are uncommon soft-tissue cartilaginous tumors. These tumors may undergo extensive enchondral ossification to form an extraskeletal osteochondroma. This report describes the case of a 39-year-old Japanese man with an extraskeletal osteochondroma arising on the plantar aspect of the foot. PMID:21829399

  2. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ziaja, Damian; Bolkowski, Tomasz; Januszewski, Krzysztof; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Wioletta; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4?cm in diameter) tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand's hernia). Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women. PMID:25802791

  3. Crystal plasticity finite element analysis of deformation behaviour in SAC305 solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Payam

    Due to the awareness of the potential health hazards associated with the toxicity of lead (Pb), actions have been taken to eliminate or reduce the use of Pb in consumer products. Among those, tin (Sn) solders have been used for the assembly of electronic systems. Anisotropy is of significant importance in all structural metals, but this characteristic is unusually strong in Sn, making Sn based solder joints one of the best examples of the influence of anisotropy. The effect of anisotropy arising from the crystal structure of tin and large grain microstructure on the microstructure and the evolution of constitutive responses of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. Insights into the effects of key microstructural features and dominant plastic deformation mechanisms influencing the measured relative activity of slip systems in SAC305 are obtained from a combination of optical microscopy, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), slip plane trace analysis and crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) modeling. Package level SAC305 specimens were subjected to shear deformation in sequential steps and characterized using optical microscopy and OIM to identify the activity of slip systems. X-ray micro Laue diffraction and high energy monochromatic X-ray beam were employed to characterize the joint scale tensile samples to provide necessary information to be able to compare and validate the CPFE model. A CPFE model was developed that can account for relative ease of activating slip systems in SAC305 solder based upon the statistical estimation based on correlation between the critical resolved shear stress and the probability of activating various slip systems. The results from simulations show that the CPFE model developed using the statistical analysis of activity of slip system not only can satisfy the requirements associated with kinematic of plastic deformation in crystal coordinate systems (activity of slip systems) and global coordinate system (shape changes) but also this model is able to predict the evolution of stress in joint level SAC305 sample.

  4. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed. PMID:25419620

  5. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  6. Müllerian Adenosarcoma Arising From Rectal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunseok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A Müllerian adenosarcoma is an extremely rare tumor characterized by a stromal component of usually low-grade malignancy and by a benign glandular epithelial component. A Müllerian adenosarcoma occurs mainly in the uterus, but also in extrauterine locations. Extrauterine Müllerian adenosarcomas are thought to arise from endometriotic deposits. A 36-year-old female presented to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center with a symptom of loose stool for several months. The imaging studies revealed a rectal mass, so she underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection. Although extemporary pathology revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, the final histologic diagnosis was a Müllerian adenosarcoma arising from rectal endometriosis. To our knowledge, except a concomitant rectal villotubular adenoma, cases of Müllerian adenosarcomas arising the rectal wall are rare. An adenosarcoma arising from endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass, even one appearing in rectal wall, because ectopic endometrial tissue exists everywhere. PMID:25360431

  7. Osseous hamartoma arising from the eustachian tube.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Ai; Katori, Yukio; Honkura, Yohei; Ogura, Masaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2013-08-01

    A fairly quite rare case of osseous tumor arising from the Eustachian tube (ET) is described. A 56-year-old man presented with a smooth bulky mass in the nasopharynx and secretory otitis media in the right ear. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a solid tumor-like region occupying the nasopharynx with apparent extension to the right ET. Transnasal endoscopic surgery demonstrated that the tumor had originated from the ET, and the tumor was partially removed in the area where it had expanded into the nasopharynx. The pathological diagnosis was an osseous hamartoma consisting of bony tissue, fat cells and fibroblasts. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of osseous hamartoma arising from the ET in the world literature. The patient presented symptoms of nasal obstruction and unilateral aural fullness. Reduction surgery and tympanostomy tube insertion were useful for accurate diagnosis and resolution of the symptoms. PMID:24765513

  8. Osseous Hamartoma Arising from the Eustachian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Ai; Katori, Yukio; Honkura, Yohei; Ogura, Masaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    A fairly quite rare case of osseous tumor arising from the Eustachian tube (ET) is described. A 56-year-old man presented with a smooth bulky mass in the nasopharynx and secretory otitis media in the right ear. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a solid tumor-like region occupying the nasopharynx with apparent extension to the right ET. Transnasal endoscopic surgery demonstrated that the tumor had originated from the ET, and the tumor was partially removed in the area where it had expanded into the nasopharynx. The pathological diagnosis was an osseous hamartoma consisting of bony tissue, fat cells and fibroblasts. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of osseous hamartoma arising from the ET in the world literature. The patient presented symptoms of nasal obstruction and unilateral aural fullness. Reduction surgery and tympanostomy tube insertion were useful for accurate diagnosis and resolution of the symptoms. PMID:24765513

  9. Teratoid Wilms’ tumor – A rare renal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita; Mandi, Sabitri; Roy, Dipankar; Bhattacharya, Malay K.

    2011-01-01

    Teratoid Wilms’ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms’ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms’ tumor. PMID:21976930

  10. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

  12. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  13. Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Berjis, Nezamoddin; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Nejadnic, Maryam; Fereidani Samani, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler. Results: A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7%) were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8%) of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4%) needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16%) lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4%) was posterior and 20 (80%) were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The mean difference of distance from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 39.04 (±4.92) mm. The mean difference of distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 45.50 (±4.47) mm. The mean of width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44) mm and 13.16 (±5.37) mm, respectively. The mean difference of distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00) mm, while the mean difference of distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 37.20 (±5.37) mm.The mean height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09) mm. The mean difference of distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45) mm, and from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02) mm. Conclusion: Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to better identify the position of lacrimal sac during surgery based on ethnic differences. In addition, these studies can help novice surgeons to better navigate in a surgical scenario. PMID:26082903

  14. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  15. Regulation of Drosophila matrix metalloprotease Mmp2 is essential for wing imaginal disc:trachea association and air sac tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guha, Arjun; Lin, Li; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2009-11-15

    The Drosophila Dorsal Air Sac Primordium (ASP) is a tracheal tube that grows toward Branchless FGF-expressing cells in the wing imaginal disc. We show that the ASP arises from a tracheal branch that invades the basal lamina of the disc to juxtapose directly with disc cells. We examined the role of matrix metalloproteases (Mmps), and found that reducing Mmp2 activity perturbed disc-trachea association, altered peritracheal distributions of collagen IV and Perlecan, misregulated ASP growth, and abrogated development of the dorsal air sacs. Whereas the function of the membrane-tethered Mmp2 in the ASP is non-cell autonomous we find that it may have distinct tissue-specific roles in the ASP and disc. These findings demonstrate a critical role for Mmp2 in tubulogenesis post-induction, and implicate Mmp2 in regulating dynamic and essential changes to the extracellular matrix. PMID:19751719

  16. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  17. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  18. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  19. Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pinchot, Scott N.; Holen, Kyle; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors arising from the enterochromaffin cells disseminated throughout the gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary systems. Though they have been traditionally classified based upon the embryologic site of origin, morphologic pattern, and silver affinity, newer classification systems have been developed to emphasize the considerable clinical and histopathologic variability of carcinoid tumors found within each embryologic site of origin. These neoplasms pose a diagnostic challenge because they are often innocuous at the time of presentation, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach utilizing biochemical analysis, standard cross-sectional imaging, and newer advances in nuclear medicine. Similarly, treatment of both primary and disseminated carcinoid disease reflects the need for a multidisciplinary approach, with surgery remaining the only curative modality. The prognosis for patients with these tumors is generally favorable, however can be quite variable and is related to the location of the primary tumor, extent of metastatic disease at initial presentation, and the time of diagnosis. PMID:19091780

  20. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    PubMed

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial recurrent mature teratoma and featuring mutated KRAS and wild-type BRAF genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-02-01

    Malignant transformation or recurrence of intracranial mature teratoma is an extremely rare occurrence, compared to the usual ovarian counterpart. Previously, yolk sac tumor elements have been considered to be selective progenitors of enteric-type adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial germ cell tumors. However, the present case demonstrates the occurrence of enteric-type adenocarcinoma in recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma 12 years after gross total removal, a case of which has not previously been documented in the literature. The 11.5-cm long, dura mater-based tumor on the right fronto-temporal lobe displaced the brain; however, the patient had no neurologic symptoms or discomfort other than pus-like discharge on the scalp. Microscopic examinations revealed a small focus of adenocarcinoma and dysplastic colonic mucosa in the mature cystic teratoma. No immature elements were seen. The cystic wall was almost denuded and showed an exuberant xanthogranulomatous reaction with foreign-body type giant cells engulfing keratin materials and cholesterol clefts, suggesting that chronic inflammation due to repeated cyst wall rupture and the previous resection may contribute to malignant transformation. The adenocarcinoma showed strong immunohistochemical expression of CK20 and p53, but CK7 in patches. The molecular profile of the adenocarcinoma showed a mutation in KRAS and wild-type BRAF, which might be associated with malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratomas. In conclusion, the intracranial mature teratomas should require long-term follow-up, and clinicians, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of the potential for malignant progression of recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma despite gross total resection and no neurologic symptoms. PMID:25039399

  2. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions...Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and instructions for its completion...

  3. Investigation of sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) modification to nylon film. 2. Study of SAC sorption isotherm and atomic force microscopic characterization of nylon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Watson, B.A.; Keown, R.W.; Malone, C.P.; Barteau, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    Nylon 6 and nylon 66 films have been treated with aqueous sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 wt%. SAC uptakes at different treatment concentrations were measured and found to follow a BET isotherm. The surface morphologies of nylon film samples, including the original and SAC-treated films, have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For untreated nylon 6 and nylon 66 films, AFM images show a randomly distributed fibrillar surface structure. Characteristic widths of fibrils in the nylon 66 and 6 films were 150-225 and 75-150 nm, respectively. For SAC-treated nylon films, the AFM images revealed that the surfaces of the films became covered with nodule-like features having a diameter range of 25-60 nm. AFM analysis provides evidence that SAC treatment deposited a surface coating on nylon films. AFM images of SAC-treated nylon films suggest a mechanism for stain resistance in which the SAC first forms a thin coating on the nylon via bondings between attractive groups in the SAC and nylon polymers. After treatment at increased SAC concentration, the surface is covered with nodule-like deposits which likely serve as a physical barrier to dye permeation. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  4. De Novo Development and Progression of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour in von Hippel-Lindau Disease: An Observational Study and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular symptoms due to intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. The tumor demonstrated subsequent growth over 25 months until the patient agreed to undergo surgical resection by subtotal petrosectomy. De novo development and the natural history have been described only in six previous cases. MRI is regarded to be unreliable with respect to the ability to demonstrate an ELST in the presence of intralabyrinthine hemorrhage, with only two out of four previously reported patients demonstrating positive MRI findings. Little is known about the precise origin (endolymphatic duct versus sac), growth, and symptom correlation. This case highlights that new audiovestibular symptoms are a potential clinical clue and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage is a neuroimaging indicator for the presence of an ELST, which based on high-resolution MRI appears to originate in the endolymphatic duct rather than sac. PMID:24436921

  5. The Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac1 Is Required for Midline Axon Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongsoo; Kim, Sungdae; Nahm, Minyeop; Kim, Euijae; Kim, Tai-Il; Yoon, Jin Ho; Lee, Seungbok

    2011-01-01

    Sac1 phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatases are important regulators of PtdIns(4)P turnover at the ER, Golgi, and plasma membrane (PM) and are involved in diverse cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization and vesicular trafficking. Here, we present evidence that Sac1 regulates axon guidance in the embryonic CNS of Drosophila. Sac1 is expressed on three longitudinal axon tracts that are defined by the cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin II (Fas II). Mutations in the sac1 gene cause ectopic midline crossing of Fas II-positive axon tracts. This phenotype is rescued by neuronal expression of wild-type Sac1 but not by a catalytically-inactive mutant. Finally, sac1 displays dosage-sensitive genetic interactions with mutations in the genes that encode the midline repellent Slit and its axonal receptor Robo. Taken together, our results suggest that Sac1-mediated regulation of PIs is critical for Slit/Robo-dependent axon repulsion at the CNS midline. PMID:22042447

  6. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  7. [Topography, relations and transformation of lumbar lymphatic sacs].

    PubMed

    Sharkus, Ye A

    2015-01-01

    The peculiarities of the structure, skeletotopy, and syntopy of the lumbar lymphatic collector were studied on 20 5-8 week-old embryos and on 80 9-36 week-old fetuses using a complex macro-microscopic method. It is found that the lumbar lymphatic collector in fetuses at 9-10 weeks was represented by retroperitoneal and retroaortic lymphatic sacs that had a fusion mode of formation and were interconnected. Retroperitoneal sac was located in the projection of L(I)-L(IV) and was in contact with the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava, aortic lumbar paraganglia, abdominal aortic plexus and ganglia of sympathetic trunk. Retroaortic sack at L(I)-L(II) was adjacent to posterior surface of the aorta, the lumbar vertebrae and the medial crus of the diaphragm. These topical relations were preserved throughout the whole fetal period. However, in fetuses of 11-13 weeks lymphatic sacs formed the lymphatic plexuses, while in fetuses of 14-36 weeks they formed lumbar lymph nodes and their interconnecting vessels. PMID:25958724

  8. Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac.

    PubMed

    Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2006-03-25

    Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of the lungs and the air sac, and the shape, size and external surface of the liver were visible in the cranial direction. In the smaller snakes the bifurcation and caudal part of the trachea could be viewed, provided the endoscope was positioned in a retrograde orientation. The caudal orientation of the endoscope made it possible to view the gall bladder and the size, shape and surface of the spleen. In some cases, the pancreas and the surface of the stomach and colon could be monitored. Endoscopy through the air sac also made it possible to check the major veins in the coelom. The snakes were monitored for at least 30 days after the intervention and no changes in their respiratory function or general health were observed. PMID:16565339

  9. [A solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoyan; Luo, Gui; Zhu, Xinhua

    2014-07-01

    Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that arise from the nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Generally, neurofibromas can be categorized into dermal and plexiform subtypes. The former subtype is usually associated with a lone peripheral nerve in the integumentary system, while plexiform tumors are associated with many nerve bundles and can originate internally. Rarely, the plexiform tumors can undergo malignant transformation. Neurofibromas are usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis, which is an autosomal dominant disease. On occasion, an isolated neurofibroma can transpire without being associated with neurofibromatosis. Mostly, these solitary tumors tend to occur in the gastrointestinal system, and neurofibromas of the head and neck are not uncommon, but very rarely they have been reported to occur in the temporal fossa. In this report, we describe a case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa. PMID:25248275

  10. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. [The orbital implant after exenteration of the orbit with the preservation of the eyelids and the conjunctival sac].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Novák, V; Otradovec, J

    2006-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the orbital exenteration presents the most mutilating surgical procedure. The surgical technique presented by authors, preserves the eyelids and conjunctival sac. This surgical procedure was suggested and repeatedly performed in adult patients with extensive benign tumors (mostly meningeomas) by J. Otradovec and J. Safár. The enucleation of the eyeball preceded this type of surgery. The final state made it possible to put the prosthesis into the conjunctival sac. Today we inform about further development of this surgical technique and according to our own experiences we widen its indications to some malignant tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma and metastases of the retinoblastoma, etc.) in children. The initial cutaneous incision starts in the eyebrow area and is directed toward the bone of the orbital rim. The preparation of the tissue underneath the intact conjunctival sac to the lower aspect of the bone orbital rim follows. After folding the conjuctival-cutaneous sac back, the real content of the orbit is exenterated in the classical manner. After the hemostasis in the orbital apex, the flap is returned to its primary position and suturing of the primary incision in anatomical layers terminates the surgery. The authors refer about a boy, now 17 years old, who underwent at the age of three years the exenteration of the orbit in this manner due to a rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors also refer about the development and application of a special type of prosthesis made from silicone rubber--implant grade--filling out the orbital space and forming the anterior segment of the eye. The prosthesis was created from a classical orbital implant, regularly used in enucleation surgery and a conjunctival implant, a convex-concave plate with diameter of 20 mm. Both parts are made from the same type of silicon rubber and were connected together by vulcanization. The orbital implant was eliptically extended according to the measurements of the orbital casting made from dental impression matter. The cosmetic part, simulating the colored iris and the pupil, was prepared from a polyester sheet, painted with acrylic paint. It was fixated on the conjunctival prosthesis and covered with a transparent silicone foil. For the first time, the prosthesis was applied at the age of seven years, and during the next ten-years period, it was three times exchanged mostly for a bigger model. This procedure guaranteed proper growing of the orbital area and symmetrical development of the face. The prosthesis also carries out the prosthetic role and cosmetically it looks similarly like after the enucleation without the implant. PMID:16640047

  12. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post-operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported. PMID:17213351

  13. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post?operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported. PMID:17213351

  14. SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

  15. Tumor Microenvironment and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Harold F.; Weaver, Valerie M.; Tlsty, Thea D.; Bergers, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least six distinct types, are induced primarily by VEGF-A, and provide a potentially useful therapeutic target. Breast cancer is characterized by changes in the microenvironment that result in altered tensional homeostasis. Also, breast cancers arise as the result of epigenetic as well as genetic changes. Tumor blood vessel pericytes result, in part, from bone marrow precursor cells, and VEGF is a negative regulator of glioblastoma tumor cell invasion. PMID:21480238

  16. Spatiotemporal control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by Sac2 regulates endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, FoSheng; Hu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the spatial- and temporal-restricted generation and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) by a cascade of PI-metabolizing enzymes is a key regulatory mechanism in the endocytic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the Sac1 domain–containing protein Sac2 is a PI 4-phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in vitro. We further show that Sac2 colocalizes with early endosomal markers and is recruited to transferrin (Tfn)-containing vesicles during endocytic recycling. Exogenous expression of the catalytically inactive mutant Sac2C458S resulted in altered cellular distribution of Tfn receptors and delayed Tfn recycling. Furthermore, genomic ablation of Sac2 caused a similar perturbation on Tfn and integrin recycling as well as defects in cell migration. Structural characterization of Sac2 revealed a unique pleckstrin-like homology Sac2 domain conserved in all Sac2 orthologues. Collectively, our findings provide evidence for the tight regulation of PIs by Sac2 in the endocytic recycling pathway. PMID:25869669

  17. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or indirectly the homeostasis of these lipids in TNBC. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for Sac3 phosphatase in TNBC cell proliferation. Database analyses, discussed herein, reinforce the involvement of Sac3 in breast cancer pathogenesis.

  18. Primary Sarcomatoid Tumor of the Bladder: A Different Entity but the Same Approach?

    PubMed

    Molina-Cerrillo, Javier; Martínez-Sáez, Olga; Alonso-Gordoa, Teresa; Tirado-Zambrano, Pedro; Delgado-Vargas, Beatriz; Earl, Julie; Grande, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Bladder cancer remains a frequent cancer worldwide, and most tumors are diagnosed at localized stages. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) accounts for 90% of bladder cancer cases. Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SaC) of the bladder is a rare variant (0.5% of total bladder cancers) characterized by 2 components based on histology; the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, which can be easily differentiated by immunohistochemistry. SaC has similar epidemiologic features to UC but different behavior, aggressiveness, and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the main differences between UC bladder cancers and SaC subtypes. The therapeutic strategies used in SaC today do not differ much from those used for the urothelial variant. However, there is still no standard treatment-the result of a lack of clinical trials for the sarcomatoid variant. Further multicenter comparative studies are needed to devise a better treatment strategy for patients with this rare histologic tumor subtype. PMID:26027772

  19. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  20. Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical and computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias; Tokuda, Isao T.; Munger, Jacob B.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    Cavities branching off the main vocal tract are ubiquitous in nonhumans. Mammalian air sacs exist in human relatives, including all four great apes, but only a substantially reduced version exists in humans. The present paper focuses on acoustical functions of the air sacs. The hypotheses are investigated on whether the air sacs affect amplitude of utterances and?or position of formants. A multilayer synthetic model of the vocal folds coupled with a vocal tract model was utilized. As an air sac model, four configurations were considered: open and closed uniform tube-like side branches, a rigid cavity, and an inflatable cavity. Results suggest that some air sac configurations can enhance the sound level. Furthermore, an air sac model introduces one or more additional resonance frequencies, shifting formants of the main vocal tract to some extent but not as strongly as previously suggested. In addition, dynamic range of vocalization can be extended by the air sacs. A new finding is also an increased variability of the vocal tract impedance, leading to strong nonlinear source-filter interaction effects. The experiments demonstrated that air-sac-like structures can destabilize the sound source. The results were validated by a transmission line computational model. PMID:18647005

  1. IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

  2. 74. SAC control center addition sect 9top three floors, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SAC control center addition sect 9-top three floors, first floor plan, drawing number AS-BLT.AW30-02-03, dated May, 1958 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. An Analytic Evaluation of the SaCS Pattern Language Including Explanations of Major Design

    E-print Network

    Stølen, Ketil

    An Analytic Evaluation of the SaCS Pattern Language ­ Including Explanations of Major Design safety designs. SaCS may also be used to combine basic patterns into composite patterns. A composite pattern may be instantiated into a conceptual safety design. A framework for evaluating modelling

  4. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  5. [Transnasal endoscopic removal of lacrimal sac and intraorbital foreign body].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Mao, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2014-10-01

    We reported a case of a work-related accident involving periorbital and intraorbital metal foreign bodies. The patient was a 43-year-old woman whose nasal dorsum was struck while she was sawing wood with nails. X-ray plain films of skull bone and computed tomographic scan of nasal sinus revealed two 5-mm-long metal objects lodged in right lacrimal sac and medial bulbar space of the right orbit. No deficits were noted in her visual acuities, visual fields, and ocular movements. Based on accurate positioning by imaging examination, transnasal endoscopic removal of metal foreign bodies was successfully accomplished. The patient recovered well without any complications after surgery. PMID:25764771

  6. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  7. Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi

    E-print Network

    Buehler, Markus J.

    Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic

  8. Immunoreactive somatostatin in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y.; Saito, H.; Saito, S.; Yanagawa, T.; Yoshida, H.; Yura, Y.; Sato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of somatostatin (SRIF) in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain Warthin's tumors arising in the human parotid gland was found immunohistochemically, whereas the other parotid gland tumors, such as pleomorphic adenoma, oxyphilic adenoma, mucoepidermoid tumor, adenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma, did not show positive immunoreactivity for SRIF. The SRIF-positive Warthin's tumor had dense core granules immunoreactive with anti-SRIF serum. Moreover, a comparatively high concentration of immunoreactive SRIF was detected by radioimmunoassay in an SRIF-positive Warthin's tumor, although the other tumors also contained low levels of immunoreactive SRIF. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:2871759

  9. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as an additional acoustic filter. Individual acoustic recognition may have been the primary function in the evolution of a size-variable air sac, and this function is retained in mother–young communication. In males sexual selection seems to have favoured a considerable size increase of the air sac and a switch to call series instead of single calls. Vocalization became restricted to the rutting period serving the attraction of females. We propose two possibilities for the acoustic function of the air sac in vocalization that do not exclude each other. The first assumes a coupling between air sac and the environment, resulting in an acoustic output that is a combination of the vocal tract resonance frequencies emitted via mouth and nostrils and the resonance frequencies of the air sac transmitted via the neck skin. The second assumes a weak coupling so that resonance frequencies of the air sac are lost to surrounding tissues by dissipation. In this case the resonance frequencies of the air sac solely influence the signal that is further filtered by the remaining vocal tract. According to our results one acoustic effect of the air sac in adult reindeer might be to mask formants of the vocal tract proper. In other cervid species, however, formants of rutting calls convey essential information on the quality of the sender, related to its potential reproductive success, to conspecifics. Further studies are required to solve this inconsistency. PMID:17310544

  10. Risk factors associated with late aneurysmal sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Motoki; Ikoma, Akira; Sato, Hirotatsu; Sato, Morio; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify the risk factors associated with late aneurysmal sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images of 143 patients who were followed for ?6 months after EVAR. Sac expansion was defined as an increase in sac diameter of 5 mm relative to the preoperative diameter. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated risk factors for late sac expansion after EVAR from the following variables: age, gender, device, endoleak, antiplatelet therapy, internal iliac artery embolization, and preprocedural variables (aneurysm diameter, proximal neck diameter, proximal neck length, suprarenal neck angulation, and infrarenal neck angulation). RESULTS Univariate analysis revealed female gender, endoleak, aneurysm diameter ?60 mm, suprarenal neck angulation >45°, and infrarenal neck angulation >60° as factors associated with sac expansion. Multivariate analysis revealed endoleak, aneurysm diameter ?60 mm, and infrarenal neck angulation >60° as independent predictors of sac expansion (P < 0.05, for all). CONCLUSION Our results suggest that patients with small abdominal aortic aneurysms (<60 mm) and infrarenal neck angulation ?60° are more favorable candidates for EVAR. Intraprocedural treatments, such as prophylactic embolization of aortic branches or intrasac embolization, may reduce the risk of sac expansion in patients with larger abdominal aortic aneurysms or greater infrarenal neck angulation. PMID:25858524

  11. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. PMID:25681477

  12. SAC phosphoinositide phosphatases at the tonoplast mediate vacuolar function in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nováková, Petra; Hirsch, Sibylle; Feraru, Elena; Tejos, Ricardo; van Wijk, Ringo; Viaene, Tom; Heilmann, Mareike; Lerche, Jennifer; De Rycke, Riet; Feraru, Mugurel I.; Grones, Peter; Van Montagu, Marc; Heilmann, Ingo; Munnik, Teun; Friml, Ji?í

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) is a structural phospholipid that can be phosphorylated into various lipid signaling molecules, designated polyphosphoinositides (PPIs). The reversible phosphorylation of PPIs on the 3, 4, or 5 position of inositol is performed by a set of organelle-specific kinases and phosphatases, and the characteristic head groups make these molecules ideal for regulating biological processes in time and space. In yeast and mammals, PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 play crucial roles in trafficking toward the lytic compartments, whereas the role in plants is not yet fully understood. Here we identified the role of a land plant-specific subgroup of PPI phosphatases, the suppressor of actin 2 (SAC2) to SAC5, during vacuolar trafficking and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. SAC2–SAC5 localize to the tonoplast along with PtdIns3P, the presumable product of their activity. In SAC gain- and loss-of-function mutants, the levels of PtdIns monophosphates and bisphosphates were changed, with opposite effects on the morphology of storage and lytic vacuoles, and the trafficking toward the vacuoles was defective. Moreover, multiple sac knockout mutants had an increased number of smaller storage and lytic vacuoles, whereas extralarge vacuoles were observed in the overexpression lines, correlating with various growth and developmental defects. The fragmented vacuolar phenotype of sac mutants could be mimicked by treating wild-type seedlings with PtdIns(3,5)P2, corroborating that this PPI is important for vacuole morphology. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PPIs, together with their metabolic enzymes SAC2–SAC5, are crucial for vacuolar trafficking and for vacuolar morphology and function in plants. PMID:24550313

  13. A Primary Ossifying Intracranial Myxoma Arising from the Ethmoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Je Il; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Myxomas are rare benign tumors that originate from mesenchymal tissue. They usually develop in the atrium of the heart, the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or bone. Involvement of the skull base with an intracranial extension is very rare and not well-described in the literature. We report a rare case of primary intracranial ossifying myxoma arising from the anterior skull base and mimicking a huge chondrosarcoma, and we review the relevant literature. PMID:26539274

  14. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  15. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

  16. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (?C ? 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  17. Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical and computational modeling

    E-print Network

    Tokuda, Isao

    laryngeal ventricles exist in humans. It is possible that major air sacs were lost during human evolution laryngeal ventricles. It is, however, considered as pathology. The physiological functions of mammalian air

  18. Molecular characterization of oct4-expressing yolk sac endoderm stem cell lines. 

    E-print Network

    Debeb, Bisrat Godefay

    2009-05-15

    The extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recently, the committed XENprecursor was identified in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM) ...

  19. Ultrastructure of endothelium in ovules of Penstemon gentianoides Poir. (Scrophulariaceae) at mature embryo sac phase.

    PubMed

    Dane, Feruzan; Olgun, Göksel; Ekici, Nuran

    2007-06-01

    In this study ultrastructural differences between endothelial cells of different location in Penstemon gentianoides have been examined with electron microscope at mature embryo sac phase. Embryo sac is of the Polygonum type and surrounded by endothelium except the micropylar region. The cuticle is located primarily around the chalazal three-fourths of the embryo sac. Endothelium cells around the chalaza and toward the micropylar region are rich in cytoplasmic organelles. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells near the central cell has large vacuoles and few organelles. There are also plasmodesmas on the anticlinal walls of endothelial cells. The endothelium and the micropylar integumentary cells play a role in transport of metabolites into the embryo sac. PMID:17585512

  20. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1)?Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2)?Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3)?Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4)?Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the Jurassic. In addition, we conclude: (5)?The advent of avian unidirectional lung ventilation is not possible to pinpoint, as osteological correlates have yet to be identified for uni- or bidirectional lung ventilation. (6)?The origin and evolution of avian air sacs may have been driven by one or more of the following three factors: flow-through lung ventilation, locomotory balance, and/or thermal regulation. PMID:18825273

  1. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  2. Retained caseous yolk sac in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus).

    PubMed

    Bodri, M S; Hendrick, M J; O'Brien, R T; Sadanaga, K K

    1990-10-01

    Retained yolk sacs are common in the domestic chicken and account for considerable morbidity and mortality during late embryonic development and within the first 10 days of life. What is believed to be the first recorded instance of a retained caseous yolk sac and its successful surgical removal from a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) is reported. The snake experienced no post-operative complications and continues to be well 16 mo following surgery. PMID:2250338

  3. Sac1–Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination. PMID:25113029

  4. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL–Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  5. Fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi: report of a unique case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor. To the author’s best knowledge, no previous case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi has been reported. Here we reported the first case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi. A case of 58-year-old man was presented with a mass with ulcer and infection in the second joint of left middle finger for 2 months, with long standing gouty tophi. The tumor was biopsied and the biopsy showed complete excision of the tumor. With the pathological and immunohistochemical features considered, the diagnosis of fibrosarcoma associated with gouty tophi was made. The clinical findings, pathological characteristics and treatment were described. PMID:26097616

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma and Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum Arising in Nevus Sebaceous on Face—A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn is a congenital cutaneous hamartoma comprising of multiple skin structures. It has the potential to develop into variety of neoplasms of various epidermal adnexal origins. While multiple tumors may occasionally arise, it is unusual to develop two different types of tumor, benign and malignant, to arise simultaneously within a single sebaceus nevus. Here in, we report a case of a 27-year-old male with two neoplastic proliferations including a syringocystadenoma papilliferum a benign tumor and basal cell carcinoma a malignant tumor arising in a long-standing nevus sebaceus on the face. Neoplastic changes are common in nevus sebaceous present on scalp but our case is unique due to the presence of two different types of neoplasm in a nevus sebaceous which was present on face.

  7. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3?, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3? sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3?-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  8. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  9. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ? 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  10. A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

    1995-08-01

    We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

  11. Flow in a terminal alveolar sac model with expanding walls using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Harding, Edward M; Robinson, Risa J

    2010-07-01

    Particles depositing on alveolar walls is of concern due to their potential to migrate through the blood-gas barrier. Whole-lung dosimetry models do not account for the flow field inside the alveoli and therefore may not accurately describe alveolar deposition. Studies that quantify the flow patterns in realistic geometries are limited and results inconsistent. This study aims to better understand the fluid characteristics in the terminal air sacs; specifically, alveolar mouth to depth flow rate ratio, penetration depth of residual air, and diffusive versus convective particle motion. A terminating alveolar sac with expanding alveolar walls was constructed using 13 truncated sphere-shaped alveoli, with dimensions consistent with published morphometry data. The flow field was governed by a measured in vivo breathing curve for normal volumes over periods of 2 and 4 seconds, analyzed numerically and compared to previous literature. Recirculation was not present, consistent with prior studies. Flow rate ratios (0.18-0.36) were within the range (0.057-1) previously reported. Penetration depths were less than 33% into the air sac during inhalation, decreasing in length for air inside the sac to zero near the wall. Péclet numbers indicated diffusion dominated flow for all submicron-sized particles. However, convection was significant at the duct entrance for particles >0.5 micron and inside the sac for particles >1 micron. Wall motion induced convection may not always be negligible, and if neglected could affect the accuracy of deposition predictions for certain particle sizes and flow conditions. PMID:20462393

  12. Pollen tubes introduce Raspberry bushy dwarf virus into embryo sacs during fertilization processes.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Masamichi; Yoshida, Tetu; Shimura, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-01

    We developed a fertilization method in which pollen tubes entered into embryo sacs without any need to contact surrounding female sporophytic cells by using Torenia fournieri (Torenia) plants under the condition of hindering movement of the virus from a stigma, which is the first infection site leading to systemic infection. When RBDV-infected Torenia pollen grains were used for the developed fertilization method, the virus was transmitted to the seeds by pollen tubes germinating from them. On the other hand, no seeds were infected with the virus when Torenia plants were pollinated with healthy Torenia pollen grains in combination with RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grains, which caused the virus infection in the stigma by penetration of their pollen tubes arrested in its style. Our results indicate that vertical transmission of RBDV by pollen occurs in the transport of the virus into embryo sacs by pollen tubes reaching the embryo sacs. PMID:26176979

  13. Expression of PDGFR-? and Kit in canine anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma using tissue immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Brown, R J; Newman, S J; Durtschi, D C; Leblanc, A K

    2012-03-01

    Canine anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma (ASAGAC) is an uncommon but highly invasive and metastatic malignancy. Toceranib phosphate (Palladia) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that targets several members of the split kinase RTK family. These membrane receptors are important for cell cycling, apoptosis and angiogenesis, all of which can contribute to carcinogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate archived, paraffin-embedded canine ASAGAC and normal canine anal sacs for immunohistochemical detection of Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-?). Two of 77 neoplasms (2.6%) expressed Kit. Fifteen of the neoplasms (19.5%) were positive for PDGFR-? expression. None of the normal canine anal sac epithelium expressed Kit or PDGFR-?. Because of these results, further investigation should be considered to determine the role of RTKs in the clinical course and treatment of canine ASAGAC. PMID:22235855

  14. Tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kopper, László; Hajdú, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types. The link between normal stem cells and tumor cells could be examined in three aspects: what are the differences and similarities in the control of self-renewal capacity between stem cells and tumor cells; whether tumor cells arise from stem cells; do tumorous stem cells exist? Since tumor cells also exhibit self-renewal capacity, it seems plausible that their regulation is similar to that of the stem cells. The infinite self-renewal ability (immortalization) is assured by several, so far only partly known, mechanisms. One of these is telomerase activity, another important regulatory step for survival is the inhibition of apoptosis. Other signal transduction pathways in stem cell regulation may also play certain roles in carcinogenesis: e.g. Notch, Sonic hedgehog (SHH), and Wnt signals. Existence of tumor stem cells was suggested since it is simpler to retain the self-renewal capacity than to reactivate the immortality program in an already differentiated cell. Moreover, stem cells live much longer than the differentiated ones, and so they are exposed for a long period of time to impairments, collecting gene errors leading to the breakdown of the regulation. However, it is still an open question whether all cells in the tumor possess the capacity that produces this tissue or not, that is: are there tumor stem cells or there are not. If tumor stem cells exist, they would be the main target for therapy: only these must be killed since the other tumor cells possess limited proliferative capacity, therefore limited life span. The only problem is that during tumor progression stem-like cells can develop continuously and the identification but mainly the prevention of their formation is still a great challenge. PMID:15188021

  15. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  16. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor ... tumor is the most common form of childhood kidney cancer. The exact cause of this tumor in ... Other birth defects linked to this type of kidney cancer include certain urinary tract problems and swelling ...

  17. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  18. Bone tumors: Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Huvos, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents treatment modalities of all skeletal neoplasms with special emphasis on clinicopathologic correlations and differential diagnosis. This describes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features, plus interdisciplinary approaches to treatment for each tumor type and also covers benign and malignant bone-forming and cartilage-forming tumors, tumors of connective tissue origin, tumors of histoiocytic or fibrohistiocytic origin, and tumors and tumor-like lesions of blood vessels arising in the skeletal system.

  19. Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and the Dural Sac in Lumbar MR Images Using Gradient Vector Flow Field

    E-print Network

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    Automatic Segmentation of the Spinal Cord and the Dural Sac in Lumbar MR Images Using Gradient that extracts the spinal cord and the dural sac from T2- weighted sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images Systems and be used daily for diagnostic examinations in many clinical settings [1]. The spinal cord

  20. The human embryo, but not its yolk sac, generates lympho-myeloid stem cells: mapping multipotent hematopoietic cell fate in intraembryonic mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Tavian, M; Robin, C; Coulombel, L; Péault, B

    2001-09-01

    We have traced emerging hematopoietic cells along human early ontogeny by culturing embryonic tissue rudiments in the presence of stromal cells that promote myeloid and B cell differentiation, and by assaying T cell potential in the NOD-SCID mouse thymus. Hematogenous potential was present inside the embryo as early as day 19 of development in the absence of detectable CD34+ hematopoietic cells, and spanned both lymphoid and myeloid lineages from day 24 in the splanchnopleural mesoderm and derived aorta where CD34+ progenitors appear at day 27. By contrast, hematopoietic cells arising in the third week yolk sac, as well as their progeny at later stages, were restricted to myelopoiesis and therefore are unlikely to contribute to definitive hematopoiesis in man. PMID:11567638

  1. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  2. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. PMID:24128573

  3. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    PubMed Central

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  4. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  5. Displacement of Small bowel into the Lesser Sac in a Case of Complete Congenital Pouch Colon

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Bilal; Saleem, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative neonatal intestinal obstruction has a myriad of etiology. An operated case of imperforate anus developed intestinal obstruction early postoperatively. At re-operation, missed complete congenital pouch colon with a small perforation and displacement of small bowel into the lesser sac were found. The patient was managed by adhesionolysis, excision of pouch colon, and end ileostomy. The patient did well postoperatively. PMID:26023530

  6. Defective histone supply causes condensin-dependent chromatin alterations, SAC activation and chromosome decatenation impairment.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Pineda, Marina; Cabello-Lobato, María J; Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando; Prado, Félix

    2014-11-10

    The structural organization of chromosomes is essential for their correct function and dynamics during the cell cycle. The assembly of DNA into chromatin provides the substrate for topoisomerases and condensins, which introduce the different levels of superhelical torsion required for DNA metabolism. In particular, Top2 and condensin are directly involved in both the resolution of precatenanes that form during replication and the formation of the intramolecular loop that detects tension at the centromeric chromatin during chromosome biorientation. Here we show that histone depletion activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and impairs sister chromatid decatenation, leading to chromosome mis-segregation and lethality in the absence of the SAC. We demonstrate that histone depletion impairs chromosome biorientation and activates the Aurora-dependent pathway, which detects tension problems at the kinetochore. Interestingly, SAC activation is suppressed by the absence of Top2 and Smc2, an essential component of condensin. Indeed, smc2-8 suppresses catenanes accumulation, mitotic arrest and growth defects induced by histone depletion at semi-permissive temperature. Remarkably, SAC activation by histone depletion is associated with condensin-mediated alterations of the centromeric chromatin. Therefore, our results reveal the importance of a precise interplay between histone supply and condensin/Top2 for pericentric chromatin structure, precatenanes resolution and centromere biorientation. PMID:25300489

  7. A giant occipital encephalocele with spontaneous hemorrhage into the sac: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Nath, H. D.; Mahapatra, A. K.; Borkar, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    In giant encephalocele, head size is smaller than the encelphalocele. Occipital encephalocele is the commonest of all encephalocele. In our case, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with old hemorrhage in the sac. This was a unique presentation. In world literature, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with hemorrhage. PMID:25685207

  8. A giant occipital encephalocele with spontaneous hemorrhage into the sac: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Nath, H D; Mahapatra, A K; Borkar, S A

    2014-01-01

    In giant encephalocele, head size is smaller than the encelphalocele. Occipital encephalocele is the commonest of all encephalocele. In our case, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with old hemorrhage in the sac. This was a unique presentation. In world literature, there was rare association with giant encephalocele with hemorrhage. PMID:25685207

  9. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  10. Copper sulfate toxicity to channel catfish fry: Yolk sac versus swim-up fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish yolk-sac fry and swim-up fry from 5 separate spawns were exposed to dissolved copper sulfate (CuSO4) in a series of static toxicity experiments to observe age sensitivity in high and moderate alkalinity waters at 24 and 48 hrs at 23.1°C. The waters had total alkalinity and total har...

  11. Original article Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps

    E-print Network

    Machado, Carlos A.

    Original article Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs Ellen O. Martinson a , K. Charlotte Jandér December 2012 Accepted 31 July 2013 Available online 17 September 2013 Keywords: Figs Pollinator wasps

  12. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) for the aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been developed for assessing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals from passive L-band remote sensing. The implementation of the OSSE is based on: a 1-km land surface model over the Red-Arkansas River Basin, a forward mi...

  13. 10/05/2011 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 1 Recent Results with NIKA &

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Samuel

    instrument: #12;10/05/2011 SAC meeting IRAM Grenoble 5 1. GISMO main features · Transition Edge Sensors · ~0.7+ F barepixels (~ 9+"×9+" in sky) · Total power · Filled arrays · Antenna KID · Lumped Elements KID · Multiplexing all pixels in one feed line · 80 mK 3He4He dilution fridge · Built by CNRSNéel

  14. Germinal testicular tumors in childhood. Report of observations and literature review.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, L; Altwein, J E; Stiens, R

    1984-01-01

    1,124 case observations, published from 1955 to 1981, and 45 of our own cases of childhood testicular tumor are evaluated. The age distribution, histology (WHO classification), stage and prognosis are compared to 1,062 adult cases. Diagnostic procedures are itemized. Priorities in the therapeutic approach and the effectiveness of various methods, depending on stage and histology, and toxic side effects and other complications are documented. In children, 29% of childhood testicular tumors are non-germinal, as compared to 8% in adults. 49% are yolk sac tumors. The age distribution differs depending on histology. Metastases occur less frequently (9%) than in adults (61%). Dissemination is predominantly hematogenic. Prognosis is best in teratoma which is cured by orchiectomy. Yolk sac tumor limited to the testicle, in infants less than 2 years old, is sufficiently treated with orchiectomy alone. Older children require adjuvant chemotherapy. Overall, chemotherapy was indicated in 15% of the evaluated cases of childhood testicular malignoma. PMID:6368238

  15. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30?cm H2O (2.94?kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are smaller in these deeper-diving species than in the spheniscid penguin of the morphometry study. If penguins do inhale to this maximum air sac volume prior to their deepest dives, the magnitude and distribution of the body O2 store would change considerably. In emperor penguins, total body O2 would increase by 75%, and the respiratory fraction would increase from 33% to 61%. We emphasize that the maximum pre-dive respiratory air volume is still unknown in penguins. However, even lesser increases in air sac volume prior to a dive would still significantly increase the O2 store. More refined evaluations of the respiratory O2 store and baroprotective mechanisms in penguins await further investigation of species-specific lung morphometry, start-of-dive air volumes and body buoyancy, and the possibility of air exhalation during dives. PMID:25740902

  16. Primitive Fitting Based on the Efficient multiBaySAC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes’ Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further optimizing this strategy through its application to other problems such as multiple point cloud co-registration and multiple image matching. PMID:25781620

  17. [Mesonephric adenocarcinoma arising in the female urethral diverticulum].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Y; Fukui, I; Sakano, Y; Yoshimura, K; Maeda, H; Yonese, J; Yamauchi, T; Kawai, T

    1996-09-01

    A forty four-year-old house-wife presented with gross hematuria and difficulty on urination of a year and 3 months duration. Transvaginal examination showed a hen egg-sized soft mass on the anterior vaginal wall. Urine cytology revealed many clusters of malignant cells suggestive of adenocarcinoma. Cystourethrography revealed two urethral diverticula, whose orifices were cystoscopically located at the proximal and distal side of urethral sphincter, respectively. By vaginal digital pressing, a soy-bean sized papillary tumor came out of the proximal diverticulum. Histopathological examination of the biopsied tumor suggested poorly differentiated transitional cell carcinoma with inverted growth. Under the diagnosis of carcinoma arising in the urethral diverticulum, anterior pelvic exenteration with formation of Indiana pouch was carried out. The tumor in the proximal diverticulum was histologically composed of a variety of adenocarcinomatous pattern, such as tubular, papillary and cystic structure with a distinctive pattern of tubules lined by a superficial layer of hobnail cells, leading to the diagnosis of mesonephric adenocarcinoma of urethral diverticulum. Postoperative radiation therapy was given because the diverticulum was adherent to the pubic bone, though lymph node metastasis was negative. She has been well with no evidence of the disease for 1 year and 4 months after the operation. Although the histogenesis of female urethral mesonephric adenocarcinoma was still controversial, this case seems to be the forty fourth case in the world literature. PMID:8914398

  18. Jordan algebras arising from intermolecular recombination

    E-print Network

    Jordan algebras arising from intermolecular recombination Murray R. Bremner Department that a linearization of the opera- tion of intermolecular recombination from theoretical genetics satisfies that this new identity implies all the identities of degree 6 satisfied by intermolecular recombination

  19. Combining anti-cancer drugs with artificial sweeteners: synthesis and anti-cancer activity of saccharinate (sac) and thiosaccharinate (tsac) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2].

    PubMed

    Al-Jibori, Subhi A; Al-Jibori, Ghassan H; Al-Hayaly, Lamaan J; Wagner, Christoph; Schmidt, Harry; Timur, Suna; Baris Barlas, F; Subasi, Elif; Ghosh, Shishir; Hogarth, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    The new platinum(II) complexes cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] (sac=saccharinate) and cis-[Pt(tsac)2(NH3)2] (tsac=thiosaccharinate) have been prepared, the X-ray crystal structure of cis-[Pt(sac)2(NH3)2] x H2O reveals that both saccharinate anions are N-bound in a cis-arrangement being inequivalent in both the solid-state and in solution at room temperature. Preliminary anti-cancer activity has been assessed against A549 human alveolar type-II like cell lines with the thiosaccharinate complex showing good activity. PMID:25216367

  20. Complete Surgical Resection of a Leiomyosarcoma Arising from the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Hirofumi; Minamimura, Keisuke; Endo, Yuhei; Irie, Shoichi; Hirata, Toru; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mafune, Ken-ichi; Mori, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with chief complaint of right hypochondoralgia. Abdominal ultrasound showed a retroperitoneal tumor in the suprarenal region of the right kidney. Computed tomography revealed an enhanced lobular tumor with irregular, circumscribed, and indistinct border. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was performed. The tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with a giant nucleus and multinuclear cells. The diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma by immunohistochemical staining. The patient underwent surgery accessed by a right eighth intercostal thoracoabdominal incision. The tumor was completely resected, accompanied by removal of the posterosuperior segment of the right hepatic lobe, right adrenal gland, and a portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The histopathologic diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma arising from the IVC. We present a rare case of a successfully managed leiomyosarcoma of the IVC. This case suggests the importance of curative surgical resection of the tumor due to low efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for leiomyosarcoma. PMID:26167180

  1. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  2. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Moie; Lee, Sang Soo; Eom, Dae Woon; Kang, Gil Hyun; Yi, Sang Wook; Sohn, Woo Seok

    2009-08-01

    Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman. We describe here a patient with this condition and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. A 48-yr-old woman complaining of severe dysmenorrhea was referred for investigation of a pelvic mass. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy. Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma. PMID:19654969

  3. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Richardson grading system) for breast cancer ( 1 ). This system grades breast tumors based on the following features: Tubule formation: how much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the size and shape ...

  4. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, A.; Salgüero, R.; Dobson, J.

    2015-01-01

    A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC) and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease.

  5. Projected CAP/SAC-CI method with smooth Voronoi potential for calculating resonance states.

    PubMed

    Ehara, Masahiro; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Sommerfeld, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    The complex absorbing potential (CAP)/symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method has been combined with a smooth Voronoi potential, which was recently introduced in the extrapolation procedure, to locate ?* resonance states of small- to medium-size molecules. Here, the projected CAP/SAC-CI method is combined with this potential and used to calculate the double-bond and heteroaromatic ?* resonances of acetaldehyde, butadiene, glyoxal, pyridine, pyrazine, and furan. As observed in the pilot applications, the corrected ?-trajectories provide a stable resonance energy and width or lifetime regardless of the size parameter (rcut ) of the smooth Voronoi potential. However, in general, the stabilization behavior of the trajectories is clearer for larger rcut values, which implies that the interaction of the CAP with the valence electrons is more advantageously addressed by a larger "cavity" size. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26194084

  6. Development of SAC-OCDMA in FSO with multi-wavelength laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi, Majid; Mamdoohi, Ghazaleh; Muhammad Noor, Ahmad Shukri; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Ahmad Anas, Siti Barirah

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a free space optical network, based on spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) with a multi-wavelength laser source. A detailed theoretical analysis that represents the characteristics of SAC-OCDMA system was developed. In addition to the impact of turbulence, influences of several system noises such as optical beat interference (OBI), relative intensity noise, and receiver noises, have been studied. From the numerical results, it was found that the influence of OBI is more dominant, especially at higher received power. Two different codes, namely, modified quadratic congruence and modified double weight, are then compared with the latter which provides better performance. A transmission distance of 2.6 km with 10 users and an 8 cm aperture diameter is advisable whenever the turbulence is moderate. These results can be improved when a beam divergence smaller than 1 mrad is utilized.

  7. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final levan profile in reactions with sucrose as substrate. PMID:26600431

  8. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  9. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Pathological, immunohistochemical and microbiologicalal analysis of lacrimal sac biopsies in patients with chronic dacrocystitis

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Rowayda Mahmoud; Hussein, Faten Aly; Idriss, Hisham Farouk; Hanafy, Nesrine Fathy; Abdallah, Dina Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    AIM To analyze cases of obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct which creates a fertile environment for secondary bacterial infection and can result in dacryocystitis, which is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue and a potential source of endophthalmitis following intraocular surgery. The majority of obstructions of the lacrimal excretory outflow system are acquired ones occurring in adulthood and involving the distal parts of the system. Acquired obstruction may be primary/idiopathic or secondary to a wide variety of infectious, inflammatory, traumatic, mechanical, toxic or neoplastic causes mimicking idiopathic inflammation. These cases are treated by dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS The present study was conducted to determine the histopathologic, immunohistochemical and current microbiologic characteristics of lacrimal sac specimens in patients undergoing external dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS Non-specific lacrimal sac pathology was present in all 33 cases and 81.8% of the cases showed moderate chronic inflammation with a chronic inflammatory score (CIS) ranging between 4 and 6, whereas 12.12% showed severe inflammatory changes with a CIS of 7. Mild degree of inflammation was seen in 6.06% with a CIS of 3. The total prevalence of gram-positive, gram-negative, and culture-negative samples were 59.4%, 37.5%, and 3% respectively. CONCLUSION Non-specific chronic inflammation with fibrosis is indeed the most commonly reported histopathological finding in lacrimal sac wall biopsy specimens. PMID:24392331

  11. Fine structure of melanogenesis in the ink sac of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Schraermeyer, U

    1994-02-01

    The ink sac epithelium of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was investigated by electron microscopy. Melanogenesis in a simplified view seems to follow the general scheme of melanin formation in vertebrates. First, a membrane-bound protein matrix is formed, which is called an early stage melanosome. The early stage melanosomes are more or less irregular in shape with a size up to 1.5 microns and contain membranous, granular, or vesicular material. They seem to originate from Golgi bodies and/or endoplasmic reticulum. Membranes that frequently are present in the early stage melanosomes may originate from fusion of vesicles or from incorporation of Golgi membranes into early stage melanosomes. Free cytoplasmic material or mitochondria probably are also incorporated into the early stage melanosomes or melanosomes. Therefore, the origin of the early stage melanosomes seems to be similar to that of autophagosomes. The early stage melanosomes mature to melanosomes in which several dozen melanin granules are formed. These melanosomes, at last, release the melanin granules together with other cellular material, including early stage melanosomes, into the lumen of the ink gland. This finding confirms the earlier postulated holocrine character of the release. Active tyrosinase was localized in the lumen of the ink sac as already shown by biochemical methods. There was also additional evidence that most of the material of broken down cells inside the lumen of the ink sac seems to be converted into melanin granules. PMID:8072945

  12. [Significance of the endodermal sinus tumor (Teilum) and of simplified teratoma of vitelline determination].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, J A

    1976-01-01

    The histogenesis of yolk-sac tumors has been explained by a selective cloning for extra-embryonic entoblast amongst totipotent carcinoma stemcells. The diverses appearances of the tumor growths are expressed mainly in the range of cyto-differentiations of entoblastic tissue rather than in their ability to form structures which mimick the yolk-sac. The process is clearly apparent in embryoids which are becoming disorganized and during the course of experimentally induced mouse parietal endodermal carcinoma. The latter's appearance is strong evidence that the laws of specificity are obeyed. Human tumors should be analyzed through human embryology. Some paradoxical aspects emerge occasionally due to the angiogenesic capabilities of the neoplastic vitelline tissue, and to the correlations of this tissue with the stromal vascular response. PMID:1033003

  13. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8?cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  14. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  15. KNApSAcK family databases: integrated metabolite-plant species databases for multifaceted plant research.

    PubMed

    Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Okada, Taketo; Yamazaki, Mami; Hirai-Morita, Aki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ikeda, Shun; Takahashi, Hiroki; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Darusman, Latifah K; Saito, Kazuki; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2012-02-01

    A database (DB) describing the relationships between species and their metabolites would be useful for metabolomics research, because it targets systematic analysis of enormous numbers of organic compounds with known or unknown structures in metabolomics. We constructed an extensive species-metabolite DB for plants, the KNApSAcK Core DB, which contains 101,500 species-metabolite relationships encompassing 20,741 species and 50,048 metabolites. We also developed a search engine within the KNApSAcK Core DB for use in metabolomics research, making it possible to search for metabolites based on an accurate mass, molecular formula, metabolite name or mass spectra in several ionization modes. We also have developed databases for retrieving metabolites related to plants used for a range of purposes. In our multifaceted plant usage DB, medicinal/edible plants are related to the geographic zones (GZs) where the plants are used, their biological activities, and formulae of Japanese and Indonesian traditional medicines (Kampo and Jamu, respectively). These data are connected to the species-metabolites relationship DB within the KNApSAcK Core DB, keyed via the species names. All databases can be accessed via the website http://kanaya.naist.jp/KNApSAcK_Family/. KNApSAcK WorldMap DB comprises 41,548 GZ-plant pair entries, including 222 GZs and 15,240 medicinal/edible plants. The KAMPO DB consists of 336 formulae encompassing 278 medicinal plants; the JAMU DB consists of 5,310 formulae encompassing 550 medicinal plants. The Biological Activity DB consists of 2,418 biological activities and 33,706 pairwise relationships between medicinal plants and their biological activities. Current statistics of the binary relationships between individual databases were characterized by the degree distribution analysis, leading to a prediction of at least 1,060,000 metabolites within all plants. In the future, the study of metabolomics will need to take this huge number of metabolites into consideration. PMID:22123792

  16. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  17. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  18. Papillary tumor of the pineal region

    PubMed Central

    Opatowsky, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Layton, Kennith

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a patient with papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR), an uncommon and recently recognized neoplasm. As its name implies, PTPR does not arise from the pineal gland itself. The cell of origin is thought to be the specialized ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ. Primary tumors of the pineal region include pineal parenchymal neoplasms, germ cell neoplasms, and tumors arising from adjacent structures, including meningiomas, astrocytomas, and ependymomas. Like other masses in this location, PTPR often leads to obstructive hydrocephalus. Due to the relative paucity of reported cases of PTPR, its natural history is unknown. PMID:22275792

  19. Malignant Melanoma Arising in an Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma - A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Ayachit, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Mature cystic teratomas, also known as dermoid cysts, are composed of a mixture of tissues derived from all three germ layers and constitute about 20% of all ovarian neoplasms. However, malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma is an uncommon event occurring only in about 1.8% cases. A variety of tumours can arise within a mature cystic teratoma (most common being squamous cell carcinoma), with malignant melanoma being extremely rare among such tumors. While most authors believe that primary ovarian melanoma almost always arises within a mature cystic teratoma, the primary nature of an ovarian malignant melanoma can be ascertained only once metastasis from a cutaneous melanoma is ruled out. The first case of malignant melanoma arising in an ovarian mature cystic teratoma was reported in 1901 and only about 45 additional cases have been reported till date. We present another case of a primary malignant melanoma arising within a mature cystic teratoma. PMID:26023561

  20. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management.

  1. Novel BRAF and KRAS Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Struma Ovarii.

    PubMed

    Tan, A; Stewart, C J R; Garrett, K L; Rye, M; Cohen, P A

    2015-12-01

    Papillary carcinomas of thyroid type rarely arise within struma ovarii. There are limited data on the immunohistochemical and molecular features of these tumors. Three cases of papillary carcinoma arising in struma ovarii (PCSO) were identified. The clinicopathological features were reviewed and immunohistochemical staining for HBME-1, cytokeratin (CK) 19, and CD56 was performed. Tumor DNA was sequenced for somatic mutations using a panel of 26 oncogenes, with a particular focus on BRAF and KRAS mutations. The patients were aged 22, 48, and 55 years. All cases were FIGO stage IA. Two tumors were of classical histological type, and one was a follicular variant papillary carcinoma. All tumors expressed HBME-1 and two were positive for CK19. CD56 was negative in all three cases. One tumor demonstrated a BRAF G469A mutation in exon 11, and in a second case, a KRAS Q61K double base mutation in exon 3 was detected. These mutations have not been described previously in PCSO. No mutations were detected in the benign follicular components of the tumors adjacent to the malignant papillary tissue. None of the patients had tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up (range 11 months to 8½?years). HBME-1, CK19, and CD56 are useful immunohistochemical markers of PCSO. Novel BRAF and KRAS mutations were identified in two of three tumors suggesting that mutations in PCSO may differ from those commonly identified in papillary carcinoma of the eutopic thyroid. The clinical significance of these mutations is uncertain but follow-up data in this small series support the generally good prognosis of PCSO. PMID:26362194

  2. Kidney Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney tumors are rare and generally curable in children. However, there are subsets of patients afflicted with these diseases that do not respond to treatment or eventually relapse. These patients usually have poor clinical outcomes as compared with the majority of children diagnosed with kidney tumors. All patients undergo therapy regimens that can be detrimental later in life. Through genome-wide characterization, TARGET investigators are identifying critical molecular alterations in these tumors, mostly from relapsed patients.

  3. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  4. Air sac PO2 and oxygen depletion during dives of emperor penguins.

    PubMed

    Knower Stockard, T; Heil, J; Meir, J U; Sato, K; Ponganis, K V; Ponganis, P J

    2005-08-01

    In order to determine the rate and magnitude of respiratory O2 depletion during dives of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), air sac O2 partial pressure (PO2) was recorded in 73 dives of four birds at an isolated dive hole. These results were evaluated with respect to hypoxic tolerance, the aerobic dive limit (ADL; dive duration beyond which there is post-dive lactate accumulation) and previously measured field metabolic rates (FMRs). 55% of dives were greater in duration than the previously measured 5.6-min ADL. PO2 and depth profiles revealed compression hyperoxia and gradual O2 depletion during dives. 42% of final PO2s during the dives (recorded during the last 15 s of ascent) were <20 mmHg (<2.7 kPa). Assuming that the measured air sac PO2 is representative of the entire respiratory system, this implies remarkable hypoxic tolerance in emperors. In dives of durations greater than the ADL, the calculated end-of-dive air sac O2 fraction was <4%. The respiratory O2 store depletion rate of an entire dive, based on the change in O2 fraction during a dive and previously measured diving respiratory volume, ranged from 1 to 5 ml O2 kg(-1) min(-1) and decreased exponentially with diving duration. The mean value, 2.1+/-0.8 ml O2 kg(-1) min(-1), was (1) 19-42% of previously measured respiratory O(2) depletion rates during forced submersions and simulated dives, (2) approximately one-third of the predicted total body resting metabolic rate and (3) approximately 10% of the measured FMR. These findings are consistent with a low total body metabolic rate during the dive. PMID:16043602

  5. Sigmoid carcinoma localized in the sac of a right inguinoscrotal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Papachrysostomou, Marios; Oikonomou, Christiana; Villias, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    The inguinoscrotal hernia with colonic malignancy in the sac presents rare but severe consequence. The most common side of this type of hernia is the left one while the most common part of the large bowel is the sigmoid colon. The clinical picture can be easily confused with simple inguinoscrotal hernia unless the clinician is alert to the presence of certain sinister symptoms and signs. We report an extremely rare case of a 91-year-old man presented with anemia who had a right inguinoscrotal hernia containing a sigmoid colon carcinoma.

  6. Electronic circular dichroism spectrum of uridine studied by the SAC CI method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureekaew, Sareeya; Hasegawa, Jun-ya; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    Symmetry-adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method was applied to calculate electronic CD spectrum of a nucleoside, uridine. Based on the theoretical CD and absorption spectra, the observed peaks in the experimental spectra were assigned. The excited states of uracil, the base part of uridine, were also calculated for comparison. The origin of CD rotational strength for the low-lying ?-?? and n-?? excited states was analyzed. Rotational strength of the ?-?? transition depends on the magnitude of the electric and magnetic transition dipole moments, while that of the n-?? originates from the angle between the two transition moments.

  7. The Protein Complex of Neurodegeneration-related Phosphoinositide Phosphatase Sac3 and ArPIKfyve Binds the Lewy Body-associated Synphilin-1, Preventing Its Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Compton, Lauren M; Kumar, Rita; Tisdale, Ellen J; Chen, Xuequn; Shisheva, Assia

    2015-11-20

    The 5-phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3, in which loss-of-function mutations are linked to neurodegenerative disorders, forms a stable cytosolic complex with the scaffolding protein ArPIKfyve. The ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer interacts with the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve in a ubiquitous ternary complex that couples PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis with turnover at endosomal membranes, thereby regulating the housekeeping endocytic transport in eukaryotes. Neuron-specific associations of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 heterodimer, which may shed light on the neuropathological mechanisms triggered by Sac3 dysfunction, are unknown. Here we conducted mass spectrometry analysis for brain-derived interactors of ArPIKfyve-Sac3 and unraveled the ?-synuclein-interacting protein Synphilin-1 (Sph1) as a new component of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex. Sph1, a predominantly neuronal protein that facilitates aggregation of ?-synuclein, is a major component of Lewy body inclusions in neurodegenerative ?-synucleinopathies. Modulations in ArPIKfyve/Sac3 protein levels by RNA silencing or overexpression in several mammalian cell lines, including human neuronal SH-SY5Y or primary mouse cortical neurons, revealed that the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex specifically altered the aggregation properties of Sph1-GFP. This effect required an active Sac3 phosphatase and proceeded through mechanisms that involved increased Sph1-GFP partitioning into the cytosol and removal of Sph1-GFP aggregates by basal autophagy but not by the proteasomal system. If uncoupled from ArPIKfyve elevation, overexpressed Sac3 readily aggregated, markedly enhancing the aggregation potential of Sph1-GFP. These data identify a novel role of the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex in the mechanisms controlling aggregate formation of Sph1 and suggest that Sac3 protein deficiency or overproduction may facilitate aggregation of aggregation-prone proteins, thereby precipitating the onset of multiple neuronal disorders. PMID:26405034

  8. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at any age, but they are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  9. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  10. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170°C was as low as 0.011 ?/?, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220°C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170°C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  11. Systematic detection of putative tumor suppressor genes through the combined use of exome and transcriptome sequencing

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    repair Tumor suppressor function [43] Genetic instabilitysuppressor activities. Background Cancer arises from the accumulation of genetic andsuppressor genes can serve to drive the tumorigenic process [10]. Genetic,

  12. Intramuscular solitary fibrous tumor: a clinicopathological case study.

    PubMed

    Abe, S; Imamura, T; Tateishi, A; Park, P; Nakano, H; Harasawa, A; Hashimoto, H; Matsushita, T

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor arising within the muscle, an unusual and hitherto-undescribed tumor lesion. A 42-year-old woman presented a painless mass in her left thigh. The lesion was depicted as an intramuscular mass that enhanced on both CT and MRI, showing quite rich tumor vascularity. The histological features of the tumor were spindle cell proliferation with various histological patterns, typical fibrocollagenous background, and positive immunoreactivity for CD-34. PMID:10348456

  13. The Importance of Gestational Sac Size of Ectopic Pregnancy in Response to Single-Dose Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Kimiaei, Parichehr; Khani, Zahra; Marefian, Azadeh; Gholampour Ghavamabadi, Maryam; Salimnejad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed in a selective group of 185 patients diagnosed with and treated for ectopic pregnancy. Intramuscular administration of a single dose of methotrexate (50?mg/m2) was performed to measure predictors of failure or resistance to treatment necessitating surgical intervention. During the time of treatment with a single dose of MTX, 20 patients (10.8%) failed to response, in which 6 of 20 (30%) indicated side effects to MTX and rupture of the ectopic pregnancy. Remaining cases (n = 14) showed resistance to the drug; the level of ?-hCG did not fall at least 15% during 7 days after treatment and necessitated laparotomy. In backward-step analysis by multiple logistic regressions of various types of predictor factors, size of gestational sac (coefficient = 1.91, OR = 6.78, 95% confidence interval = 3.18–8.22) and baseline level ?-hCG (coefficient = 1.60, OR = 5.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.26–6.72) had significant correlation with leading EP patients failing to response to MTX. This study suggests that further investigation for finding relative contraindications of MTX treatment in EP women should be considered on the gestational sac size because other variables are in the causal pathway of this variable. PMID:23762575

  14. Kinetic Profiles of Inflammatory Mediators in the Conjunctival Sac Fluid of Patients upon Photorefractive Keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tisato, Veronica; Perri, Paolo; Rimondi, Erika; Melloni, Elisabetta; Lamberti, Giuseppe; Milani, Daniela; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) represents a therapeutic option to remodel corneal stroma and to compensate refractive errors, which involves inflammatory and/or regenerative processes. In this context, the modulation of cytokines/chemokines in the conjunctival sac fluid and their role in the maintenance of the corneal microenvironment during the healing process upon refractive procedures has not been deeply investigated. In this study, serial samples of conjunctival sac fluid of patients (n = 25) undergoing PRK were harvested before and at different time points after surgery. The levels of 29 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors involved in inflammatory/immune processes were measured with a multiplex array system. The results have firstly highlighted the different pattern of cytokine expression between the microenvironment at the anterior surface of the eye and the systemic circulation. More importantly, the kinetic of modulation of cytokines/chemokines at the conjunctival level following PRK revealed that while the majority of cytokines/chemokines showed a significant decrease, MCP-1 emerged in light of its pronounced and significant increase soon after PRK and during the follow-up. This methodological approach has highlighted the role of MCP-1 in the healing process following PRK and has shown a potential for the identification of expression/modulation of soluble factors for biomarker profiling in ocular surface diseases. PMID:26525345

  15. A novel approach for noninvasive drug delivery and sensing through the amniotic sac.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Mann, Ella; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Jelinek, Raz; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-10

    Current invasive prenatal tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) are known for their risk to the fetus. In the last decade, the use and awareness of these prenatal tests have increased, resulting in growing demand for a safe, non-invasive, and accurate prenatal test. Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used to increase transport phenomena across skin and other membranes (e.g., tympanic membrane). The amniotic sac membrane is called the chorioamnion (CA) membrane and serves as the physical barrier between the fetus and the mother. In this research, the effect of CPEs on human CA mass transport was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo. The results show that the tested CPEs exhibit an enhancing effect on CA mass transport. Based on the permeability results, two mechanisms of action were suggested: "extractors" and "fluidizers". Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and rapid colorimetric screening measurements supported the mechanisms, based on which, more potent compounds were designed and tested for their enhancing effect. The enhancing mass transport effect of CPEs on CA membrane may be used both for sampling of cell-free DNA and for noninvasively administering drugs and other biological agents to the amniotic sac. PMID:24685707

  16. Les rivie?res et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  17. Metastasizing adenocarcinoma and multiple neoplastic proliferations arising in a nevus sebaceus.

    PubMed

    Kantrow, Sara M; Ivan, Doina; Williams, Michelle D; Prieto, Victor G; Lazar, Alexander J

    2007-10-01

    Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn is a hamartoma of multiple skin structures. Many neoplasms have been reported to arise in association with nevus sebaceus, most commonly trichoblastoma/basal cell carcinoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with an adenocarcinoma as well as multiple neoplastic proliferations arising in a long standing nevus sebaceus on the scalp, with subsequent occipital neck metastatic disease. On histologic evaluation, the epidermis showed changes reminiscent of tumor of the follicular infundibulum as well as basaloid proliferations resembling superficial trichoblastoma. A focus suggestive of syringofibroadenoma was also present. A small dermal collection of basaloid and more mature sebocytes was consistent with a sebaceoma/sebaceous epithelioma. Most of the lesion was composed of an adenocarcinoma with areas showing ductal differentiation with decapitation secretion, well-formed papillae and focal cribriform structures. Other portions demonstrated a high-grade neoplasm with prominent nuclear atypia and a solid pattern of growth resembling high-grade breast carcinoma. Anti-epithelial membrane antigen strongly labeled tumor cells and highlighted ductal structures. Less than 1% of cells expressed progesterone or estrogen receptors. Her2/neu reactivity was focally present, showing 1+ membranous reactivity in 10% of cells. Anti-p63 labeled basaloid cells surrounding the tumor lobules. A breast primary was ruled out by clinical and radiologic examination. This report illustrates an extraordinary case of adnexal neoplasia displaying various lines of differentiation arising in association with nevus sebaceus. PMID:17890915

  18. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wewer, U

    1984-07-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant cells. The tumours were adapted to ascitic growth and tissue culture, but eventually became committed to express only parietal endoderm phenotype. Immunohistochemical and metabolic labelling studies on the established lines in vivo and in vitro revealed a consistent pattern with respect to their biosynthesis of the basement membrane components laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen. This model system offers a simple approach to inducing rat yolk sac carcinomas for further morphological and biochemical characterization of the basement membrane. PMID:6333777

  19. Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-09-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

  20. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. Mediastinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lungs. This area contains the heart, large blood vessels, windpipe (trachea), thymus gland, esophagus, and connective tissues. The mediastinum is divided into three sections: Anterior (front) Middle Posterior (back) Mediastinal tumors are rare. The most ...

  2. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  3. Endocrine Tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor ...

  4. Bone tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bone metastases. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, et al., eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. ... aggressive tumors of bone. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  5. Intracranial Undifferentiated Sarcoma Arising from a Low-Grade Glioma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Hung-Seob

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated sarcomas are rarely identified in the intracranial region. A 23-year-old man was admitted with a chief complaint of headache. Initial magnetic resonance images showed signs of low-grade glioma in the frontal lobe. Stereotactic biopsy was performed, and a diagnosis of diffuse astrocytoma was confirmed. Three months later, the patient presented with a high-grade tumor as seen on imaging studies. He underwent total resection of the tumor and histopathological tests identified an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died eight months later due to massive tumor bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of undifferentiated sarcoma arising from low-grade glioma without any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. PMID:26180618

  6. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  7. The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-04-08

    Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

  8. The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-02-01

    Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

  9. Carcinoid tumor with uterine location. Case report.

    PubMed

    Laz?r, E; Tudose, N; Potencz, E; Cornianu, M

    1996-01-01

    A carcinoid is defined as a tumor arising from endocrine cells with neurosecretory characteristics belonging to the APUD system. These cells are most frequently observed in the digestive tract and lungs. Uterine location is rare. This paper presents the case of a 21-year old patient with uterine carcinoid tumor. In order to establish the histopathologic diagnosis of the carcinoid tumor, we used optical microscopy examination in haematoxylin-eosin, argentic impregnation in Fontana-Masson staining and an immunohistochemical reaction using monoclonal antibody to the S100 protein. Due to the intracytoplasmatic granulations shown in Fontana-Masson staining and in the immunohistochemical reaction to S100 protein which confirm the neurosecretory character of the tumoral cells, we included this tumor in the group of tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. PMID:9038391

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  11. \\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\OUTREACH\\Flyers-Posters\\4YearPlan.pdf 8/28/14 4 (or 5) Year Plan with Study Abroad

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    \\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\OUTREACH\\Flyers-Posters\\4YearPlan.pdf 8/28/14 4 (or 5) Year Plan Total #12;\\\\due.uci.edu\\due\\Files\\SAC\\CIE\\OUTREACH\\Flyers-Posters\\4YearPlan.pdf 8/28/14 4 (or 5) Year

  12. Tumor Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dadras, Soheil S.; Paul, Thomas; Bertoncini, Jennifer; Brown, Lawrence F.; Muzikansky, Alona; Jackson, David G.; Ellwanger, Ulf; Garbe, Claus; Mihm, Martin C.; Detmar, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the skin are distinguished by their propensity for early metastatic spread via lymphatic vessels to regional lymph nodes, and lymph node metastasis is a major determinant for the staging and clinical management of melanoma. However, the importance of tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis for lymphatic melanoma spread has remained unclear. We investigated whether tumor lymphangiogenesis occurs in human malignant melanomas of the skin and whether the extent of tumor lymphangiogenesis may be related to the risk for lymph node metastasis and to patient survival, using double immunostains for the novel lymphatic endothelial marker LYVE-1 and for the panvascular marker CD31. Tumor samples were obtained from clinically and histologically closely matched cases of primary melanomas with early lymph node metastasis (n = 18) and from nonmetastatic melanomas (n = 19). Hot spots of proliferating intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessels were detected in a large number of melanomas. The incidence of intratumoral lymphatics was significantly higher in metastatic melanomas and correlated with poor disease-free survival. Metastatic melanomas had significantly more and larger tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, and a relative lymphatic vessel area of >1.5% was significantly associated with poor disease-free and overall survival. In contrast, no differences in the density of tumor-associated blood vessels were found. Vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was equally detected in a minority of cases in both groups. Our results reveal tumor lymphangiogenesis as a novel prognostic indicator for the risk of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma. PMID:12759251

  13. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  14. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Bani, G.; Sacchi, T.B.; Bigazzi, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and ({sup 3}H)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment.

  15. Amniotic Sac Herniation Through a Prior Cornual Scar in The Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio F.; Costantine, Maged M.; Saade, George; Makhlouf, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Uterine rupture occurs in less than 0.1% of pregnancies. This complication can be detrimental to mother and fetus if not detected and managed in a timely manner. We report an unusual presentation of uterine scar rupture that was diagnosed on ultrasound in a completely stable patient with reassuring fetal status. Case Report?A 24-year-old Gravida 5, Para 3 with history of cornual resection for ectopic pregnancy and two previous uterine ruptures presented at 30 weeks' gestation with worsening abdominal pain. Ultrasound identified herniation of the amniotic sac with fetal parts. The patient underwent cesarean delivery and cornual defect repair. Conclusion?Close observation and early delivery remain vital to the patient's management. PMID:26495171

  16. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the yolk sacs of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, C A F; Oliveira, V C; Oliveira, L J; Carvalho, A F; Sampaio, R V; Mançanares, A C F; Souza, A F; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2015-10-01

    The yolk sac (YS) represents a promising source of stem cells for research because of the hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell niches that are present in this structure during the development of the embryo. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of YS tissue and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bovine YSs. Our results show that the YS is macroscopically located in the exocoelomic cavity in the ventral portion of the embryo and consists of a transparent membrane formed by a central sac-like portion and two ventrally elongated projections. Immunohistochemistry analyses were positive for OCT4, CD90, CD105, and CD44 markers in the YS of both gestational age groups. The MSCs of bovine YS were isolated using enzymatic digestion and were grown in vitro for at least 11 passages to verify their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization that revealed the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79 and the absence of CD45, CD44, and CD79, which are positive and negative markers of MSCs, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (chondrogenic: Alcian Blue, osteogenic: Alizarin Red, and adipogenic: Oil Red O) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analyses showed no differences in the patterns of gene expression between the groups or passages tested, with the exception of the expression of SOX2, which was slightly different in the G1P3 group compared to the other groups. Our results suggest that YS tissue from bovines can be used as a source of MSCs, which makes YS tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:26143361

  17. Limb and other postcranial skeletal defects induced by amniotic sac puncture in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H H; Schwartz, Z; Kaufman, M H

    1996-01-01

    A mouse model for studying the teratogenic effects of amniotic sac puncture has recently been established (MacIntyre et al. 1995), and the anomalies encountered included cleft palate, limb and tail abnormalities, and postural deformities. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) involved, mouse embryos subjected to amniotic sac puncture on day 13 of gestation were examined externally on day 19, then 'cleared' and bulk stained with alizarin red S and Alcian blue to reveal, respectively, their bony and cartilaginous elements. This procedure allowed a comparison to be made between the incidence of soft tissue anomalies of the distal parts of the limbs and the appearance of the underlying skeletal elements. Despite a high incidence of soft tissue (principally digital) anomalies, relatively few skeletal anomalies were encountered. Measurements of intact long bones, and regions of ossification, were made in the major long bones of 'nonexperimental' and 'internal' controls and 'experimental' fetuses that displayed external morphological malformations to establish whether the experimental procedure had a greater effect on the proximal or distal components of the limb skeleton. No significant difference was observed when the ratios of proximal: distal length were compared with those obtained from the control series. The degree of severity of 'clubhand' and 'clubfoot' deformity was determined, and a comparison made between the severity observed on the right and left sides. This analysis revealed that for 'clubhand', the left forelimb was more severely affected than the right forelimb. The incidence of 'clubfoot' deformity was similar between the 2 sides. A possible explanation for this asymmetric effect is provided. An unexpected finding was the abnormal pattern of ossification seen in the sternum of two thirds of the 'experimental' fetuses that displayed external morphological malformations. This abnormal pattern was seen in none of the controls nor in fetuses in the 'experimental' series that displayed no external morphological malformations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8771394

  18. The big melt in Greenland during summer 2012 detected by MWR aboard SAC-D/Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuelli, S.; Labanda, M. F.; Marenchino, M.; Jacob, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    On an average summer, about half of Greenland's surface ice melts, but during the summer of 2012 about 90 percent of the ice sheet thawed at some point in mid-July, as was observed first by NASA Satellites. This kind of comprehensive surface melting is the biggest since satellites started monitoring the Arctic in 1979. However, some researchers say that it might happen about every 150 years or so in Greenland, which would make this event unusual but not unprecedented. According with climatologists, when Greenland's land-based ice sheet melts, it can have little impact on sea levels but a significant impact on weather in the Northern Hemisphere. The National Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) developed the SAC-D/Aquarius science mission (launched in June 2011), together with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA). The main argentinean sensors on board the SAC-D is a MWR (Micro Wave Radiometer). This instrument is a three channel push broom microwave radiometer with 8 antenna beams per channel and two different incident angles (52° and 58°), that provides a measurement swath of approximately 380 Km. These channels provide 36.5 GHz dual horizontal and vertical polarized and 23.8 GHz horizontal polarized radiance measurements in an overlapping swath with the L-band Aquarius radiometer/scatterometer. The main objective of this instrument is to retrieve sea geophysical variables such as, columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain detection. In this work we present results obtained from MWR data for this ice melting event on Greenland, showing the capability of MWR to monitor this kind of phenomena. Brightness temperature 36.5 GHz (H-pol), June 28th Brightness temperature 36.5 GHz (H-pol), July 12th

  19. Sac-D Aquarius a Satellite for Ocean, Climate and Environment. One Year of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrusio, S.; Lagerloef, G.; Rabolli, M.; LeVine, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SAC-D/Aquarius satellite was launched in June 10, 2011. It's a joint mission between Argentina (through CONAE) and US (NASA). This satellite is a true Observatory with a suite of sensors for Earth Observation, its weight is 1400 kg, sun-synchronous orbit at 657 km (6 pm ascendant node), revisit of seven days. Other space agencies have contributed with instruments and support (facilities and ground segment), as CNES, CSI, ASI and AEB/INPE. The primary objective is to monitor global variations in ocean surface salinity (SSS) in order to improve the knowledge about ocean circulation, water cycle and climate. The SSS is performed with Aquarius instrument (NASA). Other oceanic and atmospheric parameters are measured with a MWR, from CONAE, in K and Ka band, as wind speed, rain rate, sea ice, water vapour and liquid water in clouds. The thermal camera (NIRST) estimates sea surface temperature and detect high temperature events (fires and volcanic eruptions). The High Sensitivity Camera (HSC) generates night images (very useful for fishery activity monitoring in the sea, studying of electrical storms, polar auroras and urban application). The DCS (Data Collection System, from CONAE) can receive meteorological and environmental data from ground platforms and distribute among users. The TDP (Technological Demonstration Package, from CONAE) measures different parameters of satellite position and velocity. Other two important instruments are ROSA (from Italy) and CARMEN 1 (from France). The first is an atmospheric sounder, it allows elaborating atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, and the second has detectors for studies of space debris and the effects of radiation on electronic devices. This work provides a review of the first year of data, including the status of calibration and validation, other finding and at the same time we want to present the progress in the active educational and outreach program including the information of SAC-D Aquarius Mission.

  20. Extended version of the paper that will appear under the same title in the proceedings of SAC'03,

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    the 64­bit # The work described in this paper has been supported by the Concerted Research Action (GOAExtended version of the paper that will appear under the same title in the proceedings of SAC'03) Mefisto. ## F.W.O. researcher, sponsored by the Fund for Scientific Research -- Flanders # # # Research

  1. Extended version of the paper that will appear under the same title in the proceedings of SAC'03,

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    the 64-bit The work described in this paper has been supported by the Concerted Research Action (GOAExtended version of the paper that will appear under the same title in the proceedings of SAC'03) Mefisto. F.W.O. researcher, sponsored by the Fund for Scientific Research ­ Flanders Research financed

  2. Quantification of Cardiac Sac Network Effects on a Movement-Related Parameter of Pyloric Network Output in the Lobster

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Scott

    Output in the Lobster JEFF B. THUMA AND SCOTT L. HOOPER Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological on a movement-related parameter of pyloric network output in the lobster. J Neurophysiol 89: 745­753, 2003; 10 of cardiac sac activity on the OSF of all pyloric neurons in the lobster, Panulirus interruptus

  3. sAC from aquatic organisms as a model to study the evolution of acid/base sensing.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is poised to play multiple physiological roles as an acid/base (A/B) sensor in aquatic organisms. Many of these roles are probably similar to those in mammals; a striking example is the evolutionary conservation of a mechanism involving sAC, carbonic anhydrase and vacuolar H?-ATPase that acts as a sensor system and regulator of extracellular A/B in shark gills and mammalian epididymis and kidney. Additionally, the aquatic environment presents unique A/B and physiological challenges; therefore, sACs from aquatic organisms have likely evolved distinct kinetic properties as well as distinct physiological roles. sACs from aquatic organisms offer an excellent opportunity for studying the evolution of A/B sensing at both the molecular and whole organism levels. Moreover, this information could help understand and predict organismal responses to environmental stress based on mechanistic models.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase in Health and Disease," guest edited by J. Buck and L. R. Levin. PMID:24971688

  4. Combined anti-solvent and cooling method of manufacturing indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Jeong; Song, Geon-Hyung; Chang, Kwan-Young; Kim, Chang-Sam; Choi, Guang J.

    2014-12-01

    The anti-solvent approach has been demonstrated as one potential industrial method to produce pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with high purity. In this study, we combined the anti-solvent method with cooling to maximize the yield of the solution-based co-crystallization between indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC). The cooling start time was the key process parameter; other parameters were fixed based on results of preliminary work. Highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders were produced via the combined method, regardless of the cooling start time, and the yield was substantially enhanced. However, some material properties, such as crystallinity and particle size, were affected by the cooling start time; i.e., whether cooling was started before nucleation (pre-nucleation cooling) or after nucleation (post-nucleation cooling). When pre-nucleation cooling was applied, a greater degree of supersaturation led to nucleation of ?-IMC and IMC-SAC together. The metastable ?-IMC eventually transitioned to stable IMC-SAC co-crystal particles, followed by crystal growth. When post-nucleation cooling was applied, the transient ?-IMC was not detected during the entire process.

  5. Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Chen, Clara C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [123I/131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [ 111In]pentetreotide, [68Ga] somatostatin analogs, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [11C/18F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [11C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([99mTc] (V) DMSA, and [18F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21167384

  6. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  7. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a number of example applications for Hanford problems. References to theory documents and user guides are provided as well as links to a number of published data sets that support running analyses of interest to Hanford cleanup efforts.

  8. The Relevance of Rodent-Specific Tumors in Cancer Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory animal species have organs that do not specifically occur in humans and somtimes tumors arise in these organs. The lack of direct site concordance frequently results in significant debate on the human relevance of tumors that arise from rodent specific organs. The re...

  9. The Plant Cell, Vol. 11, 11791190, June 1999, www.plantcell.org 1999 American Society of Plant Physiologists Sac3, an Snf1-like Serine/Threonine Kinase That Positively and

    E-print Network

    Physiologists Sac3, an Snf1-like Serine/Threonine Kinase That Positively and Negatively Regulates the Responses acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3

  10. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  11. Genetic characterization of gliomas arising in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Adam; Serracino, Hilary; Damek, Denise M; Ney, Douglas; Lillehei, Kevin O; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2012-09-01

    The co-occurrence of gliomas and multiple sclerosis (MS) in the same patient is uncommon, but a well-reported phenomenon. Most have been high grade astrocytic tumors that developed after the diagnosis of MS, leading authors to postulate that chronic gliosis in demyelinative plaques might be the underlying substrate for secondary induction of a glial neoplasm. Until recently, however, genetic tools have not been available to test the hypothesis that high grade gliomas might arise from longstanding chronic gliosis, with transformation to low grade glioma, and eventually GBM, i.e., be secondary GBMs. We searched our surgical neuropathology and MS Brain Bank databases over the past 25 years (1987-2011) and identified eight cases of co-occurring MS and glioma. After careful review to guarantee both diagnoses, cases were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization for genetic markers appropriate to diagnosis, as well as by direct sequencing for IDH1/2 and P53. No unusual genetic features were detected in our cohort; further, the 4 GBMs we did identify did not have clinical features of secondary glioblastomas nor did any of the four manifest IDH-1 immunohistochemical expression or IDH1/2 mutations, as might be expected in secondary GBMs. Conversely, PTEN loss and EGFR expression, features often found in primary GBMs, but seldom identified in secondary GBMs, were found in 3 of 4 GBMs. We conclude that gliomas in MS patients have genetic features paralleling counterparts in non-MS patients. There is no strong genetic evidence for GBMs to be secondary GBMs. PMID:22547311

  12. [Inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the bladder expelled through the urethral meatus in a girl].

    PubMed

    Sarr, A; Thiam, I; Gueye, D; Sow, Y; Fall, B; Thiam, A; Sine, B; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudo-tumors of the bladder are rare benign tumors that mostly arise in the differential diagnosis of sarcomas in children. The authors report an unusual case of pedunculated inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the bladder that externalized by the urethral meatus in a 13-year-old girl. The treatment consisted of a ligation-resection of the pedicle, followed by resection of the tumor. After regular follow-up for 18 months there was no tumor recurrence. PMID:26552617

  13. Biochemical Diagnosis and Preoperative Imaging of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jessica E; O'Dorisio, Thomas M; Howe, James R

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are a group of neoplasms that can arise in a variety of locations throughout the body and often metastasize early. A patient's only chance for cure is surgical removal of the primary tumor and all associated metastases, although even when surgical cure is unlikely, patients can benefit from surgical debulking. A thorough preoperative workup will often require multiple clinical tests and imaging studies to locate the primary tumor, delineate the extent of the disease, and assess tumor functionality. This review discusses the biomarkers important for the diagnosis of these tumors and the imaging modalities needed. PMID:26610781

  14. Over-expression of HOX-8, the human homologue of the mouse Hox-8 homeobox gene, in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tanaka, M; Iwase, T; Naito, Y; Sugimura, H; Kino, I

    1993-07-15

    A human ovarian yolk sac tumor cDNA library was screened for homeobox genes with an oligonucleotide probe under low stringent condition. Three homeobox genes were isolated, two of which were identified as HHO.c1 and HB24. The third was highly homologous with the mouse Hox-8 gene and was designated as HOX-8. Studies on RNAs from 25 human tumor tissues and cell lines showed that the profile of HOX-8 expression was different from those of HHO.c1 and HB24. The expression of HOX-8 was not detected in hematopoietic tumor cells, in which HHO.c1 and HB24 were highly expressed. HOX-8 was expressed at higher levels in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin than in their corresponding normal tissues more frequently than HHO.c1 and HB24. All three homeobox genes were highly expressed in a yolk sac tumor, an immature tumor of gonadal origin. These results suggest that HOX-8 plays a more important role in human tumors of epithelial origin than those of hematopoietic origin. PMID:7687426

  15. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Cynthia; Chai, Wanxing; Yu, Victoria E.; Yu, Run

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), a group of endocrine tumors arising in the pancreas, are among the most common neuroendocrine tumors. The genetic causes of familial and sporadic PNETs are somewhat understood, but their molecular pathogenesis remains unknown. Most PNETs are indolent but have malignant potential. The biological behavior of an individual PNET is unpredictable; higher tumor grade, lymph node and liver metastasis, and larger tumor size generally indicate a less favorable prognosis. Endocrine testing, imaging, and histological evidence are necessary to accurately diagnose PNETs. A 4-pronged aggressive treatment approach consisting of surgery, locoregional therapy, systemic therapy, and complication control has become popular in academic centers around the world. The optimal application of the multiple systemic therapeutic modalities is under development; efficacy, safety, availability, and cost should be considered when treating a specific patient. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of specific types of PNETs and familial PNET syndromes, including the novel Mahvash disease, are summarized. PMID:23237225

  16. Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ghevariya, Vishal; Malieckal, Anju; Ghevariya, Nehal; Mazumder, Mohammed; Anand, Sury

    2009-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the largest neuroendocrine system in the body. Carcinoid tumors are amine precursor uptake decarboxylase (APUD) omas that arise from enterochromaffin cells throughout the gut. These tumors secrete discrete bioactive substances producing characteristic immunohistochemical patterns. Most tumors are asymptomatic and detected at late stages. Hepatic metastases are commonly responsible for carcinoid syndrome. The small bowel is the most common location of carcinoids. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the detection of these tumors. The measurement of bioactive amines is the initial diagnostic test. Various treatment options, including somatostatin analogs, interferon, chemotherapy, surgery, hepatic artery chemoembolization, and surgery have emerged in the past two decades. However, the incidence and prevalence of carcinoid tumors has increased, while mean survival time has not changed significantly. The lack of standardized classification, federal support, and an incomplete understanding of the complications of this disease are some of the impediments to progress in treatment. PMID:19738517

  17. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  18. Melanomas arising on skin with chronic sun-induced damage exhibit low degree of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pastushenko, Ievgenia; Vicente-Arregui, Sandra; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Gracia-Cazaña, Tamara; Carapeto, Francisco J; Alvarez-Alegret, Ramiro; Dirix, Luc Y; Vermeulen, Peter B; Van Laere, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Differences in gene expression between melanomas arising on skin intermittently and chronically sun-exposed areas were described. Additionally, several studies have shown differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis, suggesting distinct biological pathways in the development of these tumors. We performed a retrospective investigation aimed on evaluation of the differences in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis between melanomas arising on skin with and without signs of chronic sun-induced damage. For that purpose, we evaluated relative blood and lymphatic vessel areas, blood and lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation fractions, separately for peritumoral and intratumoral areas. We have shown that melanomas arising on sun-exposed skin exhibit lower angiogenic and lymphangiogenic potentials and better prognosis than those arising on skin without signs of chronic sun-induced damage. PMID:25747811

  19. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they look under a microscope (their histology): Favorable histology: Although the cancer cells in these tumors don’ ... children with these tumors is very good. Unfavorable histology (anaplastic Wilms tumor): In these tumors, the look ...

  20. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood Swings & Cognitive Changes Fatigue Other Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us ...

  1. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this first stage, MWR and WindSat collocated wind speed observations are analyzed. Here we show the preliminary validation statistics and considerations on possible sources of discrepancies and the room for improvements. [1] F.J.Wentz, "Measurements of oceanic wind speed vector using satellite microwave radiometer", IEEE Transaction on Geoscience Remote Sensing, vol. 30, pp.960-972, Sep. 1992.

  2. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  3. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an infected dentigerous cyst-A case report.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chih-Yu; Huang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Ming-Yi; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Yu, Chuan-Hang

    2015-08-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma (IOVC) arising from an odontogenic cyst is extremely rare. We report a case of intraosseous verrucous carcinoma in a 74-year-old male who presented with a left mandibular swelling with recurrent pus discharge from gingiva of tooth #35. Panoramic radiography revealed an impacted tooth #34 and a large well-defined, radiolucent lesion surrounding the crown of tooth #34. The clinical diagnosis was an infected dentigerous cyst. Surgical excision of the cyst together with extraction of tooth #34 was performed. Histopathological examination showed proliferation of hyperparakeratotic stratified squamous cyst lining epithelium and down-growth of broad and bulbous epithelial ridges with pushing border invasion into the fibrous cystic wall. A verrucous carcinoma arising from an infected dentigerous cyst was diagnosed. There was no recurrence of the tumor 5 months after surgery. PMID:26254175

  4. Glomus Tumors and Neurofibromatosis: A Newly Recognized Association

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glomus tumors are painful benign tumors arising from the neuromyoarterial elements of the glomus body, typically in a subungual location. Historically, glomus tumors have been considered isolated or sporadic, not typically associated with other disease processes. Over the last few years, however, multiple case reports, a molecular genetics study, and an epidemiologic study have confirmed an association between type I neurofibromatosis and glomus tumors. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing information about the association between neurofibromatosis and glomus tumors and to determine whether glomus tumors that are associated with neurofibromatosis differ from isolated glomus tumors in terms of tumor number, location, and sex distribution. Methods: A PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Cochrane Database search was performed using the terms “glomus tumor,” “glomus tumour,” and “glomangioma” each combined with the search term “neurofibromatosis.” Fifteen English language articles were included. Information about the molecular genetics, patient sex, number of tumors per patient, and tumor location were recorded. Results: A total of 36 patients with glomus tumors and neurofibromatosis have been reported in the literature. Seventy-nine percent were female. Tumors were multifocal in 32% of patients, with an average of 1.4 glomus tumors per patient. Glomus tumors arose in a nonsubungual location in 38% of patients. Conclusions: A strong association between type I neurofibromatosis and glomus tumors has been identified. In neurofibromatosis patients with glomus tumors, the sex distribution, tumor location, and tumor burden appear similar to those in patients with isolated glomus tumors. Treating providers should be aware of this association to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25426397

  5. Sarcomatoid carcinoma arising in the congenital pigmented nevus after treatment with carbon dioxide snow freezing method.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Rina; Komine, Mayumi; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Fusumae, Takayuki; Fujita, Yurika; Maekawa, Takeo; Murata, Satoru; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the skin in a 63-year-old man who was treated with the carbon dioxide snow freezing method for a huge congenital pigmented nevus that extended from the right upper extremity to the right trunk during childhood. He had an exophytic red tumor on the nevus in the right upper extremity that grew slowly for 4 years and rapidly recently. Histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed both epithelial and mesenchymal malignancy in the same tumor. The epithelial component was composed of basaloid cells forming multiple nests with peripheral palisading, positive for keratins and BerEP4, implying basal cell carcinoma. The mesenchymal component was composed of spindle-shaped cells negative for keratins and positive for vimentin, suggesting sarcoma. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of sarcomatoid carcinoma arising in the primary pigmented nevus that had been treated by the carbon dioxide snow freezing method. PMID:26074124

  6. Benign sacrococcygeal neoplasm arising at birth from a giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jason A; Khozeimeh, Nini; Reyes, Christine; Qureshi, Faisal G

    2012-02-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are considered to be premalignant with the highest risk for conversion to melanoma. Solid tumors within giant CMN presenting at birth are relatively unusual, and a variety of malignancies have been reported within these masses. However, the frequency of malignancy in these tumors is unknown. We report the unusual case of a female neonate who was born with 2 large, perianal masses within a giant CMN over her trunk. We resected the larger of the 2 masses because of discomfort and bleeding. The mass consisted of an outgrowth of melanocytes with benign characteristics. The smaller of the 2 masses was managed expectantly and has subsequently decreased in size. We propose that pathologically benign masses within giant CMNs may not require immediate resection. We will discuss the management and pathologic findings of this case and review the literature regarding management of CMN-associated neoplasms arising at birth. PMID:22325403

  7. Fetus in Fetu in the Scrotal Sac: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yi; Song, Bo; Chen, Siyuan; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yang, Gang; Gao, Xia; Xiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare congenital anomaly. The most common site at which FIF occurs is the retroperitoneum. The mechanisms underlying the development of FIF have not been fully elucidated. The monozygotic twin theory postulates that FIF results from the unequal division of the totipotent cells of the blastocyst. However, the monozygotic twin theory does not explain all cases of FIF. Herein, we describe the clinical characteristics of a 20-day-old infant with scrotal sac swelling. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the presence of a mass consistent with a FIF rather than a teratoma. Surgical removal and a subsequent pathological evaluation demonstrated that the anencephalic fetus exhibited limb buds adjacent to a palpable vertebral column, supporting the diagnosis of FIF. The infant had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. In the present report, the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and management of FIF, as well as new concepts emerging in this area of research, are discussed. Although the majority of cases of FIF may be diagnosed preoperatively, FIF should be distinguished from teratoma because the latter has substantial malignant potential. The recommended treatment for FIF is complete resection. To confirm the diagnosis of FIF, pathological examination, karyotyping, serologic marker assessment, and DNA restriction site mapping should be performed after removing the mass. Although FIF is thought to be a benign disorder, follow-up is necessary as a precaution against malignant recurrence, which has been described once. PMID:26266375

  8. Complexity of persistent type II endoleak associated with sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Rountas, Christos; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2015-12-01

    Type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair still remains the Achilles' heel of the treatment, the source of which regularly is difficult to identify and treat. We present a patient with a persistent type II endoleak associated with a continuous aneurysm sac expansion after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair for which many diagnostic modalities were used during his follow-up such as duplex scan, computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. Attempts were undertaken to treat the source of endoleak including coil micro-embolisation of lumbar arteries and subsequent open ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, but they failed to eliminate the endoleak. Finally, a middle sacral artery was identified as the source of the endoleak. At that time, the patient was subjected to surgery for sigmoid carcinoma, and simultaneously, a ligation of the sacral artery was undertaken which eventually eliminated the endoleak completely. This case highlights that type II endoleak may be evoked by various sources and there can be a great difficulty to identify these feeding vessels; thus, careful planning for its management is mandatory. PMID:25427960

  9. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetically unreduced (2n) embryo sacs (ES) form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction) has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory) in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction. PMID:21223576

  10. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100?molm(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially ?-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50?molm(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing ?,?-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of ?-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. PMID:26432407

  11. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bowen, Charles; Seelye, James G.; Locke, Jeffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about 10 degrees C (from a base of 1-4 degrees C) over 14 h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98, and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of rings.

  12. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Bowen, C. II; Seelye, J.G.; Locke, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about IOA?C (from a base of 1-4A?C) over 14h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98,and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of three rings.

  13. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  14. Electrogenic transport and K+ ion channel expression by the human endolymphatic sac epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Michelle J.; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Moon, Sung K.; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic organ that is a part of the inner ear and is connected to the cochlea and vestibule. The ES is thought to be involved in inner ear ion homeostasis and fluid volume regulation for the maintenance of hearing and balance function. Many ion channels, transporters, and exchangers have been identified in the ES luminal epithelium, mainly in animal studies, but there has been no functional study investigating ion transport using human ES tissue. We designed the first functional experiments on electrogenic transport in human ES and investigated the contribution of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport, which has been rarely identified, even in animal studies, using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods. As a result, we identified functional and molecular evidence for the essential participation of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport of human ES epithelium. The identified K+ channels involved in the electrogenic transport were KCNN2, KCNJ14, KCNK2, and KCNK6, and the K+ transports via those channels are thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the unique ionic milieu of the inner ear fluid. PMID:26655723

  15. Effect of Gold Content on the Microstructural Evolution of SAC305 Solder Joints Under Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Mike; Pan, Jianbiao; Silk, Julie; Hyland, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Au over Ni on Cu is a widely used printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish, under bump metallization (UBM), and component lead metallization. It is generally accepted that less than 3 wt.% Au in Sn-Pb solder joints inhibits formation of detrimental intermetallic compounds (IMC). However, the critical limit for Au content in Pb-free solder joints is not well established. Three surface-mount package platforms, one with a matte Sn surface finish and the others with Ni/Au finish, were soldered to Ni/Au-finished PCB using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder, in a realistic manufacturing setting. The assembled boards were divided into three groups: one without any thermal treatment, one subjected to isothermal aging at 125°C for 30 days, and the third group aged at 125°C for 56 days. Representative solder joints were cross-sectioned and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to investigate the evolution of the solder joint morphology as a function of Au content and isothermal aging. It was found that, if Cu is available to dissolve in the solder joint, the migration of AuSn4 from the bulk to the interface as a result of thermal aging is mitigated.

  16. Multifractal dimension and lacunarity of yolk sac vasculature after exposure to magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have reported about the effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on vascular tissue. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) can promote either inhibition or stimulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, depending upon the intensity and time of exposure to the MF. To investigate the possible effects of ELF-MF on vascular processes, it is necessary to employ methods that allow parameterization of the vascular network. Vascular network is a structure with fractal geometry; therefore, fractal methods have been used to evaluate its morphometric complexity. Here, we used the lacunarity parameter (complementary method of fractal analysis) and multifractal analyses to investigate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the embryonic yolk sac membrane (YSM) of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) with and without exposure to an external MF of 1 mT and 60 Hz. Lacunarity results showed that the vascular density was lower for the group exposed to the magnetic field for 9 h/day. In addition, multifractal analysis showed reduced vascularization in the experimental groups (6 h/day and 9 h/day of exposure to MF). Furthermore, multifractal analysis showed difference between the groups exposed for 12 and 24 h/day. Using multifractal methods (generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum), it was possible to characterize the vascular network of the quail embryo YSM as a multifractal object, therefore proving this method to be a more appropriate application than the traditional monofractal methods. PMID:25711525

  17. Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  18. Fairy Chemicals, 2-Azahypoxanthine and 2-Aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, Regulate Carotenoid Accumulation in Citrus Juice Sacs in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kato, Masaya

    2015-08-19

    "Fairy chemicals", 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), are two novel plant-growth regulating compounds isolated from a fairy ring forming fungus, Lepista sordida. In the present study, the effects of AHX and AOH on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in vitro. The results showed that AHX and AOH regulated carotenoid metabolism in the citrus juice sacs. Carotenoid accumulation was induced by AHX in the second week and by AOH in the fourth week. In the meanwhile, the modification of carotenoid accumulation by the AHX and AOH treatments was highly regulated at the transcriptional level. The results presented herein provide new information on the functions of AHX and AOH in plants and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms by which AHX and AOH stimulate plant growth. PMID:26208741

  19. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  20. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-03-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves.

  1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Arising in a Patient of Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Gulhane, Sushma Rajesh; Kotwal, M N

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) represents a major risk factor for development of malignancies, particularly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST), optic gliomas, other gliomas, and leukemia. We report an unusual case of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), developed in a patient of NF1. A 40-year-old Indian male, clinically manifesting NF1 since his childhood, presented with huge splenomegaly. Patient also had a large tumor mass arising in a café-au-lait spot on lower back with rapid growth in last 6 months. Excision of this tumor was done, and it turned out to be a diffuse neurofibroma histologically. Peripheral smear was also done in view of splenomegaly, which showed features of chronic myeloid leukemia. CML rarely co-exists with NF1, and there are a very few reports of such cases. It is important to be aware of the possibility that not only the malignant change in benign PNST is more common in these patients, but also other malignancies like CNS tumors and hematolymphoid neoplasm do occur with increased frequency. PMID:26538735

  2. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H.; Theys, N.; Clarisse, L.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Prata, F.; Rasson, O.; Sievers, K.; Zehner, C.

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases into the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash-rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever-increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem"_target="blank">http://sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem), which is a free online service initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the near-real-time (NRT) satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from three ultraviolet (UV)-visible and three infrared (IR) spectrometers. The UV-vis sensors are the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the two polar orbiting meteorological satellites (MetOp-A & MetOp-B) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The IR sensors are the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board MetOp-A & MetOp-B. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic emissions is based on the selective detection of SO2 and ash. This system is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. A successful rate with more than 95% of notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity is obtained by the SACS system.

  3. Efficacy of Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty Does Not Correlate with Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area in Single Level Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Moon, Bongju; Choi, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Sul; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a minimally invasive treatment. The efficacy of PEN has been relatively well investigated; however, the relationship between the clinical effectiveness of PEN and the severity of spinal canal stenosis by disc material has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of PEN according to the dural sac cross-sectional area in single level disc disease. Materials and Methods This study included 363 patients with back pain from single level disc disease with and without radiculopathy. Patients were categorized into groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material: Category 1, less or more than 50%; and Category 2, three subgroups with lesser than a third, between a third and two thirds, and more than two thirds. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for back pain and leg pain and Odom's criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results The demographic data showed no difference between groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material except age (older age correlated with more spinal canal compromise). The dural sac cross-sectional area did not correlate with the VAS scores for back and leg pain after PEN in single level disc disease in Groups 1 and 2. Odom's criteria after PEN were also not different according to dural sac cross-sectional area by disc material. Conclusion PEN is an effective procedure in treating single level lumbar disc herniation without affecting dural sac cross-sectional area. PMID:25837174

  4. Alpha-fetoprotein production by a malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Rebischung, C; Pautier, P; Morice, P; Lhomme, C; Duvillard, P

    2000-04-01

    Elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a fetal serum protein, usually signal the development of hepatoma or germ cell tumors, including endodermal sinus tumors. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with an alpha-fetoprotein-producing malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary. Serum AFP was 5348 ng/ml at diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the carcinomatous component of this biphasic tumor was the seat of AFP production. After three cycles of combination chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission. Serum AFP was strongly correlated with response to treatment. This is the first report of AFP production by a MMMT of the ovary without a yolk sac component. PMID:10739713

  5. InSAC: A novel sub-nuclear body essential for Interleukin-6 and -10 RNA processing and stability

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoun

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of cytokine expression causes inflammatory diseases or chronic infection conditions. We have identified that Tat-activating regulatory DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is involved in cytokine RNA processing in order to promote an optimal immune response. The interaction of TDP-43 with spliceosomal components from the Cajal body leads to the formation of a novel sub-nuclear body called the Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 Splicing Activating Compartment (InSAC). TDP-43 binds to the IL-6 and IL-10 RNAs in a sequence-dependent manner. In cell-based studies, we observed that lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) stimulation induces the formation of the InSAC through TDP-43 ubiquitination, thereby influencing the processing and expression levels of IL-6 RNA. Moreover, TDP-43 knockdown in vivo results in a decrease in IL-6 production and its RNA splicing and stability. Thus, these findings demonstrate that the InSAC is linked to the activation and modulation of the immune response. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(5): 239-240] PMID:25845943

  6. Percutaneous Treatment of an Infected Aneurysmal Sac Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula with a History of Stent-Graft Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Numan, Furuzan Gulsen, Fatih; Cantasdemir, Murat; Solak, Serdar; Arbatli, Harun

    2012-06-15

    A 68-year-old man who was subjected to stent-grafting of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) 4 months previously was admitted to our hospital with constitutional symptoms, including high fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and backache. An infected aneurysmal sac was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) findings, and an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) was identified during esophagoscopy. CT-guided aspiration was performed using a 20-G Chiba needle, confirming the presence of infection. For treatment of the infected aneurysmal sac, CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in a prone position was performed under general anesthesia with left endobronchial intubation. Drainage catheter insertion was successfully performed using the Seldinger technique, which is not a standard treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac. Improvement in the patient's clinical condition was observed at follow-ups, and CT showed total regression of the collection in the aneurysmal sac.

  7. Gastric Schwannoma: A Benign Tumor Often Misdiagnosed as Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Pravin M.; Somani, Vaibhav S.; Mulani, Astha M.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma. PMID:26664714

  8. Sus1, Cdc31, and the Sac3 CID Region Form a Conserved Interaction Platform that Promotes Nuclear Pore Association and mRNA Export

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Divyang; Lutz, Sheila; Marshall, Neil J.; Fischer, Tamás; Köhler, Alwin; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2009-01-01

    Summary The yeast Sac3:Cdc31:Sus1:Thp1 (TREX-2) complex facilitates the repositioning and association of actively transcribing genes with nuclear pores (NPCs)—“gene gating”—that is central to integrating transcription, processing, and mRNA nuclear export. We present here the crystal structure of Sus1 and Cdc31 bound to a central region of Sac3 (the CID domain) that is crucial for its function. Sac3CID forms a long, gently undulating ? helix around which one Cdc31 and two Sus1 chains are wrapped. Sus1 has an articulated helical hairpin fold that facilitates its wrapping around Sac3. In vivo studies using engineered mutations that selectively disrupted binding of individual chains to Sac3 indicated that Sus1 and Cdc31 function synergistically to promote NPC association of TREX-2 and mRNA nuclear export. These data indicate Sac3CID provides a scaffold within TREX-2 to integrate interactions between protein complexes to facilitate the coupling of transcription and mRNA export during gene expression. PMID:19328066

  9. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, CNS Tumors, Lymphoma, or T-Cell Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-04

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Gonadotroph Adenoma; Pituitary Basophilic Adenoma; Pituitary Chromophobe Adenoma; Pituitary Eosinophilic Adenoma; Prolactin Secreting Adenoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent Pituitary Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; TSH Secreting Adenoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  10. Neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix inside an incarcerated Amyand’s hernia

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Khaled Y.; Alzahrani, Hassan A.; Azzumeea, Fahad; Alzamel, Hyetham A.

    2015-01-01

    Amyand’s hernia is a rare type of hernia where the vermiform appendix is within an inguinal hernia sac. Tumors of the appendix are quite uncommon. The coincidence of an Amyand’s hernia with neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix, as in our case, is even more rarely reported. We report the case of an 81-year-old male who presented with an incarcerated right inguinal hernia. After resuscitation, the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography. It showed an incarcerated right inguinal hernia which contained the distal ileum, cecum, thickened appendix, as well as a small amount of fluid. Subsequently, the patient was prepared for emergency surgery. During the operation, the hernia sac was found and opened. The appendix was swollen. Therefore, appendectomy was performed. The inguinal defect was repaired using the Modified Bassini Technique. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and surprisingly the histopathology of the appendix revealed a 1.5 cm well-differentiated low grade neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid) of the appendix tip. An incidental finding of neuroendocrine tumor of the appendix in a patient with s hernia is extremely rare. A high index of suspicion is the key to diagnose such a coincidence in order to safely and optimally treat such a condition. PMID:26279257

  11. Maize EMBRYO SAC family peptides interact differentially with pollen tubes and fungal cells

    PubMed Central

    Woriedh, Mayada; Merkl, Rainer; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    EMBRYO SAC1-4 (ES1-4) peptides belong to the defensin subgroup of cysteine-rich peptides known to mediate pollen tube burst in Zea mays (maize). ES1-4 are reported here to also be capable of inhibiting germination and growth of the maize fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Ustilago maydis at higher concentrations. Dividing the peptides into smaller pieces showed that a 15-amino-acid peptide located in a highly variable loop region lacking similarity to other defensins or defensin-like peptides binds to maize pollen tube surfaces, causing swelling prior to burst. This peptide fragment and a second conserved neighbouring fragment showed suppression of fungal germination and growth. The two peptides caused swelling of fungal cells, production of reactive oxygen species, and finally the formation of big vacuoles prior to burst at high peptide concentration. Furthermore, peptide fragments were found to bind differently to fungal cells. In necrotrophic F. graminearum, a peptide fragment named ES-d bound only at cell surfaces whereas the peptide ES-c bound at cell surfaces and also accumulated inside cells. Conversely, in biotrophic U. maydis, both peptide fragments accumulated inside cells, but, if applied at higher concentration, ES-c but not ES-d accumulated mainly in vacuoles. Mapping of peptide interaction sites identified amino acids differing in pollen tube burst and fungal response reactions. In summary, these findings indicate that residues targeting pollen tube burst in maize are specific to the ES family, while residues targeting fungal growth are conserved within defensins and defensin-like peptides. PMID:26071527

  12. Enhanced solubility and intestinal absorption of candesartan cilexetil solid dispersions using everted rat intestinal sacs

    PubMed Central

    Gurunath, S.; Nanjwade, Baswaraj K.; Patila, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Candesartan cilexetil (CAN) is a poor aqueous soluble compound and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump substrate. These key factors are responsible for its incomplete intestinal absorption. Methods In this study, we investigated to enhance the absorption of CAN by improving its solubility and inhibiting intestinal P-gp activity. A phase solubility method was used to evaluate the aqueous solubility of CAN in PVP K30 (0.2–2%). Gibbs free energy (?Gtro) values were all negative. Solubility was enhanced by the freeze drying technique. The in vitro dissolution was evaluated using the USP paddle method. The interaction between drug and carrier was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. Naringin was selected as P-gp inhibitor. Absorption studies were performed using the everted gut sac model from rat jejunum. The drug analysis was performed by HPLC. Results FTIR spectra revealed no interaction between drug and PVP K30. From XRD and DSC data, CAN was in the amorphous form, which explains the cumulative release of drug from its prepared systems. We noticed an enhancement of CAN absorption by improving its solubility and inhibiting the P-gp activity. The significant results (p < 0.05) were obtained for freeze dried solid dispersions in the presence of P-gp inhibitor than without naringin (15 mg/kg) with an absorption enhancement of 8-fold. Conclusion Naringin, a natural flavonoid, has no undesirable side effects. Therefore, it could be employed as an excipient in the form of solid dispersions to increase CAN intestinal absorption and its oral bioavailability. PMID:25067902

  13. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers. PMID:26176314

  14. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 ?g g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 ?g g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 ?g g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  15. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense...BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army...

  16. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense...BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army...

  17. Estimating the range of impacts arising from nitrate leaching reduction

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    Estimating the range of impacts arising from nitrate leaching reduction policies using farm ECM 07-02 #12;Estimating the range of impacts arising from nitrate leaching reduction policies using of the Water Framework Directive (European Commission, 2000). Like the Nitrates Directive (European Commission

  18. Clinical features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Grozinsky-Glasberg, Simona; Mazeh, Haggi; Gross, David J

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Most of pancreatic NETs (50-75%) are nonfunctioning (not associated with a hormonal clinical syndrome); however, in up to one third they can secrete a variety of peptide hormones, including insulin, gastrin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide, somatostatin etc., resulting in rare but unique clinical syndromes. In this article, the clinical features of the different types of PNETs will be reviewed. Other aspects of the management of these tumors (surgery, treatment of advanced disease, tumor localization) are not dealt with here, as they are covered by other papers in this volume. PMID:25689919

  19. Bone metastasis in gastrointestinal stromal tumors preferentially occurs in patients with original tumors in sites other than the stomach.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahiko; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Nishida, Takeshi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Shinichi; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Imura, Johji

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are rare in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and data on the clinicopathological profiles are lacking. The purpose of this report was to identify the clinicopathological profiles of this rare clinical setting by evaluating 23 cases, four of which were our own and the additional 19 were from the relevant English literature. In 18 cases, the primary GISTs occurred in sites other than the stomach, although a high proportion of these tumors do arise in the stomach. All tumors at the disease presentation had more than a low risk of recurrence, with most tumors either at a high risk or initially malignant with liver metastasis. In four cases, bone metastasis was the primary metastatic manifestation. Although rare in GISTs, bone metastasis should be considered in patients with primary tumors at a high risk for recurrence or in initially malignant tumors with liver metastasis, especially with primary tumors in sites other than the stomach. PMID:26191327

  20. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  1. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  2. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Brain and spinal cord tumors ...

  3. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  4. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  5. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these tumors also causes increased pressure within the skull . Brain tumors that spread are classified based on ... the brain. Signs of increased pressure in the skull are also common. Some tumors may not show ...

  6. Evolutionary Theory Suggest New Mechanism for Genetic Heterogeneity of Tumors | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    One of the most consistent characteristics of solid tumors is the genetic heterogeneity of the cells that make up the tumor. Current dogma holds that this heterogeneity results from the effect of random mutations that develop as a result of the instability of cancer cell genes. However, a theoretical analysis of tumor evolution suggests that this heterogeneity arises from predictable variations in the local environments that form in tumors and the resulting adaptations that cells make those changing conditions.

  7. Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in tubular adenoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Saimura, Michiyo; Anan, Keisei; Mitsuyama, Shoshu; Ono, Minoru; Toyoshima, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    We herein report an extremely rare case of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in tubular adenoma of the breast. A 33-year-old female first noticed a mass in her right breast when she was 15 years old. The tumor had not changed in size subjectively for 18 years. She finally visited the hospital one and a half years before this presentation for an examination of her breast mass. Ultrasonography (US) showed a circumscribed mass suggesting a benign tumor, and mammography (MMG) revealed the well-defined high-density mass with a focal region of microcalcification. It was suspected to be adenosis based on a core-needle biopsy (CNB). During the regular follow-up, the microcalcification in the mass increased. She was therefore referred to our hospital for further examination. US and MMG showed a well-demarcated mass with a focal microcalcified area. US-guided CNB diagnosed it as DCIS with tubular adenoma. The patient underwent tumorectomy. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed to be DCIS in tubular adenoma with negative surgical margins. PMID:22700460

  8. [Mesenchymal orbital tumors].

    PubMed

    Civit, T; Klein, O; Freppel, S; Baylac, F

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal tumors grow from pluripotent mesenchymal cells that form the soft orbital tissue. Primary tumors of the orbital walls are discussed in another section. Tumors from muscle and adipose tissue are rare or exceptional, except rhabdomyosarcoma, described in the section dedicated to pediatric tumors. Most frequent tumors are fibrous histiocytomas and solitary fibrous tumors, which often have a retrobulbar location. Fibrous histiocytoma is benign in only 65 % of cases. Fibrous solitary tumor is now better known (Ag CD34): this tumor is generally benign but frequently recurs. PMID:20227093

  9. Development of the endolymphatic sac and duct in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Harrison, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The development and maturation of the endolymphatic sac (ES) and duct (ED) were studied in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The ES first appears as an oval capsule at the dorsal-medial tip of the otic vesicle at stage 39, about 11 days after oviposition. The ES consists of polymorphous epithelial cells with a minimum of cytoplasm. The intercellular space (IS) between the epithelial cells is narrow and has a smooth surface. At stage 44, the size of the ES increases as many vacuoles in the IS become filled. At stage 46, 18 days after oviposition, the ES elongates markedly and a slit-like lumen is found in the ES. The epithelium contains a few cell organelles which are scattered in the cytoplasm. The vacuoles in the IS are fused, which expands the IS. Two days later (stage 48), floccular material (endolymph) is present in the expanded lumen. The IS dilates and has a wide and irregular appearance. At stage 50, approximately 26 days after oviposition, the ES extends and expands significantly and crystals (otoconia) can now be seen in the widened lumen of the ES. The cytoplasm of the cuboidal epithelial cells contains an abundance of vesicles surrounded by ribosomes and Golgi complexes. Intercellular digitations are formed in the expanded IS. At stage 54, the ES forms a large bellow-like pouch. Numerous otoconia accumulate in the lumen. Free floating cells and cell debris can be seen in the lumen at this stage. The epithelial cells contain numerous cytoplasmic organelles which are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Granules are found in the apical and lateral cytoplasm. The IS is loose and displays a labyrinthine appearance. The primitive ED first appears as a connection between the ES and the saccule but no lumen is present inside at stage 39. At stage 46, a narrow lumen is formed in the ED, which corresponds to the formation of the ES lumen. At stage 50, as the ED extends, floccular material is seen in the lumen. At stage 54, the ED bears numerous microvilli on its luminal surface. Otoconia and endolymph are present in the ED. Tight junctions between the epithelial cells are formed at stage 46. A fully developed intercellular junctional complex is produced at stage 54. Based on the development of the ES and ED, the maturation of function of the ES and ED are discussed.

  10. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies Higher operating frequencies enable greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of GaAs solar cell MIMs (Monolithically Integrated Module) with a single patch antenna on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the integration of MIMs and antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  11. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Jennifer A; Rider, Jennifer R; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J; Mucci, Lorelei A; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-06-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20-30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P < 0.0001). Our findings that zonal differences in normal tissue persist in tumor tissue and that these differences are associated with Gleason score and sample type suggest that subtypes potentially resulting from different etiologic pathways might arise in these zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  12. Changes in lung tumor shape during respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakou, E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2012-02-01

    Evidence that some lung tumors change shape during respiration is derived from respiratory gated CT data by statistical shape modeling and image manipulation. Some tumors behave as rigid objects while others show systematic shape changes. Two views of lung motion are presented to allow analysis of the results. In the first, lung motion is viewed as a wave motion in which inertial effects arising from mass are present and in the second it is a quasistatic motion in which the mass of the lung tissues is neglected. In the first scenario, the extremes of tumor compression and expansion are expected to correlate with maximum upward and downward velocity of the tumor, respectively. In the second, they should occur at end exhale and end inhale, respectively. An observed correlation between tumor strain and tumor velocity provides more support for the first view of lung motion and may explain why previous attempts at observing tumor shape changes during respiration have largely failed. The implications for the optimum gating of radiation therapy are discussed.

  13. Comparison of Sac Peak Fe XIV Index with Model Index Computed from EIT Differential Emission Measure Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J. W.; Newmark, J. S.; Altrock, R. C.

    2001-05-01

    We compare the Sac Peak Fe XIV green line index with a model index time series for the period of operations of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), covering the years 1996-2000, from cycle minimum to the peak of the current activity cycle 23. We compute a differential emission measure (DEM) map for each day using images from the four channels of EIT at 171 Å, 195 Å, 284 Å, and 304 Å. From the daily DEM map we then calculate a daily Fe XIV 5304 Å intensity image (see Cook et al. 1999, Proceedings of the 8th SOHO Workshop, ESA SP-446, pp. 241-246). The Sac Peak index is an average intensity, measured using a circular aperture 1 arcmin in diameter sampling the corona in 1 degree steps around disk center. It is taken at several different heights beyond the daily limb. We modeled the index values, for the aperture center at 1.15 Rodot from disk center, as the average intensity within a daily annulus covering 1.12 - 1.18 Rodot imposed on the model intensity image. We compare the observed index with our model results, and discuss in terms of the accuracy of the model intensities which can be determined from our EIT-based DEM curves. We actually produce a daily Fe XIV image for the entire EIT field-of-view. The Sac Peak index provides one well calibrated, long term check on the reliability of the DEM model calculation. This work has been supported by NASA under W-19,348, and by the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit maturation. PMID:21994171

  15. Granular Cell Tumors on Unusual Anatomic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Joo

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are soft tissue tumors, which are thought to be derived from Schwann cells. Although most GCTs are reported to arise in tongue and oral cavity (30-50%), they can appear on any anatomic sites, even visceral organs. Herein, we report 5 cases of GCTs on unusual anatomic locations, such as palm, arm, thigh, finger, and vulvar area. Complete surgical excision is preferred treatment of choice to prevent recurrence. These cases emphasize that GCTs not involving oral cavity are more prevalent than expected, and the diagnosis should be histopathologically confirmed. PMID:26446660

  16. Beyond the GIST: Mesenchymal Tumors of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Menias, Christine O.; Gaballah, Ayman H.; Shroff, Stuti; Taggart, Melissa W.; Garg, Naveen; Elsayes, Khaled M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring ?70 to ?120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24108557

  17. October 1, 2003 Title "Operator Theory Arising from Systems Engineering"

    E-print Network

    Helton, J. William

    October 1, 2003 Title "Operator Theory Arising from Systems Engineering" Contents 1 OPERATOR THEORY domain performance. The main development in linear systems engineering in the 1990s was the development

  18. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the...

  19. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the...

  20. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the...

  1. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the...

  2. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the...

  3. Contemporary Mathematics Tomography problems arising in Synthetic Aperture Radar

    E-print Network

    Cheney, Margaret

    Contemporary Mathematics Tomography problems arising in Synthetic Aperture Radar Margaret Cheney Abstract. This paper gives a mathematical tutorial on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). We see Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), have received little attention in the mathematical community. The purpose

  4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Blast Crisis Arises from Progenitors FRANZISKA MICHOR

    E-print Network

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Blast Crisis Arises from Progenitors FRANZISKA MICHOR Society of Fellows, USA Key Words. Chronic myeloid leukemia · Hematopoietic stem cells · Hematopoietic progenitor cells · Differentiation ABSTRACT Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progresses through three distinct clinical stages: chronic

  5. Thoracoscopic excision of a peripheral corticotropin-secreting pulmonary carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Gharagozloo, F; Dausmann, M J; Whitaker, M D; Camoriano, J K; Parish, J M; McReynolds, S D; Hall, K A; Pluth, J R

    1994-06-01

    Bronchial carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from the Kulchitsky cells of the bronchial epithelium. These tumors can manifest as central carcinoid tumors, pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets, or peripheral carcinoid tumors. Occasionally, the peripheral carcinoid tumors produce corticotropin and result in Cushing's syndrome. Herein we report the first case of Cushing's syndrome associated with a peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumor that was excised by video-assisted thoracoscopy. After excision, the patient had complete remission. Video-assisted thoracoscopy may be ideal for resecting a peripheral pulmonary carcinoid, especially in patients with debilitation but no evidence of metastasis. PMID:8189767

  6. Dependence of Human Colorectal Cells Lacking the FBW7 Tumor Suppressor on the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Melanie L; Singh, Tejomayee; Mero, Patricia; Moffat, Jason; Hieter, Philip

    2015-11-01

    FBW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7), also known as FBXW7 or hCDC4, is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in a broad spectrum of cancer cell types. As a component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, FBW7 is responsible for specifically recognizing phosphorylated substrates, many important for tumor progression, and targeting them for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Although the role of FBW7 as a tumor suppressor is well established, less well studied is how FBW7-mutated cancer cells might be targeted for selective killing. To explore this further, we undertook a genome-wide RNAi screen using WT and FBW7 knockout colorectal cell lines and identified the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protein BUBR1, as a candidate synthetic lethal target. We show here that asynchronous FBW7 knockout cells have increased levels of mitotic APC/C substrates and are sensitive to knockdown of not just BUBR1 but BUB1 and MPS1, other known SAC components, suggesting a dependence of these cells on the mitotic checkpoint. Consistent with this dependence, knockdown of BUBR1 in cells lacking FBW7 results in significant cell aneuploidy and increases in p53 levels. The FBW7 substrate cyclin E was necessary for the genetic interaction with BUBR1. In contrast, the establishment of this dependence on the SAC requires the deregulation of multiple substrates of FBW7. Our work suggests that FBW7 knockout cells are vulnerable in their dependence on the mitotic checkpoint and that this may be a good potential target to exploit in FBW7-mutated cancer cells. PMID:26354767

  7. Dependence of Human Colorectal Cells Lacking the FBW7 Tumor Suppressor on the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Melanie L.; Singh, Tejomayee; Mero, Patricia; Moffat, Jason; Hieter, Philip

    2015-01-01

    FBW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7), also known as FBXW7 or hCDC4, is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in a broad spectrum of cancer cell types. As a component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase, FBW7 is responsible for specifically recognizing phosphorylated substrates, many important for tumor progression, and targeting them for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Although the role of FBW7 as a tumor suppressor is well established, less well studied is how FBW7-mutated cancer cells might be targeted for selective killing. To explore this further, we undertook a genome-wide RNAi screen using WT and FBW7 knockout colorectal cell lines and identified the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) protein BUBR1, as a candidate synthetic lethal target. We show here that asynchronous FBW7 knockout cells have increased levels of mitotic APC/C substrates and are sensitive to knockdown of not just BUBR1 but BUB1 and MPS1, other known SAC components, suggesting a dependence of these cells on the mitotic checkpoint. Consistent with this dependence, knockdown of BUBR1 in cells lacking FBW7 results in significant cell aneuploidy and increases in p53 levels. The FBW7 substrate cyclin E was necessary for the genetic interaction with BUBR1. In contrast, the establishment of this dependence on the SAC requires the deregulation of multiple substrates of FBW7. Our work suggests that FBW7 knockout cells are vulnerable in their dependence on the mitotic checkpoint and that this may be a good potential target to exploit in FBW7-mutated cancer cells. PMID:26354767

  8. Evaluation of expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet derived growth factor receptors-alpha and -beta, KIT, and RET in canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toceranib phosphate (Palladia) has a reported objective response rate of 25% in both canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) and thyroid carcinoma (TC), with stable disease occurring in an additional 50-60% of dogs. The basis for the observed responses to toceranib is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AGASACA and TC samples for the expression and activation of VEGFR2, PDGFR?, PDGFR?, KIT and RET to assess whether dysregulation of these receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) may contribute to the biologic activity of toceranib. Results mRNA for VEGFR2, PDGFR?/?, KIT and RET was detected in all AGASACA samples. mRNA for VEGFR2, PDGFR?/?, and KIT was detected in all TC samples, while mRNA for RET was amplified in 10/15 samples. No phosphorylation of VEGFR2, PDGFR?/?, or KIT was observed on the arrays. However, phosphorylation of RET was detected in 54% of the primary AGASACA and 20% of TC. VEGFR2 was expressed in 19/24 primary and 6/10 metastatic AGASACA and 6/15 TC samples. KIT was present in 8/24 primary and 3/10 metastatic AGASACA and 9/15 TC samples. PDGFR? expression was noted in all tumor samples. In contrast PDGFR? expression was found in only a few tumor samples but was evident in the stroma of all tumor specimens. Conclusions Known targets of toceranib are expressed in both AGASAC and TC. Given the observed expression of VEGFR and PDGFR?/? and phosphorylation of RET, these RTKs merit investigation as to their roles in the biology of AGSACA and TC and their contribution to toceranib’s activity. PMID:22630170

  9. Preliminary evidence for biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    London, Cheryl; Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Clifford, Craig; Haney, Siobhan; Klein, Mary K.; Beaver, Linda; Vickery, Kate; Vail, David M.; Hershey, Betsey; Ettinger, Susan; Vaughan, Andrew; Alvarez, Francisco; Hillman, Lorin; Kiselow, Mike; Thamm, Doug; Higginbotham, Mary Lynn; Gauthier, Meredith; Krick, Erika; Phillips, Brenda; LaDue, Tracy; Jones, Pam; Bryan, Jeffery; Gill, Virginia; Novasad, Andrew; Fulton, Lisa; Carreras, Janet; McNeill, Conor; Henry, Carolyn; Gillings, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the potential biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in select solid tumors in dogs. Cases in which toceranib was used to treat dogs with anal sac anal gland adenocarcinoma, metastatic osteosarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, head and neck carcinoma, and nasal carcinoma were included. Clinical benefit (CB) was observed in 63/85 (74%) dogs including 28/32 anal sac tumors (8PR, 20SD), 11/23 osteosarcomas (1PR, 10SD), 12/15 thyroid carcinomas (4PR, 8SD), 7/8 head and neck carcinomas (1CR, 5PR, 1SD) and 5/7 (1CR, 4SD) nasal carcinomas. For dogs experiencing CB, the median dose of toceranib was 2.8 mg/kg, 36/63 (58.7%) were dosed on a Monday/Wednesday/Friday basis, and 47/63 (74.6%) were treated 4 months or longer. While these data povide preliminary evidence that toceranib exhibits CB in dogs with certain solid tumors, future prospective studies are necessary to define its true activity. PMID:22236194

  10. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  11. Recurrent gastric neuroendocrine tumors treated with total gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myounghwa; Kim, Jung-Wook; Jang, Jae-Young; Chang, Young Woon; Park, Sun Hee; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Youn Wha

    2015-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumors are rare; however, the incidence has recently increased due to the increasing use of upper endoscopy. Neuroendocrine tumors arise from the excess proliferation of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. The proliferative changes of enterochromaffin cells evolve through a hyperplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence that is believed to underlie the pathogenesis of gastric neuroendocrine tumors. Endoscopic resection is recommended as the initial treatment if the tumor is not in an advanced stage. However, there is no definite guideline for the treatment of recurrent gastric neuroendocrine tumors following endoscopic resection. Here, we report a rare case of gastric neuroendocrine tumors in a 56-year-old male who experienced two recurrences within 11 years after endoscopic resection. The patient finally underwent a total gastrectomy. The pathological features of the resected stomach exhibited the full hyperplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence of the ECL cells in a single specimen. PMID:26675502

  12. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ehehalt, Florian; Saeger, Hans D; Schmidt, C Max; Grützmann, Robert

    2009-05-01

    This literature review briefly summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) and highlights recent advances in PNET research. PNETs are rare neoplasms, compared with carcinomas arising from pancreatic exocrine tissue. They, like other neuroendocrine tumor types, display variable malignant potential, hormone-related syndromes (functionality), localization, and genetic background. Although tumor origin and molecular pathogenesis remain poorly understood, recently established grading and staging systems facilitate patient risk stratification, and thereby directly impact clinical decision making. Although the optimal clinical management of PNETs involves a multidisciplinary approach, surgery remains the only curative treatment for early-stage disease. Surgery may also have a role in patients with advanced-stage disease, including those with hepatic metastases. Alternative therapeutic approaches applied to PNETs, including chemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, biotherapy, polypeptide radionuclide receptor therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and selective internal radiotherapy, have failed to demonstrate a long-term survival benefit. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic option for patients with PNETs. Research on PNETs is desperately needed to improve the therapeutic options for patients with this disease. PMID:19411317

  13. Aneurysm Sac Pressure Measurement with Minimally Invasive Implantable Pressure Sensors: An Alternative to Current Surveillance Regimes after EVAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Fabian Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2008-05-15

    Current protocols for surveillance after endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms are mostly based on costly and time-consuming imaging procedures and aim to detect adverse events such as graft migration, endoleaks or aneurysm sac enlargement. These imaging procedures are either associated with radiation exposure to the patients or may be harmful to the patient due to the use of iodine- or gadolinium-containing contrast agents. Furthermore the advantages of EVAR in the short term might be negated by the necessity for endograft surveillance over years. Thus, alternative modalities for follow-up are being investigated. One of these technologies provides pressure information directly from the aneurysm sac. This noninvasive, telemetric pressure sensing was tested in vitro as well as in first clinical trials and was able to identify successful aneurysm exclusion after EVAR. The telemetric pressure sensors showed a promising efficacy and accuracy in detecting type I and type III endoleaks and will help to clarify the clinical relevance of type II endoleaks. This article provides an overview of the in vitro sensors investigated as well as the first clinical trials and the sensors' potential to change the current endograft surveillance regimes.

  14. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  15. Static sac size with a type II endoleak post-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: surveillance or embolization?

    PubMed Central

    Patatas, Kyriacos; Ling, Lynn; Dunning, Joel; Shrivastava, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether embolization is superior to surveillance for a type II endoleak associated with a static sac size post-endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Four hundred and sixty-one papers were identified, of which 10 papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, and relevant outcomes and results are tabulated. A review of the available literature suggests that most type II endoleaks are innocuous and will seal spontaneously during the long-term follow-up, even when they persist for more than 6 months. An analysis of the large European Collaborators on Stent-Graft Techniques for Aortic Aneurysm Repair (EUROSTAR) registry that includes prospective data on 2463 patients from 87 European hospitals showed that type II endoleaks were not associated with an increased risk of rupture; this correlates well with the large single-centre studies included in this review. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that the management of most isolated type II endoleaks should be conservative—with close radiological follow-up—even when persistent, with intervention restricted to theoese associated with sac enlargement >5 mm over a 6-month period or >10 mm when compared with pre-EVAR diameter. PMID:22617500

  16. Highly expressed EGFR in pearl sac may facilitate the pearl formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjie; Fan, Sigang; Huang, Guiju; Zhang, Dongling; Liu, Baosuo; Bi, Xiaomin; Yu, Dahui

    2015-07-25

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration. Yet whether it functions in pearl formation or not is not reported. In this study, EGFR was cloned from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (named as Pf-EGFR) and its expression profiles were investigated. The cDNA was 2156bp long with an ORF of 1017bp encoding 338 amino acid residues. The deduced polypeptide contained an L domain and a cysteine-rich domain, consistent with the characteristics of ErbB family. The sequence of Pf-EGFR shared 22.78-56.71% identity with other EGFRs. The genomic sequence of Pf-EGFR consisted of six exons and five introns, being 5190bp in total length, and expressed in all the tested tissues with a higher expression level in the pearl sac (P<0.05). In situ hybridization showed that Pf-EGFR was specifically expressed on both the inner side of the outer fold and the outer side of the inner fold of the mantle, as well as on the whole pearl sac including the connective tissues. In addition, Pf-EGFR was markedly increased at larval metamorphosis, significantly higher than other development periods (P<0.05). These results indicated that the Pf-EGFR may facilitate pearl formation as well as larval metamorphosis. PMID:25900030

  17. FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Josefa; Bota-Rabassedas, Neus; Franch-Marro, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    How several signaling pathways are coordinated to generate complex organs through regulation of tissue growth and patterning is a fundamental question in developmental biology. The larval trachea of Drosophila is composed of differentiated functional cells and groups of imaginal tracheoblasts that build the adult trachea during metamorphosis. Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. The ASP emerges from the tracheal branch that connects to the wing disc by the activation of both Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling pathways. Together, these pathways promote cell migration and proliferation. In this study we demonstrate that Vein (vn) is the EGF ligand responsible for the activation of the EGFR pathway in the ASP. We also find that the Bnl-FGF/Btl pathway regulates the expression of vn through the transcription factor PointedP2 (PntP2). Furthermore, we show that the FGF target gene escargot (esg) attenuates EGFR signaling at the tip cells of the developing ASP, reducing their mitotic rate to allow proper migration. Altogether, our results reveal a link between Bnl-FGF/Btl and EGFR signaling and provide novel insight into how the crosstalk of these pathways regulates migration and growth. PMID:26632449

  18. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cauda equina.

    PubMed

    Isotalo, P A; Agbi, C; Davidson, B; Girard, A; Verma, S; Robertson, S J

    2000-08-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive neoplasms composed predominantly of undifferentiated cells that show evidence of neural differentiation. Although their classification has been controversial, PNETs are well recognized primary tumors of both central and peripheral nervous systems. PNETs must be distinguished from other round-cell tumors, including Ewing's sarcoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and small cell carcinoma. Intraspinal PNETs are rare neoplasms that are usually metastatic in origin. We describe the eighth reported primary PNET of the cauda equina that developed in a 52-year-old man with no significant medical history. The tumor was characterized by Homer-Wright rosettes and immunoreactivity for CD99, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase S100, and synaptophysin. The anatomic location of primary intrathecal PNETs is important as those arising in the spinal cord develop in the central nervous system, whereas those arising in the cauda equina develop in the peripheral nervous system. The histogenesis of intrathecal PNETs may be multifactorial. PMID:10987262

  19. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm. PMID:19125206

  20. Preliminary algorithm for retrieving Sea Ice Concentration from the Microwave Radiometer on SAC-D/Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuelli, S.; Tauro, C.; Salgado, H.; Jones, L.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the first version of the algorithm to estimate Sea Ice Concentration from brightness temperatures measured by the MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) on board of SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The MWR is a three channel microwave radiometer, 23.8GHz (H-pol) and 36.5GHz (V-pol and H-pol), with 8 beams for channel of about 50 km in size. The corresponding 8 horns of each channel are in a pushbroom configuration with two different incident angles: 52° and 58°. The algorithm for ice estimation presented here is based on the Bootstrap and Nasa Team (NT) ones, that use gradient and polarization ratios of the obtained brightness temperatures for their calculations. Usually these algorithms use the band of 19GHz for calculating the polarization ratio (PR), while for the gradient ratio (GR) use 37GHz and 19GHz in V-pol, and additionally other bands such as 23GHz and 85GHz are used as clime filters to improve the accuracy of the estimations obtained. In this way they obtain a distribuition of data for polar areas very similar to a triangle in a PR vs GR plot where it is possible to estimate not only the ice concentration but also classify the ice type. For the MWR we adapted this idea to the characteristics of the sensor. We use the 36.5GHz channel for calculating PR and 36.5GHz and 23.8GHz in H-pol for calculating GR. The combination of those MWR data produces a (PR,GR) distribution very noisy as we could verified using Windsat data and comparing the obtained (PR,GR) plots using NT and our definition of these quantities. As the 23.8GHz and 36.5 GHz bands are very sensitives to water vapor variation and sea roughness respectively, the use combined of these bands is very sensitive to both environmental variables. To reduce this effect we develop our algorithm as auto calibrated one. We summarized the way as the algorithm is applied to each beam: 1) We make a scatter plot in a PR-GR diagram with the data of one day corresponding to higher latitudes than 60°. 2) We determine the (PR,GR) points corresponding to Open Ocean, First Year Ice and Old Ice by the means of a procedure that takes into account the density and the triangular form of the ideal distribution of this kind of data. 3) We estimate the brightness temperature corresponding to the three mentioned above points and depurate them using statistical procedures. 4) With these three points we build the typical triangle like NT algorithm. 5) The isoconcentration lines are obtained using a lineal forward calculation if the (PR,GR) points from the brightness temperatures assuming as input different ice concentrations. 6) For each beam the calculated (PR,GR) point is put into the diagram described above and its relative location determines its corresponding ice concentration. In order to improve the accuracy of our estimations we present some test using GDAS data and statistical algorithms applied to obtain a daily ice concentration product. Additionally, a comparison between our outputs and the corresponding estimations from NSIDC is presented.

  1. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akbayir, Ozgür; Güngördük, Kemal; Rafio?lu, Gülseren; Gülkilik, Ahmet; Yavuz, Ekrem; Tekirda?, Ali Ismet; Odaba?, Engin

    2008-04-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinomas primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) arise from Kulchitsky cells and are frequently seen in gastrointestinal tract and lungs. But they are unusual in gynecology practice. We presented a case of PNET arising in the uterine corpus of a 22-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first description of small-cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus with a pseudocyst formation within the myometrium without endometrial invasion. PMID:17823807

  2. Biochemical and Structural Insights into RNA Binding by Ssh10b, a Member of the Highly Conserved Sac10b Protein Family in Archaea*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Ding, Jingjin; Guo, Rong; Hou, Yanjie; Wang, Da-Cheng; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Proteins of the Sac10b family are highly conserved in Archaea. Ssh10b, a member of the Sac10b family from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, binds to RNA in vivo. Here we show that binding by Ssh10b destabilizes RNA secondary structure. Structural analysis of Ssh10b in complex with a 25-bp RNA duplex containing local distortions reveals that Ssh10b binds the two RNA strands symmetrically as a tetramer with each dimer bound asymmetrically to a single RNA strand. Amino acid residues involved in double-stranded RNA binding are similar, but non-identical, to those in dsDNA binding. The dimer-dimer interaction mediated by the intermolecular ?-sheet appears to facilitate the destabilization of base pairing in the secondary structure of RNA. Our results suggest that proteins of the Sac10b family may play important roles in RNA transactions requiring destabilization of RNA secondary structure in Sulfolobus. PMID:24307170

  3. Hematopoiesis in the human yolk sac: quantitation of erythroid and granulopoietic progenitors between 3.5 and 8 weeks of development.

    PubMed

    Dommergues, M; Aubény, E; Dumez, Y; Durandy, A; Coulombel, L

    1992-01-01

    In a first attempt to investigate the regulation of the early steps of human embryonic hematopoiesis, we measured the number of erythroid and granulopoietic progenitors in 38 human yolk sacs and 15 embryonic livers between 27 and 62 days of development. Both erythroid and granulopoietic progenitors were identified in the yolk sac as soon as 27 days, while in the embryonic liver significant numbers were not observed before 40 days. In the yolk sac, the number of granulopoietic and/or macrophagic progenitors was significantly negatively correlated with gestational age. Such a correlation was not observed for CFU-E and BFU-E, even though in the youngest (less than 30 days) and the oldest embryos studied (greater than 40 days), the number of BFU-E was clearly lower. PMID:1504667

  4. An atypically localized gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report of pancreas gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Kür?at Rahmi; Keskin, Metin; Güllüo?lu, Mine; Emre, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. They can arise from any part of the tract as well as the omentum, mesentery or retroperitoneum. In this study, we present a case of a GIST originating from an extraordinary site, the pancreas. Evaluation of 30-year-old man with complaints of abdominal distension revealed a cystic, distal pancreatic lesion 13 cm in diameter. There were no intra-abdominal or distant organ metastases. The patient was operated with a diagnosis of cystic pancreas tumor, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed. The lesion was diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor upon histopathological examination. He was discharged on the sixth postoperative day without any complications and is being followed up for 21 months without systemic or local recurrence. Extragastrointestinal GISTs are reported rarely. To our knowledge, only one pancreatic GIST has been reported previously in the English literature. PMID:25931843

  5. A cluster of cooperating tumor-suppressor gene candidates in chromosomal deletions

    E-print Network

    Xue, Wen

    The large chromosomal deletions frequently observed in cancer genomes are often thought to arise as a “two-hit” mechanism in the process of tumor-suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation. Using a murine model system of hepatocellular ...

  6. Enlarging Cells Initiating Apomixis in Hieracium praealtum Transition to an Embryo Sac Program prior to Entering Mitosis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Susan D.; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C.M.; Koltunow, Anna M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

  7. Angiosarcoma Arising in Chronic Expanding Hematoma: Five Cases of an Underrecognized Association.

    PubMed

    Burgert-Lon, Christine E; Riddle, Nicole D; Lackman, Richard D; Evenski, Andrea J; Brooks, John S J

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the etiology or pathogenesis of angiosarcoma (AS). We describe a series of 5 cases of AS arising in chronic expanding hematomas. Inclusion criteria were the presence of a hematoma of at least 1-year duration and a thick fibrous wall surrounding the hematoma. Patients were 4 men and 1 woman; ages ranged from 43 to 71 years. Locations were the thigh (3), chest wall (1), and pelvic soft tissue involving the ischial bone (1). Hematoma duration ranged from 2 to 25 years. All cases had large cystic hematomas >10 cm; 2 had prior radiation. Thick fibrous walls surrounded the hematomas, with foci of hemosiderin and foamy histiocytes. Wall thickness ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 cm and varied within lesions. All AS were epithelioid, and in 3 cases the tumor invaded through the cyst wall. Immunoreactive nuclear c-myc was noted in 3/3 cases available for testing. Follow-up disclosed 4 patients developed metastatic disease, 3 of whom died of disease, 4, 8, and 15 months after diagnosis; the fourth patient is alive without disease after chemotherapy at 59 months. One patient without metastases is alive without disease 18 months after diagnosis; this tumor was confined to the cyst without penetration through the wall. We identified 4 similar cases in the literature, 3 as individual case reports (all epithelioid AS), and 1 as part of a series of AS. To our knowledge, this is the first series of AS arising in chronic expanding hematomas. Recognition of this unusual complication should alert clinicians to provide periodic clinical follow-up to these patients and to biopsy any case with sudden or uncontrolled enlargement. We recommend that excised chronic hematomas be well sampled histologically to search for AS and, if identified, to determine its extent and invasiveness. PMID:26371782

  8. The chordoma arised from ilium: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongkun; Niu, Xiaohui; Li, Lan; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are malignant tumors that originate in embryonic notochordal remnants. The sacrum and skull are the most common sites; the mobile spine and other bones are extremely rare sites. We describe a 45-year-old man who presented with a lytic lesion in his left ilium. Imaging and pathology of a biopsy specimen suggested a malignant bone tumor; wide resection was accordingly performed. The morphology and immunohistochemistry of the operative specimen showed obvious characteristics of classic chordoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a chordoma originating in the ilium. Chordoma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of lytic lesions in the ilium.

  9. Endovascular Repair of a Right-Sided Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Associated with a Right Aortic Arch and a Left Subclavian Artery Arising from a Kommerell's Diverticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Avgerinos, Efthimios D.; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Psarros, Vasileios; Bastounis, Elias

    2009-07-15

    This case report describes the endovascular repair of a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with a right aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. A 76-year-old male with multiple comorbidities was incidentally found to have a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 6.2 cm. Additionally, there was a right aortic arch with a retroesophageal segment and separate arch branches arising in the following order: left common carotid artery, right common carotid artery, right subclavian artery, and left subclavian artery that was aberrant, arising from a Kommerrell's diverticulum. The aneurysm was successfully excluded by deployment of a Zenith TX1 36 x 32 x 20-mm stent-graft using wire traction technique via the left femoral and right brachial arteries in order to deal with two severe aortic angulations. At 18-month follow-up the patient was doing well, with aneurysm sac shrinkage to 5.9 cm and no signs of endoleak or migration. Endovascular repair of right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysms with a right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery is feasible, safe, and effective. In such rare configurations, which demand considerably increased technical dexterity and center experience, endovascular repair emerges as an attractive therapeutic option.

  10. Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheryl Lai-Lai; Benencia, Fabian; Coukos, George

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer vaccines with defined antigens are commonly used, the use of whole tumor cell preparations in tumor immunotherapy is a very promising approach and can obviate some important limitations in vaccine development. Whole tumor cells are a good source of TAAs and can induce simultaneous CTLs and CD4+ T helper cell activation. We review current approaches to prepare whole tumor cell vaccines, including traditional methods of freeze-thaw lysates, tumor cells treated with ultraviolet irradiation, and RNA electroporation, along with more recent methods to increase tumor cell immunogenicity with HOCl oxidation or infection with replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus. PMID:20356763

  11. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a tailgut cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Adnan A.; Rotimi, Olorundi; Jacob, Deepa; Hyland, Racheal; Sagar, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant transformation in tailgut cysts (TGCs) is extremely rare, with no reports of transitional cell carcinoma arising in them in the UK literature. Here, we discuss a case of a patient with a malignant TGC encapsulating the rectum. This case report highlights the pathological and diagnostic considerations and discusses its management. PMID:26217002

  12. EVA Tutorial #3 ISSUES ARISING IN EXTREME VALUE ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Katz, Richard

    Nonstationarity #12;3 (1) Penultimate Approximations "Ultimate" Extreme Value Theory -- GEV distribution1 EVA Tutorial #3 ISSUES ARISING IN EXTREME VALUE ANALYSIS Rick Katz Institute for Mathematics} Penultimate Extreme Value Theory -- Suppose F in domain of attraction of Gumbel type (i. e., = 0) -- Still

  13. BIODIVERSITY (COMMUNICATIONS ARISING): MAIZE TRANSGENE RESULTS IN MEXICO ARE ARTEFACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quist and Chapela's conclusion that the transgenes they claim to have detected in native maize in Oaxaca, Mexico, are predominantly reassorted and inserted into a "diversity of genomic contexts" seems to be based on an artefact arising from the inverse polymerase chain reaction (i-PCR) they used to ...

  14. Some Computational Problems Arising in Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems

    E-print Network

    Plemmons, Robert J.

    Some Computational Problems Arising in Adaptive Optics Imaging Systems Robert J. Plemmons \\Lambda numerical linear algebra tech­ niques in adaptive optics imaging control computations. Real­time adaptive optics is a means for enhancing the resolution of ground based, optical telescopes beyond the limits

  15. BACKGROUND PAPER 6 ISSUES ARISING ON THE INTERFACE OF MPAs

    E-print Network

    Charles, Anthony

    Charles and Jessica Sanders2 Summary This paper focuses on three key themes. First, it highlights of the paper is a focus on the first of the above-noted stages ­ the `preliminary steps' of decision301 BACKGROUND PAPER 6 ISSUES ARISING ON THE INTERFACE OF MPAs AND FISHERIES MANAGEMENT1 by Anthony

  16. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  17. A rare clinical case – Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Alexis; Porfyridis, Ilias; Christodoulides, Gregorios; Georgiou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 58 years old man with a large heterogeneous and well circumscribed soft tissue mass arising from the right pleural surface, found at a computer tomography of his chest. This mass after complete resection through a right lateral open thoracotomy, proved to be a Solitary Fibrous Tumor, previously known as ‘benign mesothelioma’. This tumor is usually discovered at routine chest X-rays since patients are either asymptomatic or report atypical symptoms. Only 10–20% of the published cases report a malignant solitary fibrous tumor, however, definite diagnosis can only be made after complete resection which is the proposed diagnostic algorithm for these cases.

  18. Babbling behavior in the sac-winged bat (Saccopteryx bilineata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Behr, Oliver; von Helversen, Otto

    2006-09-01

    Infant babbling in humans and a few other primates plays an important role in allowing the young to practice the adult vocal repertoire during early behavioral development. Vocalizations uttered during babbling resemble, to some degree, the acoustic structure of adult vocalizations and are often produced in long bouts independent of any social context. Similar behavior, termed subsong or plastic song, is known from a variety of songbirds. Here, we show that pups of the sac-winged bat ( Saccopteryx bilineata), a species with an unusually large vocal repertoire, produce renditions of all known adult vocalization types during bouts of vocalizations, which appear to be independent of a distinct social context. Babbling occurs in pups of both sexes, even though only adult males, not females, utter all different vocalization types produced in infancy. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of babbling in a nonprimate mammal and suggests that infant babbling may be necessary for the ontogeny of complex vocal repertoires.

  19. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Brain Tumors KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Brain & Nervous System > ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  20. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  1. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  2. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... funder of childhood brain tumor research in the world We fund innovative research to improve treatments and ... support programs Your donations help us make the world a brighter place for children with brain tumors. ...

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04?g/mL to 20?g/mL with LOQ of 0.04?g/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25?g for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51?g for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors / Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  5. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  6. [Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor].

    PubMed

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Fujimura, Shigefumi

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor( SFT). A 34-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram without symptom. Computed tomography showed a circumscribed intrapulmonary tumor with mild uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography( PET) in the left lower lobe( S6). Frozen examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as intrapulmonary SFT. PMID:26329708

  7. Enhanced expression of an endoglucanase in Bacillus subtilis by using the sucrose-inducible sacB promoter and improved properties of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sen-Lin; Du, Kun

    2012-06-01

    An endoglucanase from Bacillus akibai I-1 was successfully overexpressed in Bacillus subtilis 168 and the expression level of the recombinant enzyme was greatly enhanced by using the sucrose-inducible sacB promoter. The endoglucanase activity in the culture supernatant of recombinant B. subtilis by using itself promoter (HpaII) in plasmid pMA5 was 3U/ml. Interestingly, with the addition of sacB promoter at downstream from the HpaII promoter or the replacement of HpaII promoter by the sacB promoter, the endoglucanase activities reached 62 and 60U/ml, respectively, under the optimal culture conditions. These results demonstrated that the sacB promoter might be more efficient for the expression of the endoglucanase than the HpaII promoter. More interestingly, the purified native enzyme had broad pH stability, good thermostability and resistibility to various metal ions and chelating agents examined, while the recombinant enzyme had improved resistibility to SDS, which was stable in 0.2% (w/v) laundry detergent and thus showed great potential in detergents industry. PMID:22503664

  8. Aneuploidy generates proteotoxic stress and DNA damage concurrently with p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis in SAC-impaired cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Akihiro; Ohori, Momoko; Iwai, Kenichi; Nakayama, Yusuke; Nambu, Tadahiro; Morishita, Daisuke; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Maki; Hirayama, Takaharu; Okaniwa, Masanori; Banno, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu; Kandori, Hitoshi; Iwata, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible that determines cell fate after mitotic slippage is unclear. Here we investigate the post-mitotic effects of different mitotic aberrations—misaligned chromosomes produced by CENP-E inhibition and monopolar spindles resulting from Eg5 inhibition. Eg5 inhibition in cells with an impaired spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) induces polyploidy through cytokinesis failure without a strong anti-proliferative effect. In contrast, CENP-E inhibition causes p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis triggered by chromosome missegregation. Pharmacological studies reveal that aneuploidy caused by the CENP-E inhibitor, Compound-A, in SAC-attenuated cells causes substantial proteotoxic stress and DNA damage. Polyploidy caused by the Eg5 inhibitor does not produce this effect. Furthermore, p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis is accompanied by aneuploidy-associated DNA damage response and unfolded protein response activation. Because Compound-A causes p53 accumulation and antitumour activity in an SAC-impaired xenograft model, CENP-E inhibitors could be potential anticancer drugs effective against SAC-impaired tumours. PMID:26144554

  9. GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) ACTIVITY AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RAT VISCERAL YOLK-SAC DURING GESTATION WITH OR WITHOUT TRYPAN BLUE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk-sacs from untreated Sprague Dawley rat conceptuses were removed on days 9-18 of gestation and examined for gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities. All enzyme activities w...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS FOR ASSESSING WATERSHED SYSTEM ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY (SAC), IN SUPPORT OF RISK-BASED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT/RESTORATION PRACTICES (TEXOMA PROJECT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project funded through Ecosystem Restoration internal solicitation within NRMRL. This project will focus on Lake Texoma (located on the Oklahoma/Texas border) and the surrounding watershed to develop methods and protocols for assessing SAC, and to evaluate its potential for use ...

  11. Authors: 2008-09 UA Budget Committee (2008-09 UA Treasurer Ben Coulter, Ryan Houston, Sakina Zaidi) 2008-09 SAC Executive Board

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Authors: 2008-09 UA Budget Committee (2008-09 UA Treasurer Ben Coulter, Ryan Houston, Sakina Zaidi) 2008-09 SAC Executive Board 2007-08 UA Budget Committee (2007-08 UA Treasurer Sunny Patel, Alex Flamm determined a fixed amount to give to the UA each year. Several years later, University administration elected

  12. The Probabilistic Basis for the 2000 SAC/FEMA Steel Moment Frame C. Allin Cornell 1 , Member, ASCE, Fatemeh Jalayer 2 , Ronald O. Hamburger 3 , Member,

    E-print Network

    Sweetman, Bert

    , ASCE Abstract This paper presents a formal probabilistic framework for seismic design and assessment­based seismic design and assessment guidelines for steel moment frame buildings prepared by the SAC/FEMA program Probabilistic performance based design, steel moment resisting frame structures, performance objective

  13. Giant serous cystadenoma arising from an accessory ovary in a morbidly obese 11-year-old girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sharatz, Steven M; Treviño, Taína A; Rodriguez, Luís; West, Jared H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ectopic ovarian tissue is an unusual entity, especially if it is an isolated finding thought to be of embryological origin. Case presentation An 11-year-old, morbidly obese female presented with left flank pain, nausea, and irregular menses. Various diagnostic procedures suggested a large ovarian cyst, and surgical resection was performed. Conclusion Histologically, the resected mass was not of tubal origin as suspected, but a serous cystadenoma arising from ovarian tissue. The patient's two normal, eutopic ovaries were completely uninvolved and unaffected. A tumor arising from ectopic ovarian tissue of embryological origin seems the most likely explanation. We suggest refining the descriptive nomenclature so as to more precisely characterize the various presentations of ovarian ectopia. PMID:18205910

  14. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  15. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The mission of the Rare Tumors Initiative is to better leverage existing NCI expertise in basic and clinical science studies of rare tumors to identify and more effectively translate potential new therapies. The NCI Rare Tumor Initiative was launched in 2

  16. Uptake and photodynamic activity of porphycenes in tumor cells implanted on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidi, Ronit; Gottfried, Varda; Kimel, Sol

    1996-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a convenient model for the study of photodynamic therapy (PDT). This membrane has a rich vasculature, which mimics the tumor neovasculature, and can also serve as a host for implanted tumors. The transparency of the CAM enables in-vivo monitoring of vascular changes during and post PDT, without the need to sacrifice test animals at each time point. Video documentation and analysis of events occurring during and after irradiation permit the quantification of changes in vessel morphology, blood perfusion and tumor development. The compounds tested in this study belong to a family of potential sensitizers -- the porphycenes. These are phorphyrin isomers based on a 16-membered macrocycle, in which the four methine moieties linking the pyrrole rings have been replaced by two direct bonds and two ethine bridges. Experiments were performed on blood vessels of the intact CAM and on recurrent human melanoma cells implanted on the CAM. Tumor selectivity was demonstrated by measuring drug uptake using fluorescence methods. A sensitizer injected systemically into the embryo yolk sac could be detected in the blood vessels 30 min after injection; 1 h later the sensitizer had preferentially accumulated in the tumor. Tumors were irradiated at the optimal uptake time (after 1 h) for 16 min with a 20 mW HeNe laser. Video image analysis showed that 96 h after irradiation tumors had decreased to 5% of their original size. In contrast, non-irradiated control tumors on the same CAM, continued to proliferate and grew to more than twice their original size. In addition, we observed a difference in the damage mechanism after systemic compared to topical administration. Topical application followed by irradiation caused fast necrosis of tumors, which might suggest direct damage to tumor cells, whereas after systemic administration, PDT damage was manifested by slower necrosis, presumably caused by vascular destruction.

  17. A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma primary arising in both adrenal glands associated with adrenal failure.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Takamasa; Imachi, Hitomi; Fujiwara, Mako; Murao, Koji; Onishi, Hiroaki; Kiguchi, Tohru; Takimoto, Hidetaka; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2009-02-01

    It is known that adrenal insufficiency is one of the complications in primary adrenal lymphoma, especially those with bilateral adrenal involvement. A 73-year-old man was referred for general fatigue and high fever to the nearest hospital. The patient was transferred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors and hyponatremia. He was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with primaries arising in both adrenal glands. Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare extra-nodal NHL. Although an appropriate treatment of this disease has not been established, our case has demonstrated that the combination of rituximab and THP-COP chemotherapy could be administered, and that it improved clinical manifestations. This case raises the suggestion that malignant lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors that present with progressive adrenal insufficiency. PMID:19002613

  18. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  19. An unknown mass: the differential diagnosis of digit tumors.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, William D; Khachemoune, Amor

    2015-11-01

    There is little discussion of tumors arising in the digits in the dermatology literature. The patient with an undifferentiated mass of the finger is frequently encountered in the clinic, and variances in presentation of common and uncommon entities pose a challenge that may prompt further investigation for proper diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the authors illustrate the approach and work-up of an unknown digit mass of a 45-year-old female patient. They go on to discuss the presentation and treatment of common tumor lesions of the finger likely to be encountered in the dermatologist's clinic including: ganglion cyst/mucous cyst, giant-cell tumor, verruca vulgaris, epidermal inclusion cyst, poroma, porocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, infantile digital fibromatosis, acquired digital fibrokeratoma, Koenen's tumor, schwannoma, cutaneous neurofibroma, pyogenic granuloma, hemangioma, glomus tumor, epithelioid sarcoma, and metastatic disease. PMID:26235189

  20. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... can be released from the gland. Benign bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are ...

  1. Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ... the tumor and a special camera that detects radioactivity is used to show where the tumors are ...

  2. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) Versus Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) Implants for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, William; McLain, Robert F.; Rufo-Smith, Candace; Gurd, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative disc disease is common and debilitating for many patients. If conservative extensive care fails, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has proven to be an alternative form of surgical management. The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage(SAC) was introduced as a method to obtain stability and fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) is comparable in safety and efficacy to the Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) device. Methods As part of a prospective, randomized, controlled FDA trial, 73 patients underwent anterior interbody fusion using either the SAC(56%) or the BAK device (44%). Results Background characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the SAC and BAK groups in mean operative time or mean blood loss during surgery. Adverse event rates did not differ between the groups. Assessment of plain radiographs could not confirm solid fusion in 63% of control and 71% of study patients. Functional scores from Owestry and SF-36 improved in both groups by the two-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between the SAC and BAK patients with respect to outcome. Conclusions Both the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage and the BAK Cage provided satisfactory improvement in function and pain relief, despite less than expected radiographic fusion rates. The apparent incongruency between fusion rates and functional outcomes suggests that either radiographs underestimate the true incidence of fusion, or that patients are obtaining good pain relief and improved function despite a lower rate of fusion than previously reported. This was a Level III study. PMID:25694930

  3. Congenital Disseminated Extrarenal Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Boudjemaa, Sabah; Petit, Arnaud; Dainese, Linda; Bourdeaut, Franck; Lipsett, Jill; Coulomb, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors arising in association with genetic or malformation syndromes have been increasingly reported. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a highly aggressive neoplasm of infancy and young childhood, characterized by typical morphology and biallelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5/BAF47) gene on chromosome 22q.2 which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex. Congenital infantile disseminated MRT represents a unique clinicopathologic presentation of this tumor. We report a case occurring in a female neonate who presented at birth a voluminous left thigh mass. Surgical biopsy performed at day 9 showed morphology and immunoprofile of MRT. Staging evaluation identified hypercalcemia and distant nodules. The mass showed rapid growth. Despite chemotherapy, the tumor progressed with exteriorization through the biopsy scar. Chemotherapy was discontinued and treatment limited to palliative care and the child died on day 51. The tumor was homozygous for the SMARCB1 deletion with apparent de novo heterozygous germ line deletion in the infant, not identified in the parents. PMID:25751458

  4. Cancer Stem Cells and Their Interaction with the Tumor Microenvironment in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Garner, Evan F; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from neural crest cells, accounts for over 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. The interaction of neuroblastoma cancer-initiating cells with their microenvironment likely plays an integral role in the maintenance of resistant disease and tumor relapse. In this review, we discuss the interaction between neuroblastoma cancer-initiating cells and the elements of the tumor microenvironment and how these interactions may provide novel therapeutic targets for this difficult to treat disease. PMID:26729169

  5. Three-In-One Model Simulates Brain Tumor Progression | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Given the complexity of cancer, it should come as no surprise that researchers have developed many different types of mathematical models that can successfully represent certain aspects of tumor development, for example. Some models can provide insights into the thousands of interactions between many different cells in a tumor, while other models look at groups of cells and their interactions with signals arising from outside the tumor. Each model has its strengths and limitations.

  6. Bronchial carcinoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Salyer, D C; Salyer, W R; Eggleston, J C

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-eight pulmonary carcinoid tumors were reviewed histologically and clinically. Hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections were utilized, as well as special stains, including the argyrophil and argentaffin reactions. The 22 tumors located centrally, at the level of primary or segmental bronchi, had a microscopic appearance distinct from those located more peripherally. One peripheral tumor that was large in size appeared much more aggressive histologically, and was designated an atypical carcinoid. The origin of carcinoid tumors from Kulchitsky cells in the lung, the distinction of peripheral tumors from chemodectomas, and the relationship of bronchial carcinoids to bronchial epithelial hyperplasias and oat cell carcinomas are discussed. PMID:51682

  7. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura: A Rare Cause of Pleural Mass.

    PubMed

    Supakul, Rodjawan; Sodhi, Amik; Tamashiro, Cecilia Yshii; Azmi, Syed S; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rare but usually benign mesenchymal tumor arising from the pleura. Patients are often asymptomatic, resulting in the majority of tumors being detected incidentally on chest imaging. We present a case of a large solitary pleural tumor and review the typical radiographic and pathologic findings associated with this finding. CASE REPORT A 63-year-old white man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was found to have a large pleural mass on chest radiography during a pre-operative assessment. The tumor was biopsied and findings were consistent with solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. CONCLUSIONS SFTPs are generally considered benign tumors although there is a risk of malignant transformation and recurrence. Imaging studies play an important role in identifying the tumor and planes of resection, and histologic diagnosis is critical in differentiating SFTP from other type of pleural masses. Surgical resection is main therapy of choice. PMID:26632548

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura – analysis of 18 cases

    PubMed Central

    Pryt, ?ukasz; Szlachci?ska, Aleksandra; Walczak-Pasz, Gra?yna; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kozak, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTP) are primary tumors arising from mesenchymal cells. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the origin of these tumors is mesenchymal rather than mesothelial. The aim of this study is to present our experience with diagnosing and treating patients with SFTP. Material and methods We analyzed 18 patients treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of the Medical University of Lodz. The patients’ medical histories and the results of postoperative histopathological investigation of the tumors were analyzed. Postoperative histopathological samples were evaluated with regard to the current criteria of malignancy. Results In 17 patients, the tumors were surgically removed. Benign and small lesions (less than 3 cm in size) were removed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). In 5 cases, malignant tumors were found in the postoperative material. Conclusions Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura is a tumor with frequently asymptomatic clinical course. Treatment consists in resection which includes the adjacent structures, especially if the tumor is malignant.

  9. Tumors as chaotic attractors.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio

    2014-02-01

    Malignant tumor growth, progression and evolution share several of the features associated with strange attractors, a special type of dynamical behavior of non-linear systems. In this framework, the genetic instability of tumor cells represents a local-scale driving force for instability that lets the tumor evolve with time, while selective pressures discarding inefficient cell clones play the role of a dissipative process, providing the tumor with global stability and robustness with respect to perturbations. This setup induces global stability combined with local instability, and is in our opinion the real source of tumor robustness and plasticity, and ultimately the origin of the remarkable resistance of many tumors to anti-cancer therapies. A scientific program taking into consideration the vision of tumors as strange attractors requires the development of experimental and computational tools to link the micro- and mesoscopic perspectives of tumor biology. We here develop the idea of a tumor as a dynamical system, sharing characteristics with strange attractors and investigate several features of such systems, including: (a) local instability combined with global stability, a property inherent to the tremendous non-linearity of the biochemical regulatory circuits governing the individual fate and the interactions between tumor cells; (b) self-similarity at different levels; (c) and strong sensitivity to initial conditions in the composition and features of the tumor and its microenvironment. PMID:24257651

  10. Rapid tumor induction in zebrafish by TALEN-mediated somatic inactivation of the retinoblastoma1 tumor suppressor rb1

    PubMed Central

    Solin, Staci L.; Shive, Heather R.; Woolard, Kevin D.; Essner, Jeffrey J.; McGrail, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the in vivo role of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is technically challenging due to their essential requirement during early animal development. To address this bottleneck, we generated genetic mosaic adult zebrafish using TALEN genome editing and demonstrate somatic inactivation of the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma1 (rb1) induces tumorigenesis at high frequency. 11–33% of 1-cell stage embryos injected with TALEN mRNAs targeting rb1 exon 2 or 3 develop tumors beginning as early as 3.5 months of age. Lesions predominantly arise in the brain and show features of neuroectodermal-like and glial-like tumors. Mutant allele analysis is consistent with tumor initiation due to somatic inactivation of rb1, revealing a conserved role for rb1 in tumor suppression across vertebrates. In contrast to genetic mosaics, heterozygous rb1?/+ adults show no evidence of neoplasia, while homozygous mutant rb1?/? are larval lethal. This is the first demonstration that somatic inactivation of a tumor suppressor causes cancer in zebrafish, and highlights the utility of site-specific nucleases to create genetic mosaic zebrafish for tumor suppressor gene discovery. Somatic inactivation with site-directed nucleases in zebrafish presents a rapid and scalable strategy to study tumor suppressor gene function in cancer. PMID:26345384

  11. Rapid tumor induction in zebrafish by TALEN-mediated somatic inactivation of the retinoblastoma1 tumor suppressor rb1.

    PubMed

    Solin, Staci L; Shive, Heather R; Woolard, Kevin D; Essner, Jeffrey J; McGrail, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the in vivo role of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is technically challenging due to their essential requirement during early animal development. To address this bottleneck, we generated genetic mosaic adult zebrafish using TALEN genome editing and demonstrate somatic inactivation of the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma1 (rb1) induces tumorigenesis at high frequency. 11-33% of 1-cell stage embryos injected with TALEN mRNAs targeting rb1 exon 2 or 3 develop tumors beginning as early as 3.5 months of age. Lesions predominantly arise in the brain and show features of neuroectodermal-like and glial-like tumors. Mutant allele analysis is consistent with tumor initiation due to somatic inactivation of rb1, revealing a conserved role for rb1 in tumor suppression across vertebrates. In contrast to genetic mosaics, heterozygous rb1-/+ adults show no evidence of neoplasia, while homozygous mutant rb1-/- are larval lethal. This is the first demonstration that somatic inactivation of a tumor suppressor causes cancer in zebrafish, and highlights the utility of site-specific nucleases to create genetic mosaic zebrafish for tumor suppressor gene discovery. Somatic inactivation with site-directed nucleases in zebrafish presents a rapid and scalable strategy to study tumor suppressor gene function in cancer. PMID:26345384

  12. Glomus tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1: genetic, functional and clinical evidence of a novel association

    PubMed Central

    Brems, Hilde; Park, Caroline; Maertens, Ophélia; Pemov, Alexander; Messiaen, Ludwine; Upadhyaya, Meena; Claes, Kathleen; Beert, Eline; Peeters, Kristel; Mautner, Victor; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Yao, Lawrence; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Sciot, Raf; Smet, Luc De; Legius, Eric; Stewart, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common disorder that arises secondary to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. Glomus tumors are small, benign but painful tumors that originate from the glomus body, a thermoregulatory shunt concentrated in the fingers and toes. We report eleven individuals with NF1 who harbored 20 glomus tumors of the fingers and one in the toe; five individuals had multiple glomus tumors. We hypothesized that bi-allelic inactivation of NF1 underlies the pathogenesis of these tumors. In twelve NF1-associated glomus tumors, we used cell culture and laser capture micro-dissection to isolate DNA. We also analyzed two sporadic (not-NF1-associated) glomus tumors. Genetic analysis showed germline and somatic NF1 mutations in seven tumors. RAS-MAPK hyper-activation was observed in cultured NF1-/- glomus cells, reflecting a lack of inhibition of the pathway by functional neurofibromin, the protein product of NF1. No abnormalities in NF1 or RAS-MAPK activation were found in sporadic glomus tumors. By comparative genomic hybridization, we observed amplification of the 3?-end of CRTAC1 and a deletion of the 5?-end of WASF1 in two NF1-associated glomus tumors. For the first time, we show that loss of neurofibromin function is crucial in the pathogenesis of glomus tumors in NF1. Glomus tumors of the fingers or toes should be considered as part of the tumor spectrum of NF1. PMID:19738042

  13. Papillary thyroid-type carcinoma arising from struma ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Jerome Rebollos; Manalo, Leonido Andrade; Ang, Frances lina Lantion

    2012-01-01

    Malignant transformation of benign monodermal teratoma is a rare presentation of struma ovarii. A 41-year-old Filipina presented with 1-year history of recurrent lower abdominal pain, abdominal swelling and vomiting. Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed a large cystic abdomino-pelvic mass densely adherent to the intestinal and uterine wall with moderate ascitis. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy and histopathology showed papillary thyroid-type carcinoma arising from the left struma ovarii. She underwent total thyroidectomy, postoperative radioactive iodine ablation and maintained on levothyroxine suppressive therapy. She is now on regular follow-up for monitoring of possible tumour recurrence and metastasis. PMID:22787184

  14. [Giant metastatic melanoma arising from an unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Orndrup, Mette Heisz; Crewe, Bjørn; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    2014-01-20

    Metastatic melanoma arising from an unknown primary site (MUP) accounts for 1-8% of all melanomas. MUP is charac-terized by a better survival compared to a melanoma with known primary site. We report a case with a 55-year-old male with MUP and a 1.7 kg axillary lymph node metastasis, which was successfully excised. The patient was fully functional and alive 12 months after surgery. The reported favorable post-operative long-term survival of patients with MUP supports that these patients should be treated with an aggressive surgical approach with curative intent. PMID:25347250

  15. Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells arising in a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiroshi; Morita, Keiichi; Tachibana, Shiro; Okimura, Akira; Fujisawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Sachiko; Nakasho, Keiji; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Nishigami, Takashi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, for which pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed, with total gross excision of a mass. A tumor measuring 11 x 9 cm was found in the pancreas. On cut surface there were two cysts filled with a necrotic substance and hemorrhagic content. Spindle or ovoid-shaped cells, in the sarcomatous component, had diffusely infiltrated along the inner side of the walls of one cyst. Osteoclast-like giant cells (OGC) were also contained in the sarcomatous component. Adenoma components of mucinous epithelium with foci of borderline and adenocarcinomatous components were seen on the inner side of the other cyst. An ovarian-type stroma beneath the epithelial component was seen in the cyst wall. A diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma with OGC arising in a mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas, was made. Seven months after the initial operation the patient had a local recurrence, and the tumor was removed. One month after the second operation, the patient was free of symptoms. Only four cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with OGC arising in MCN, involving an ovarian-type stroma of the pancreas, have been reported. PMID:18477218

  16. Tumor-derived exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Safinur; Godwin, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular communication is a key process in the development and progression of cancer. The dynamic and reciprocal interplays between the tumor and its microenvironment orchestrate events critical to the establishment of primary and metastatic niches and maintenance of a permissive environment at the tumor?stroma interface. Atay and colleagues found that gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells secrete vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes contain oncogenic KIT and their transfer and uptake by surrounding smooth muscle cells lead to enhanced AKT and MAPK signaling and phenotypic modulation of several cellular processes, including morphological changes, expression of tumor-associated markers, secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and enhanced tumor cell invasion. This provocative study emphasizes that exosome-mediated signaling within the tumor microenvironment acts as a positive feedback loop that contributes to invasiveness and that interfering with this message delivery system may represent promising therapeutic approaches, not only for GIST, but for other types of cancer. PMID:24778765

  17. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis

    PubMed Central

    McCoubrey, A; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multiloculated cyst located in the sigmoid mesentery. This was lined largely by benign ciliated serous-type epithelium but a focus of well differentiated serous adenocarcinoma projected into the lumen. Two further peritoneal cysts were present, both of which were lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium. There was a coincidental renal cell carcinoma. This is a unique case of multiple omental, peritoneal, and retroperitoneal cysts (classified as cystic endosalpingiosis), one of which developed a focus of serous adenocarcinoma. Although rarely serous adenocarcinomas, similar to those occurring within the ovary, arise in the retroperitoneum, this is the first reported occurrence in association with a pre-existing benign lesion. PMID:16254118

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Mature Cystic Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Avc?, Suna; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Bilici, Ahmet; Özkan, Gülkan; Öza?ar?, Ayse Ay?im; Borlu, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare complication. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common transformation. We describe a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. Case Report. A premenopausal 52-year-old female patient is diagnosed with vaginal bleeding. According to examination made on the women and the pelvic scanning, 7?cm mass is found on the right adnexa of the patient. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and debulking were the treatments completed on the patient. According to histopathological diagnosis, squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma is diagnosed as a reason for the mass in the right adnexa of the patient. Conclusion. The prognosis of the malign transformation of MCT depends on surgery stage; however it is extremely poor. The patient should receive chemotherapy regardless of stage. We have decided to administer second cycle carboplatin and paclitaxel treatments on the patient. PMID:23320213

  19. Histopathological Spectrum of Tumor and ?Tumor-like Lesions of the Paratestis in a ?Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Pinto, R. G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tumors and tumor-like lesions (TLL) of the paratesticular region are rare. Very few studies depicting the spectrum of lesions of this location are available in the literature. Malignant neoplasms arising in the paratesticular region represent only 7.0% of malignant tumors presenting as a scrotal mass. TLL and benign tumors are of great interest, because of their topography they can simulate a neoplasm in the paratesticular structures. We sought to study the incidence, nature, pattern, clinical, immune, and histopathological characteristics of tumors and TLL of the paratestis. Methods In this six-year study, records of the cases were reviewed and the histopathology slides were reassessed. Blocks were retrieved and stained immunohistochemically for relevant markers. Results A total of 47 cases of tumor and TLL of the paratestis were diagnosed over a six-year period. The patients ranged from one to 76 years old and most presented with a scrotal mass. Of these, seven (14.9%) were benign. Lipoma was the most common benign tumor. One case each of adenomatoid tumor, scrotal hemangioma, solitary fibrous tumor, and papillary cyst adenoma were reported. The TLL (70.2%) comprised of 17 cases of epididymal cyst, seven cases of tuberculous epididymitis, four cases of filarial epididymitis, two cases each of non-specific granulomatous epididymitis and fibromatous periorchitis, and one case of mesothelial cyst. Seven malignant tumors (14.9%) were diagnosed all of which were sarcomas. All seven were primary to the paratesticular region. The most common malignant tumor was embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. One case each of malignant mesothelioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma, and myxoid liposarcoma were identified. Conclusion Neoplasms of the paratesticular region affect patients of all ages, with potentially life-threatening sequelae. Awareness of the entire spectrum and meticulous histopathological examination and immunohistochemical studies are of prime importance in the diagnosis of the various lesions as these influence the mode of therapy and subsequent prognosis of the patient. PMID:26674546

  20. Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Usami, Noriyasu; Yokoi, Kohei

    2011-01-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are sometimes detected by routine chest radiography. Although many of them are suspected to be benign tumors following noninvasive examinations including computed tomography and positron emission tomography, it is difficult to diagnose them accurately. This report presents a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor located in the lung that could not be diagnosed preoperatively. More information must be accumulated concerning such rare cases of intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors. PMID:21225405

  1. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  2. Tumor cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan; B´ez-Viveros, José Luis; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and stability genes. The fact that the metabolism of tumor cells is altered has been known for many years. However, the mechanisms and consequences of metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be understood. In this review, an integral view of tumor cell metabolism is presented, showing how metabolic pathways are reprogrammed to satisfy tumor cell proliferation and survival requirements. In tumor cells, glycolysis is strongly enhanced to fulfill the high ATP demands of these cells; glucose carbons are the main building blocks in fatty acid and nucleotide biosynthesis. Glutaminolysis is also increased to satisfy NADPH regeneration, whereas glutamine carbons replenish the Krebs cycle, which produces metabolites that are constantly used for macromolecular biosynthesis. A characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment is acidosis, which results from the local increase in lactic acid production by tumor cells. This phenomenon is attributed to the carbons from glutamine and glucose, which are also used for lactic acid production. Lactic acidosis also directs the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells and serves as an additional selective pressure. Finally, we also discuss the role of mitochondria in supporting tumor cell metabolism. PMID:22057267

  3. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePLUS

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Brain stem glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Germ cell tumors; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - ...

  4. Duodenojejunal flexure tumors: surgical difficulties with case series

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Addala Pavan; Das, Somak; Paul, Souvik; Renganathan, Kirubakaran; Zirpe, Dinesh; Kumar, Gopa; Gopasety, Mahesh; Radhakrishna, Patta; Balachandar, Tirupporur Govindaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Distal duodenal and duodenojejunal flexure tumors are rare. They present late due to vague symptomatology and difficulties in establishing a diagnosis. Due to vague symptoms, these tumors would have had spread locally or metastasized to regional nodes or distant organs at presentation. Though the present standard is to achieve R0 resection for any tumor, it is quite difficult in these tumors because of their proximity to many important named vessels and viscera. Role of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy is not established yet. Methods Medical records of patients searched who were admitted and diagnosed to have duodenal tumors between January, 2011 and March, 2014. Patients with duodenal tumors arising from third or fourth part were analysed. Radiological, endoscopic findings were noted and compared with operative and histopathological report. Results Nine patients (seven males and two females) were found to have tumor in the third and fourth part of the duodenum. All had undergone laparotomy with curative intention in eight patients. R0 resection was feasible only in five (55%) patients. The most common histopathological type is adenocarcinoma in 66% patients. Conclusions Segmental resection is feasible and may be curative in most of the patients with duodenojejunal flexure tumors, without the need for vascular resections and reconstructions. Adenocarcinomas are the most common variant. Lymph node involvement and microvascular invasion indicates poor prognosis. PMID:26029455

  5. A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Abeygunasekera, Anuruddha M; Ginige, Anusha P; Liyanage, Indika S H; Hareendra, Kalana

    2015-01-01

    A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility. PMID:26458681

  6. Tumor heterogeneity and cancer cell plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Corbin E.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Phenotypic and functional heterogeneity arise among cancer cells within the same tumor as a consequence of genetic change, environmental differences, and reversible changes in cellular properties. Some cancers also contain a hierarchy in which tumorigenic cancer stem cells differentiate into non-tumorigenic progeny. However, it remains unclear what fraction of cancers follow the stem cell model and what clinical behaviors the model explains. In this review we will evaluate the implications of recent lineage tracing and deep-sequencing studies for the cancer stem cell model and the extent to which it accounts for therapy resistance and disease progression. PMID:24048065

  7. Current evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery in the treatment of Meniere’s disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ming Yann; Zhang, Margaret; Yuen, Heng Wai; Leong, Jern-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify emerging evidence for endolymphatic sac surgery (ESS) in the treatment of Meniere’s disease since the landmark study by Thomsen et al, published in 1998 (conducted from 1981 to 1989). Using the MEDLINE database (PubMed), a systematic review of the literature published from January 1990 to June 2014 was performed. We included all English-language, peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies. Single-arm cohort studies were included if the sample size was ? 90 with a response rate > 60%. Altogether, 11 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria; one was an RCT, two were controlled trials and eight were single-arm cohort studies. There currently exists a low level of evidence for the use of ESS in the treatment of Meniere’s disease. Further studies, in particular RCTs and/or controlled studies, are required to fully evaluate this modality. However, there are difficulties in designing a valid placebo and achieving adequate blinding of observers and investigators.

  8. Structure of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium genes provides clues to evolution of insecticidal two-domain knottin toxins.

    PubMed

    Sachkova, M Y; Slavokhotova, A A; Grishin, E V; Vassilevski, A A

    2014-08-01

    Yellow sac spiders (Cheiracanthium punctorium, family Miturgidae) are unique in terms of venom composition, because, as we show here, two-domain toxins have replaced the usual one-domain peptides as the major constituents. We report the structure of the two-domain Che.?punctorium toxins (CpTx), along with the corresponding cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. At least three groups of insecticidal CpTx were identified, each consisting of several members. Unlike many cone snail and snake toxins, accelerated evolution is not typical of cptx genes, which instead appear to be under the pressure of purifying selection. Both CpTx modules present the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK), or knottin signature; however, the sequence similarity between the domains is low. Conversely, notable similarity was found between separate domains of CpTx and one-domain toxins from spiders of the Lycosidae family. The observed chimerism is a landmark of exon shuffling events, but in contrast to many families of multidomain protein genes no introns were found in the cptx genes. Considering the possible scenarios, we suggest that an early transcription-mediated fusion event between two related one-domain toxin genes led to the emergence of a primordial cptx-like sequence. We conclude that evolution of toxin variability in spiders appears to be quite different from other venomous animals. PMID:24717175

  9. Effects of PCB Substrate Surface Finish and Flux on Solderability of Lead-Free SAC305 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewiorek, A.; Kudyba, A.; Sobczak, N.; Homa, M.; Huber, Z.; Adamek, Z.; Wojewoda-Budka, J.

    2013-08-01

    The solderability of the SAC305 alloy in contact with printed circuit boards (PCB) having different surface finishes was examined using the wetting balance method. The study was performed at a temperature of 260 °C on three types of PCBs covered with (1) hot air solder leveling (HASL LF), (2) electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), and (3) organic surface protectant (OSP), organic finish, all on Cu substrates and two types of fluxes (EF2202 and RF800). The results showed that the PCB substrate surface finish has a strong effect on the value of both the wetting time t 0 and the contact angle ?. The shortest wetting time was noted for the OSP finish ( t 0 = 0.6 s with EF2202 flux and t 0 = 0.98 s with RF800 flux), while the ENIG finish showed the longest wetting time ( t 0 = 1.36 s with EF2202 flux and t 0 = 1.55 s with RF800 flux). The ? values calculated from the wetting balance tests were as follows: the lowest ? of 45° was formed on HASL LF (EF2202 flux), the highest ? of 63° was noted on the OSP finish, while on the ENIG finish, it was 58° (EF2202 flux). After the solderability tests, the interface characterization of cross-sectional samples was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  10. Expression of thiazide-sensitive Na{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransporter in the rat endolymphatic sac

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Kosuke Miyashita, Takenori; Mori, Terushige; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-07-11

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a part of the membranous labyrinth and is believed to absorb endolymph. It has been well-established that the endolymph absorption is dependent on several ion transporters in a manner similar to that in the kidney, and the ES is regulated by hormones such as aldosterone and vasopressin that also affect on the kidney. The thiazide-sensitive Na{sup +}, Cl{sup -} cotransporter (TSC) is an electroneutral cotransporter specific to the kidney that plays an important role in absorption of NaCl in renal tubules. In the inner ear, TSC expression has never been examined. The expression of TSC in the rat ES was examined by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These analyses indicated that TSC genes and proteins were expressed in the rat ES. In contrast, it was not observed in the rat cochlea by RT-PCR. This is the first report confirming the expression of TSC in the ES.

  11. Iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in metastatic carcinoid tumor to the orbit.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M W; Schneider, A M; Enterline, D S; Feldman, J M; Gockerman, J P

    1998-04-01

    Metastatic tumor is one of several etiologies of space-occupying masses in the orbit that accounts for 1%-13% of all orbital masses (1). In the adult patient population, breast cancer is the most common tumor to metastasize to the orbit followed by metastases from the lung, prostate and gastrointestinal tract (2). It is rare for carcinoid tumors to metastasize to the eye or to the orbit. Carcinoid tumors arise from Kulchitsky cells that originate in the neural crest. Histologically, these tumors resemble, but are not as aggressive as, adenocarcinomas. Most carcinoids arise in the gastrointestinal tract or the lung. The most common site for carcinoid metastases is the liver. On anatomical imaging studies, such as CT and magnetic resonance imaging, metastatic orbital carcinoid tumors appear as nonspecific tumor masses. Carcinoid tumors have an affinity for uptake of the radiopharmaceutical 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) (3). We report a case of a patient with a known carcinoid tumor who developed a left orbital mass that demonstrated abnormal uptake of 131I-MIBG indicative of metastatic carcinoid tumor to the orbit. PMID:9544672

  12. Development and function of pearl-sacs grown from regenerated mantle graft tissue in the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

    2015-08-01

    Current pearl grafting techniques were developed in the early 1900s and have changed little since. They involve the sacrifice of donor pearl oysters to provide graft tissue (saibo) that is implanted into host oysters. This study assessed the feasibility of using regenerated graft tissue for pearl production in the 'black-lip' pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera. Twelve days after grafting with regenerated graft tissue, there was complete encapsulation of the nucleus by the fully developed pearl-sac and the first layer of organic matrix had been secreted. Sixteen days after grafting, the pearl-sac was completely integrated with host tissue. The epithelial cells in the pearl-sac continued to secrete the organic matrix layer but there were no signs of nacre deposition at this stage. However, after three months of culture, nuclei in oysters grafted with regenerated mantle tissue were completely covered with nacre. The average nacre thickness on pearls produced from regenerated (0.547 ± 0.01 mm, n = 8) and normal (0.532 ± 0.01 mm, n = 8) mantle tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Nacre secretion rates, over the 80 day period subsequent to pearl-sac formation were 6.84 ± 0.1 ?m day(-1) and 6.66 ± 0.1 ?m day(-1) for oysters grafted with regenerated and normal mantle tissue, respectively. These means were not significantly different (p = 0.258). Our results clearly show that regenerated mantle tissue can function successfully as saibo for pearl production in P. margaritifera. This finding could provide significant benefits to pearl farmers and a basis for further development of current pearl grafting practices. PMID:25982400

  13. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  14. Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.

  15. Pulsatile tinnitus arising from aberrant internal carotid artery at nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Woo; Jeon, Eun-Ju

    2012-04-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus arising from an aberrant internal carotid artery at the level of the nasopharynx is rarely found. We present a case of a 74-year-old woman complaining of pulsatile tinnitus in the right ear. The tinnitus was not audible by auscultation. Endoscopic examination revealed pulsating swelling of the nasopharyngeal wall on the right side. Computed tomography angiography of the head and neck region showed medial and superficial transposition of the right internal carotid artery at the level of the nasopharynx. The artery was located right next to the orifice of the Eustachian tube and coursed along the distal portion of the tube. The patient's perception of tinnitus was improved after explaining the cause of the tinnitus and reassuring her about the-condition. PMID:24653868

  16. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  17. Lack of a Common or Characteristic Cytogenetic Anomaly in Solitary Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Alireza; Lele, Subodh M.; DiMaio, Dominick; Pinnt, Jeffrey C.; Hess, Michelle M.; Nelson, Marilu; Bridge, Julia A

    2008-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a mesenchymal tumor that was initially described as a pleural-based lesion, but later was discovered in many other locations. The light microscopic appearance of solitary fibrous tumor may overlap with other diagnostic entities; however, consistent tumor cell CD34 immunoreactivity is useful in establishing the diagnosis. Limited data suggest that solitary fibrous tumors are karyotypically diverse; a common or characteristic anomaly has not yet emerged for this entity. In this report, cytogenetic analysis of two solitary fibrous tumors, one peritoneal and the other arising in the liver, revealed predominantly structural abnormalities in the former and numerical imbalances in the latter. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities were lacking in three additional solitary fibrous tumors. PMID:18262056

  18. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios

    2013-02-15

    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty. PMID:23598031

  19. Clinically aggressive primary solid pseudopapillary tumor of the ovary in a 45-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Syriac, Susanna; Kesterson, Joshua; Izevbaye, Iyare; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L; Lele, Shashikant; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2012-12-01

    We report the first case of primary solid pseudopapillary tumor of the ovary with aggressive behavior and fatal outcome in a 45-year-old woman. The patient presented with weight loss, decrease of appetite, and abdominal bloating for the last several weeks. Computed tomography scan revealed an ovarian mass, omental caking, complex ascites, and 2 hepatic lesions. The pancreas was unremarkable. Grossly, the ovarian mass showed severe capsular adhesion, and the cut surface was cystic and solid. On histologic examination, the tumor was composed of diffuse solid pseudopapillary and pseudocystic patterns. The neoplastic cells were uniform and round with very dispersed chromatin. The cytoplasm was faintly pink. There was mild atypia, but the mitotic rate was as high as 62 per 50 high-power field, and the Ki-67 was elevated at 20%. The tumor exhibited severe necrosis. Numerous foci of lymphovascular invasion were also seen. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (focal) and for ?-catenin (cytoplasmic and nuclear patterns). They were negative for chromogranin, synaptophysin, thyroglobulin, calcitonin, hepatocyte-paraffin 1, epithelial membrane antigen, calretinin, and ?-inhibin. Electron microscopic study revealed nests of tumor cells with oval nuclei. The cytoplasm contained numerous pleomorphic mitochondria interspersed among short strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The tumor involved the fallopian tube, omentum, cul-de-sac, and abdominal wall. The pelvic washing was also positive for tumor cells. Despite chemotherapy, the patient's condition had worsened, and she died of her disease 8 months after the initial diagnosis. We discuss the differential diagnosis of this tumor and the hypothesis of its origin. PMID:21778097

  20. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Wetting, Microstructure, and Tensile Characteristics of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Sohn, Heung-Rak; Jung, Jae Pil

    2015-10-01

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the wettability, microstructure, and tensile properties of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC 305) was studied using melting and casting route. The microstructure of the bulk solder is observed with a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by electron probe micro-analyzer. The solderability of the samples is assessed by spreading and wetting tests on a Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that an addition of 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder improves the spreading and wettability significantly compared to monolithic SAC. It is also revealed that the thickness of the Ag3Sn IMCs is reduced as compared to the monolithic SAC alloy. Tensile results show that the composite solder exhibits the 13.9 pct elongation and 17 pct increase in the ultimate tensile strength when 0.05 wt pct GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy are added. This may be due to the refinement of the IMCs in composite solders compared to the same in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy brought about by the uniform dispersion of graphene nanoplatelets. It is suggested in this study that the amount of GNPs in Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu alloy should not exceed 0.05 wt pct as it may degrade the desired properties due to the agglomeration of GNPs.

  1. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development. PMID:25576576

  2. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Key Points Extragonadal germ cell tumors form ...

  4. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  5. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor is a benign developmental tumor with many distinguishing clinical and histologic features. These characteristics are reviewed in the setting of a typical presentation. The newly acknowledged neoplastic potential and its implications for treatment strategies are also discussed. PMID:20237995

  6. NCI Rare Tumor Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    Contact Information   For more information on the Rare Tumors Initiative or to become a member please contact:   Abby Sandler, Ph.D. Special Assistant to the Director, Rare Tumors Initiative, OD, CCR, NCI 301-496-9983 sandlera@mail.nih.gov Karlyne Reilly,

  7. The biologic properties of leukemias arising from BCR/ABL-mediated transformation vary as a function of developmental origin and activity of the p19ARF gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pin-Yi; Young, Fay; Chen, Chun-Yu; Stevens, Brett M.; Neering, Sarah J.; Rossi, Randall M.; Bushnell, Timothy; Kuzin, Igor; Heinrich, David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that upon expression of appropriate oncogenes, both stem cells and more differentiated progenitor populations can serve as leukemia-initiating cells. These studies suggest that oncogenic mutations subvert normal development and induce reacquisition of stem-like features. However, no study has described how specific mutations influence the ability of differentiating cell subsets to serve as leukemia-initiating cells and if varying such cellular origins confers a functional difference. We have examined the role of the tumor suppressor gene p19ARF in a murine model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and found that loss of p19ARF changes the spectrum of cells capable of tumor initiation. With intact p19ARF, only hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be directly transformed by BCR/ABL expression. In a p19ARF-null genetic background expression of the BCR/ABL fusion protein renders functionally defined HSCs, common lymphoid progenitors (CLP), and precursor B-lymphocytes competent to generate leukemia stem cells. Furthermore, we show that leukemias arising from p19ARF-null HSC versus pro-B cells differ biologically, including relative response to drug insult. Our observations elucidate a unique mechanism by which heterogeneity arises in tumor populations harboring identical genetic lesions and show that activity of p19ARF profoundly influences the nature of tumor-initiating cells during BCR/ABL-mediated leukemogenesis. PMID:18755985

  8. Two Cases of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Immunosuppressed Patients with Chronic Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kuma, Yuki; Ito, Takamichi; Nagae, Konosuke; Mizote, Yukihiro; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Okura, Masae; Oda, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are linked to a large subset of numerous malignant tumors, including mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, its involvement in cutaneous SCC has not fully been elucidated. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer and is increasing in frequency every year. Since we have no satisfactory treatment for advanced SCC, it is important to provide a definitive diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention at an early stage. Here, we present two cases of SCC arising in immunosuppressed patients. In these cases, we suspected the association between SCC and HPV infection histopathologically and succeeded in proving the presence of high-risk type HPV by PCR analysis (HPV 14 in case 1 and HPV 23 and 38 in case 2). Although it is unclear whether HPV actually induced SCC in our cases, our cases showed rapid progression comparing to typical courses of actinic keratosis (AK)/SCC. SCC and AK are common diseases; in daily practice, dermatologists examine many patients with immunosuppression of various causes. We should apply increased oncological vigilance to these patients to prevent an aggressive course of SCC/AK. PMID:26351427

  9. Mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Shigeki; Arima, Yasuo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kannda, Tomohiro; Arai, Masao; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and high levels of ALP, gamma-GTP, and DUPAN-2 was admitted to our institution for examination. The patient did not have ulcerative colitis or pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Imaging studies revealed atypical dilation of bile ducts in the left lobe of the liver. Repeated cytologic examinations of the bile showed atypical cells consistent with adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent extended resection of the left lobe of the liver and was found to have intraductal papillary carcinoma with associated mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma. This carcinoma fills dilated bile duct lumens with mucin. This tumor differs morphologically from typical cholangiocarcinoma, which is usually seen in the late stages of PSC. Just one case of mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from PSC has been reported worldwide. The patient has had no signs of recurrence after 27 months. Patients with mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma, as in the case of its pancreatic counterpart, may have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate than patients with typical cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:17384480

  10. A Case of Early Gastric Cancer Arising from Gastritis Cystica Profunda Treated by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Noda, Hisatsugu; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Yoshimine, Takashi; Sugiyama, Tomoya; Kimura, Mikitoshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Takahashi, Emiko; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Gastritis cystica profunda (GCP) consists of hyperplasia and cystic dilatation of the gastric glands extending into the submucosa. It occurs in the residual stomach post surgery and in the unoperated stomach. GCP is considered a benign lesion, but there is controversy about its malignant potential. We report a case of early gastric cancer arising from GCP treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in a 55-year-old unoperated man. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 15-mm diameter submucosal tumor (SMT) in the upper corpus of the stomach. The surface had angiotelectasia and slight depression covered with normal mucosa. Neither ulceration nor erosion was seen. Narrow-band imaging endoscopy showed no abnormalities suggesting gastric cancer. Endoscopic ultrasonography visualized the internally low-echoic SMT, harboring tiny cystic lesions, mainly within the second and third layers of the gastric wall. The SMT was removed by ESD to avoid retention and allow for comprehensive diagnosis. It was diagnosed as GCP with partial well-differentiated adenocarcinoma without involvement of the lateral and deep margins, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion and perineural invasion. The gastric epithelium comprised normal mucosa without dysplasia. ESD seems to be useful for the diagnosis of SMT, including GCP harboring gastric cancer, and avoids unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:25408629

  11. Two Cases of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Immunosuppressed Patients with Chronic Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuma, Yuki; Ito, Takamichi; Nagae, Konosuke; Mizote, Yukihiro; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Okura, Masae; Oda, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are linked to a large subset of numerous malignant tumors, including mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, its involvement in cutaneous SCC has not fully been elucidated. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer and is increasing in frequency every year. Since we have no satisfactory treatment for advanced SCC, it is important to provide a definitive diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention at an early stage. Here, we present two cases of SCC arising in immunosuppressed patients. In these cases, we suspected the association between SCC and HPV infection histopathologically and succeeded in proving the presence of high-risk type HPV by PCR analysis (HPV 14 in case 1 and HPV 23 and 38 in case 2). Although it is unclear whether HPV actually induced SCC in our cases, our cases showed rapid progression comparing to typical courses of actinic keratosis (AK)/SCC. SCC and AK are common diseases; in daily practice, dermatologists examine many patients with immunosuppression of various causes. We should apply increased oncological vigilance to these patients to prevent an aggressive course of SCC/AK. PMID:26351427

  12. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum, mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Masayuki; Yamagata, Yukinori; Aikou, Susumu; Mori, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Nomura, Sachiyo; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2015-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is one of the mesenchymal tumors, which rarely arises in the abdominal space. We report a very rare case of abdominal SFT, mimicking another mesenchymal tumor. A 52-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and treatment of gallbladder polyp. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced nodule within the gallbladder, and incidentally, also showed a well-circumscribed mass adjacent to the small intestine. The mass was depicted as slightly high density in plain CT, and with contrast-enhancement, the mass was partially stained in early phase and the stained area spread heterogeneously in delayed phase. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the abdominal mass was depicted as slightly high intensity on T2-weighted imaging and low intensity on T1-weighted imaging. With double-balloon endoscopy and capsule endoscopy, we did not find any tumor inside the small intestine. These visual findings lead us to diagnose it as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine with extraluminal growth. We planned to resect both the gallbladder polyp and the intraperitoneal tumor at the same time for pathologic diagnosis and treatment. When the operation was performed, we found a milk-white lobulated tumor on the greater omentum and the tumor was entirely resected. Microscopically, the gallbladder polyp was diagnosed as tubular adenoma, and the omental tumor was diagnosed as SFT. It is important to bear in mind that omental SFTs sometimes mimic other mesenchymal tumors and should be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal tumor not revealed by endoscopy. PMID:26011203

  13. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  14. Tumor microenvironment indoctrination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nastiness of cancer does not only reside in the corruption of cancer cells by genetic aberrations that drive their sustained proliferative power—the roots of malignancy—but also in its aptitude to reciprocally sculpt its surrounding environment and cellular stromal ecosystem, in such a way that the corrupted tumor microenvironment becomes a full pro-tumorigenic entity. Such a contribution had been appreciated three decades ago already, with the discovery of tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Nevertheless, the recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer biology is paralleled by the promising therapeutic potential it carries, opening alternate routes to fight cancer. The study of the tumor microenvironment recruited numerous lead-scientists over the years, with distinct perspectives, and some of them have kindly accepted to contribute to the elaboration of this special issue entitled Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: An emerging hallmark of cancer. PMID:22863738

  15. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  16. Cross-sectional Imaging Features of Primary Retroperitoneal Tumors and Their Subsequent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turker; Harman, Mustafa; Guneyli, Serkan; Gemici, Kazim; Efe, Duran; Guler, Ibrahim; Yildiz, Melda

    2015-01-01

    Basically malignant tumors in the retroperitoneal region arise from a heterogeneous group of tissues: mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell, and lymphoid. Although rare, benign tumors and cystic masses can be also encountered in retroperitoneal space. Developments in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have contributed to both diagnosis and staging of the retroperitoneal tumors. High spatial resolution and superiority in calcification make CT indispensable; on the other hand, MRI has a better soft-tissue contrast resolution which is essential for the assessment of vascular invasion and tissue characterization. The aim of this article is to review the CT and MRI features of retroperitoneal tumors and their subsequent management. PMID:25973288

  17. [Metabolic changes of lymphocytes and neoplastic cells in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma during tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Inzhevatkin, E V; Fomenko, E Iu; Slepov, E V; Savchenko, A A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the activities of NAD+- and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of lymphocytes and tumor cells were studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, as well as changes in the concentrations of oxaloacetate, lactate, and NAD+ in the course of tumor growth. During the major period of tumor growth, conditions are produced in the lymphocytes for increased intensity of aerobic reactions directed at energy reproduction combined with a somewhat decreased intensity of synthetic processes. In the tumor cells, conditions predominantly arise for intensification of plastic metabolic reactions and reactions related to anaerobic energy reproduction. PMID:17853702

  18. Management of presacral tumors: Our experience with posterior approach

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Dhananjay; Pandey, Abhinav; Bugalia, Rajendra Prasad; Kumar, Mahendra; Kadam, Raju; Agarwal, Vipul; Goyal, Amit; Kankaria, Jeevan; Jenaw, Raj Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Presacral tumors are a rare variety of space occupying lesions arising in the presacral space. Most of the tumors are congenital in origin. Due to obscure anatomic location, difficult surgical approach and etiological heterogeneity, tumors arising here pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report our experience of 10 cases of presacral tumors with posterior approach being used in 6. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 10 cases of presacral tumors managed at our hospital during a period of 14 months (May 2013–July 2014). 9 cases were operated while one had advanced disease and was referred for palliative care. Complete en bloc excision of the mass was possible in 8 cases. Finally, presenting complaints, clinical diagnosis, surgical procedure and histopahological findings of the cases were studied. Results All of our patients were females in the age group of 18–50 (mean 28.4) years. The pathological findings included schwannoma, leiomyosarcoma, hemangiopericytoma, neurofibroma, paraganglioma and rest were developmental cysts. 6 cases were managed using the posterior approach and rest by anterior approach. There was no major complication or mortality in the follow up. Conclusion Complete surgical excision remains the mainstay of therapy. Surgical approach depends upon the location, size, local invasion and surgical expertise of the surgeon. Benign tumors have a good prognosis while the prognosis in malignant tumors remains guarded due to difficulty in obtaining safe resection margins. Posterior approach is an attractive option for low lying, benign tumors that is more direct, with better exposure and quicker recovery. PMID:25996775

  19. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  20. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... Combinations Used in Brain Tumors Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  1. Transgenic mouse model for neurocristopathy: Schwannomas and facial bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, N A; Rodriguez, M L; Garvey, J S; Miller, C A; Hood, L

    1993-04-15

    We have characterized a strain of double transgenic mice with simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and prokaryotic lacZ under the control of the myelin basic protein promoter that develops spindle-cell sarcomas and osteogenic sarcomas at 5-7 months of age. Although poorly differentiated, the spindle-cell sarcomas were characterized as malignant Schwannomas based on their neural association, the presence of basal lamina, and expression of Schwann cell-specific genes. The osteogenic sarcomas were often multiple and appeared predominantly in the facial bones, less frequently in the ribs and vertebral column, and only rarely in the appendicular skeleton. Benign osteoblastic lesions were often observed adjacent to these sarcomas. Both the osteoblastic cells in the facial skeleton and Schwann cells are regarded as neural crest derivatives. The biological properties and anatomical location of these tumors suggest that they may share a common origin from the neural crest or its derivatives. R.P. Bolande [Hum. Pathol. (1974) 5, 409-429] introduced the term neurocristopathy as a unifying concept to describe such lesions arising from the neural crest or its derivatives. Cell lines established from both bone and Schwann cell tumors arising in these transgenic mice express simian virus 40 large tumor antigen mRNA as well as functional large tumor antigen. Such cell lines are potentially valuable in the search for markers that identify mammalian neural crest derivatives. PMID:8386366

  2. Image-guided, microsurgical topographic anatomy of the endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Roberto; Tailor, Al-Rahim Abbasali; Zhang, Jun; Ammirati, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) and the vestibular aqueduct (VA) are often in the surgical field when posterior fossa lesions are targeted using retrosigmoid approaches. The purpose of this work is to validate neuronavigator accuracy in predicting VA location as well as to give guidelines to preserve the ES and VA. A retrosigmoid approach was performed bilaterally in six specimens in the semisitting position. Preoperatively, we registered in the CT scans the position of the VA genu (virtual genu). After the approach execution, ES and VA genu topographic relationships with evident posterolateral cranial base structures were measured using neuronavigation. Next, we exposed the VA genu: its position coincided with the virtual VA genu in all the specimens. On the average, the ES was 17.93 mm posterosuperolateral to the XI nerve in the jugular foramen, 12.26 mm posterolateral to the internal acoustic meatus, 20.13 mm anteromedial to the petro-sigmoid intersection at a point 13.30 mm inferior to the petrous ridge. The VA genu was located 7.23 mm posterolateral to the internal acoustic meatus, 18.11 mm superolateral to the XI nerve in the jugular foramen, 10.27 mm inferior to the petrous ridge, and 6.28 mm anterolateral to the endolymphatic ledge at a depth of 3.46 mm from the posterior pyramidal wall. Our study demonstrates that is possible to use neuronavigation to reliably predict the location of the VA genu. In addition, neuronavigation may be effectively used to create a topographical framework that may help maintaining the integrity of the ES/VA during retrosigmoid approaches. PMID:25908476

  3. Prophylactic Residual Aneurysmal Sac Embolization with Expandable Hydrogel Embolic Devices for Endoleak Prevention: Preliminary Study in Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Takao; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Yin Qiang; Wu Renghong; Niyyati, Mahtab; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-05-15

    Objective. To explore the feasibility and efficacy of residual aneurysmal sac (RAS) embolization with the expandable hydrogel embolic device (EHED) in prevention of endoleaks in a surgically created and endoluminally treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. In eight dogs, an AAA was created by means of side-to-side anastomosis between the infrarenal abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with ligation of the IVC above and below the anastomotic end, followed by deployment of an endograft with holes. The RAS was then embolized with the EHED. One animal was killed immediately after RAS embolization and one animal died 12 hr after the procedure. Follow-up aortograms were obtained in six animals after 1 day (1 animal), 2 weeks and 6 months (1 animal), and 8 weeks (4 animals). Results. Four animals had no endoleaks on the follow-up aortograms. The remaining two animals with incomplete RAS embolization had moderate type III endoleaks. Type I or II endoleaks were not seen in any animals. Complications included RAS wall penetration by the devices with platinum wires in two animals (nos. 1 and 2), device migration into an aortic circulation through the endograft holes in two animals (nos. 2 and 3) or through distal interstices between the aortic wall and endograft in one animal (no. 8), aortic occlusion in three animals (nos. 3, 7, and 8), and RAS rupture in one animal (no. 7). Histologic examination showed expanded hydrogels occupying the RAS with associated mature or immature organized thrombus, fibrinous thrombus, or degenerate blood cells. Conclusion. RAS embolization was feasible with the EHED, although additional modifications to the device are required to avoid complications. Angiographic and histologic results suggested that RAS embolization with the EHED may help in the prevention of endoleaks.

  4. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients.

  5. Selection of a management strategy for pediatric brainstem tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, E.C.; Wehn, S.M.; Scott, J.W.; Djang, W.; Oakes, W.J.; Friedman, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Brainstem tumors arise in portions of the rhombencephalon and mesencephalon. Some authorities include diencephalic tumors in this group. We have reviewed our clinical experience of 69 children (less than 21 years of age) with brainstem tumors evaluated and treated at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) from 1960 to 1986. There were 19 patients with group 1 tumors (thalamus, third ventricle region, or midbrain) and 50 with group II tumors (pons, medulla oblongata). The common presenting signs and symptoms were ataxia, headache, motor loss, and cranial nerve palsies. The most commonly employed diagnostic imaging studies were air examinations and CT. Preradiotherapy confirmation of malignancy was obtained in five group I patients (astrocytoma, 4; germinoma, 1) and 8 group II patients (astrocytoma, 3; anaplastic astrocytoma, 2; glioblastoma multiforme, 3). All patients received radiotherapy. The 5-year survival rate for the entire population was 40%. The survival rate for group I patients was significantly better than that observed for group II patients. In the 50 group II patients neither patient sex nor age nor presence of cranial nerve palsies nor pretreatment CT scan findings nor field size influenced survival. A long duration of symptoms positively influenced survival. The vast majority of tumor recurrences were within the radiation field. Half of the patients had either stable or improved Karnofsky status 6 months following completion of irradiation. The management strategy for childhood brainstem tumors is discussed.

  6. The complex spectrum of forensic issues arising from obesity.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2012-12-01

    The increasing numbers of obese and morbidly obese individuals in the community are having a direct effect on forensic facilities. In addition to having to install more robust equipment for handling large bodies, the quality of autopsy examinations may be reduced by the physical difficulties that arise in trying to position bodies correctly so that normal examinations can proceed. Accelerated putrefaction is often an added complication. Metabolic disturbances resulting from obesity increase susceptibility to a range of conditions that are associated with sudden and unexpected death, and surgery may have increased complications. The rates of a number of different malignancies, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma and multiple myeloma, and carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, gallbladder, thyroid, prostate, breast and endometrium, are increased. In addition, obese individuals have higher rates of diabetes mellitus, and sepsis. The unexpected collapse of an obese individual should raise the possibility of a wide range of conditions, many of which may be more difficult to demonstrate at autopsy than in an individual with a normal body mass index. Although sudden cardiac death due to cardiomegaly, pulmonary thromboembolism, or ischemic heart disease may be the most probable diagnosis in an unexpected collapse, the range of possible underlying conditions is extensive and often only determinable after full postmortem examination. PMID:22383171

  7. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey A; Ping, Li-Hua; Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus. PMID:20808902

  8. Exposures to asbestos arising from bandsawing gasket material.

    PubMed

    Fowler, D P

    2000-05-01

    A simulation of bandsawing sheet asbestos gasket material was performed as part of a retrospective exposure evaluation undertaken to assist in determining causation of a case of mesothelioma. The work was performed by bandsawing a chrysotile asbestos (80%)/neoprene gasket sheet with a conventional 16-inch woodworking bandsaw inside a chamber. Measurements of airborne asbestos were made using conventional area and personal sampling methods, with analysis of collected samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase contrast microscopy (PCM). These were supplemented by qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of some of the airborne particles collected on the filters. In contrast with findings from studies examining manual handling (installation and removal) of gaskets, airborne asbestos concentrations from this operation were found to be well above current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) (eight-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) and excursion limit (30-minute) standards. Although some "encapsulation" effect of the neoprene matrix was seen on the particles in the airborne dust, unencapsulated individual fiber bundles were also seen. Suggestions for the implications of the work are given. In summary, the airborne asbestos concentrations arising from this work were quite high, and point to the need for careful observation of common sense precautions when manipulation of asbestos-containing materials (even those believed to have limited emissions potential) may involved machining operations. PMID:10808262

  9. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from two hundred years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. Despite their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds are poorly understood in terms of their true physiological potential for harm, and the mechanisms by which they impact cellular and organ level function are only recently becoming clear. Emerging awareness that chronic exposures to toxins may have generational and subtle effects on the outcomes of diseases such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long term effects of exposure are problems requiring that researchers leverage the power of genomics and epigenetics. However, the continuation of longitudinal epidemiological studies and development of a firmer basis from which to extrapolate animal studies will be critical in ensuring optimal insight from these resource-intensive techniques. PMID:22610997

  10. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Noel M; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200 years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds are poorly understood in terms of their true physiological potential for harm, and the mechanisms by which they impact cellular and organ level function are only recently becoming clear. Emerging awareness that chronic exposures to toxins may have generational and subtle effects on the outcomes of diseases such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long-term effects of exposure are problems requiring that researchers leverage the power of genomics and epigenetics. However, the continuation of longitudinal epidemiological studies and the development of a firmer basis from which to extrapolate animal studies will be critical in ensuring optimal insight from these resource-intensive techniques. PMID:22610997

  11. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

  12. Gastric Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Sung Hak; Yoo, Han Mo; Song, Kyo Young; Park, Cho Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Gastric malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are sarcomas arising within a peripheral nerve. Gastric MPNSTs are extremely rare with only a few cases. We herein describe the case of a 48-year-old man with a gastric MPNST for the first time in Korea, which was diagnosed histopathologically after surgery. The patient underwent curative subtotal gastrectomy with D1+ lymph node dissection and Billroth-II reconstruction. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, and he has had no recurrence until now. The ideal adjuvant treatment protocol is yet to be decided due to the relatively limited number of cases of these tumors previously reported. PMID:25796444

  13. Hepatic-directed Therapies in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrew S

    2016-02-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract have a propensity for producing hepatic metastases. Most GI NETs arise from the foregut or midgut, are malignant, and can cause severe debilitating symptoms adversely affecting quality of life. Aggressive treatments to reduce symptoms have an important role in therapy. Patients with GI NETs usually present with inoperable metastatic disease and severe symptoms from a variety of hormones and biogenic amines. This article describes intra-arterial hepatic-directed therapies for metastases from NETs, a group of treatments in which the therapeutic and/or embolic agents are released intra-arterially in specific hepatic vessels to target tumors. PMID:26614377

  14. Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor with an Ectopic Tooth in Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Bhagawati, Basavaraj T.; Gupta, Manish; Narang, Gaurav; Bhagawati, Sharanamma

    2013-01-01

    The term odontogenic keratocyst was first used by Philipsen in the year 1956. The lesion was renamed by him as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) and reclassified as odontogenic neoplasm in the World Health Organization's 2005 edition that occurs commonly in the jaws having a predilection for the angle and ascending ramus of mandible. In contrast, KCOTs arising in the maxillary premolar region are relatively rare. Here, we discuss a rare case of keratocystic odontogenic tumor occurring in the maxilla with an ectopic tooth position. PMID:24396609

  15. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kornafel, Olga; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Pakulski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. Case Report The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Conclusions Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision. PMID:25566331

  16. Primary Multiple Pulmonary Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Liu, Jinghao; Song, Zuoqing; Li, Xin; Shi, Tao; Wang, Dan; Ren, Dian; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) arising directly from the lung are extremely rare but particularly aggressive neoplasms. Although thoracic PNET usually develops on the chest wall, there have been reports of primary Ewing sarcoma/PNET of the lung. We present the case of a 16-year-old male with PNET diagnosed following histologic and immunohistochemical examination of a video-assisted thoracic surgical biopsy. As typically occurring for these tumors, the diagnosis was initially delayed in our patient and prognosis was poor despite aggressive surgical resection and postoperative chemotherapy. We attempted to explore the use of targeted pharmacotherapy through high-throughput sequencing in this case. We found that this treatment using Avastin and Cetuximab could provide a new therapeutic direction for PNET. PNENTs arising from the lung parenchyma without pleural or chest wall involvement are extremely rare. Although uncommon, if the pathological features are similar to Ewing sarcoma, PNENTs should be kept in mind, and the target therapy may be a potent treatment for this disease. PMID:26166119

  17. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  18. Expression of Transcription Factors and Nuclear Receptors in Mixed Germ Cell-Sex Cord Stromal Tumor and Related Tumors of the Gonads.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lawrence M; Cheng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compare the expression of OCT4, SALL4, and TSPYL1 in mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST) of either gonad to that of normal adult testis, classic and spermatocytic seminoma, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified, gonadoblastoma, and dysgerminoma to determine the entity or entities that most closely resemble MGC-SCST by immunohistochemistry of germ cells. The most useful transcription factor was OCT4. In addition, to its already described value in distinguishing germinoma and embryonal carcinoma from yolk sac tumor and in differentiating classic from spermatocytic seminoma, we found that OCT4 is useful in confirming or ruling out potential malignancy in MGC-SCST of either gonad. Expression of OCT4 in most ovarian MGC-SCSTs resembles that of dysgerminoma, whereas most testicular examples resemble that of spermatocytic seminoma and normal adult testis. Thus, most MGC-SCSTs of the ovary are potentially malignant, and corresponding tumors of the testis are mostly benign; however, exceptions likely can be detected by the use of OCT4, potentially leading to more appropriate clinical management in some cases. SALL4 is an underutilized transcription factor that is useful in distinguishing testicular MGC-SCST from sex cord stromal tumor, unclassified in those neoplasms where the germ cells are sparse or unevenly distributed. Compared with other transcription factors studied, TSPY and its congener TSPYL1 have little value in the assessment of germ cell tumors because of their relatively wide range of expression in normal adult testis and in germ cell tumors. PMID:26107563

  19. Craniopharyngioma arising in a Rathke's cleft cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Ahmed K; Kelley, Brian J; Damisah, Eyiyemisi; Marks, Asher; Hui, Pei; DiLuna, Michael; Vortmeyer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Craniopharyngioma is one of the most common non-glial intracranial tumors of childhood. Its relation to Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is controversial, and both lesions have been hypothesized to lie on a continuum of cystic ectodermal lesions of the sellar region. The authors report on a 7-year-old boy who presented with decreased visual acuity, presumably of at least 2 years' duration, and was found to have a 5.2-cm sellar lesion with rim enhancement. Histological examination of the resected lesion showed a mixture of areas with simple RCC morphology with focal squamous metaplasia and areas with typical craniopharyngioma morphology. Immunohistochemical staining with CK20 and Ki 67 differentially highlighted the 2 morphological components. Testing for beta-catenin and BRAF mutations was negative in the craniopharyngioma component, precluding definitive molecular classification. Follow-up imaging showed minimal residual enhancement and the patient will be closely followed up with serial MRI. Given the clinical and histological findings in the case, a progressive transformation of the RCC to craniopharyngioma seems to be the most plausible explanation for the co-occurrence of the 2 lesion types in this patient. An extensive review of previously proposed theories of the relationship between craniopharyngioma and RCC is also presented. PMID:25555112

  20. Intramucosal Carcinoma of the Appendix Arising from Traditional Serrated Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real; Cutovoi, Júlia; Rossi, Debora Helena; Meirelles, Luciana Rodrigues; Ayrizono, Maria de Lourdes Setsuko; Leal, Raquel Franco; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Serrated adenomas of the appendix are rare and usually found during appendectomy or autopsies. The preoperative diagnosis of these tumors is uncommon. This report describes a case of a sessile serrated adenoma located in the appendix diagnosed by a screening colonoscopy and successfully treated by laparoscopic removal. Presentation of Case. An 86-year-old woman underwent colonoscopy to investigate the cause of her diarrhea, weight loss, and anemia. During the colonoscopy, an expansive and vegetating mass of 1.5?cm in diameter was identified, protruding through the appendicular ostium with slightly lateral growth to the cecum. The patient was referred for laparoscopic surgical resection due to the location of the lesion, which did not allow its removal by colonoscopy. She underwent wedge removal of the cecum without complications and was discharged on the 4th postoperative day. Histopathological examination showed the presence of a sessile serrated adenoma with an intramucosal adenocarcinoma. The patient is currently well one year after surgery, without endoscopic signs of relapse. Conclusion. Despite serrated adenomas being a possibility rarely described in appendix it should be recognized and properly treated because it is presenting a higher risk of cancer. PMID:25977829

  1. Waking up dormant tumors

    E-print Network

    Tse, Joyce C.

    As appreciation grows for the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the progression of cancer, new evidence accumulates to support that the participation of stromal cells can extend beyond the local environment. ...

  2. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  3. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs or symptoms of disease. The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body. Hormones ... A clinical trial of stereotactic radiation surgery . Growth Hormone–Producing Pituitary Tumors Treatment may include the following: ...

  4. Tumor Microenvironment Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Tumor Microenvironment Network (TMEN) Dinah Singer, Ph.D. Director Suresh Mohla, Ph.D. TMEN Program Director Division of Cancer Biology TMEN 2006-2011: Goals – Generate a comprehensive understanding of the composition of the normal stroma

  5. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  6. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Outcomes of Previously Funded ABTA Research Other Funding Sources Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Get Involved Breakthrough for ... the U.S. living with a brain tumor. The Power of Donations Trial Connect A clinical trial matching ...

  7. Four bovine meningeal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Gaylan K.A.; Little, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Four bovine meningeal tumors from a total of 14 brain tumors were recorded in the files of the Ontario Veterinary College and the Ontario Veterinary Laboratory Services Branch from the years 1966 to 1984. The affected cattle ranged in age from 10 months to adult. They exhibited various nervous signs and, in each case, the animals became recumbent. Tumors were located in various areas of the central nervous system. Neoplastic cells had oval vesicular nuclei containing numerous cytoplasmic invaginations. Virus particles were not observed. A fibroblastic appearance, with the presence of loose whorls or bundles, was present in all. Three of the tumors were invasive and were classified as a fibroblastic meningioma. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423678

  8. Special Issue featuring invited articles arising from UK Semiconductors 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Edmund; Wada, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Semiconductor research has formed the basis of many technological advances over the past 50 years, and the field is still highly active, as new material systems and device concepts are developed to address new applications or operating conditions. In addition to the development of traditional semiconductor devices, the wealth of experience with these materials also allows their use as an ideal environment for testing new physics, leading to new classes of devices exploiting quantum mechanical effects that can also benefit from the advantages of existing semiconductor technology in scalability, compactness and ease of mass production. This special issue features papers arising from the UK Semiconductors 2012 Conference, held at the University of Sheffield. The annual conference covers all aspects of semiconductor research, from crystal growth, through investigations of the physics of semiconductor structures to realization of semiconductor devices and their application in emerging technologies. The 2012 conference featured over 150 presentations, including plenary sessions on interband cascade lasers for the 3-6 µm spectral band, efficient single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic nanowires, nitride-based quantum dot visible lasers and single photon sources, and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes. The seven papers collected here highlight current research advances, taken from across the scope of the conference. The papers feature growth of novel nitride-antimonide material systems for mid-infrared sources and detectors, use of semiconductor nanostructures for charge-based memory and visible lasers, optimization of device structures either to reduce losses in solar cells or achieve low noise amplification in transistors, design considerations for surface-emitting lasers incorporating photonic crystals and an assessment of laser power convertors for power transfer. The editors of this special issue and the conference organizers would like to thank the Semiconductor Physics Group of the Institute of Physics and the UK Nitrides Consortium for their continued support of the UK Semiconductors Conference.

  9. Qualia Could Arise from Information Processing in Local Cortical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Orpwood, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied), and the information message (what the information is about). It focuses on the network’s ability to recognize information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behavior proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed. PMID:23504586

  10. Movement Timing and Invariance Arise from Several Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Bennequin, Daniel; Fuchs, Ronit; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle), instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law), and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality). No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops). Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility that the brain uses different mixtures of these geometries to encode movement duration and speed, and the ontogeny of such representations. PMID:19593380

  11. Movement timing and invariance arise from several geometries.

    PubMed

    Bennequin, Daniel; Fuchs, Ronit; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2009-07-01

    Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle), instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law), and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality). No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops). Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility that the brain uses different mixtures of these geometries to encode movement duration and speed, and the ontogeny of such representations. PMID:19593380

  12. [Endocrine tumors: clinical overview].

    PubMed

    Leidig-Bruckner, G

    2014-10-01

    The term endocrine tumor incorporates all neoplasms which originate from the various endocrine organs. Endocrine tumors can be characterized by different criteria: localization, endocrine function, dignity (i.e. tumorigenesis, sporadic or hereditary). These characteristics also determine the clinical outcome. The clinical history, symptoms and physical examination findings (e.g. amenorrhea, skin alterations, striae, virilization, increased blood pressure and flush) direct the diagnostic process of functioning endocrine tumors. Laboratory findings (endocrine parameters) are needed to establish a diagnosis supplemented by imaging for localization and special investigations (ophthalmological examination). In hereditary tumor syndromes, the familial history and molecular genetic testing and screening of family members are essential for establishing the diagnosis and achieve optimal and early treatment. Ideally, affected family members can be treated before clinical symptoms or metastatic disease occurs, improving outcome and prognosis. Incidentalomas are increasingly found due to widespread use of imaging techniques, especially in the thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas and pituitary gland. In incidentalomas the functional status and risk of malignancy has to be evaluated as both parameters determine therapy decisions. The aim of this introductory article is to give an overview about particular features of endocrine tumors, clinical and related aspects for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The clinical features of tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid and adrenal glands and the gastroenteropancreatic system are summarized according to localization. PMID:25269723

  13. APRIORI BOUNDS FOR REACTION-DIFFUSION SYSTEMS ARISING IN CHEMICAL JEFF S. MCGOUGH AND KYLE RILEY

    E-print Network

    McGough, Jeff S.

    APRIORI BOUNDS FOR REACTION-DIFFUSION SYSTEMS ARISING IN CHEMICAL KINETICS JEFF S. MCGOUGH AND KYLE RILEY Abstract. The authors investigate reaction diffusion equations which arise in chemical kinetics diffusion equations, gradient bounds, chemical kinetics, autocatalytic reactions AMS subject classifications

  14. Epithelial Dysplasia in Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising from Recurrent Ameloblastic Fibroma in a 26-Year-Old Iranian Man

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Behrad, Samira; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma Symptoms: Swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Hemimandibulectomy Specialty: Dentistry Objective: Rare disease Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare malignant odontogenic tumor with a mesenchymal component, showing sarcomatous features and epithelial nests resembling ameloblastic fibroma (AF). Case Report: We report a case of AFS showing epithelial dysplasia arising in a recurrent AF in the left mandible after 3 years in a 26-year-old man, which is regarded as an uncommon histopathologic finding in AFS. We also emphasize the comprehensive clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic evaluation, and immunohistochemical staining of this patient. Conclusions: We conclude that it is important to consider malignancy alternations in the epithelial component of AFS, along with that of the mesenchymal component, to provide a proper diagnosis and treatment of recurrent AF. PMID:26289384

  15. Information Cul de Sac

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-01-10

    Broadcast Transcript: There is no internet access in North Korea. Okay. It's true: this is partly because so few people even have electricity, but it's mostly because information is so strictly controlled here in the most reclusive of countries...

  16. A Unique Case of Extraovarian Sex-Cord Stromal Fibrosarcoma, With Subsequent Relapse of Differentiated Sex-Cord Tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jayson; Papanastasopoulos, Panagiotis; Savage, Philip; Smith, James Richard; Fisher, Cyril; El-Bahrawy, Mona A

    2015-07-01

    Primary fibrosarcoma arising from ovarian sex-cord stroma is a very rare neoplasm, with only a few reports in the literature. These tumors have been reported to express inhibin which allows their distinction from fibrosarcomas of soft tissue. Here, we report a case of a fibrosarcoma arising in the broad ligament. Despite being totally separate from the ovary, the tumor was diagnosed as sex-cord stromal type on the basis of inhibin expression. Furthermore, this patient suffered a recurrence of her tumor in the pelvis, which showed both the fibrosarcomatous, as well as other sex-cord elements, confirming the sex-cord stromal differentiation of the sarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a sex-cord stromal fibrosarcoma arising from an extraovarian site. Furthermore, this is also the first case of a recurrent fibrosarcoma, which showed redifferentiation of the tumor into other sex-cord components. PMID:25760903

  17. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research. PMID:25211508

  18. Optical imaging of tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yihan; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Jinbo; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper. PMID:23342297

  19. A new association - multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    PubMed

    Preda, Veronica; Sywak, Mark; Learoyd, Diana

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and an aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising from a ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland. Patients with MEN-1 require careful consideration of other tumor associations, including MPNST, as it can portend a poor prognosis. MEN-1 and MPNST have not been reported. We report a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and an aggressive malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising from a ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland. Patients with MEN-1 require careful consideration of other tumor associations, including MPNST, as it can portend a poor prognosis. MEN-1 and MPNST have not been reported. PMID:25678969

  20. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  1. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  2. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  3. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  4. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Branching Morphogenesis and Vascular Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huaming

    Feedback regulation of cell lineages is known to play an important role in tissue size control, but the effect in tissue morphogenesis has yet to be explored. We first use a non-spatial model to show that a combination of positive and negative feedback on stem and/or progenitor cell self-renewal leads to bistable or bi-modal growth behaviors and ultrasensitivity to external growth cues. Next, a spatiotemporal model is used to demonstrate spatial patterns such as local budding and branching arise in this setting, and are not consequences of Turing-type instabilities. We next extend the model to a three-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum model of tumor growth to study the effects of angiogenesis, tumor progression and cancer therapies. We account for the crosstalk between the vasculature and cancer stem cells (CSCs), and CSC transdifferentiation into vascular endothelial cells (gECs), as observed experimentally. The vasculature stabilizes tumor invasiveness but considerably enhances growth. A gEC network structure forms spontaneously within the hypoxic core, consistent with experimental findings. The model is then used to study cancer therapeutics. We demonstrate that traditional anti-angiogenic therapies decelerate tumor growth, but make the tumor highly invasive. Chemotherapies help to reduce tumor sizes, but cannot control the invasion. Anti-CSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduce tumor invasiveness. However, gECs inherit mutations present in CSCs and are resistant to traditional therapies. We show that anti-gEC treatments block the support on CSCs by gECs, and reduce both tumor size and invasiveness. Our study suggests that therapies targeting the vasculature, CSCs and gECs, when combined, are highly synergistic and are capable of controlling both tumor size and shape.

  6. A Case of Solitary Fibrous Pleura Tumor Associated with Severe Hypoglycemia: Doege-Potter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong Geol; Hong, Kyung Soo; Ahn, June Hong; Lee, Jae Young; Jo, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyeong Cheol; Lee, Kwan Ho; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Jung Cheul; Lee, Jang Hoon; Lee, Jae Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) is a rare primary intrathoracic tumor that arises from mesenchymal tissue underlying the mesothelial layer of the pleura. It usually has an indolent clinical course. The hypoglycemia that accompanies SFTP was first described by Doege and Potter independently in 1930, hence the eponym Doege-Potter syndrome (DPS). The incidence of DPS is reported to be ~4%. In this report, we present a typical case of DPS that was cured through complete surgical resection. PMID:25861346

  7. Malignant glomus tumor of trachea: a case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Braham, Emna; Zairi, Sara; Mlika, Mouna; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aida; Ismail, Olfa; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumors of the trachea are extremely rare and generally benign, with very few cases of malignant transformation reported in literature. We present the case of a 74-year-old man explored for cough and dyspnea. Bronchoscopy showed a polypoid mass arising from the posterolateral tracheal wall. Computed tomography demonstrated a mid-tracheal tissular mass obliterating the tracheal lumen. Resection and anastomosis of the trachea were performed. The histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with malignant glomus tumor. PMID:26420909

  8. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A.; Salomon, Matthew P.; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    What happens in the early, still undetectable human malignancy is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a “Big Bang” model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed sub-clones that are not subject to stringent selection, and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors revealed the absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH), and sub-clone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations, and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear born-to-be-bad, with sub-clone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH with significant clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  9. Rare presentation of four primary pediatric cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Lauren R; Caltharp, Shelley A; Milla, Sarah S; Kogon, Brian F; Cundiff, Caitlin A; Dalal, Aarti; Quigley, Phillip C; Shehata, Bahig M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric cardiac tumors are extremely rare and usually benign. We selected four unique cases of pediatric cardiac tumors from a 15-year period at our institution. The four chosen cases represent unique, rare primary tumors of the heart. Our selection includes a case of Rosai Dorfman disease without systemic involvement, which is, to our knowledge, the second case of isolated cardiac Rosai Dorfman disease in a child. We present a case of subtotal replacement of myocardium by granulocytic sarcoma with minimal bone marrow involvement, representing the first reported case in a child manifested as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, as well as a case of a primary synovial sarcoma arising from the atrioventricular (AV) node, representing the fourth reported pediatric case of a cardiac synovial sarcoma, and it is the first to arise from the AV node. Finally, we present a primary congenital infantile fibrosarcoma of the heart, which is, to our knowledge, the first confirmed cardiac congenital infantile fibrosarcoma. These four cases represent the need for continued inclusion of rare cardiac conditions in a clinician's differential diagnosis. Furthermore, they present the need for more in-depth molecular and genomic analysis of pediatric cardiac tumors in order to identify their etiopathogenesis. PMID:26419627

  10. Spatial evolution of tumors with successive driver mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antal, Tibor; Krapivsky, P. L.; Nowak, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    We study the influence of driver mutations on the spatial evolutionary dynamics of solid tumors. We start with a cancer clone that expands uniformly in three dimensions giving rise to a spherical shape. We assume that cell division occurs on the surface of the growing tumor. Each cell division has a chance to give rise to a mutation that activates an additional driver gene. The resulting clone has an enhanced growth rate, which generates a local ensemble of faster growing cells, thereby distorting the spherical shape of the tumor. We derive formulas for the abundance and diversity of additional driver mutations as function of time. Our model is semi-deterministic: the spatial growth of cancer clones is deterministic, while mutants arise stochastically.

  11. Thymidine Phosphorylase is Angiogenic and Promotes Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Amir; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Fan, Tai-Ping D.; Hu, De-En; Lees, Vivien C.; Turley, Helen; Fox, Stephen B.; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.; Bicknell, Roy

    1995-02-01

    Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor was previously identified as the sole angiogenic activity present in platelets; it is now known to be thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The effect of TP on [methyl-^3H]thymidine uptake does not arise from de novo DNA synthesis and the molecule is not a growth factor. Despite this, TP is strongly angiogenic in a rat sponge and freeze-injured skin graft model. Neutralizing antibodies and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the enzyme activity of TP is a condition for its angiogenic activity. The level of TP was found to be elevated in human breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue (P < 0.001). Overexpression of TP in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells had no effect on growth in vitro but markedly enhanced tumor growth in vivo. These data and the correlation of expression in tumors with malignancy identify TP as a target for antitumor strategies.

  12. Liver tumors: Multidisciplinary management

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, W.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on an aggressive, multidisciplinary approach toward patients with liver tumors. It was written in response to the recognition that a greater range of therapeutic management is being offered. Management of such tumors involve more than one individual - included is the primary physician first contacted by the patient, the diagnostician and finally the group of individuals that actually treats the disease. Either intermittent systemic chemotherapy is given, or a few highly selected cases have massive hepatic resections in a very few major medical centers. Further, the perception has been clouded by a combination of high surgical mortality and poor results obtainable with conventional systemic chemotherapy. For this reason, the authors have undertaken a study of liver tumors. Their major objective is to show that it is possible to obtain superior results by presenting a range of options.

  13. Cerebral tumor or pseudotumor?

    PubMed

    Leclercq, D; Trunet, S; Bertrand, A; Galanaud, D; Lehéricy, S; Dormont, D; Drier, A

    2014-10-01

    Pseudotumoral lesions are uncommon but important to identity lesions. They can occur during inflammatory diseases (systemic diseases, vasculitis, demyelinating diseases), infectious, and vascular diseases. Also, in a patient with a treated tumor, pseudo-progression and radionecrosis must be differentiated from the tumoral development. Diagnosis can be difficult on an MRI scan, but some MRI aspects in conventional sequences, diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy can suggest the pseudotumoral origin of a lesion. Imaging must be interpreted according to the context, the clinic and the biology. The presence of associated intracranial lesions can orientate towards a systemic or infectious disease. A T2 hyposignal lesion suggests granulomatosis or histiocytosis, especially if a meningeal or hypothalamic-pituitary involvement is associated. Non-tumoral lesions are generally not hyperperfused. In the absence of a definitive diagnosis, the evolution of these lesions, whether under treatment or spontaneous, is fundamental. PMID:25260711

  14. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Emily G; White, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired disorder of isolated renal phosphate wasting associated with tumors, typically of mesenchymal origin. Patients with TIO share similar biochemical and skeletal phenotypes with patients who have autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The study of TIO introduced the idea of the existence of circulating factors, referred to as ‘phosphatonins’, produced by the tumor, which act upon the kidney to reduce phosphate reabsorption. Although several factors have been identified, the phosphatonin FGF-23, also identified as the causative factor in ADHR, is currently the best characterized of these factors relative to phosphate handling. This review describes the importance of TIO in understanding phosphate homeostasis in the context of new endocrine interactions between the skeleton and the kidney. PMID:20228870

  15. STAT3 is a key pathway in primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shu-Li; Ye, Wei-Min; Zheng, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) arising within an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is rare malignancy, entailing a poor prognosis for delayed diagnosis. The number of reports concerning this entity is extremely small. The aim of this study is to present the clinical and pathologic characteristics of PIOSCC and investigate its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: This study describes three patients with mandibular PIOSCC derived from an OKC over a seven-year period, each of which suffering from decompression in mandible. Important diagnostic criteria included the absence of overlying oral mucosal ulceration, the absence of a distant potential primary tumor, and the presence of a completely intraosseus lesion. The malignant transformation of OKC to PIOSCC was confirmed by pathologic evaluation of surgical resection specimens. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluating expression of Ki-67, p65, EGFR, phospho-AKT, and STAT3 in each of the three tumors and adjacent cyst walls. Results: Analysis by IHC indicated that Ki67, P65, EGFR and STAT3 were substantially elevated in PIOSCC. There was an obvious positive correlation between Ki67, P65, EGFR and STAT3 expression in adjacent benign epithelium. Each tumor exhibited long-standing chronic inflammation in the benign odontogenic cyst, suggesting that a sustained immune response may be partially responsible for malignant transformation of the benign cystic lining cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that inflammation may be the principal mediator in PIOSCC ex-OKC, and the STAT3 signaling pathway is an important contributor to this process. Combined detection of Ki67, P65, and EGFR in the lesional epithelium can support the diagnosis of PIOSCC.

  16. High-dose cyclophosphamide induces specific tumor immunity with concomitant recruitment of LAMP1/CD107a-expressing CD4-positive T cells into tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Naito, Tatsushi; Baba, Tomohisa; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Sasaki, Soichiro; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2015-09-28

    Cancer chemotherapy regimens, particularly those employing high-dose cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CTX), have been considered to be immune suppressive. However, we observed that a single administration of high-dose CTX abolished tumors arising from subcutaneous injection of a mouse hepatoma cell line and subsequently induced specific tumor immunity. Depletion of T cells, specifically CD4(+) T cells, abrogated the CTX-mediated tumor regression. CTX treatment induced the rapid recruitment of CD4(+) T cells into the tumors, and these recruited cells initiated expression of LAMP1/CD107a, a cytotoxic granule molecule, and granzyme B in the absence of antigen presentation at draining lymph nodes and proliferation in the tumor tissues. Moreover, CTX enhanced the expression of a CC chemokine, CCL3, in tumor tissues, and CTX-mediated tumor regression was attenuated in mice deficient in CCR5, the receptor for this chemokine. Consistently, less CTX-induced accumulation of intratumoral LAMP1/CD107a-expressing CD4(+) T cells was observed in mice receiving splenocytes derived from CCR5-deficient mice than in those receiving splenocytes derived from WT mice. Thus, CTX induces the expression of CCL3, which induces the intratumoral migration of CD4(+) T cells expressing cytotoxic molecules, leading to tumor eradication and subsequent specific tumor immunity. PMID:26116901

  17. Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Eads, Jennifer R

    2016-02-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and limited data are available to guide treatment. These tumors have been treated akin to small cell lung cancer given the histologic similarities. Their pathology is complex. Over the last decade, these tumors are shown as likely a distinct disease entity that is more heterogeneous than accounted for by the current classification system. This article discusses the epidemiology, prognosis, clinical presentation and pathologic nuances and provides a review of the existing clinical data in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell lung cancers. PMID:26614374

  18. Innovations in Intraoperative Tumor Visualization.

    PubMed

    Visgauss, Julia D; Eward, William C; Brigman, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    In the surgical management of solid tumors, adequacy of tumor resection has implications for local recurrence and survival. The standard method of intraoperative identification of tumor margin is frozen section pathologic analysis, which is time-consuming with potential for sampling error. Intraoperative tumor visualization has the potential to significantly improve surgical cancer care across disciplines, by guiding accuracy of biopsies, increasing adequacy of resections, directing adjuvant therapy, and even providing diagnostic information. We provide an outline of various methods of intraoperative tumor visualization developed to aid in the real-time assessment of tumor extent and adequacy of resection. PMID:26614939

  19. [Community mental health networks and doors at a Health and Community Center (CeSAC No 24) in the south of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA)].

    PubMed

    Corin, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Health and Community Center (CeSAC) No 24 began 21 years ago in the Ramón Carrillo district, in Villa Soldati neighborhood. This is a marginal urban area in the south of the CABA with a population with urgent needs. The work started with a group of professionals dealing with primary care practices, and it continues up to the present. The goal of our community mental health project is the creation of spaces for prevention and well-being including art in all its expressions, with the active participation of neighbors in the coordination of many activities. Through the symbolic opening of doors and making networks visible, we opened the CeSAC to universities, scientific societies, foundations, NGOs, neighbor committees, neighborhood boards, human rights organizations, formal and informal education centers, cultural centers, churches, community radios, in order to show the vital movements of the community, as we -as a team- are an integral part of it. Our spaces, workshops and programs are a collective socio-historical construction that achieves milestones such as thinking, thinking of us, getting together and achieving the participation from the community and the continuous training for everybody working and living in Soldati. The decentralization and democratization trend, and the heterarchical management of our organization favors the possibility of catalyzing the wishes, motivations and efforts of the healthcare team, neighbors and network nodes, thus benefiting the creative work that turns a dream into a hopeful reality. PMID:24151668

  20. CYP1A induction and blue sac disease in early life stages of white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to oil sands.

    PubMed

    Colavecchia, Maria V; Hodson, Peter V; Parrott, Joanne L

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of natural oil sands on the early developmental stages of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and to determine whether biochemical responses in this species were similar to native fish caught in the Athabasca Oil Sands area. Early life stage (ELS) sediment toxicity tests were conducted using controls, reference sediments, natural oil sands, and industrially contaminated (wastewater pond) sediments collected from sites along the Athabasca River, Alberta (Canada). Eggs and larvae were observed for mortality, hatching, deformities, growth, and cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) activity using immunohistochemistry. E-Nat-, S-Nat-, and wastewater pond sediment-exposed groups showed significant premature hatching, reduced growth, and exposure-dependent increases in ELS mortality and larval malformations relative to controls. The most common larval deformities included edemas (pericardial, yolk sac, and subepidermal), hemorrhages, and spinal defects. Juveniles exposed to oil sands and wastewater pond sediments (96 h) demonstrated significantly increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (30- to 50-fold) as compared to controls. Reference sediment-exposed groups and water controls demonstrated reliable embryo and larval survival, minimal malformations, and negligible CYP1A staining. These observed signs of blue sac disease (ELS mortality, malformations, growth reductions, CYP1A activity induction) may produce deleterious reproductive effects in natural fish populations exposed to oil sands mixtures. PMID:16728374

  1. Inhibition and regression of tumors in hamster DMBA model following laser microvascular targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Wang, Zhi; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1998-07-01

    Vascular targeting is a recent approach to cancer therapy that aims at damaging tumor vasculature to induce tumor cell hypoxia and subsequent cell death. Squamous cell cancer arises in the superficial mucosal and cutaneous epithelial layers, and tumor microvasculature therefore may be particularly well suited for targeting by selective photothermolysis. An initial evaluation of the effect of selective eradication of microvasculature on tumor development was undertaken here using the chemically-induced hamster cheek pouch model and a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. In a first group of 6 hamsters, progression of premalignant mucosal lesions was compared between control and laser treatment groups, and laser-induced regression of established tumors was evaluated. In a second group of 12 hamsters, the number of laser treatments required to produce complete regression of tumors of the buccal mucosa was determined. The effect of the laser on tumors appearing on the skin in these animals was also investigated. These experiments showed that laser treatment inhibited tumor development and caused complete regression of established tumors 10 mm3 or smaller. Photothermal microvascular targeting may be useful in treating dyplasia and early tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and skin, with fewer adverse sequelae than existing modalities.

  2. Novel mechanisms and approaches in immunotherapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pellegatta, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Converging data indicate that the immune system is able to recognize cancer epitopes as non-self and mount an immune reaction that may erase, or temporarily block, tumor growth. The immune pressure supports the amplification of immune resistant tumor clones, creating an immune suppressive environment that leads to the formation of a clinically relevant tumor. These general observations also apply to brain tumors and specifically to gliomas. Cancer immunotherapy strategies are aimed at reverting such immune suppression. Two approaches are already used in the clinics. The first one, peptide immunotherapy, has been oriented to the most aggressive glioma, glioblastoma (GBM) where, in the context of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) amplification, a large deletion arises and creates a novel, cancer-specific antigen, EGFRvIII. The second one is dendritic cell immunotherapy. Dendritic cells are potent antigen presenting cells that can be pulsed with autologous tumor lysate or peptide pp65 from cytomegalovirus (CMV) that is present in GBM but not in normal brain. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is bolstered by preconditioning their injection site with the tetanus/diphtheria toxoid. The third approach is adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in which tumor-specific T cells can be amplified ex vivo and subsequently re-injected to the patient to lyse cells expressing tumor antigens, increasing survival durably in a fraction of melanoma patients. ACT may also be based on T cell transduction of tumor specific receptors or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CARs are powerful tools for immunotherapy but off-target toxicity may be an issue as they do not request MHC presentation for activation. Upcoming clinical trial results will clarify the most effective direction for cancer immunotherapy in gliomas and other cancers with poor prognosis. PMID:26321082

  3. Measles may be a Risk Factor for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sheryl; Rendo, Angela; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Background A possible risk factor for brain tumor might be measles, since late neurologic sequelae are part of measles pathology. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a devastating neurologic illness, is prone to develop years after measles infection. Methods Because measles damage to the brain might increase the risk of brain tumor, we examined the relationship of measles incidence in 1960 and brain tumor incidence in 50 US States and the District of Columbia, 2004-2007. Data on number of cases of measles by state in 1960 are from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. In 1960 measles was a childhood illness. We calculated measles incidence by obtaining the population of each state from the 1960 US Census and then age adjusting our results to the cumulative percent of the state population under age 21, since this would have been the measles-infected group. Data on the percentage white population by state are from the US Census (www.census.gov). Age-adjusted incidence (to the 2000 US standard population) of brain tumors is from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States 2011 report. Results There was a significant correlation between 1960 measles incidence and incidence of malignant brain tumors in persons 20 and older in 2004-2007 (r=0.321, p=0.026). Because glioblastoma is more frequent in whites and males, multivariate linear regression was performed with tumor incidence as the dependent variable, measles incidence, percent white population, and sex ratio by state as independent variables. Measles incidence was significantly correlated with malignant brain tumor incidence (?=0.361, p<0.001) and independent of the effect of race (?=0.734, p<0.001) and sex ratio m/f (?=-0.478, p<0.001). There was no correlation of measles incidence with brain tumor incidence in persons younger than 20. Conclusion Inflammation is a critical component of tumor development. The inflammation of measles-induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, even subclinical cases, could well promote tumor formation, since many tumors arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation.

  4. Measles may be a Risk Factor for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sheryl; Rendo, Angela; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Background A possible risk factor for brain tumor might be measles, since late neurologic sequelae are part of measles pathology. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a devastating neurologic illness, is prone to develop years after measles infection. Methods Because measles damage to the brain might increase the risk of brain tumor, we examined the relationship of measles incidence in 1960 and brain tumor incidence in 50 US States and the District of Columbia, 2004-2007. Data on number of cases of measles by state in 1960 are from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. In 1960 measles was a childhood illness. We calculated measles incidence by obtaining the population of each state from the 1960 US Census and then age adjusting our results to the cumulative percent of the state population under age 21, since this would have been the measles-infected group. Data on the percentage white population by state are from the US Census (www.census.gov). Age-adjusted incidence (to the 2000 US standard population) of brain tumors is from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States 2011 report. Results There was a significant correlation between 1960 measles incidence and incidence of malignant brain tumors in persons 20 and older in 2004-2007 (r=0.321, p=0.026). Because glioblastoma is more frequent in whites and males, multivariate linear regression was performed with tumor incidence as the dependent variable, measles incidence, percent white population, and sex ratio by state as independent variables. Measles incidence was significantly correlated with malignant brain tumor incidence (?=0.361, p<0.001) and independent of the effect of race (?=0.734, p<0.001) and sex ratio m/f (?=-0.478, p<0.001). There was no correlation of measles incidence with brain tumor incidence in persons younger than 20. Conclusion Inflammation is a critical component of tumor development. The inflammation of measles-induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, even subclinical cases, could well promote tumor formation, since many tumors arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. PMID:26605259

  5. Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related fundraising projects go to the Childhood Brain… Amazon Smile When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to ... Brain Tumor Foundation. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/52-2122976 and support us every ...

  6. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  7. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have been performed on a number of potential environmental risk factors. Of the many factors studied, only one—exposure to ionizing radiation—has been clearly shown to increase the risk of developing brain tumors. Some studies have shown that a history of allergies as an adult, a mother eating ...

  8. Preoperative tumor embolization.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Aziz-Sultan, Ali

    2014-07-01

    In this article, the authors review general principles and technical details of preoperative embolization of various hypervascular head, neck, and spinal tumors encountered in contemporary neuroendovascular practice. Indications, treatment goals, techniques, outcomes, and complications are discussed, and illustrative case examples are presented. PMID:24994094

  9. Primary intracardiac malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Arava, Sudheer; Bagmar, Saphalta; Jain, Parul; Kumaran, Muthu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Ray, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumors constituting approximately 75% of all the cardiac tumors. Rest 25% are malignant and sarcomas being the commonest. Among the sarcomas primary cardiac malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are extremely rare. They usually arise in relation to the branches of vagus or phrenic nerves, 5-42% being associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clinical signs and symptoms depend on the location and extent of involvement. Complete resection is the treatment of choice but local recurrence is common. PMID:26549085

  10. The Differential Diagnosis of Sinonasal/Nasopharyngeal Neuroendocrine/Neuroectodermally Derived Tumors.

    PubMed

    Montone, Kathleen T

    2015-12-01

    Context .- The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms arising in the sinonasal tract is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. Objective .- To review the differential diagnosis of sinonasal neuroendocrine and neuroectodermally derived tumors. Data Sources .- The current literature was reviewed to provide updated information regarding the differential diagnosis and means for diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors including sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, paraganglioma, pituitary adenoma, and Ewing family of tumors. Conclusions .- The differential diagnosis of neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation in the sinonasal tract is broad, and diagnosis often includes not only histologic review but also immunohistochemical or molecular analysis. PMID:26619022

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with an inherited form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). These individuals typically develop intra-abdominal desmoid ... condition are described as sporadic. Read more about familial adenomatous polyposis . How common is desmoid tumor? Desmoid tumors are ...

  12. Application of Carbon-Ion Beams or Gamma-Rays on Primary Tumors Does Not Change the Expression Profiles of Metastatic Tumors in an In Vivo Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Iwakawa, Mayumi Ohno, Tatsuya; Imadome, Kaori; Nakawatari, Miyako; Sakai, Minako; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nakano, Takashi; Imai, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To clarify how carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion) on primary tumors affects the characteristics of subsequently arising metastatic tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Mouse squamous cell carcinomas, NR-S1, in synergic C3H/HeMsNrs mice were irradiated with a single dose of 5-50 Gy of C-ion (290 MeV per nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak) or {gamma}-rays ({sup 137}Cs source) as a reference beam. The volume of the primary tumors and the number of metastatic nodules in lung were studied, and histologic analysis and microarray analysis of laser-microdissected tumor cells were also performed. Results: Including 5 Gy of C-ion and 8 Gy of {gamma}-rays, which did not inhibit the primary tumor growth, all doses used in this study inhibited lung metastasis significantly. Pathologic findings showed no difference among the metastatic tumor nodules in the nonirradiated, C-ion-irradiated, and {gamma}-ray-irradiated groups. Clustering analysis of expression profiles among metastatic tumors and primary tumors revealed a single cluster consisting of metastatic tumors different from their original primary tumors, indicating that the expression profiles of the metastatic tumor cells were not affected by the local application of C-ion or {gamma}-ray radiotherapy. Conclusion: We found no difference in the incidence and histology, and only small differences in expression profile, of distant metastasis between local C-ion and {gamma}-ray radiotherapy. The application of local radiotherapy per se or the type of radiotherapy applied did not influence the transcriptional changes caused by metastasis in tumor cells.

  13. Pindborg Tumor in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Kafil; Khan, Nazoora; Zaheer, Sufian; Sherwani, Rana; Hasan, Abrar

    2010-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor), is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm representing about 0.4-3% of all odontogenic tumors. This tumor more frequently affects adults in the age range of 20-60 years, with a peak incidence in the 5th decade of life. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour has a much lower recurrence rate than ameloblastoma and malignant transformation, and metastasis is rare. PMID:22125699

  14. Distinct functions for integrins alpha 3 beta 1 in focal adhesions and alpha 6 beta 4/bullous pemphigoid antigen in a new stable anchoring contact (SAC) of keratinocytes: relation to hemidesmosomes

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Basal cells of stratified epidermis are anchored to the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin via hemidesmosomes. We previously identified integrin alpha 3 beta 1, in focal adhesions (FAs), of cultured human keratinocytes (HFKs) as a mediator of HFK adhesion to secreted BMZ-like extracellular matrix (ECM; Carter, W.G., E.A. Wayner, T.S. Bouchard, and P. Kaur. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110: 1387-1404). Here, we have examined the relation of integrins alpha 6 beta 4 and alpha 3 beta 1, to bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), a component of hemidesmosomes. We conclude that alpha 6 beta 4 in HFKs localizes in a new stable anchoring contact (SAC) that cooperates with alpha 3 beta 1- FAs to mediate adhesion to ECM, based on the following. (a) Comparison of secreted ECM, with exogenous laminin, fibronectin and collagen identified ECM as the preferred ligand for HFK adhesion and spreading and for formation of both alpha 6 beta 4-SACs and alpha 3 beta 1-FAs. (b) Inhibition of HFK adhesion with combined anti-alpha 3 beta 1 (P1B5) and anti-alpha 6 beta 4 (GoH3) antibodies indicated that both receptors were functional in adhesion to ECM while alpha 3 beta 1 played a dominant role in spreading. (c) alpha 6 beta 4 colocalized with BPA in SACs that were proximal to but excluded from FAs. Both alpha 6 beta 4- SACs and alpha 3 beta 1-FAs were in contact with the adhesion surface as indicated by antibody exclusion and interference reflection microscopy. (d) In contrast to alpha 3 beta 1-FAs, alpha 6 beta 4-SACs were present only in nonmotile cells, not associated with stress fibers, and were relatively stable to detergents and urea, suggesting a nonmotile, or anchoring function for SACs and motility functions for alpha 3 beta 1-FAs. (e) alpha 6 beta 4 formed a detergent-insoluble complex with exogenous ECM in an affinity isolation procedure, confirming the ability of an unidentified ECM ligand to interact with alpha 6 beta 4. (f) We suggest that alpha 6 beta 4/BPA-SACs in culture restrict migration of HFKs on ECM while alpha 3 beta 1-FAs form dynamic adhesions in spreading and migrating cells. alpha 6 beta 4/BPA-SACs in culture bear functional and compositional similarities to hemidesmosomes in skin. PMID:2269668

  15. An unusual case of porocarcinoma arising on the scalp of a 22-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hana; Smart, Chandra

    2015-03-01

    Porocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from the intraepidermal ductal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. This neoplasm most often presents in elderly individuals on the lower extremities. We present an unusual case of porocarcinoma arising on the scalp of a young patient. To the best of our knowledge, there have been fewer than 20 cases of porocarcinomas arising at this site reported in the literature. PMID:25062260

  16. Solid tumors of the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation: from the radiologic pathology archives.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ellen M; Biko, David M; Arzamendi, Aaron M; Meldrum, Jaren T; Stocker, J Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal solid tumors are far less common in children than in adults, and the histologic spectrum of neoplasms of the peritoneum and its specialized folds in young patients differs from that in older patients. Localized masses may be caused by inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, Castleman disease, mesenteric fibromatosis, or other mesenchymal masses. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a mesenchymal tumor of borderline biologic potential that appears as a solitary circumscribed mass, possibly with central calcification. Castleman disease is an idiopathic lymphoproliferative disorder that appears as a circumscribed, intensely enhancing mass in the mesentery. Mesenteric fibromatosis, or intra-abdominal desmoid tumor, is a benign tumor of mesenchymal origin associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Mesenteric fibromatosis appears as a mildly enhancing, circumscribed solitary mass without metastases. Diffuse peritoneal disease may be due to desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or rhabdomyosarcoma. DSRCT is a rare member of the small round blue cell tumor family that causes diffuse peritoneal masses without a visible primary tumor. A dominant mass is typically found in the retrovesical space. Burkitt lymphoma is a pediatric tumor that manifests with extensive disease because of its short doubling time. The bowel and adjacent mesentery are commonly involved. Rhabdomyosarcoma may arise as a primary tumor of the omentum or may spread from a primary tumor in the bladder, prostate, or scrotum. Knowledge of this spectrum of disease allows the radiologist to provide an appropriate differential diagnosis and suggest proper patient management. PMID:25763737

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

    Cancer.gov

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

  18. Nonodontogenic Tumors of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Dyalram, Donita; Aslam-Pervez, Nawaf; Lubek, Joshua E

    2016-02-01

    Nonodontogenic tumors of the jaws are common in the pediatric population, accounting for approximately 70% of pediatric jaw tumors. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and management of the benign nonodontogenic tumors (nonaggressive and aggressive) of the jaws most commonly encountered in children. PMID:26614701

  19. Tumor Microenvironment in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lorger, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In addition to malignant cancer cells, tumors contain a variety of different stromal cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment. Some of these cell types provide crucial support for tumor growth, while others have been suggested to actually inhibit tumor progression. The composition of tumor microenvironment varies depending on the tumor site. The brain in particular consists of numerous specialized cell types such as microglia, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells. In addition to these brain-resident cells, primary and metastatic brain tumors have also been shown to be infiltrated by different populations of bone marrow-derived cells. The role of different cell types that constitute tumor microenvironment in the progression of brain malignancies is only poorly understood. Tumor microenvironment has been shown to be a promising therapeutic target and diagnostic marker in extracranial malignancies. A better understanding of tumor microenvironment in the brain would therefore be expected to contribute to the development of improved therapies for brain tumors that are urgently required due to a poor availability of treatments for these malignancies. This review summarizes some of the known interactions between brain tumors and different stromal cells, and also discusses potential therapeutic approaches within this context. PMID:24213237

  20. Cytomegalovirus in human brain tumors: Role in pathogenesis and potential treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    During the last years increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be attributed to human malignancies arising from numerous tissues. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the potential mechanisms through which CMV infection may contribute to brain tumors by affecting tumor cell initiation, progression and metastasis formation. Recent evidence also suggests that anti-CMV treatment results in impaired tumor growth of CMV positive xenografts in animal models and potentially increased survival in CMV positive glioblastoma patients. Based on these observations and the high tumor promoting capacity of this virus, the classical and novel antiviral therapies against CMV should be revisited as they may represent a great promise for halting tumor progression and lower cancer deaths. PMID:25699229