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Sample records for sac tumor arising

  1. Ovarian yolk sac tumors in older women arising from epithelial ovarian tumors or with no detectable epithelial component.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lawrence M; Talerman, Aleksander; Levy, Tally; Sukmanov, Oleg; Czernobilsky, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) occurs rarely in older women, either in association with a variety of ovarian epithelial tumors or, considerably less often, without an identifiable epithelial precursor. The patients often have elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein that roughly correlate with the amount of the YST component. In postmenopausal women with an ovarian mass and elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein, a tumor of this type should be suspected. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common putative precursor, and the tumor is often associated with an endometriotic cyst; however, malignant Müllerian mixed tumor and mucinous neoplasms have also been reported as precursors. We report 4 cases of YST in postmenopausal women. Of the 3 cases with an identified epithelial component, 1 was serous carcinoma, another was clear cell adenocarcinoma, and the third was an admixture of endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from an endometriotic cyst. Although a precursor epithelial ovarian neoplasm, typically a malignancy (somatic carcinoma), is usually identified, no precursor neoplasm was observed in 1 of our cases and in 5 cases from the literature. We believe that YSTs in older women, whether or not an epithelial component is detected histologically, constitute a single entity that is distinct from YSTs in younger patients and should be treated aggressively. Neoplasms with a YST component in older women are less responsive to the chemotherapy currently used for ovarian germ cell tumors; therefore, adjuvant therapy should include platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial ovarian cancer and germ cell tumors. Of the 24 reported cases, including our own, 17 died of neoplasms within 25 months and another was living with disease at 2 months. However, 2 more recent patients treated aggressively with platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial and germ cell tumor components with stage 1 disease are living and have been disease free >1

  2. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  3. Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor With High-Grade Serous Carcinoma in a 62-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Whitney A; Masand, Ramya P

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are germ cell tumors that usually present in children and young women. Rarely, these tumors can arise in older women, usually in conjunction with surface epithelial tumors, suggesting divergent differentiation from the latter. The combination of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma is rare, with only one case documented in the literature. We present a case of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and high-grade serous carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman, including a brief discussion of the immunohistochemical findings and differential diagnosis. Despite the rarity of mixed ovarian yolk sac tumor and surface epithelial tumors, it is important to recognize the biphasic nature of the tumor, which should prompt a thorough immunohistochemical evaluation. The therapeutic and prognostic implications of proper diagnosis cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26782153

  4. Prognosis of hepatoid yolk sac tumor in women: what's up, Doc?

    PubMed

    Rittiluechai, Kristsanamon; Wilcox, Rebecca; Lisle, Jennifer; Everett, Elise; Wallace, H James; Verschraegen, Claire F

    2014-04-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors are highly malignant germ cell tumors that commonly occur in young women. The hepatoid yolk sac tumor is a variant form of yolk sac tumor in which there has been extensive tumor differentiation to early liver tissue. Hepatoid differentiation is traditionally considered to signify a poor prognosis. This review focuses on diagnostic criteria and establishes the optimal treatment for patients with hepatoid yolk sac tumor. Immunohistochemical stains are useful for distinguishing hepatoid yolk sac tumor from the other hepatoid-appearing tumors. With a multidisciplinary treatment approach using platinum-based regimens, the outcome is similar to those of any yolk sac tumor. PMID:24462393

  5. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, ShaoChun; Li, XueHua; Feng, ShiTing; Peng, ZhenPeng; Huang, SiYun; Li, ZiPing

    2014-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement. PMID:25246826

  6. ZBTB16: a novel sensitive and specific biomarker for yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Li, Faqian; Unger, Pamela D; Katerji, Hani; Yang, Qi; McMahon, Loralee; Burstein, David E

    2016-06-01

    Although the function of zinc finger and BTB domain containing 16 (ZBTB16) in spermatogenesis is well documented, expression of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression and diagnostic utility of ZBTB16 in germ cell tumors. A total of 67 adult germ cell tumors were studied (62 testicular germ cell tumors, 2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, and 2 retroperitoneal metastatic yolk sac tumors). The 62 testicular primary germ cell tumors are as follows: 34 pure germ cell tumors (20 seminomas, 8 embryonal carcinomas, 2 teratomas, 1 choriocarcinoma, 1 carcinoid, and 2 spermatocytic tumors) and 28 mixed germ cell tumors (composed of 13 embryonal carcinomas, 15 yolk sac tumors, 15 teratomas, 7 seminomas, and 3 choriocarcinomas in various combinations). Thirty-five cases contained germ cell neoplasia in situ. Yolk sac tumor was consistently reactive for ZBTB16. Among the 15 testicular yolk sac tumors in mixed germ cell tumors, all displayed moderate to diffuse ZBTB16 staining. ZBTB16 reactivity was present regardless of the histologic patterns of yolk sac tumor and ZBTB16 was able to pick up small foci of yolk sac tumor intermixed/embedded in other germ cell tumor subtype elements. Diffuse ZBTB16 immunoreactivity was also observed in 2/2 metastatic yolk sac tumors, 1/1 mediastinal yolk sac tumor, 2/2 ovarian yolk sac tumors, 2/2 spermatocytic tumors, 1/1 carcinoid, and the spermatogonial cells. All the other non-yolk sac germ cell tumors were nonreactive, including seminoma (n=27), embryonal carcinoma (n=21), teratoma (n=17), choriocarcinoma (n=4), and germ cell neoplasia in situ (n=35). The sensitivity and specificity of ZBTB16 in detecting yolk sac tumor among the germ cell tumors was 100% (20/20) and 96% (66/69), respectively. In conclusion, ZBTB16 is a highly sensitive and specific marker for yolk sac tumor. PMID:26916077

  7. A primary pure yolk sac tumor of the lung exhibiting CDX-2 immunoreactivity and increased serum levels of alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoenzyme.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Petrella, Francesco; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Galetta, Domenico; Viale, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    Malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors primary to the lung are quite uncommon lesions, but pure yolk sac tumor is even more exceptional. This is believed to be the first reported case of yolk sac tumor of the lung in which an intense and diffuse immunoreactivity for CDX2, a marker of intestinal differentiation reportedly expressed also in gonadal yolk sac tumor, was associated with increased serum levels of the alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoform. Nine months after radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient is alive and well without evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease and with serum levels of the alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoform within normal limits. The pathologist should be aware of yolk sac tumor arising in the lung and that alkaline phosphatase intestinal isoform could become an additional serum marker for such a tumor. PMID:16959714

  8. Endolymphatic sac tumor with von Hippel-Lindau disease: report of a case with atypical pathology of endolymphatic sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang; Liu, Xue-Song; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Yue-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The authors described a case of a patient with co-existing endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and hemangioblastoma in the posterior cranial fossa, which belonged to a subtype of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease confirmed by the test of VHL-gene. The signs in this 42-year-old female included intermittent headache and dizziness. Imaging revealed a giant mass in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) region and another lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The results of biopsy after two operations confirmed the diagnosis respectively. Both of the tumors were resected totally. Nevertheless, we had to confess the misdiagnosis as vascular tumor instead of ELST at the initial diagnosis because of the rarity of ELST associated with atypical histological characteristics. The purposes we reported this case were to describe the atypical pathological feature of ELST and the mutation of germline VHL not mentioned in previously literature, furthermore, to foster understanding of ELSTs with the avoidance of the similar misdiagnosis as far as possible in future. PMID:24966975

  9. Primary Nasopharngeal Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Dhanalakshmi; Chidambaram, Lalitha; Boj, Sudha; Marudasalam, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumour also known as primitive endodermal tumour is the most common malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) in the paediatric age group. Most common sites of involvement are ovaries and testes, but rarely can occur in the extragonadal sites. In the head and neck region, yolk sac tumours have been reported in the nasopharynx, sinonasal tract, orbit, ear and parotid gland. Nasopharynx is an uncommon site for yolk sac tumour and very few cases of nasopharngeal pure yolk sac tumour have been reported so far. Yolk sac tumours are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. This is a case of pure GCT in a three-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing nasopharyngeal mass. Histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry and serum AFP study clinched the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. The tumour responded well to chemotherapy as evidenced by decrease in serum AFP levels. PMID:27437234

  10. Primary Nasopharngeal Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Dhanalakshmi; Thandavarayan, Pavithra; Chidambaram, Lalitha; Boj, Sudha; Marudasalam, Sumathi

    2016-05-01

    Yolk sac tumour also known as primitive endodermal tumour is the most common malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) in the paediatric age group. Most common sites of involvement are ovaries and testes, but rarely can occur in the extragonadal sites. In the head and neck region, yolk sac tumours have been reported in the nasopharynx, sinonasal tract, orbit, ear and parotid gland. Nasopharynx is an uncommon site for yolk sac tumour and very few cases of nasopharngeal pure yolk sac tumour have been reported so far. Yolk sac tumours are highly malignant and have a poor prognosis. This is a case of pure GCT in a three-year-old female child who presented with a rapidly growing nasopharyngeal mass. Histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry and serum AFP study clinched the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. The tumour responded well to chemotherapy as evidenced by decrease in serum AFP levels. PMID:27437234

  11. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  12. A Rare Case of Primary Anterior Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor in an Elderly Adult Male

    PubMed Central

    Nakhla, Sammy G.; Sundararajan, Srinath

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs) commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Clinically they are classified as teratomas, seminomas, and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Primary mediastinal yolk sac neoplasm is an extremely rare tumor. We present here a very rare case of primary yolk sac tumor of the anterior mediastinum in a 73-year-old male. Mediastinal germ cell tumors have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors. Chemotherapy followed by adjuvant surgery improves overall response in EGGCTs. However, comorbidities can render treatment with chemotherapy and surgery challenging in elderly patients. PMID:27144043

  13. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shitai; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Qing-Fu; OuYang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin) after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. PMID:27536133

  14. Primary yolk sac tumor of the gluteus: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shitai; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Qing-Fu; OuYang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a common malignant primitive germ cell tumor that often exhibits differentiation into endodermal structures. They most commonly occur in childhood and adolescence and are rare after the age of 40 years. Derived from the yolk sac during the embryonic period, YSTs can occur in the gonads and germ cells because the tumor cells migrate from the yolk sac toward the gonads. Here, we present a rare case of primary gluteus YST in a 3-year-old girl. She received BEP chemotherapy (bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin) after surgical resection. There was no evidence of recurrence 7 months after primary treatment. PMID:27536133

  15. Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor: case report and review of published work.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, Tanya; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumors are rare, with only nine cases documented previously in the published work. We report a case of extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor occurring synchronously with breast carcinoma. The patient underwent resection of the pelvic tumor and hepatic implant, omentectomy and breast lumpectomy with sentinel axillary lymph node biopsy. The uterus and bilateral adnexa were preserved. Postoperative adjuvant therapy for the yolk sac tumor included three cycles of the bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) regimen. This was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the breast carcinoma. It is concluded that in women with extraovarian pelvic yolk sac tumor who wish to preserve childbearing capacity, fertility-saving surgery followed by fertility-preserving cisplatin-based chemotherapy is adequate and appropriate treatment. PMID:18840194

  16. SALL4 and SF-1 are sensitive and specific markers for distinguishing granulosa cell tumors from yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuting; Wei, Shi; Ziober, Amy; Yao, Yuan; Bing, Zhanyong

    2013-04-01

    Granulosa cell tumors are classified as juvenile and adult types. They may be misinterpreted as a yolk sac tumor when they exhibit a "reticular" growth pattern and contain prominent mitotic activity. In this study, the authors performed immunohistochemical stains for SALL4 and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) on 27 cases of yolk sac tumors and 24 granulosa cell tumors. Nuclear stains for both antibodies were considered as positive and the intensity of staining was graded as negative, weak, moderate, and strong. All the yolk sac tumors were positive for SALL4 (100%) with moderate to strong grade staining and negative for SF-1 (100%). In contrast, all the granulosa cell tumors were positive for SF-1 (85% moderate to strong grade staining and 15% weak staining) and negative for SALL4 (100%). The difference was significant (P < .01, Student's t test). This result indicates that these 2 markers could be used to distinguish these 2 tumors in a difficult situation. PMID:22832114

  17. Primary Endometrial Yolk Sac Tumor With Endodermal-Intestinal Differentiation Masquerading as Metastatic Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damato, Stephen; Haldar, Krishnayan; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) with a somatic glandular pattern can be difficult to recognize histologically because they reproduce developing intestinal, hepatic, or lung tissue and can express markers such as CDX2 and TTF1. We report an unusual case of a primary endometrial YST showing florid endodermal-intestinal differentiation in a 63-yr-old woman with a history of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Histologically, the tumor exhibited a glandular and papillary architecture and showed widespread immunoreactivity for CDX2 and focal staining for CK20 and CEA, mimicking metastatic colorectal carcinoma on biopsy. The presence of subnuclear cytoplasmic clearing and positive staining for germ cell markers, however, pointed toward a diagnosis of primary endometrial YST, and this was supported by the radiologic and the subsequent pathologic finding of a primary endometrial-based lesion. YSTs in this age group usually arise in association with somatic tumors and in this case a small focus of coexistent endometrioid adenocarcinoma was identified within the uterus. Despite surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient showed disease progression with liver and lung metastases 6 mo postoperatively. PMID:26598980

  18. Adenomatoid Tumor of the Testis Arising From the Tunica Albuginea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Andrew Y; Polackwich, A. Scott; Sabanegh, Jr, Edmund S

    2016-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumors are the most common paratesticular tumor. Although they primarily arise from the epididymis, they can rarely occur as an isolated intratesticular mass. These tumors are benign and surgical excision is curative. We present a case of a 36-year-old man diagnosed with an intratesticular adenomatoid tumor. PMID:27162515

  19. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor. PMID:23604259

  20. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  1. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor.

    PubMed

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis. PMID:26798532

  2. Primary orbital yolk sac tumor: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Saurabh; Kaliki, Swathi; Sreedhar, Ani; Mishra, Dilip K

    2016-06-01

    Germ cell tumor can affect extragonadal sites. Teratoma is a well-recognized extragonadal tumor in the orbit. Primary yolk sac tumor (YST) or endodermal sinus tumor of orbit is rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Its clinical presentation may mimic many common pediatric orbital conditions, and delay in diagnosis affects ocular morbidity and mortality. In the past orbital YST has been treated with multimodal therapy including surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Herein we describe a case of primary orbital YST and reviewed the literature for similar cases. The review aims to describe the clinical presentation, imaging features, histopathological characteristics, and management of orbital YST. PMID:26481249

  3. Gonadoblastoma and hepatoid and endometrioid-like yolk sac tumor: an update.

    PubMed

    Ulbright, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    Dr Robert E. Scully greatly advanced our understanding of germ cell neoplasia to the extent that it is difficult to narrow the discussion of his contributions to this topic so that it can be covered in a brief article. This article accordingly focuses on some of the recent developments concerning 2 of his major contributions in this area-the gonadoblastoma (GB) and variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor. GB was defined by Dr Scully in 1953 and its features elaborated in detail by him in 1970. This neoplasm occurred in young patients who often displayed phenotypic sex ambiguities and frequently presented with primary amenorrhea. It was bilateral in 40%, and consisted of circumscribed nests of small sex cord cells and germinoma-like cells admixed with round deposits of eosinophilic, hyaline, often calcified material. These nests were set in a spindle cell gonadal stroma with Leydig-like or lutein-like cells. Because of his work we now understand that this precursor to invasive germ cell tumors occurs in patients with a specific form of disorder of sex development, namely gonadal dysgenesis, and only in those who have a particular portion of the Y chromosome, the GB locus/TSPY gene, within the gonadal tissue. An essential element to the development of GB appears to be a defect in the genetic pathway that leads to the development of Sertoli cells. Improperly formed Sertoli cells predispose to "delayed maturation" of the gonocytes of the gonad and predispose them to undergo malignant transformation. "Undifferentiated gonadal tissue" has been proposed as the precursor to the development of GB and consists of an unorganized mixture of apparently non-neoplastic germ cells, germ cells with delayed maturation, and neoplastic germ cells with sex cord cells and gonadal stroma. Two variant morphologies of yolk sac tumor were also recognized by Dr Scully. In the hepatoid variant features similar to hepatocellular carcinoma occurred, although primitive glandular foci and lack of

  4. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  5. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  6. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for 6 months. The correlation between the YST and the epithelial components always confuse us. Ovarian yolk sac tumors are not a discrete entity and represent a multifaceted group of neoplasms. The conjunction of multi antibodies help in differential diagnoses. In addition to a thorough case description, the literature concerning this entity is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25550883

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J

    2013-07-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value. PMID:23347651

  8. Yolk sac tumor of the external auditory canal: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijuan; Tang, Qionglan; Zhen, Tiantian; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Han, Anjia

    2015-01-01

    We report one case of yolk sac tumor of the ear and review the literature. The patient was a 9-month boy who scratched his right ear repeatedly one month ago. Computed tomography scan showed an irregular elongated mass image measuring 42×16 mm was found in the right external auditory canal. The tumor was located underneath of the epidermis with ulceration. Mild or moderate atypical round or oval tumor cells were arranged in nest and reticular pattern around vesicular or cystic spaces. Tumor cells had abundant eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm and marked nucleoli. Mitotic figures were about 7/10 HPF. Poorly formed Schiller-Duvall body was occasionally present. The stroma was loose and rich in capillaries. Hyaline globules could be found in the stroma. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, SALL4, glypican-3, focal positive for EMA, vimentin, CD10, and CD34, but negative for a-fetoprotein, HCG, PLAP. The serum α-fetoprotein was 664.60 ng/mL (normal, ≤ 25 ng/mL). Yolk sac tumor of the ear is extremely rare, especially α-fetoprotein negative expression in our case. The differential diagnosis includes embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, paraganglioma, myoepithelioma, carcinoma of skin appendages, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26823835

  9. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  10. Yolk sac tumor in postmenopausal patients: pure or associated with adenocarcinoma, a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Przybycin, Christopher G

    2014-09-01

    Yolk sac tumors (YSTs) of the ovary usually present in young women and have been rarely reported in postmenopausal patients. Most of the cases in young patients are pure or associated with other germ cell components; however, in older patients there is an unusual association with Müllerian epithelial elements, for the most part malignant. We report two cases, both in older patients. One of the YSTs was associated with high-grade serous and endometrioid carcinoma, while the other case showed pure YST. The YST component showed positivity for SALL4, AFP and Glypican-3 and negative staining for PAX8 supporting a germ cell tumor differentiation; SALL4 and PAX8 markers have not been previously analyzed in this setting. Both tumors recurred within 7 months despite systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25083963

  11. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  12. CT imaging of ovarian yolk sac tumor with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Kang; Zheng, Yu; Lin, Jian-Bang; Xu, Gui-Xiao; Cai, Ai-Qun; Zhou, Xiu-Guo; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare neoplasms. No radiological study has been done to compare the imaging findings between this type of tumor and other ovarian tumors. Here we analyzed the CT findings of 11 pathologically proven ovarian YSTs and compared their imaging findings with 18 other types of ovarian tumors in the same age range. Patient age, tumor size, tumor shape, ascites and metastasis of two groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). A mixed solid-cystic nature, intratumoral hemorrhage, marked enhancement and dilated intratumoral vessel of two groups differed significantly (P < 0.05). The area under the ROC curve of four significant CT features was 0.679, 0.707, 0.705, and 1.000, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two independent signs of YST: intratumoral hemorrhage and marked enhancement. Our results show that certain suggestive CT signs that may be valuable for improving the accuracy of imaging diagnosis of YST and may be helpful in distinguishing YST from other ovarian tumors. PMID:26074455

  13. Cribriform neuroepithelial tumor arising in the lateral ventricle.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michael A; Stallings-Archer, Kandi; Marlin, Evan; Grondin, Ronald; Olshefski, Randal; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Pierson, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Cribriform neuroepithelial tumor (CRINET) is a recently recognized central nervous system neoplasm that arises in the ventricles of young children and is characterized by primitive, non-rhabdoid SMARCB1-deficient cells with prominent cribriform architecture. We report a 14-month-old male who presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging revealed a large solid and cystic mass in the lateral ventricle. Tumor cells were small, primitive appearing, and arranged in cribriform and trabecular patterns with interspersed solid cellular areas. Rhabdoid cells were absent. Immunohistochemical staining showed no SMARCB1 (INI11, BAF47, hSNF5) expression and strong epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) immunoreactivity along luminal surfaces. Electron microscopy showed epithelial characteristics, including abundant basal lamina. Genetic analysis of the tumor revealed deletion of 1 SMARCB1 allele, while the other contained an intronic point mutation predicted to disrupt splicing. This case further illustrates the distinct histopathologic and molecular genetic features of CRINET and identifies distinctive ultrastructural features. PMID:23495723

  14. Yolk sac tumor with a prominent polyvesicular vitelline pattern: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H; Ulbright, Thomas M; Policarpio-Nicolas, Maria Luisa C

    2013-03-01

    We report 3 cases of the rare polyvesicular vitelline variant of ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST). The patients were 23, 29, and 43 years old, and all presented with large unilateral adnexal masses confined to the ovary. One tumor was predominantly cystic, and the other 2 had prominent cystic components; all 3 also had solid components. Microscopic examination of the cystic regions showed dilated cysts that largely effaced the stroma resulting in a honeycomb-like appearance. The solid foci were characterized predominantly by small tubules in a fibrous stroma; the tubules exhibited variably conspicuous cystic dilatation to merge with the microcystic appearance. The tumor cells varied from large and primitive-appearing to flattened and deceptively innocuous when lining large cysts. They were immunoreactive for α-fetoprotein and glypican-3. Non-polyvesicular vitelline components of YST were present focally in 2 cases (hepatoid in one, reticular and endometrioid like in the second). Two patients are disease free after 20 and 26 years, respectively; disease-free follow-up is of short duration in the third case (2 years). The good long-term outcome in 2 cases supports prior evidence that suggests that the natural history of this form of YST may be more indolent than conventional forms of the tumor. PMID:23348213

  15. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis after tumor lysis syndrome in a case of advanced yolk sac tumor treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doi, Mihoko; Okamoto, Yohei; Yamauchi, Masami; Naitou, Hiroyuki; Shinozaki, Katsunori

    2012-10-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a highly aggressive malignancy arising in young women. Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis, and bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) combination chemotherapy appears to be the most effective combination regimen. A 23-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with worsening abdominal distention and a lower abdominal mass. She was diagnosed with a stage IIIc pure YST of the right ovary, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed; there were numerous disseminated peritoneal tumors within the abdominal cavity. A few days postoperatively, massive ascites developed, and right hydronephrosis occurred. Chemotherapy with BEP was started, and after 24 h of administration, oliguria and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) developed. Continuous hemodiafiltration was started, and hemodialysis was initiated following full-dose standard cisplatin and etoposide on days 2-5 of the 1st cycle. After the electrolyte abnormalities and the elevation of creatinine became normal, the patient received an additional three cycles of BEP and achieved complete remission. However, she also suffered from severe non-hematological toxicities, including grade 3 left ventricular dysfunction and grade 4 pulmonary fibrosis. In the case of rapidly progressing and high-volume YST treated with BEP chemotherapy, special attention should be paid to bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity following TLS. Further study is required to optimize drug exposure to ensure efficacy and reduce the risk of side effects in this population. PMID:22127348

  16. Successful radiotherapy in postoperative recurrence of a primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Ishibashi, Naoya; Fukushima, Shoko; Saito, Tsutomu

    2016-04-26

    A woman in her 60s was evaluated for anterior chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 50 mm mass with irregular contrast enhancement in the anterior mediastinum. α-fetoprotein (AFP) level was elevated to 1188 ng/mL. A germ cell tumor was diagnosed, mostly comprising of a yolk sac tumor (YST). Two courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and etoposide (VP16) were administered and surgical tumor resection was then performed. The final diagnosis was YST. CDDP and VP16 were continued postoperatively; however, because the AFP level increased about six months after surgery, the chemotherapy regimen was altered to bleomycin and CPT-11. As the AFP again increased and a CT scan revealed tumor re-enlargement, recurrent YST was diagnosed and radiotherapy was administered. The patient received a total of 60 Gy (2 Gy per fraction). The tumor started to shrink during radiotherapy and AFP levels decreased. By one month post-radiotherapy, AFP levels had normalized and the tumor had disappeared. As of six years after radiotherapy, the patient remains alive without recurrence. Mediastinal YSTs are rare, and treatment usually includes surgery and preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin-based regimens. Successful treatment with radiotherapy has occasionally been reported. Our patient showed recurrence of a YST after surgery and chemotherapy, but achieved long-term survival after radiotherapy. Few patients with YST have undergone radiotherapy, but this approach was successful in our patient. In cases of postoperative recurrent YST resistant to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, together with salvage surgery, may offer a valuable option. PMID:27148423

  17. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary in a young girl with tuberous sclerosis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Riley G; Akande, Manzilat Y; Younes, Houssam K; Jagarpu, Jawahar; Mba, Nkechi; Savell, Van H; Almond, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    •We reported the first tuberous sclerosis patient with an ovarian yolk sac tumor.•Although angiomyolipoma is a common benign tumor in TS patients, abdominal malignancies must be considered. PMID:26075992

  18. Detection of a metastatic lesion and tiny yolk sac tumors in two teenage patients by FDG-PET: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masataka; Kanamori, Yutaka; Takahashi, Miwako; Momose, Toshimitsu; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    We herein report the efficacy of FDG-PET for detecting yolk sac tumors in two teenage patients. One patient had a rare bone metastasis and the other had tiny recurrent lesions at the mediastinum. Both lesions were difficult to detect by conventional diagnostic modalities. In contrast, FDG-PET was very effective for detecting these lesions. Furthermore, the SUVmax of the lesion reflected the tumor activity, which was also suggested by the fluctuating values of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), an established marker of yolk sac tumors. FDG-PET may be a useful procedure to detect tiny and metastatic, pediatric yolk sac tumors. PMID:23801057

  19. Naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat strain. II. Immunogenicity of transplanted tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Middle, J.G.; Embleton, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The immunogenicity of 28 transplanted naturally arising tumors of the inbred WAB/Not rat was investigated at early passages in strictly syngeneic, contemporary animals. Included were nephroblastomas, histologically benign and malignant mammary tumors, soft tissue and skin tumors, 1 lymphoid tumor, and 2 gastrointestinal lesions. In no case was evidence of immunogenicity observed when animals were treated with multiple grafts of irradiated (15,000 rad) tissue or by excision of a growing tumor. A few of these tumors were further investigated by other methods of immunization, including injection at various sites of irradiated cells followed by challenge at different sites and multiple injections of mitomycin C- or Formalin-treated cells. Again no evidence of immunogenicity was seen. Attempts to immunize with viable cells mixed with BCG or Corynebacterium parvum failed due to lack of tumor suppression by these agents. Limited concomitant immunity experiments yielded similarly negative results, except in one case of a fibrosarcoma for which a slight reduction in second tumor growth was observed when primary implants were very large. Some alterations in biologic properties during transplant passage and the incidence of postexcision recurrence and metastatic spread of some of the tumors are described.

  20. Sustainable complete remission in recurrence yolk sac tumor patient treated with tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N A; Wang, P N; Huang, K G; Adlan, A S; Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy. PMID:23781595

  1. Occult Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing α-Fetoprotein Detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Chen, Guoqian; Fu, Zhanli; Li, Ziao; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Malignant mediastinal yolk sac tumor (YST), especially adult onset, is rare. Herein, we report a case of occult mediastinal YST with α-fetoprotein production revealed by F-FDG PET/CT in a young adult, in which the intense tracer uptake was demonstrated in the anterior mediastinum. This case indicates F-FDG PET/CT may be a useful tool for detecting the occult primaries of YST. PMID:27088388

  2. Sugar chain of alpha-fetoprotein produced in human yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Hitoi, A; Tsuchida, Y; Nishi, S; Kobata, A

    1983-10-01

    The carbohydrate moiety of alpha-fetoprotein purified from human yolk sac tumors grown in nude mice was quantitatively released from the polypeptide chain as oligosaccharides by hydrazinolysis. The oligosaccharides were separated into a neutral and two acidic oligosaccharides by paper electrophoresis. By sequential exoglycosidase digestion in combination with per-O-methylation study and periodate oxidation, their structures were determined to be: Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT, Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT; and Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 6(GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4) (Sia alpha 2 leads to 6Gal beta 1 leads to 4GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 2Man alpha 1 leads to 3)Man beta 1 leads to 4 GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4(Fuc alpha 1 leads to 6)GlcNAcOT, in which Gal is galactose, GlcNac is N-acetylglucosamine, Man is mannose, Fuc is fucose, Sia is sialic acid, and Subscript OT is the NaB3H4-reduced oligosaccharide. PMID:6192908

  3. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit (TGCU).

    PubMed

    Kojimahara, Takanobu; Nakahara, Kenji; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Naoki; Terada, Yukihiro; Tase, Toru; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Mizunuma, Hideki; Shoji, Tadahiro; Sugiyama, Toru; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women. With the introduction of cisplatin, YST has been changed from a fatal tumor to a curable tumor. The standard treatment of YST consists of fertility-preserving surgery and 3 or 4 courses of adjuvant combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). However, the long-term prognosis of BEP-treated YST patients has not been well studied. We therefore conducted a retrospective multicenter study to investigate the prognostic factors of 33 YST patients, including 25 patients treated with BEP. The median age at initial treatment was 20 years (range 10-53). There were 15 patients (at stage I), one (stage II), 16 (stage III), and one (stage IV). Nominal and grouped numerical values were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients had unilateral tumor, with right-side predominance (23 patients; P = 0.02). Eighteen patients had pure YST, 13 had mixed germ cell tumor with YST component, and other 2 patients were not specified. Twenty-eight patients received fertility-preserving surgery. Twenty-seven patients had optimal surgery with less than 1 cm residual tumor diameter. Median number of chemotherapy courses was 5. Median follow-up period was 49 months. The cumulative 5-year survival rate was 87%. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant prognostic factors (P < 0.05): stage, tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis. PMID:23912096

  4. Extraosseous osteosarcoma arising in recurrent ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft tissue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shelekhova, Ksenia V; Kazakov, Dmitriĭ V; Michal, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of an osteosarcoma arising in ossifying fibromyxoid tumor. The patient was a 50-year-old man when an initial tumor was identified. It was a soft tissue mass in the left popliteal area, measuring 14x9 cm. The tumor was surgically removed. Histologically, the primary tumor had the appearance of a conventional ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, although there were cellular areas with pleomorphism and high mitotic rate. The neoplasm recurred 4 times over the next 8 years, involving underlying tissues, including skeletal muscle and bone. The recurrent lesions features areas of osteoid, which increased with each recurrence and in the fourth recurrence the tumor had an appearance of extraskeletal osteosarcoma lacking the ossifying fibromyxoid tumor. The tumor generalized that killed the patient with widespread metastatic disease. PMID:23805469

  5. Many postchemotherapy sarcomatous tumors in patients with testicular germ cell tumors are sarcomatoid yolk sac tumors: a study of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Brooke E; Magers, Martin J; Rice, Kevin R; Cole, Cristina D; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Sarcomatoid neoplasms in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) may show diverse lineages and are usually attributed to "transformation" of teratoma, although origin from yolk sac tumor (YST) has also been suggested. We evaluated 33 sarcomatoid tumors from 23 TGCT patients that lacked specific features of a defined sarcoma subtype for a number of features, including: atypia (mild, moderate, severe), cellularity, tumor necrosis, mitotic index, stromal vascularity, cell profile (spindle or epithelioid), and stromal quality (myxoid and/or fibrous). Immunohistochemical staining analyses directed against cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), SALL4, glypican-3 (GPC3), α-fetoprotein (AFP), p63, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD34, MUC4, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, caldesmon, and myogenin were performed. Staining intensity (0=negative, 1=weak, 2=moderate, 3=strong) and extent (0=<1%, 1=1% to 10%, 2=10% to 50%, 3=>50%) were scored. Tumor grade based on the French sarcoma grading system was assessed, with grades 2-3 considered high grade. Tumors with at least moderate intensity and >10% (+) cells for both AE1/AE3 and GPC3 were considered to be sarcomatoid YST (SYST); 22 tumors from 14 patients (ages 18 to 38 y, mean 27 y) met these criteria and were the focus of this study. All SYSTs occurred after chemotherapy (3 to 132 mo after TGCT diagnosis; mean 42.5 mo, median 30.5 mo). They had spindled (100%; 19 predominant) and epithelioid cells (77%; 3 predominant) in myxoid to fibrous stroma. Thirteen exhibited at least focally severe nuclear atypia. Distinctive tumor "ringlets" and intercellular basement membrane deposits (parietal YST differentiation) were common. In addition to positivity for AE1/AE3 and GPC3, 15/22 were SALL4 (+), 10/22 were at least focally CD34 (+), and 2/22 were focally p63 (+). Fifty percent exhibited smooth muscle differentiation as evidenced by desmin (8/19), caldesmon (2/4), and/or SMA (4/6) reactivity. AFP, MUC4, GFAP, and myogenin were

  6. Dedifferentiated gastrointestinal stromal tumor arising de novo from the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jacqueline J; Sinada-Bottros, Laura; Maker, Ajay V; Weisenberg, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and usually display monotonous cytologic features and immunoactivity for CD117. Anaplastic GIST, with pleomorphic cells and loss of CD117, until recently have only been reported in patients with chronic imatinib mesylate treatment. Dedifferentiated GISTs arising de novo is a newly identified entity that may prove to be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 52-year-old female found to have a dedifferentiated GIST without prior imatinib mesylate therapy. This case is the first reported dedifferentiated GIST arising de novo from the small bowel, and at 30cm in greatest diameter, the largest reported to date. Additionally, we demonstrate for the first time the loss of DOG1 in the anaplastic component of the tumor. De novo dedifferentiated GIST is a rare and diagnostically challenging tumor that may be mischaracterized unless considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24484970

  7. Neuroendocrine tumor arising de novo in the left upper thigh: a case report.

    PubMed

    Păun, Ion; Costin, Andrei; Păun, Mariana; Ţenovici, Mihaela; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Constantin, Vlad Denis

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) originate in the neuroendocrine cells of the neural crest (Kulchitsky cells). If neuroendocrine tumors arising in the digestive tract or lung may occasionally result in skin metastases, primary soft tissue or skin NETs are infrequent. The current paper presents the case of an elderly woman patient with neuroendocrine tumors arising de novo in the left upper thigh, accompanied by lymph nodes metastases in the left groin and in the left pelvic sidewall, in close vicinity of the iliac vessels. The diagnosis of NET was performed based on immunohistochemical tests. Such tumors show a slow growth and, generally, have a good prognosis. It is emphasized that complete surgical excision, in some cases associated with adjuvant external radiotherapy is the optimal therapeutic modality in dealing with such lesions. PMID:26429186

  8. Evaluation of an anal sac adenocarcinoma tumor in a Spitz dog

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Javad; Tavassoli, Abbas; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Hassan, Mehdy Aghamohammmad; Samakkhah, Shohreh Alian; Shafiee, Radmehr; Lakzian, Ali; Ghalee, Vahideh Rahmani; Gharebagh, Sonia Shoja

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old emasculated male Spitz with tenesmus and constipation had a subcutaneous mass at the left ventral aspect of the anus with history of polyuria and polydipsia. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Abnormalities in the serum biochemistry panel included a mildly elevated serum cholesterol concentration (7.28 mmol/L; reference interval, 2.70–5.94 mmol/L), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (184 U/L; reference interval, 9–90 U/L), alanine transaminase (122 U/L; reference interval, 5–60 U/L) activity and aspartate aminotransferase (80 U/L; reference interval, 5–55 U/L) activity, severe increased total calcium concentration (16.3 mg/dL; reference interval, 8.2–12.4 mg/dL or 9.3–11.4 mg/dL), and decreased total calcium concentration (3.4 mg/dL, reference interval, 2.5–5.6mg/dL). Furthermore, testing revealed an increased intact parathyroid hormone concentration (38.6 pmol/L; reference interval, 3–17 pmol/L). On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, various types of cells were observed. Most of the cells were oval to polygonal and had elliptical or elongate nuclei and a moderate amount of pale to basophilic cytoplasm. The remaining cells had round to oval nuclei and pale to basophilic cytoplasm. Cells of both types were loosely adhered to each other and were arranged in rosette-like structures. Both neoplastic cell types had fine homogenous chromatin and either a small indistinct nucleolus or no visible nucleolus. Mild anisokaryosis and anisocytosis were observed. Histologically, the mass consists of glandular structures formed by cuboidal cells admixed with bundles of spindle cells. Based on location and histologic features, the final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac, which should be included as a cytologic differential diagnosis when spindle cells and typical epithelial cells are observed in masses in the region of the anal

  9. Osteochondroma of maxillofacial region: Tumor arising from two different developmental bones.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Himanshu; Dabas, Jitender; Kumar, Priyadarshan

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues. Complying with Lichtenstein's hypothesis, the authors are presenting two cases of osteochondromas with one arising from the endochondral bone (the coronoid process of the mandible) and the other from an intramembranous bone (lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid). PMID:27601834

  10. Osteochondroma of maxillofacial region: Tumor arising from two different developmental bones

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Himanshu; Dabas, Jitender; Kumar, Priyadarshan

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondromas are benign bony tumors which are commonly believed to originate by the proliferation of epiphyseal cartilage into the surrounding tissues. However, this hypothesis cannot explain the occurrence of this tumor in the intramembranous bones and soft tissue. Since most of the craniofacial bones have intramembranous origin, the occurrence of this lesion in this territory is considered rare. Contrary to the above hypothesis, Lichtenstein proposed that this entity arises from the metaplastic changes in the periosteum which explains the occurrence of this tumor in endochondral as well as intramembranous bones and also in soft tissues. Complying with Lichtenstein's hypothesis, the authors are presenting two cases of osteochondromas with one arising from the endochondral bone (the coronoid process of the mandible) and the other from an intramembranous bone (lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid). PMID:27601834

  11. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings. PMID:26183264

  12. Primary ovarian neuroendocrine tumor arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Nicolas M; Menon, Mini

    2016-08-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are exceptionally rare entities accounting for approximately 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. This report describes a primary ovarian neuroendocrine tumor arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma in a 65 year-old woman. Macroscopically, the unilateral adnexal tumor was composed of cystic, solid and mucinous elements which resolved into a dual component lesion histologically. The majority of the tumor displayed an organoid architecture with mild to moderate pleomorphism and no discernible mitotic activity, while approximately 10% consisted of sheets and groups of cells with highly pleomorphic nuclei, necrosis and occasional mitoses. Features of a mature cystic teratoma were seen very focally. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong, diffuse positivity for CD56 and synaptophysin. Chromogranin immunonegativity was noted and there was an absence of nuclear β-catenin accumulation. Ki-67 index was 10-12%. Although there is no established diagnostic framework for primary ovarian carcinoid tumors, this case was diagnosed as a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, Grade 2 (intermediate grade), arising in association with a mature cystic teratoma/dermoid cyst. This case highlights the need to develop ovarian diagnostic criteria in this area. PMID:27508272

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in the mons pubis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic origin that mainly arise from the pleura. Although SFTs arising at numerous extrapleural locations have been reported, extrapleural soft tissue SFTs are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SFTs is based on histologic findings. However, given the histological variability of SFTs, immunohistochemical examination becomes important in their diagnosis. Complete surgical resection is the only and a very important prognostic factor and is recommended for the treatment of both benign and malignant SFTs with a curative intent. Here, the author reports what he believes to be the first case of an SFT originating in the mons pubis. PMID:27352579

  14. Peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in salivary glands: A clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Sahejmeet S; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Primary salivary gland peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are uncommon. This study is a retrospective, clinicopathologic review of 9 cases of PNST (5 neurofibromas, 3 schwannomas and 1 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)) arising from the salivary glands, encountered between 1990 and 2015. All patients with neurofibromas were male (ages 1-62 years) and had a single parotid lesion of which 2 were diffuse, 2 plexiform and one mixed diffuse/plexiform. Four had a history of neurofibromatosis I. Four of 5 presented with symptoms related to mass effect including facial swelling, facial drooping, and dysphagia. All underwent de-bulking surgery and recurred due to continued growth. Of the 3 patients with schwannomas, 1 was male and 2 were female (ages 19, 44 and 56 years). One tumor each arose in the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands. Two of 3 presented with soreness and swelling local to the affected gland, especially while chewing. There was no recurrence of these tumors after resection. An MPNST in a male presented as a tender mass in the patient's left parotid; the tumor was resected. There was no evidence of tumor elsewhere in the body. The tumor did not recur in 12 years of follow-up. The most common tumor type in the current series was neurofibroma; most arose in the background of neurofibromatosis type I and all of which recurred after initial subtotal resection. Most PNST arose in the parotid gland. PMID:27402223

  15. Prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein in ovarian yolk sac tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang-Long; Zhang, Ying-Li; Zhu, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prognostic value of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in patients with ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between serum AFP level and prognosis in OYST. A total of 12 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Preoperative AFP was not found to be associated with overall survival (OS) [odds ratio (OR)=0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-1.62] in OYST. However, a high postoperative AFP level was associated with worse OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.48) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43) compared to a low postoperative AFP level in patients with OYST. In addition, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was associated with a decrease in OS (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.50) and RFS (OR=0.21, 95% CI: 0.08-0.57). In conclusion, the postoperative, but not the preoperative, AFP level was found to be a prognostic factor in patients with OYST. In particular, a postoperative AFP level of >1,000 ng/ml was an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with OYST. PMID:25469282

  16. Polyclonal breast cancer metastases arise from collective dissemination of keratin 14-expressing tumor cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kevin J; Padmanaban, Veena; Silvestri, Vanesa; Schipper, Koen; Cohen, Joshua D; Fairchild, Amanda N; Gorin, Michael A; Verdone, James E; Pienta, Kenneth J; Bader, Joel S; Ewald, Andrew J

    2016-02-16

    Recent genomic studies challenge the conventional model that each metastasis must arise from a single tumor cell and instead reveal that metastases can be composed of multiple genetically distinct clones. These intriguing observations raise the question: How do polyclonal metastases emerge from the primary tumor? In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to demonstrate that polyclonal seeding by cell clusters is a frequent mechanism in a common mouse model of breast cancer, accounting for >90% of metastases. We directly observed multicolored tumor cell clusters across major stages of metastasis, including collective invasion, local dissemination, intravascular emboli, circulating tumor cell clusters, and micrometastases. Experimentally aggregating tumor cells into clusters induced a >15-fold increase in colony formation ex vivo and a >100-fold increase in metastasis formation in vivo. Intriguingly, locally disseminated clusters, circulating tumor cell clusters, and lung micrometastases frequently expressed the epithelial cytoskeletal protein, keratin 14 (K14). RNA-seq analysis revealed that K14(+) cells were enriched for desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion complex genes, and were depleted for MHC class II genes. Depletion of K14 expression abrogated distant metastases and disrupted expression of multiple metastasis effectors, including Tenascin C (Tnc), Jagged1 (Jag1), and Epiregulin (Ereg). Taken together, our findings reveal K14 as a key regulator of metastasis and establish the concept that K14(+) epithelial tumor cell clusters disseminate collectively to colonize distant organs. PMID:26831077

  17. Polyclonal breast cancer metastases arise from collective dissemination of keratin 14-expressing tumor cell clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin J.; Padmanaban, Veena; Silvestri, Vanesa; Schipper, Koen; Cohen, Joshua D.; Fairchild, Amanda N.; Gorin, Michael A.; Verdone, James E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Bader, Joel S.; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genomic studies challenge the conventional model that each metastasis must arise from a single tumor cell and instead reveal that metastases can be composed of multiple genetically distinct clones. These intriguing observations raise the question: How do polyclonal metastases emerge from the primary tumor? In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to demonstrate that polyclonal seeding by cell clusters is a frequent mechanism in a common mouse model of breast cancer, accounting for >90% of metastases. We directly observed multicolored tumor cell clusters across major stages of metastasis, including collective invasion, local dissemination, intravascular emboli, circulating tumor cell clusters, and micrometastases. Experimentally aggregating tumor cells into clusters induced a >15-fold increase in colony formation ex vivo and a >100-fold increase in metastasis formation in vivo. Intriguingly, locally disseminated clusters, circulating tumor cell clusters, and lung micrometastases frequently expressed the epithelial cytoskeletal protein, keratin 14 (K14). RNA-seq analysis revealed that K14+ cells were enriched for desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion complex genes, and were depleted for MHC class II genes. Depletion of K14 expression abrogated distant metastases and disrupted expression of multiple metastasis effectors, including Tenascin C (Tnc), Jagged1 (Jag1), and Epiregulin (Ereg). Taken together, our findings reveal K14 as a key regulator of metastasis and establish the concept that K14+ epithelial tumor cell clusters disseminate collectively to colonize distant organs. PMID:26831077

  18. Ganglioglioma arising from olfactory sheath: A rare site of an uncommon tumor.

    PubMed

    Singla, Navneet; Gupta, Kirti; Kapoor, Ankur

    2016-06-01

    Gangliogliomas are rare slow growing tumors with a mixed population of dysplastic ganglion cells and glial components, reported at variable sites within the central nervous system, including the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, the striatum, cerebellum, pituitary and pineal glands as well as the spinal cord. Rarely gangliogliomas have been reported arising within the cranial nerves, including the optic and trigeminal nerve. We present the first patient, to our knowledge, where such a tumor originated from the olfactory sheath. Migration defects leading to entrapment of sensory neurons during development is believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of these lesions. The extent of surgical extirpation and histopathological anaplasia are important prognosticators. While gangliogliomas are rare tumors, it is crucial to consider them in the differential diagnosis of non-enhancing, poorly localized lesions along the cranial nerves. PMID:26874814

  19. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor Arising from Ciliary Body Treated by Local Resection

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hiroshi; Usui, Yoshihiko; Nagao, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Aims Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a mesenchymal neoplasm originating from perivascular myoid cells. We report a case of PEComa arising from the ciliary body. Methods Case report. Results A 13-year-old girl was referred to our department with a clinical diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma in her right eye. Her visual acuity was 20/600 OD. Slit-lamp examination revealed a brown tumor behind the iris. The ocular fundus could not be observed due to a cataract. Ultrasonography depicted an oval mass approximately 10 mm in diameter at the ciliary body. The tumor was successfully treated by local resection, and the patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of the excised tumor were compatible with the diagnosis of PEComa of the ciliary body. No local recurrence of the tumor was observed for over 4 years after surgery. Conclusion A very rare case of PEComa of the ciliary body was successfully treated by local resection, with favorable visual outcome and no recurrence for several years. PEComa can be differentiated from other ciliary body tumors by immunohistochemical study.

  20. Giant cell tumor of bone arising in long bones possibly originates from the metaphyseal region

    PubMed Central

    FUTAMURA, NAOHISA; URAKAWA, HIROSHI; TSUKUSHI, SATOSHI; ARAI, EISUKE; KOZAWA, EIJI; ISHIGURO, NAOKI; NISHIDA, YOSHIHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a primary benign bone tumor with a locally aggressive character. Definitive descriptions of the site of origin for this type of tumor are not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the site of origin of GCTB of long bones with regards to epiphyseal lines by means of radiographic examination. For that purpose, plain X-ray scans of 71 GCTBs arising in long bones were retrospectively reviewed. The tumor locations were the distal femur in 31 cases, proximal femur in 11 cases, proximal tibia in 13 cases, distal radius in 6 cases, proximal humerus in 5 cases and proximal fibula in 5 cases. The vertical center (VC) of the tumor was determined with X-ray anteroposterior view, and the correlation between the VC and the epiphyseal line, and between the distance from the epiphyseal line to the VC and tumor area or volume were analyzed using a regression model equation based on scatter plot diagrams. The VC of the tumor was located in the metaphyseal region in 57 cases, in the epiphyseal line in 11 cases and in the epiphyseal region in 3 cases. In cases of GCTB located in the distal femur or proximal tibia, significant correlations between the distance from the VC to the epiphyseal line and tumor area or volume were identified. The site of origin of GCTB was estimated to be located in the metaphyseal region. GCTB often occurs in mature patients, which renders it challenging to estimate the true site of origin of this lesion, since the metaphyseal line has disappeared in mature patients. The results of the present study suggest that GCTB possibly originates in the metaphyseal region. PMID:27073530

  1. Galectin-3 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Tumors Arising from Malignant Endothelia1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kim D; Glinskii, Olga V; Mossine, Valeri V; Turk, James R; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Anthony, Douglas C; Henry, Carolyn J; Huxley, Virginia H; Glinsky, Gennadi V; Pienta, Kenneth J; Raz, Avraham; Glinsky, Vladislav V

    2007-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (ASA) in humans and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, and poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression and metastasis, endothelial cell biology and angiogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA and canine HSA and could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10) and canine HSA (17 of 17) samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP) and lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL), caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP and LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA and identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells. PMID:17786185

  2. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin’s tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25–69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25-69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  4. Molecular Profiling of a Rare Rosette-Forming Glioneuronal Tumor Arising in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Mackay, Alan; de Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Berardinelli, Gustavo Noriz; Torrieri, Raul; Clara, Carlos Afonso; Feltrin, Leonir Terezinha; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Jones, Chris; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a rare and recently recognized brain tumor entity. It is histologically composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in the spinal cord. Following an immunohistochemistry validation, we further performed an extensive genomic analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. We observed the loss of 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 and 19p13.3 (encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in several chromosomes. Additionally, on chromosome 7, we identified the presence of the KIAA1549:BRAF gene fusion, which was further validated by RT-PCR and FISH. Across all mutational analyses, we detected and validated the somatic mutations of the genes MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of this RGNT suggests that MAPK pathway and methylome changes, driven by KIAA1549:BRAF fusion and MLL2 mutation, respectively, could be associated with the development of this rare tumor entity. PMID:26371886

  5. Incidental Finding of a Neuroendocrine Tumor Arising from Meckel Diverticulum During Hernia Repair - A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Costin, Radu; Orban, Carmen; Iliescu, Laura; Hurjui, Ioan; Hurjui, Marcela; Niculescu, Nicoleta; Cristea, Mirela; Balescu, Irina

    2016-04-01

    Meckel diverticulum is the most common abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract arising from an incomplete obliteration of the vitelline duct during the intrauterine life. Although tumor development in Meckel diverticulum is not a common situation, it can occur due to the persistence of cellular islets with gastric, pancreatic or intestinal origin. The presence of a neuroendocrine tumor arising from Meckel diverticulum is even scarcer. We present the case of a 59-year-old patient in whom a Meckel diverticulum was found during surgery for inguinal hernia; the histopathological and immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with low mitotic index. PMID:27069171

  6. Giant cell tumor of the pancreas arising in the ovarian-like stroma of a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bergman, S; Medeiros, L J; Radr, T; Mangham, D C; Lewandrowski, K B

    1995-08-01

    We describe a malignant mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas with ovarian-like stroma within which an osteoclast-like giant cell rich tumor arose. This rare tumor had a unique immunohistochemical profile with the giant cells staining for vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, and the monocyte/macrophage marker CD68, whereas the mucinous epithelium stained for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin. The immunohistochemical findings are consistent with two lines of differentiation, one epithelial and the other suggesting mesenchymal differentiation of the giant cell tumor with an immunophenotype similar to giant cell tumor of bone. The coexistence of these two rare tumors suggests that they are histogenetically related. The findings of a giant cell tumor arising in the ovarian stroma indicates that the stroma of mucinous tumors is not always an innocuous component of the tumor. PMID:7594774

  7. Ovarian mucinous tumors arising from mature cystic teratomas--a molecular genetic approach for understanding the cellular origin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kaho; Yamashita, Yoriko; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Takahashi, Koji; Hashimoto, Katsunori; Miyata, Tomoko; Kawai, Kumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagasaka, Tetsuro

    2014-04-01

    Mucinous tumors of the ovary are frequently associated with mature cystic teratomas, and it has been speculated that the mucinous tumors arise from teratoma components. The cellular origins of mature cystic teratomas are believed to be post-meiotic ovarian germ cells, and the analysis of microsatellite markers such as short tandem repeats is suitable for determining the cellular origin of tumors. In this study, we analyzed 3 ovarian mature cystic teratomas, all of which were associated with simultaneous ovarian mucinous tumors within the same ovary. Two of the 3 mucinous tumors were intestinal-type and the other was endocervical type. A laser capture microdissection technique was used to separate the epithelial component of the mucinous tumor, the components of the mature cystic teratoma, and control ovarian somatic tissue. Using short tandem repeat analysis based on 6 markers (D20S480, D6S2439, D6S1056, D9S1118, D4S2639, and D17S1290), we could distinguish the germ cell (homozygous) or somatic (heterozygous) origin of a given component in each sample. The epithelial components of the intestinal-type mucinous tumors in cases 1 and 2 were homozygous, and the epithelial component in case 3 (endocervical type) was heterozygous. All teratomatous components were homozygous, and the control components were heterozygous. In addition, we analyzed 3 mature cystic teratomas without mucinous tumors, and all 3 were homozygous in the tumor component. Our data suggest that the origin of mucinous tumors in the ovary may differ among histological subtypes, and intestinal-type mucinous tumors may arise from mature cystic teratomas, although endocervical-type mucinous tumors may not. PMID:24485845

  8. Unusual Finding of a Tumor Thrombus Arising From Osteosarcoma Detected on 18F-NaF PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Purandare, Nilendu; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-06-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common bone sarcoma in adolescents and children. Tumor thrombus arising from osteosarcoma is rare. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl with osteosarcoma of the right femur, in whom the F-NaF PET/CT was done for initial staging to look for skeletal metastases. The scan showed abnormal increased tracer uptake in the primary tumor and the right common femoral and external iliac vein representing a tumor thrombus. Our case emphasizes the importance of extraosseous findings on F-NaF PET/CT, which may result in important management changes. PMID:26909709

  9. Giant Cell Tumor Presenting as A Spindle Shaped Tumor Arising From the Costovertebral Junction at D7, d8, d9 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Kale, Sachin; Chaudhary, Prasad; Dhar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor accounts for 5 to 9 percent of all primary bony tumors. Giant cell tumors are usually found in the long bones, most often the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal radius and rarely arising from the ribs. In this paper, we describe a case of giant cell tumor presented at an unusual location of the costovertebral junction as a dumbbell shaped tumor. Case Report: Authors report a case of a 27 year old male patient with a giant cell tumor arising from the costovertebral junction at D7, D8, and D9 levels compressing the cord. Well-defined osteolysis with nonsclerotic borders were visualized on radiographs and CT scan images. Intermediate signal intensity on T1 sequences and central high signal and peripheral intermediate signal intensity on T2 sequences was visualized on MRI images. CT guided biopsy was reported as a moderately vascular lesion with spindle cell neoplasm suggestive of schwannoma. The cord was decompressed, tumor mass was surgically resected and stabilization with instrumentation was done. Histopatholgy was suggestive of giant cell tumor. Conclusion: Giant cell tumor may be included in the differential diagnosis in a well-defined lytic lesion when involving the costovertebral junction presenting as a spindle cell tumor on biopsy reports. PMID:27299118

  10. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) Arising From the Acoustic Nerve in a Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingfu; Liu, Xueyong; Lin, Zhixiong; Chen, Yupeng; Wang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are rare, highly malignant central nervous system tumors that predominantly occur in young children. A 22-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of relapsing tinnitus and gradual hearing loss. Neuroimaging revealed an enhanced intrinsic left internal auditory canal mass. The patient underwent radiotherapy treatment. Three years later, the tumor size continued to increase, as observed by imaging, and ultimately evolved into the left cerebellopontine angle. As a consequence, a total tumor resection was performed, and a pathological diagnosis of AT/RT was made. Aggressive radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment continued; however, the tumor recurred within 11 months after the total tumor resection. The patient died within 4 months of the second operation. Histopathologically, the tumor contained characteristic rhabdoid cells with areas that resembled a classical primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Immunostaining showed loss of INI1 protein expression in tumor cells, and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a hemizygous deletion of the hSNF5/INI1 gene region on 22q11.2. This is the first report of an AT/RT that arised from the acoustic nerve in a young adult. Despite manifold diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the prognosis of patients with AT/RT remains poor. PMID:25634176

  11. Malignant proliferating pilar tumors arising in KID syndrome: a report of two patients.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Gurston G; Mumm, Christina; Grau, Renee; Crowson, A Neil; Shurman, Daniel L; Benedetto, Paul; Allen, Pamela; Lovelace, Kelli; Smith, David W; Frieden, Ilona; Hybarger, C Patrick; Richard, Gabriele

    2007-04-01

    We report on two young adults with KID syndrome and follicular hyperkeratosis, hidradenitis suppurativa of the groin, progressive development of proliferative pilar cysts and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, who developed metastatic malignant pilar tumors. Based on our findings, we believe that cancer surveillance in patients with KID syndrome should include screening for pilar tumors and their early removal to avoid development of malignant proliferating pilar tumors with poor prognosis. PMID:17330861

  12. The yolk sac tumor: reflections on a remarkable neoplasm and two of the many intrigued by it-Gunnar Teilum and Aleksander Talerman-and the bond it formed between them.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    One of the most remarkable of human neoplasms, the yolk sac tumor, is reviewed, emphasizing its histologic diversity and differential diagnosis, occurrence at many sites, and the shared passion for this unique neoplasm of Dr Gunnar Teilum (who deserves almost all credit for delineation of the nature of the tumor and its features) and Dr Aleksander Talerman (who made his own contribution to our knowledge of it) and the friendship it helped forge between these 2 distinguished pathologists. In a unique series of articles, beginning in the early 1940s, Teilum delineated the distinctive features of the neoplasm and recognized that it was 1 of 2 initially included as "mesonephroma ovarii" by Dr Walter Schiller in 1939 (the second we now know as clear cell carcinoma). Teilum named the tumor "endodermal sinus tumor" because it came to his attention that papillary formations common in the yolk sac tumor resembled the endodermal sinuses of the rat placenta. He focused on the histogenesis of the tumor and its morphologic features culminating in a classic paper in Cancer in 1959. Although Teilum and others recognized that yolk sac tumor could be a component of mixed germ cell tumors, Talerman was one of the first to emphasize that, particularly in the testis, it was common to see yolk sac tumor as a component of a mixed germ cell tumor. Teilum, working in Copenhagen, and Talerman, when the former was alive, working in Rotterdam, developed a warm friendship in part due to their great interest in the yolk sac tumor, although it also extended to other areas of gonadal neoplasia and indeed beyond the boundaries of medicine when they shared time together. The typical histologic features of the yolk sac tumor are the reticular-microcystic patterns Teilum described, but various other patterns, including solid and even rarer ones such as glandular and hepatoid, are now well known. There are some interesting variations in the age distribution of this tumor at various sites: for example

  13. A Case of Malignant Peripheral Sheath Tumor Arising from Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Ju; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2008-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a term encompassing tumors previously diagnosed as malignant schwannoma, malignant neurilemmoma, neurogenic sarcoma, and neurofibrosarcoma The occurrence rate of MPNST in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients is known to be about 4.6%. Tumors occurring in this particular group have a worse prognosis in that they occur at an earlier age, are more centrally located, tend to be of a larger size and show more metastases and recurrences. We present a typical case of MPNST in a 36-year-old man with NF type 1, which occurred on the left buttock. A PET-CT showed findings of possible inguinal lymph node metastasis and a lymph node biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with wide surgical resection and is undergoing adjuvant radiation therapy. PMID:27303156

  14. Asymptotic profile of a parabolic-hyperbolic system with boundary effect arising from tumor angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Ming; Peng, Hongyun; Wang, Zhi-An

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a parabolic-hyperbolic system on the half space R+ with boundary effect. The system is derived from a singular chemotaxis model describing the initiation of tumor angiogenesis. We show that the solution of the system subject to appropriate boundary conditions converges to a traveling wave profile as time tends to infinity if the initial data is a small perturbation around the wave which is shifted far away from the boundary but its amplitude can be arbitrarily large.

  15. Genetic analysis of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants arising in crown gall tumors.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, C; Canfield, M L; Moore, L W; Dion, P

    1995-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of the host on the genetic stability of bacterial plant pathogens. Crown gall, a plant disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, may represent a useful model to study this effect. Indeed, our previous observations on the natural occurrence and origin of nonpathogenic agrobacteria suggest that the host plant might induce loss of pathogenicity in populations of A. tumefaciens. Here we report that five different A. tumefaciens strains initially isolated from apple tumors produced up to 99% nonpathogenic mutants following their reintroduction into axenic apple plants. Two of these five strains were also found to produce mutants on pear and/or blackberry plants. Generally, the mutants of the apple isolate D10B/87 were altered in the tumor-inducing plasmid, harboring either deletions in this plasmid or point mutations in the regulatory virulence gene virG. Most of the mutants originating from the same tumor appeared to be of clonal origin, implying that the host plants influenced agrobacterial populations by favoring growth of nonpathogenic mutants over that of wild-type cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by coinoculation of apple rootstocks with strain D10B/87 and a nonpathogenic mutant. PMID:7601840

  16. Two Cases of Sarcoma Arising in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Treated with Denosumab

    PubMed Central

    Broehm, Cory Julian; Garbrecht, Erika L.; Wood, Jeff; Bocklage, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a generally benign, but often locally aggressive, neoplasm of bone, with a propensity for recurrence. Sarcomatous transformation is rare and typically occurs with a history of recurrences and radiation treatment. Denosumab, an inhibitor of the RANK ligand involved in bone resorption in GCT, is increasingly used in treatment of recurrent or unresectable giant cell tumor of bone. We report two cases of sarcomatous transformation of GCT to osteosarcoma in patients receiving denosumab. One was a 59-year-old male with a 12-year history of GCT and multiple recurrences taking denosumab for 2.5 years. The second case was in a 56-year-old male with a seven-year history of GCT taking denosumab for six months. Review of the literature shows one case report of malignant transformation of GCT in a patient being treated with denosumab. As the use of denosumab for treatment of GCT will likely increase, larger, controlled studies are needed to ascertain whether denosumab may play a role in malignant transformation of giant cell tumor of bone. PMID:26798348

  17. Microfocus of Anaplastic Carcinoma Arising in Mural Nodule of Ovarian Mucinous Borderline Tumor With Very Rapid and Fatal Outcome.

    PubMed

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Ramzan, Amin; Walia, Saloni; Pham, Huyen Q; Yessaian, Annie

    2016-07-01

    A 36-yr-old woman presented with abdominal discomfort. A computed tomography scan revealed a large left cystic and solid pelvic mass without evidence of metastatic disease. Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and tumor staging was performed. Grossly, the ovarian mass measured 20×18 cm and the cut surface was multiloculated with 1 single mural nodule measuring 2×1.5 cm. The histologic diagnosis of ovarian mucinous borderline tumor with a microfocus of anaplastic carcinoma arising in sarcoma-like mural nodule, FIGO Stage IA was rendered. After 3 mo, the patient returned with symptomatic anemia. A computed tomography scan showed enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. Image-guided biopsy of the pelvic lymph node showed a metastatic anaplastic carcinoma from her primary ovarian carcinoma. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient developed fulminant disseminated intravascular coagulation within <1 wk of her presentation which was fatal. PMID:26598983

  18. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) Arising From Ependymoma: A Type of AT/RT Secondarily Developing From Other Primary Central Nervous System Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nobusawa, Sumihito; Hirato, Junko; Sugai, Tsutomu; Okura, Naoki; Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Yamada, Seiji; Ikota, Hayato; Nakazato, Yoichi; Yokoo, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare, aggressive, embryonal brain tumors that occur most frequently in very young children; they are characterized by rhabdoid cells and loss of INI1 protein nuclear expression. Here, we report the case of a 24-year-old man with a left frontal lobe tumor that was composed mainly of rhabdoid cells showing loss of INI1 nuclear reactivity and polyphenotypic immunohistochemical expression, with a small INI1-positive component of ependymoma. Array comparative genomic hybridization separately conducted for each histologically distinct component revealed 22 shared identical copy number alterations, including loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 22q containing the INI1 locus. Furthermore, we found the C11orf95-RELA fusion gene, the genetic hallmark of supratentorial ependymomas, not only in the ependymoma component but also in the AT/RT component by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, suggesting that the AT/RT cells secondarily progressed from the preexisting ependymoma cells. A second genetic inactivating event in the INI1 gene was not detected in the AT/RT component. There are several reported cases of AT/RT (or INI1-negative rhabdoid tumors) arising in the setting of other primary brain tumors (gangliogliomas, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, and high-grade gliomas), but the present case PMID:26769252

  19. A Rare Case of Endolymphatic Sac Tumour: Clinicopathologic Study and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Emanuele; Amadori, Maurizio; Armato, Enrico; Pavon, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) is a rare neoplasm arising from the intrapetrous portion of the endolymphatic sac, either isolated or in association with the von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report a sporadic case of ELST with an overview of the literature and a discussion of clinic-radiological, histopathologic, and surgical findings. Case Report. A young woman presented with a progressive hearing loss in the left ear. Otoscopy showed a reddish, bleeding hypotympanic mass. CT demonstrated an expansile lytic mastoid lesion extending to the middle ear, with bone erosion. MRI confirmed a lesion of increased signal on T1-weighted sequences. The patient underwent a canal wall-down tympanoplasty with complete removal of the tumor. Histopathology was consistent with a papillary ELST. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin and chromogranin A. Conclusion. This paper highlights the rarity of ELST, the need for an accurate neuroradiological and immunohistochemical study at the early stages, and the timeliness of surgical treatment. PMID:24991442

  20. Rare Skin Adnexal and Melanocytic Tumors Arising in Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratomas: A Report of 3 Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Moulla, Alexandra A; Magdy, Nesreen; Francis, Nicholas; Taube, Janis; Ronnett, Brigitte M; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-09-01

    Mature teratoma of the ovary is the most common primary ovarian tumor accounting for 15% (10%-20%) of all ovarian neoplasms. Skin and skin adnexal structures are the most common elements identified in mature teratomas. Benign and malignant skin tumors can arise in ovarian teratomas, the most common being epithelial tumors. Melanocytic and adnexal tumors developing in a teratoma are rare and can be easily overlooked. We report 3 cases and review melanocytic and skin adnexal tumors encountered in ovarian teratomas. PMID:26974995

  1. Submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER) for the treatment of a case of huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Wei, Li-Li; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Sha, Qi-Mei; Huang, Ya; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Xu, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Endoscopic Interventional Treatment is of little trauma and less complications in the treatment of esophageal tumor and leads to faster recovery and fewer days of hospitalization. This study was aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic interventional therapy for huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria. Methods: The patient was treated by submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER). Results: The huge esophageal tumor was resected completely by STER technique, with little trauma and less complications. The size of the resected tumor was 5.5×3.5×3.0 cm. Conclusion: Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection is a safe and efficient technique for treating Huge Esophageal Tumor originating from muscularis propria layer. PMID:26629086

  2. Giant dacryocystomucopyocele in an adult: a review of lacrimal sac enlargements with clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn J P; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Rubin, Peter A D

    2012-09-01

    Dacryocystocele is an umbrella term that refers to any diffuse, centrifugal enlargement of the lacrimal sac that results from combined proximal and distal obstructions in the tear drainage system. In adults, the presence of mucus in the cyst's contents leads to the modified term of dacryocystomucocele. If infection supervenes, which almost always occurs in protracted cases and adds the clinical dimension of a dacryocystitis, then a dacryocystomucopyocele is created. Dacryocystocele and its congeners are much rarer in adults than in children. We describe a 95-year-old woman with an acquired, enormous dacryocystomucopyocele, larger than any previously reported, that developed over 25 years and produced globe displacement with an associated conspicuous enlargement of the nasolacrimal duct. The aspirated sac fluid was mucopurulent and harbored low-virulence bacterial organisms of the Prevotella and Petosteptococcus species. In infants, dacryocystoceles are transitory as the result of spontaneously reversible factors. In adults, secondary proximal irreversible fibrotic strictures or bony changes around the nasolacrimal duct typically arise from chronic inflammation or low grade infection. Other possible causations of duct obstruction, in addition to florid mucosal edema, include encroachment on the duct by enlarged contiguous ethmoid air cells; a sinus mucocele or sinusitis; idiopathic, post-traumatic or dysplastic bony remodeling of the wall of the duct; and a neoplasm-all of which require some form of surgical intervention, typically dacryocystorhinostomy. The differential diagnosis of medial canthal swellings centered on the lacrimal sac spans malformations, diverticula, dermoid/epidermoid cysts, sac inflammations/infections causing swelling without generalized sac enlargement, encephaloceles and primary epithelial tumors, as well as extrinsic tumors impinging on the sac. PMID:22784678

  3. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  4. Primary extragastrointestinal stromal tumor arising in the vaginal wall: Significant clinicopathological characteristics of a rare aggressive soft tissue neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Yu; Kan, Yun-Zhen; Zhang, Meng-Yang; Sun, Ting-Yi; Kong, Ling-Fei

    2016-04-16

    Gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the GI tract but also occurs with a lower frequency in extragastrointestinal regions and is called extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST). We report an unusual case of EGIST presenting as a vaginal mass. A 41-year-old woman presented with a gradually enlarging vaginal mass for the last 2 years. Physical examination revealed an elliptical, non-tender mass about 7.5 cm × 7 cm in size in the posterior vaginal wall and was resected completely. Under histological examination, the tumor showed a spindle cell type with coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage and high mitotic count. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed tumor cells were positive for DOG1, CD117, CD34 and p53 protein. Ki-67 labeling was 8%. Genetic analysis showed a deletion of exon 11 of the c-kit gene at codons 557-558. EGISTs should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with solid mass of the vaginal wall. PMID:27099863

  5. Primary extragastrointestinal stromal tumor arising in the vaginal wall: Significant clinicopathological characteristics of a rare aggressive soft tissue neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiu-Yu; Kan, Yun-Zhen; Zhang, Meng-Yang; Sun, Ting-Yi; Kong, Ling-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumor is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the GI tract but also occurs with a lower frequency in extragastrointestinal regions and is called extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST). We report an unusual case of EGIST presenting as a vaginal mass. A 41-year-old woman presented with a gradually enlarging vaginal mass for the last 2 years. Physical examination revealed an elliptical, non-tender mass about 7.5 cm × 7 cm in size in the posterior vaginal wall and was resected completely. Under histological examination, the tumor showed a spindle cell type with coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage and high mitotic count. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed tumor cells were positive for DOG1, CD117, CD34 and p53 protein. Ki-67 labeling was 8%. Genetic analysis showed a deletion of exon 11 of the c-kit gene at codons 557-558. EGISTs should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with solid mass of the vaginal wall. PMID:27099863

  6. Drastic initial response and subsequent response to two ALK inhibitors in a patient with a highly aggressive ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor arising in the pleural cavity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Akira; Murakami, Haruyasu; Serizawa, Masakuni; Wakuda, Kazushige; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Koh, Yasuhiro; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Takashi; Endo, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2016-09-01

    A 57-year-old male current smoker was diagnosed with an aggressive variant of ALK-rearranged inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) arising in the pleural cavity. First line treatment with ASP3026 was initiated at a dose of 125mg once daily. A follow-up CT scan revealed drastic regression of the pleural lesion. After disease progression with ASP3026 treatment, LDK378 (ceritinib) was initiated at a dose of 750mg once daily. A follow-up CT scan revealed a second drastic regression of the pleural lesion. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that this case represents the use of serum hyaluronan levels to assist in monitoring of treatment efficacy in an IMT. Herein, we present the first case of a patient with a highly aggressive ALK-rearranged IMT arising in the pleural cavity, who showed both initial and subsequent drastic response to two ALK inhibitors while being monitored for serum hyaluronan. PMID:27565932

  7. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-12

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  8. Recent developments in SAC2000

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M

    1997-07-01

    Before discussing recent developments in SAC2000, I will summarize what SAC2000 is/does. SAC2000 is the rebirth and evolution of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) developed during the 1980`s for a variety of geophysical applications. Primary funding for the development of SAC2000 has been through the LLNL as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CTBT R&D program. The primary development goals for SAC2000 have been to meet the seismic signal processing and analysis needs of the DOE CTBT R&D teams and the rest of the CTBT R&D community. SAC2000`s strengths include its ability to process a diverse range of data types, its extensive, well documented signal processing capabilities (both on-line and on the web at http://www-ep.es.llnl.gov/tvp/sac.html), its macro language, and its ability to do both branch and interactive processing. Its extensive usage (over 200 institutions worldwide) had also made it much easier for researchers to develop collaborative research projects. SAC2000`s extensive signal processing capabilities include: data inspection, signal correction, and quality control, unary and binary data operations, travel-time analysis, spectral analysis including high-resolution spectral estimation, spectrograms and binary sonograms, and array and three-component analysis. Recent development in SAC2000 include: enhanced compatibility with the CSS3.0 database schema, complete compatibility with the widely used SEED data format instrument responses, map making capabilities via an interface to GMT, a new three component polarization and phase identification tool, an external interface that allows users to define their own commands, and an interface to MATLAB that allows the user to use MATLAB commands and scripts on SAC data from within SAC2000. We have also implemented a number of commands to enhance user efficiency and numerous improvements and enhancements to many individual SAC commands. Current development in SAC

  9. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors arising in the pancreas: the first case report in Asia and a review of the 14 total reported cases in the world

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xinting; Liang, Naixin; Yang, Huayu; Lu, Xin; Yang, Zhiying; Du, Shunda; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Zhong, Shouxian; Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    . Conclusions Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors can arise in pancreas. The diagnosis and treatment should be made as early as possible, aggressive surgeries for the primary and recurrences may help to improve the prognosis. PMID:24570916

  10. Papillary Tumor of the Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Bernhard; Kronsbein, Hartmut; Kahle, Gabriele; Prescher, Andreas; Draf, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Papillary tumors of the middle and inner ear have been interpreted histogenetically in many ways. In 1989 Heffner proposed the endolymphatic sac epithelium as a possible origin. These rare tumors are clinically aggressive and can cause extensive temporal bone destruction. Because of this behavior, endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) were classified as low-grade adenocarcinomas, although metastasis has not yet been documented. Two papillary neoplasms of the temporal bone are presented, which we believe are examples of adenomatous tumors arising from the epithelium of the endolymphatic sac. One was associated with a pituitary adenoma. A third case of a papillary middle ear neoplasm is described that shows histologic features similar to the other two, but it was located in the tympanum and had no connection to the endolymphatic sac. This report focuses on clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings of papillary tumors of the temporal bone with additional emphasis on modern concepts of histogenesis and aspects of differential diagnosis. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167601

  11. Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic response: Infections, tumors, and immune disorders arising on the site of healed herpetic infection.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Vincenzo; Ruocco, Eleonora; Brunetti, Giampiero; Russo, Teresa; Gambardella, Alessio; Wolf, Ronni

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1/HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have several characteristics in common. Both are epidermoneurotropic, cause skin eruptions accompanied by sensory symptoms (itch, pain), damage peripheral sensory nerve fibers and cutaneous nerve endings, and interfere with neuromediator release, which can alter local mechanisms of immune control. For this reason, herpes-infected areas may become a preferential location for the subsequent onset of immunity-related skin disorders (infections, tumors, and dysimmune reactions), an event first reported by a neurologist and focused on by two brothers, a dermatologist and a pediatrician. The phenomenon therefore named Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic response (PHIR) refers to the occurrence of a new skin disorder at the site of a previous and already healed herpetic eruption (herpes zoster in most cases). Until now, we have been able to gather 189 well-documented cases of PHIR (all reported in the reference section), but our list is far from being complete. Some of the most emblematic cases are briefly described here. In some circumstances, the opposite of PHIR occurs, with diffuse skin disorders or eruptions that selectively spare herpes-infected areas (Wolf's post-herpetic isotopic nonresponse). Experimental investigations with patch testing have been performed in seven patients who were sensitized to nickel and had had herpes zoster in the past years. The tests were carried out bilaterally on the affected dermatomes and on the unaffected contralateral ones. The uneven immune responses we obtained have shown that the immune behavior of an herpes zoster-affected dermatome can be different from that of the corresponding contralateral dermatome, thus supporting the existence of immune dysregulation in herpes-infected areas. PMID:25160097

  12. Atypical Spitz Tumor Arising on a Congenital Linear Plaque-Type Blue Nevus: A Case Report With a Review of the Literature on Plaque-Type Blue Nevus

    PubMed Central

    Guadagno, Antonio; Campisi, Caterina; Cabiddu, Francesco; Kutzner, Heinz; Parodi, Aurora; Fiocca, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The plaque-type blue nevus (PTBN) is a rare variant of blue nevus, of which only a few reports are described. A nodular growth within a preexistent PTBN should always alert to the possibility of malignant transformation. The authors report the first case of an atypical Spitz tumor arising on a congenital linear PTBN in a 60-year-old woman. The diagnosis of “atypical Spitz tumor” is here used to describe a microscopic “gray zone” in which it is not possible to differentiate with adequate certainty between a Spitz nevus and a spitzoid melanoma. This report adds to and summarizes the small body of literature describing PTBN and discusses diagnostic and clinical implications. PMID:25943242

  13. Pituitary carcinoma with endolymphatic sac metastasis.

    PubMed

    Balili, Irida; Sullivan, Steven; Mckeever, Paul; Barkan, Ariel

    2014-06-01

    Pituitary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a metastatic lesion(s) in a location non-contiguous with the original pituitary tumor. The mechanism(s) of malignant transformation are not known. A 15 year-old male was diagnosed in 1982 with a pituitary macroadenoma and acromegaly (random GH 67 ng/ml and no suppression by oral glucose). His prolactin was normal between 18 and 23 ng/ml. Transcranial resection in July 1983 was followed by radiation therapy. The tumor was immunopositive for GH and prolactin. The proliferation MIB-1 index was 0-1%. With aqueous Octreotide 100 mcg 4× daily both GH and IGF-1 became normal. The patient was lost to follow-up and was treated by his local physician. In 2001, his IGF-1 level was 1271 ng/ml, and his random GH was 1.8-2.4 ng/ml by ILMA despite progressive increase in the dose of Sandostatin LAR to 140 mg/month in divided doses. Prolactin remained normal or minimally increased between 15 and 25 ng/ml. In 2009 he was diagnosed with the tumor in the location of left endolymphatic sac. Histological examination showed low grade pituitary carcinoma strongly immunopositive for prolactin but negative for GH. MIB-1 antibody labeled 0-5% cells. In 2012 endoscopic resection of the pituitary tumor remnant was attempted. Immunohistochemical stains were strongly immunopositive for both prolactin and GH, similar to his original pituitary tumor. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low from 0 to 1%. To our knowledge this is the first case of pituitary carcinoma in the endolymphatic sac region. The dichotomy between the cell population of the pituitary lesion (GH/prolactin producing) and the metastasis (purely prolactin-producing) may suggest that the metastatic pituitary lesion derived from a clone distinct from the original one. PMID:23645293

  14. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  15. Haemangiopericytoma of the lacrimal sac.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akihide; Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Inatani, Masaru; Katori, Nobutada; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours which infrequently occur in the lacrimal sac. Only 8 cases of lacrimal sac HPC have previously been reported. The authors report 2 additional cases presenting clinically with epiphora and a mass. One case recurred 3 times during an 18-year period. The other case did not recur during 51 months of follow-up. The tumours showed immunohistochemical features consistent with a diagnosis of HPC. The authors recommend wide excision for these tumours and careful long-term follow-up to detect recurrence which is not uncommon. PMID:27322416

  16. Cul-de-Sac Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that adults who live on cul-de-sac streets are more likely to have positive experiences with neighbors than residents of other street types (Brown and Werner, 1985; Hochschild Jr, 2011; Mayo Jr, 1979; Willmott, 1963). The present research ascertains whether street design has an impact on children's neighborhood…

  17. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham-inoculated. The rats were killed when reaching terminal illness or on day 7, followed by light microscopy preparation and PAS-Alcian blue staining. The endolymphatic sac was examined for bacterial invasion and leukocyte infiltration. Neither bacteria nor leukocytes infiltrated the endolymphatic sac during the first days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges was found. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurred prior to bacterial invasion. During meningitis, bacteria do not invade the endolymphatic sac through the dura, but solely through the endolymphatic duct, following the invasion of the vestibular system. Leukocyte infiltration of the sac occurs prior to, as well as concurrent with bacterial invasion. The findings support the endolymphatic sac as part of an innate immune defense system protecting the inner ear from infection. PMID:24452771

  18. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  19. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review].

    PubMed

    Even, Caroline; Lhommé, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Morice, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Pautier, Patricia; Troalen, Frédéric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumour (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising most often in young women. Preoperative clinical, biological (alpha-foetoprotein) and radiological findings should help to establish the diagnosis of OYST, in order to propose adequate surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove the primary tumour, to obtain an accurate histological diagnosis and to assess the disease extent. In young women, fertility-sparing surgery should be performed, in order to preserve the possibility of pregnancy later on. Chemotherapy has substantially modified the prognosis of these tumours, and practically all patients will be cured. The overall 5-year survival rate is 94% when patients are treated with BEP chemotherapy. Depending on the clinical situation, two to four cycles of the BEP regimen should be administered after surgery. Identification of prognostic factors may help to propose risk-adapted treatment in order to increase the cure rate in patients with a poor prognosis and to decrease toxicity in patients with a low risk of relapse. Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs. PMID:21708513

  20. Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Germ Cell Tumor; Teratoma; Choriocarcinoma; Germinoma; Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Malignant Germ Cell Neoplasm; Extragonadal Seminoma; Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Seminoma

  1. Comparative morphology of the marrow sac.

    PubMed

    Bi, L X; Simmons, D J; Hawkins, H K; Cox, R A; Mainous, E G

    2000-12-01

    Electron microscopic techniques have been used to profile the morphologies of marrow sacs in different laboratory species. These structures all comprise a condensed layer of overlapping fibroblast-like stromal cells and apparently confine the medullary and endosteal osteoblast/lining cells to separate histiotypic compartments. There were some variations in the morphology of the sac cells in the different species. In rats, cats, and sheep, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a seamless arrangement of marrow sac cells which resembled a thin, flat simple squamous epithelium; they displayed few intercellular cytoplasmic processes. In the rabbit and pigeon, the sac comprised a more woven, multilayered fabric of broadly elongate flat fibroblast-like cells which displayed numerous intercellular processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that all marrow sac cells were attenuated with elongated nuclei, a few small round mitochondria, and a sparse rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the majority of animals, the sac was one to two cell layers thick. The rabbit and pigeon sacs were multilayered, and never less than three to four cells deep. The cell layers were not closely apposed. Tight or gap junctions were absent at the points of intercellular contact. These morphological results suggest that marrow sacs are common elements of the vertebrate skeleton with species specific morphologies. PMID:11074407

  2. [Ovarian germ cell tumors in girls].

    PubMed

    Nechushkina, I V; Karseladze, A I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structure of tumor influences on the clinical course of the disease in children with germ cell tumors. Patients with ovarian dysgerminoma at the time of diagnosis are significantly older than patients with immature teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Immature teratoma and mixed germ cell tumors are significantly larger compared to other germ cell tumors. Yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma are the most common cause of emergency surgical interventions and are accompanied by rupture of tumor capsule. PMID:26087605

  3. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartomas arise secondary to germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 in the pleuropulmonary blastoma tumor-predisposition disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Douglas R.; Messinger, Yoav; Williams, Gretchen M.; Yang, Jiandong; Field, Amanda; Schultz, Kris Ann P.; Harney, Laura A.; Doros, Leslie A.; Dehner, Louis P.; Hill, D. Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a rare nasal tumor that typically presents in young children. We previously reported on NCMH occurrence in children with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), a rare pulmonary dysembryonic sarcoma that is the hallmark neoplasm in the PPB-associated DICER1 tumor predisposition disorder. Methods Original pathologic materials from individuals with a PPB, PPB-associated tumor and/or a DICER1 mutation were centrally reviewed by the International PPB Registry. Paraffin-embedded NCMH tumor tissue was available in three cases. Laser-capture microdissection was used to isolate mesenchymal spindle cells and cartilage in one case for Sanger sequencing of DICER1. Results Nine patients (5F/4M) had PPB and NCMH. NCMH was diagnosed at a median age of 10 years (range 6-21years). NCMH developed 4.5 - 13 years after PPB. Presenting NCMH symptoms included chronic sinusitis and nasal congestion. Five patients had bilateral tumors. Local NCMH recurrences required several surgical resections in two patients, but all nine patients were alive at 0 – 16 years of follow-up. Pathogenic germline DICER1 mutations were found in 6/8 NCMH patients tested. In 2 of the patients with germline DICER1 mutations, somatic DICER1 missense mutations were also identified in their NCMH (E1813D; n=2). Three additional PPB patients developed other nasal lesions seen in the general population (a Schneiderian papilloma, chronic sinusitis with cysts, and allergic nasal polyps with eosinophils). Two of these patients had germline DICER1 mutations. Conclusion Pathogenic germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 in NCMH establishes that the genetic etiology of NCMH is similar to PPB, despite the disparate biological potential of these neoplasms. PMID:25118636

  4. Morphological, Histochemical, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Characterization of Tumors and Dysplastic and Non-Neoplastic Lesions Arising in BK Virus/tat Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Giuseppe; Trabanelli, Cecilia; Merlin, Michela; Caputo, Antonella; Lanfredi, Massimo; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Corallini, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    To study the role in AIDS pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, a transactivator of viral and cellular genes, we generated transgenic mice with a recombinant DNA containing BK virus (BKV) early region and the HIV-1 tat gene, directed by its own promoter-enhancer. DNA hybridization revealed that the transgene is stably maintained in all organs of transgenic mice as a tandem insertion in a number of copies ranging from 5 to 20 per cell. In addition, tat and BKV RNA were expressed in all tissues. Transgenic mice developed three types of lesions: 1) tumors, 2) hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions, and 3) non-neoplastic lesions. Tumors of different histotypes, such as lymphomas, adenocarcinomas of skin glands, leiomyosarcomas, skin squamous cell carcinomas, hepatomas, hepatocarcinomas, and cavernous liver hemangiomas, developed in 29% of transgenic animals. The majority of tumors were malignant, invasive, and producing metastases. Conversely, tumors of only two histotypes (lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of skin glands) appeared in control mice. Hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions were more frequent in transgenic than in control mice and involved the skin or its adnexes, the liver and the rectum, indicating multiple targets for the activity of the transgene. Pyelonephritis, frequently complicated with hydronephrosis, inflammatory eye lesions, and amyloid depositions represented the most frequent non-neoplastic lesions detected in transgenic mice. Many of the pathological findings observed in this animal model are comparable to similar lesions appearing in AIDS patients, suggesting a relevant role for Tat in the pathogenesis of such lesions during the course of AIDS. PMID:10233861

  5. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 < z < 2 is a key epoch in this respect: elliptical galaxies start to become the dominant population in cluster cores, and star formation in spiral galaxies is being quenched. Until recently, however, this redshift range was essentially unreachable with available instrumentation, with clusters at these redshifts exceedingly challenging to identify from either ground-based optical/nearinfrared imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys

  6. Fibromatosis of the Sigmoid Colon With CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Gene Mutation, Arising at the Site of Ileocolic Anastomosis for Resection of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Thway, Khin; Abou Sherif, Sara; Riddell, Angela M; Mudan, Satvinder

    2016-05-01

    We describe a case of intra-abdominal fibromatosis, which occurred in a 44-year-old woman who had a previous history of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the sigmoid mesocolon, which was treated with imatinib and resection. A mass was detected at the site of ileocolic anastomosis of the previous small bowel resection and sigmoid colectomy, nearly 3 years later. Clinically, this was suspected to represent recurrent GIST and was excised, but histology and mutational analysis showed desmoid-type fibromatosis with a mutation in codon 41 of exon 3 of the CTNNB1 (β-catenin) gene. The occurrence of fibromatosis at the site of excision of GIST is very rare, but its recognition is important as the treatment of the two neoplasms differs significantly. As imaging cannot reliably distinguish between these 2 entities, histological diagnosis is crucial for correct clinical management. PMID:26721303

  7. Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Yasuda, Masanori; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya; Sato, Shigeru; Nishijima, Yoshihiro; Mikami, Mikio; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2009-05-01

    A 73-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman presented with a complaint of slight fever and weight loss. An elevated level of CA125 in the blood favored a diagnosis of malignant uterine body tumor, but was not confirmed by endometrial cytology and biopsy. Resection of the uterus revealed a solid whitish tumor in the myometrium that was diagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) arising from adenomyosis. There were transitions between endometrial epithelium of adenomyosis, noninvasive CCA, and invasive CCA. Immunohistochemical expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta supported the diagnosis of CCA. Only one other English language document pertaining to CCA arising from adenomyosis exists. Malignant tumor arising from adenomyosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when the serum level of tumor markers such as CA125 is high and when the tumor is intramyometrial. PMID:19620944

  8. A Surprise in the Lacrimal Sac

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Nilay; Akcay, Emine; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Ozen, Umut; Ozturk, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    To present a case with recurrent dacryocystitis as an unusual complication of medial orbital wall fracture repair with cartilage tissue graft. A 20-year-old male had facial trauma and underwent surgery to reconstruct right medial orbital wall fracture. During follow–up, he presented with continuous epiphora, mucopurulent discharge from the right eye. A thorough history taking indicated that medial orbital fracture was reconstructed with postauricular cartilage. We planned a standard external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). During the creation of lacrimal sac flaps, hard tissue was noted in the lacrimal sac. This tissue was excised and sent for pathological examination. The pathological examination revealed cartilage tissue. There were no further ipsilateral symptoms or complications after DCR. In patients with lacrimal system injury related to orbital wall fracture, iatrogenic foreign bodies in the lacrimal sac should be considered in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis who had reconstructive surgery for facial and orbital trauma. PMID:27555715

  9. SAC-B, Argentine scientific satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulich, J. M.; White, C.

    1994-01-01

    The project and the missions of the Argentine scientific satellite, SAC-B, are summarized. SAC-B is an international cooperative project between NASA and the Secretariat of State of Science and Technology of the Argentine Republic. The objective of SAC-B is to advance the study of solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. The scientific payload comprises an instrument to measure the temporal evolution of X-ray emissions from solar flares as well as nonsolar gamma ray bursts, a combined soft X-ray and gamma ray burst detector, a diffuse X-ray background detector, and an energetic neutral atoms detector.

  10. DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-07

    Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Seminoma; Testicular Teratoma; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  11. Histopathology after Endolymphatic Sac Surgery for Meniere’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jong Woo; Fayad, Jose; Linthicum, Fred; Ishiyama, Akira; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The putative goal of sac surgery in Meniere’s syndrome is to promote the flow of endolymph from the labyrinth to the endolymphatic sac, and thereby relieving hydrops. There is scant published histopathological data whether sac surgery actually accomplishes this goal. Objective To determine if sac surgery relieves hydrops by examining the histopathologic changes in temporal bones obtained from individuals who had undergone sac surgery during life for Meniere’s syndrome. Methods Temporal bones were examined from 15 patients who had sac surgery. Data was collected on presence and severity of hydrops, histology of the sac, and whether the procedure relieved vertigo. Results The surgery failed to expose the sac in 5 cases; 4 of the 5 had relief from vertigo. The sac was exposed, but the shunt failed to reach the lumen of the sac in 8 cases; 4 of the 8 had relief from vertigo. The shunt was successfully placed within the lumen of the sac in two cases; both cases failed to experience relief from vertigo. Endolymphatic hydrops was present in all 15 cases. Conclusion Endolymphatic sac surgery does not relieve hydrops in patients with Meniere’s syndrome. Yet, sac surgery relieves vertigo in some patients, but the mechanism of such symptomatic relief remains unknown. PMID:21436748

  12. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  13. 60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. SAC emblem on side of missile, front lawn, building 500, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAC command center, weather center, underground structure, building 501, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Command Center, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  16. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 3. Threequarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of building 500 looking southeast from SAC Boulevard - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. Quantitative assessment of gestational sac shape: the gestational sac shape score

    PubMed Central

    Deter, R.L.; Li, J.; Lee, W.; Liu, S.; Romero, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative method for characterizing gestational sac shape. Methods Twenty first-trimester gestational sacs in normal pregnancies were studied with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. The 3D coordinates of surface-point sets were obtained for each sac using 30-, 15- and six-slice sampling. Cubic spline interpolation was used with the 15- and six-slice surface-point samples to generate coordinates for those 30-slice surface points not measured. Interpolated and measured values, the latter from the 30-slice sample, were compared and the percent error calculated. Cubic spline interpolation was used to determine the coordinates of a standard surface-point sample (3660) for each sac in each slice sample. These coordinate data were used to give each sac a standard configuration by moving its center of gravity to the origin, aligning its inertial axes along the coordinate axes and converting its volume to 1.0 mL. In this form, a volume shape descriptor could be generated for each sac that was then transformed into a vector containing only shape information. The 20 shape vectors of each slice sample were subjected to principal components analysis, and principal component scores (PCSs) calculated. The first four PCSs were used to define a gestational sac shape score (GSSS-30, GSSS-15 or GSSS-6) for each sac in a given slice sample. The characteristics of each set of GSSSs were determined and those for the GSSS-15 and GSSS-6 were compared with the GSSS-30 characteristics. Results Cubic spline interpolations were very accurate in most cases, with means close to 0%, and approximately 95% of the errors being less than 10%. GSSS-30 accounted for 67.6% of the shape variance, had a mean of zero and an SD of 1.1, was normally distributed and was not related to menstrual age (R = −0.16, P = 0.51). GSSS-15 and GSSS-6 had essentially the same characteristics. No significant differences between individual GSSS-30 values and those for GSSS-15 or GSSS-6

  1. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  2. What is inside the hernia sac?

    PubMed Central

    Virgínia, Ana Araújo; Santos, Cláudia; Contente, Helena; Branco, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Most ovarian inguinal hernias occur in children and are frequently associated with congenital genitalia defects. The authors present the case of a multiparous 89-year-old woman, without any genitalia defect, who was brought to the emergency department with an irreducible inguinal hernia. The patient was proposed for emergency surgery during which we encountered an ovary and a fallopian tube inside the hernial sac. An oophorosalpingectomy and a Lichtenstein procedure were carried out and the postoperative period was uneventful. This case shows that, even though it is rare, a hernial sac may contain almost any intra-abdominal organ, including those least frequent such as the appendix, an ovary or the fallopian tubes. PMID:27511751

  3. Aquarius/SAC-D Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Amit; Kim, Yunjin; Caruso, Daniel; Lagerloef, Gary; Colomb, Raul; Yueh, Simon; LeVine, David

    2006-01-01

    Aquarius/SAC-D is a cooperative international mission developed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United States of America (USA) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) of Argentina. The overall mission objective is to contribute to the understanding of the total Earth system and the consequences of the natural and man-made changes in the environment of the planet. Major themes are: ocean surface salinity, water cycle, climate, natural hazards and cryosphere.

  4. Tumor Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... acoustic neuroma is also known as a schwannoma, vestibular schwannoma, or neurilemmoma. Characteristics Arises from cells that ... multiple CNS tumors, including neurofibromas, multiple meningiomas, bilateral vestibular schwannomas, optic nerve gliomas, and spinal cord tumors. ...

  5. Neurocytoma arising in the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Vorreuther, Roland; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Wiestler, Otmar D; Buettner, Reinhard

    2003-08-01

    Central neurocytoma represents a rare neoplasm of the central nervous system with advanced neurocytic and sometimes focal lipomatous differentiation, a low proliferative potential and a favorable prognosis depending on the efficiency of surgical resection. This entity has been described as an intraventricular tumor near the foramen Monroi. Here, we report a case of a 21-year-old male with peripheral neurocytoma. Using computed tomography, a tumor of unknown origin was located behind the bladder. After complete surgical resection of the tumor, histologically small uniform cells, zones of fibrillarity and neuropil-like islands were seen. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for the neuronal markers synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase and neurofilaments. Vimentin, pan-keratin, desmin, chromogranin, CD-99 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were immuno-negative. A low proliferation rate (1-2%) was found. Several case reports described extraventricular central neurocytomas. A sole publication documented a peripheral neurocytoma arising within a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a neurocytoma outside the central nervous system, indicating that this entity may also occur infrequently in peripheral tissues. PMID:12844263

  6. Surgery and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Children With Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-06

    Childhood Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma

  7. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  8. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with SACS gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fábio A; Canafoglia, Laura; Aljaafari, Danah; Muona, Mikko; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Berkovic, Samuel F; Franceschetti, Silvana; Andrade, Danielle M

    2016-08-01

    Pathogenic variants in the SACS gene (OMIM #604490) cause autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). ARSACS is a neurodegenerative early-onset progressive disorder, originally described in French Canadians, but later observed elsewhere.(1) Whole-exome sequencing of a large group of patients with unclassified progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) identified 2 patients bearing SACS gene mutations.(2) We detail the PME clinical features associated with SACS mutations and suggest the inclusion of the SACS gene in diagnostic screening of PMEs. PMID:27433545

  9. Whisker Formation on SAC305 Soldered Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschter, S.; Snugovsky, P.; Bagheri, Z.; Kosiba, E.; Romansky, M.; Kennedy, J.; Snugovsky, L.; Perovic, D.

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the results of a whisker formation study on SAC305 assemblies, evaluating the effects of lead-frame materials and cleanliness in different environments: low-stress simulated power cycling (50-85°C thermal cycling), thermal shock (-55°C to 85°C), and high temperature/high humidity (85°C/85% RH). Cleaned and contaminated small outline transistors, large leaded quad flat packs (QFP), plastic leaded chip carrier packages, and solder balls with and without rare earth elements (REE) were soldered to custom designed test boards with Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. After assembly, all the boards were cleaned, and half of them were recontaminated (1.56 µg/cm2 Cl-). Whisker length, diameter, and density were measured. Detailed metallurgical analysis on components before assembly and on solder joints before and after testing was performed. It was found that whiskers grow from solder joint fillets, where the thickness is less than 25 µm, unless REE was present. The influence of lead-frame and solder ball material, microstructure, cleanliness, and environment on whisker characteristics is discussed. This article provides detailed metallurgical observations and select whisker length data obtained during this multiyear testing program.

  10. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue. If a tumor is cancer , possible treatments may include: Chemotherapy Radiation Surgery Targeted cancer therapy Biologic therapy Other treatment options

  11. Sunitinib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-27

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  13. Low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination.

    PubMed

    Roncaroli, F; Giangaspero, F; Piana, S; Andreoli, A; Ricci, R

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of low-grade adenocarcinoma of endolymphatic sac origin mimicking jugular paraganglioma at clinical and neuroradiological examination. The lesion occurred in a 72-year-old male who presented with a long-standing history of right-sided hearing loss and a few-week history of progressive facial nerve palsy and right aural pain. At histology, the tumor was composed of pseudoglandular spaces with papillary infoldings. Lumina contained colloid-like material. The lesion was surgically removed with suboccipital approach following endoarterial embolization. This study emphasizes that low-grade adenocarcinomas of endolymphatic sac origin extending to posterior cranial fossa and jugular paraganglioma may be indistinguishable preoperatively at clinical and radiological levels. PMID:9323449

  14. Arise the systems physician.

    PubMed

    Scott, I; Phelps, G; Dalton, S

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare in Australia faces significant challenges. Variations in care, suboptimal safety and reliability, fragmentation of care and unsustainable cost increases are compounded by substantial overuse and underuse of clinical interventions. These problems arise not from intentional actions of individual clinicians, but from deficiencies in the design, operations and governance of systems of care. Physicians play an important role in optimising systems of care and, in doing so, must rely on enhanced skills in a range of domains. These include: how to evaluate and improve quality and safety of clinical processes; analyse and interpret clinical and administrative data in ways that can be used to enhance care delivery; build and lead cohesive multidisciplinary teams capable of solving operational defects and inefficient workarounds; and implement new and effective innovations in clinical service delivery. While clinical skills are essential in individual patient care, skills that improve systems of care targeting whole patient populations will become increasingly desirable and recognised as core skills. PMID:25442761

  15. Laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Saurabh; Panda, Srikanta; Shameel, P. Ahammed

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Various anatomical location of hydatid cyst has been described in literature. Liver is the most common site of hydatid cyst and lungs are the second most common site. Hydatid cyst of lesser sac is a rare entity. Here we present a rare case report of laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in lesser sac. PMID:27073313

  16. On the robustness of SAC silencing in closed mitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Donovan; Liu, Jian

    Mitosis equally partitions sister chromatids to two daughter cells. This is achieved by properly attaching these chromatids via their kinetochores to microtubules that emanate from the spindle poles. Once the last kinetochore is properly attached, the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Due to the dynamic nature of microtubules, however, kinetochore-microtubule attachment often goes wrong. When this erroneous attachment occurs, it locally activates an ensemble of proteins, called the spindle assembly checkpoint proteins (SAC), which halts the mitotic progression until all the kinetochores are properly attached by spindle microtubules. The timing of SAC silencing thus determines the fidelity of chromosome segregation. We previously established a spatiotemporal model that addresses the robustness of SAC silencing in open mitosis for the first time. Here, we focus on closed mitosis by examining yeast mitosis as a model system. Though much experimental work has been done to study the SAC in cells undergoing closed mitosis, the processes responsible are not well understood. We leverage and extend our previous model to study SAC silencing mechanism in closed mitosis. We show that a robust signal of the SAC protein accumulation at the spindle pole body can be achieved. This signal is a nonlinear increasing function of number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and can thus serve as a robust trigger to time the SAC silencing. Together, our mechanism provides a unified framework across species that ensures robust SAC silencing and fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Intramural research program in NHLBI at NIH.

  17. Differential air sac pressures in diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Butler, P J; Wallace, S E

    1998-09-01

    The air in the respiratory system of diving birds contains a large proportion of the body oxygen stores, but it must be in the lungs for gas exchange with blood to occur. To test the hypothesis that locomotion induces mixing of air sac air with lung air during dives, we measured differential pressures between the interclavicular and posterior thoracic air sacs in five diving tufted ducks Aythya fuligula. The peak differential pressure between posterior thoracic and interclavicular air sacs, 0.49+/-0.13 kPa (mean +/- s.d.), varied substantially during underwater paddling as indicated by gastrocnemius muscle activity. These data support the hypothesis that locomotion, perhaps through associated abdominal muscle activity, intermittently compresses the posterior air sacs more than the anterior ones. The result is differential pressure fluctuations that might induce the movement of air between air sacs and through the lungs during dives. PMID:9716518

  18. Notch-1 signaling promotes the cyclinD1-dependent generation of mammary tumor-initiating cells which can revert to bi-potential progenitors from which they arise

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hua; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we reported that young transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the intracellular domain of Notch1 (N1IC) showed expansion of lin− CD24+ CD29high mammary cells enriched for stem cells and later developed mammary tumors. Mammary tumor formation was abolished or greatly reduced in cyclin D1−/− or cyclin D1+/− N1IC Tg mice, respectively. Here, we studied the epithelial cell subsets present in N1IC-induced tumors. CD24− CD29int and CD24+ CD29high cells were found to be present at low numbers in tumors. The latter had the same properties as those expanded in young Tg females, and neither cell population showed tumor-initiating potential, nor were they required for maintenance of tumors after transplantation. CD24int CD29int cells were identified as tumor-initiating and mammosphere-forming cells and represent a large percentage tumor cells in this model. Their number was significantly lower in tumors from cyclin D1+/− N1IC Tg mice. Using cyclin D1 shRNA knockdown, we also show that N1IC-induced tumor cells remain addicted to cyclin D1 for growth and survival. Interestingly, at lower levels of cyclin D1 or after transplantion in the presence of normal mammary cells, these N1IC-expressing tumor cells reverted to a state of low malignancy and differentiate into duct-like structures. They seem to adopt the fate of bi-potential stem/progenitor cells similar to that of the expanded CD24+ CD29high stem/progenitor cells from which they are likely to be derived. Our data indicate that decreasing cyclin D1 levels would be an efficient treatment for tumors induced by N1 signaling. PMID:22907433

  19. Transdifferentiation of mouse visceral yolk sac cells into parietal yolk sac cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shinomi; Tagawa, Yoh-Ichi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2016-02-19

    The mouse embryonic yolk sac is an extraembryonic membrane that consists of a visceral yolk sac (VYS) and parietal yolk sac (PYS), and functions in hematopoietic-circulation in the fetal stage. The present study was undertaken to examine the normal development of both murine VYS and PYS tissues using various molecular markers, and to establish a novel VYS cell culture system in vitro for analyzing differentiation potentials of VYS cells. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses of gene expression in VYS and PYS tissues during development revealed several useful markers for their identification: HNF1β, HNF4α, Cdh1 (E-cadherin), Krt8 and Krt18 for VYS epithelial cells, and Stra6, Snail1, Thbd and vimentin for PYS cells. PYS cells exhibited mesenchymal characteristics in gene expression and morphology. When VYS cells at 11.5 days of gestation were cultured in vitro for 7 days, the number of HNF1β-, HNF4α-, E-cadherin- and cytokeratin-positive VYS epithelial cells was significantly reduced and, instead, Stra6-and vimentin-positive PYS-like cells increased with culture. RT-PCR analyses also demonstrated that gene expression of VYS markers decreased, whereas that of PYS markers increased in the primary culture of VYS cells. These data indicate that VYS epithelial cells rapidly transdifferentiate into PYS cells having mesenchymal characteristics in vitro, which may provide a culture system suitable for studying molecular mechanisms of VYS transdifferentiation into PYS cells and also epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:26820538

  20. 79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Sac digital network (Sacdin), summary fault indicator at top, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. Giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1989-11-01

    One hundred and seventy-nine patients with 237 hernias of the groin who were at high risk for recurrence after classic hernioplasty were operated upon; the procedure of giant prosthetic reinforcement of the visceral sac (GPRVS) was used. The patients in this series had predominantly recurrent and re-recurrent hernias. However, a few were obese with bilateral primary direct hernias and some had associated connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. GPRVS eliminates hernias of the groin by rendering the peritoneum inextensible by placing, in the preperitoneal space, a large prosthesis that extends far beyond the borders of the myopectineal orifice. The myopectineal orifice is the weak spot at which all hernias of the groin begin and is bounded by the rectus, oblique abdominal and iliopsoas muscles and the pectin of the pubis. In bilateral GPRVS, the peritoneum of both groins is reinforced with a single prosthesis inserted in the preperitoneal space through the midline. In unilateral GPRVS, the mesh envelops the peritoneum of a single groin. This simplifies the operation and makes it suitable for surgical centers that perform outpatient operations. The prosthesis with the best physical characteristics for GPRVS is Mersilene (polyester fiber). Unsutured prostheses of polypropylene and Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) may not adhere at the far edges, leading to a failure and recurrence. The over-all recurrence rate in this series of problem hernias was 3.7 per cent, which is extremely good. However, the rate becomes outstanding if recurrences resulting from meshes unsuitable for GPRVS are excluded. PMID:2814751

  2. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  3. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  4. Intraoperative Sac Pressure Measurement During Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ohta, Takashi; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tadakoshi, Masao; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki; Kamei, Seiji

    2010-10-15

    PurposeIntraoperative sac pressure was measured during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) to evaluate the clinical significance of sac pressure measurement.MethodsA microcatheter was placed in an aneurysm sac from the contralateral femoral artery, and sac pressure was measured during EVAR procedures in 47 patients. Aortic blood pressure was measured as a control by a catheter from the left brachial artery.ResultsThe systolic sac pressure index (SPI) was 0.87 {+-} 0.10 after main-body deployment, 0.63 {+-} 0.12 after leg deployment (P < 0.01), and 0.56 {+-} 0.12 after completion of the procedure (P < 0.01). Pulse pressure was 55 {+-} 21 mmHg, 23 {+-} 15 mmHg (P < 0.01), and 16 {+-} 12 mmHg (P < 0.01), respectively. SPI showed no significant differences between the Zenith and Excluder stent grafts (0.56 {+-} 0.13 vs. 0.54 {+-} 0.10, NS). Type I endoleak was found in seven patients (15%), and the SPI decreased from 0.62 {+-} 0.10 to 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (P = 0.10) after fixing procedures. Type II endoleak was found in 12 patients (26%) by completion angiography. The SPI showed no difference between type II endoleak positive and negative (0.58 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.55 {+-} 0.12, NS). There were no significant differences between the final SPI of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter decreased in the follow-up and that of abdominal aortic aneurysms in which the diameter did not change (0.53 {+-} 0.12 vs. 0.57 {+-} 0.12, NS).ConclusionsSac pressure measurement was useful for instant hemodynamic evaluation of the EVAR procedure, especially in type I endoleaks. However, on the basis of this small study, the SPI cannot be used to reliably predict sac growth or regression.

  5. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  6. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  7. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  8. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  9. SAC-C mission, an example of international cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Nollmann, I.

    2004-01-01

    The SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission developed as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. The SAC-C satellite was successfully launched by a Delta II rocket on November 21, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. The purpose of this mission is to carry out observations which bear interest both for the USA and Argentina, thus contributing effectively to NASA's Earth Science Program and to CONAE's National Space Program. The inclusion of SAC-C in the "morning constellation", jointly with NASA satellites Landsat 7, EO 1 and Terra, is another example of an important international cooperation which strengthens the output of any single mission.

  10. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  11. Adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial recurrent mature teratoma and featuring mutated KRAS and wild-type BRAF genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-02-01

    Malignant transformation or recurrence of intracranial mature teratoma is an extremely rare occurrence, compared to the usual ovarian counterpart. Previously, yolk sac tumor elements have been considered to be selective progenitors of enteric-type adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial germ cell tumors. However, the present case demonstrates the occurrence of enteric-type adenocarcinoma in recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma 12 years after gross total removal, a case of which has not previously been documented in the literature. The 11.5-cm long, dura mater-based tumor on the right fronto-temporal lobe displaced the brain; however, the patient had no neurologic symptoms or discomfort other than pus-like discharge on the scalp. Microscopic examinations revealed a small focus of adenocarcinoma and dysplastic colonic mucosa in the mature cystic teratoma. No immature elements were seen. The cystic wall was almost denuded and showed an exuberant xanthogranulomatous reaction with foreign-body type giant cells engulfing keratin materials and cholesterol clefts, suggesting that chronic inflammation due to repeated cyst wall rupture and the previous resection may contribute to malignant transformation. The adenocarcinoma showed strong immunohistochemical expression of CK20 and p53, but CK7 in patches. The molecular profile of the adenocarcinoma showed a mutation in KRAS and wild-type BRAF, which might be associated with malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratomas. In conclusion, the intracranial mature teratomas should require long-term follow-up, and clinicians, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of the potential for malignant progression of recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma despite gross total resection and no neurologic symptoms. PMID:25039399

  12. Unusual presentation of Enterobius vermicularis in conjunctival sac.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Ranadeep; Banerjee, Arup Kumar

    2015-10-01

    We report an unusual case of extraintestinal infection with adult Enterobius vermicularis worms in the conjunctival sac of a two-and-a-half year old boy from Alipurduar, West Bengal, India. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the English literature, one from Assam, India in 1976, and the other from Illinois and California in 2011. PMID:25540166

  13. The annular hematoma of the shrew yolk-sac placenta.

    PubMed

    King, B F; Enders, A C; Wimsatt, W A

    1978-05-01

    The annular hematoma of the shrew, Blarina brevicauda, is a specialized portion of the yolk-sac wall. In this study, we have examined the fine structure of the different cellular components of the anular hematoma. Small pieces of the gestation sacs from seven pregnant shrews were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In the area of the trophoblastic curtain, the maternal capillary endothelial cells were hypertrophied and syncytial trophoblast surrounded the capillaries. Cellular trophoblast covered part of the luminal surface of the curtain region, whereas masses of apparently degenerating syncytium were present on other areas of the surface. Maternal erythrocytes, released into the uterine lumen from the curtain region, were phagocytized and degraded by the columnar cells of the trophoblastic annulus. No evidence of iron or pigment accumulation was evident in the parietal endodermal cells underlying the annular trophoblast. Parietal endodermal cells were characterized by cuboidal shape, widely dilated intercellular spaces, and cytoplasm containing granular endoplasmic reticulum. Endodermal cells of the visceral yolk-sac accumulated large numbers of electron-dense granules as well as glycogen in their cytoplasm. Hemopoietic areas and vitelline capillaries were found subjacent to the visceral endoderm. The various portions of the yolk-sac wall of Blarina appear to perform complementary functions which are probably important in maternal-fetal iron transfer. PMID:677046

  14. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  15. [A solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaoyan; Luo, Gui; Zhu, Xinhua

    2014-07-01

    Neurofibromas are benign nerve sheath tumors that arise from the nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Generally, neurofibromas can be categorized into dermal and plexiform subtypes. The former subtype is usually associated with a lone peripheral nerve in the integumentary system, while plexiform tumors are associated with many nerve bundles and can originate internally. Rarely, the plexiform tumors can undergo malignant transformation. Neurofibromas are usually found in individuals with neurofibromatosis, which is an autosomal dominant disease. On occasion, an isolated neurofibroma can transpire without being associated with neurofibromatosis. Mostly, these solitary tumors tend to occur in the gastrointestinal system, and neurofibromas of the head and neck are not uncommon, but very rarely they have been reported to occur in the temporal fossa. In this report, we describe a case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the temporal fossa. PMID:25248275

  16. Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

  17. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 41 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) A Appendix A to Part 41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS.... Appendix A to Part 41—Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) Note: Data Collection Form SF-SAC and...

  18. Schwannoma arising from intramasseteric region.

    PubMed

    He, Yue; Fu, Hong Hai; He, Jie; Zhu, Han Guang; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Schwannoma in the head and neck is usually arising in the parapharyngeal space, but intramasseteric schwannoma is very rare. We report a schwannoma arising from masseter muscle in a middle-aged woman, who presented with a history of a painless right cheek mass for 3 years. Computed tomography scan suggested that the mass was located within the masseter muscle. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and showed spindle neoplastic cells, which were suspected to be of mesenchymal tissue origin. The mass was completely resected under general anesthesia. It was a well-circumscribed and lobulated mass, 4 × 3 × 2 cm in size. Histological examination gave the diagnosis of schwannoma, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings for S-100 and vimentin. Neurologic sequelae and recurrence were not found at 2 years after surgery. PMID:21119484

  19. Teratogenic effects of amniotic sac puncture: a mouse model.

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, D J; Chang, H H; Kaufman, M H

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of an association between chorionic villus sampling (cvs) and limb abnormalities has prompted a review of the relevant experimental data. Although a vascular aetiology is favoured by many at present, the possibility exists that a proportion of cases may be caused by oligohydramnios secondary to inadvertent amniotic sac puncture. A mouse model of amniotic puncture syndrome has been developed to study the craniofacial and limb abnormalities produced by this procedure. Pregnant mice were anaesthetised and a laparotomy performed. One uterine horn was exteriorised, and the amniotic sacs punctured through the wall of the uterus with either a 21 gauge or a 25 gauge needle. The conceptuses in the contralateral uterine horn acted as controls. The mice were all killed on d 19 of pregnancy (day of finding a vaginal plug = d 1 of pregnancy) by cervical dislocation, and the morphological features of the embryos examined in detail. In a preliminary study, amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 of pregnancy, with either a 21 or a 25 gauge needle. Since the highest rates of palatal defects and limb deformities were observed following amniotic sac puncture using a 21 gauge needle, when this procedure was carried out on either d 13 or 14 of pregnancy, the main study was undertaken using a 21 gauge needle on these two days of pregnancy. Of 102 embryos in which amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 13, 53% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 35% had a cleft palate, 61% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 43% had an abnormal tail. When amniotic sac puncture was carried out on d 14 of pregnancy, of 83 embryos subjected to this procedure, 81% survived to d 19. Of the latter, 27% had a cleft palate, 39% had one or more morphologically abnormal limbs, and 19% had an abnormal tail. In the controls, of 86 and 61 embryos isolated respectively from the d 13 and 14 mice, the survival rates were 97 and 90%, respectively. Palatal, limb

  20. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  1. Investigation of sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) modification to nylon film. 2. Study of SAC sorption isotherm and atomic force microscopic characterization of nylon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Watson, B.A.; Keown, R.W.; Malone, C.P.; Barteau, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    Nylon 6 and nylon 66 films have been treated with aqueous sulfonated aromatic compound (SAC) solutions at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 wt%. SAC uptakes at different treatment concentrations were measured and found to follow a BET isotherm. The surface morphologies of nylon film samples, including the original and SAC-treated films, have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For untreated nylon 6 and nylon 66 films, AFM images show a randomly distributed fibrillar surface structure. Characteristic widths of fibrils in the nylon 66 and 6 films were 150-225 and 75-150 nm, respectively. For SAC-treated nylon films, the AFM images revealed that the surfaces of the films became covered with nodule-like features having a diameter range of 25-60 nm. AFM analysis provides evidence that SAC treatment deposited a surface coating on nylon films. AFM images of SAC-treated nylon films suggest a mechanism for stain resistance in which the SAC first forms a thin coating on the nylon via bondings between attractive groups in the SAC and nylon polymers. After treatment at increased SAC concentration, the surface is covered with nodule-like deposits which likely serve as a physical barrier to dye permeation. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the lung is extremely rare. The entity is not described in WHO blue book. Less than 100 cases of leiomyoma of the lung have been reported in the literature. However, vascular leiomyoma has not been reported in the literature, to the author's best knowledge. Herein reported is the first case of vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from smooth muscles of the pulmonary artery. A 62-year-old woman (non-smoker) was found to have a small tumor in the upper lobe in the right lung in routine check. Imaging modalities including CT demonstrated no metastatic lesions. Although clinical cytology and biopsy revealed no malignant cell, right upper lobectomy was performed under the clinical diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Grossly, a white tumor of 1 x 0.8 cm was recognized in the lung. Microscopically, the tumor was connected to the pulmonary arteries. The tumor was composed of mature smooth muscles. Small pulmonary arteries are embedded in the tumor. No lymphatics were seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were poisitive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and Ki-67 (labeling 2%). However, they were negative for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, desmin, S100 protein, p53, CD34, KIT, HMB45, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and myoglobin. A pathological diagnosis of primary vascular leiomyoma arising from the smooth muscle of pulmonary artery was made. The patient is now free from tumor, and is now alive 10 year after the operation. PMID:23236548

  3. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.

    2002-01-01

    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced

  4. Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

  5. Hydrocele of Femoral Hernial Sac-an Extremely Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, S; Jain, Ravindra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    A previously healthy 40-year-old woman presented with a right groin swelling for the last 2 years. Diagnosed preoperatively as uncomplicated, irreducible epiplocele of right femoral hernia, later per-operatively was diagnosed as hydrocele of femoral hernial sac also known as "femorocele"; ultrasound abdomen and groin demonstrated as a cystic mass right groin with no precise origin. All other basic line investigations within normal limits, except anemia 7 gm %, corrected to 10 gm %, by preoperative transfusions of 2 units of complete fresh blood. After low approach incision, excision of hydrocele sac, and feormal hernia repair were done with approximation of iliopectineal ligament to inguinal ligament, patient was discharged on 5th postoperative day with satisfactory wound healing and uneventful hospitalization. PMID:27358521

  6. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  7. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Li, Xia; Reed, Danielle R.; Ohmen, Jeffery D.; Li, Shanru; Chen, Zhenyu; Tordoff, Michael G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Wu, Chenyan; West, David B.; Chatterjee, Alu; Ross, David A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in sweetener intake among inbred strains of mice are partially determined by allelic variation of the saccharin preference (Sac) locus. Genetic and physical mapping limited a critical genomic interval containing Sac to a 194-kb DNA fragment. Sequencing and annotation of this region identified a gene (Tas1r3) encoding the third member of the T1R family of putative taste receptors, T1R3. Introgression by serial backcrossing of the 194-kb chromosomal fragment containing the Tas1r3 allele from the high-sweetener preferring C57BL/6ByJ strain onto the genetic background of the low-sweetener preferring 129P3/J strain rescued its low sweetener preference phenotype. Polymorphisms of Tas1r3 that are likely to have functional significance were identified using analysis of genomic sequences and sweetener preference phenotypes of genealogically distant mouse strains. Tas1r3 has two common haplotypes, consisting of six single nucleotide polymorphisms: one haplotype was found in mouse strains with elevated sweetener preference and the other in strains relatively indifferent to sweeteners. This study provides compelling evidence that Tas1r3 is equivalent to the Sac locus and that the T1R3 receptor responds to sweeteners. PMID:11555487

  8. Oblique sectional planes of block plastinates eased by Sac Plastination.

    PubMed

    Kürtül, Ibrahim; Hammer, Niels; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Böhme, Jörg; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-07-01

    To find an oblique cutting plane of a plastinate, e.g. to cut gamma-nails in the femur, the Block Plastination technique was modified. After CT and MRI examination, the specimens were plastinated with the standard resin mixture E6/E12/E600. Instead of using a box to form a block during the casting and curing stage, we embedded the specimen in a sac made of polyester foil. A polymerized wooden block was attached to the specimen. The sac was wrapped with tape to the embedded specimen with the block. This approach limited the amount of required resin to the inner volume of the plastinate. Then, the plastination sac was put in the incubator for further polymerization and curing. When the foil was removed from the plastinated specimen, the wooden block served as a socket for the grip when sawing. The outer shape of the specimen remained visible. Doing so, the adequate cutting plane could be determined easily. PMID:22209028

  9. Educational report: A case of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Aaron; Crofts, Kevin; Roberts, Fiona; Gregory, Maria Elena

    2016-10-01

    This article reports a presentation of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis and informs the reader of this uncommon but important diagnosis. A 36-year-old man from Pakistan presented with a 3-month history of swelling at the nasal aspect of the left lower lid. This was associated with occasional crepitus and slight localised discomfort, but no epiphora. There was a palpable fullness near the left medial canthus associated with telecanthus but a normal sac washout and normal eye examination otherwise. Previous medical history included an ipsilateral nasal polypectomy and inferior meatal antrostomy around 10 years previously, whilst living in Pakistan. Various imaging modalities were useful in identifying a soft tissue mass within the left nasolacrimal duct. Following excision biopsy, histological examination confirmed the presence of rhinosporidiosis, likely caused by the organism Rhinosporidium seeberi. Rhinosporidiosis should be considered as a potential cause in any case of lacrimal sac pathology. Imaging studies may be helpful in measuring the extent of disease, although histological examination is required to confirm the diagnosis. Although rare, the complications of rhinosporidiosis can be potentially blinding or fatal. As discussed in this case, the presence of telecanthus may represent a lacrimal system tumour, either malignant or benign, and should always prompt further investigation. PMID:27541939

  10. Endometriosis in a spigelian hernia sac: an unexpected finding.

    PubMed

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like "chocolate cysts" was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation. PMID:25594648

  11. Endoscopic examination of snakes by access through an air sac.

    PubMed

    Jekl, V; Knotek, Z

    2006-03-25

    Sixteen boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), three royal pythons (Python regius) and 15 Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were examined endoscopically by access through the air sac. The snakes were immobilised in a ventral position using a half-open anaesthetic system with assisted ventilation and a mixture of isoflurane and oxygen. The rigid endoscope was introduced percutaneously and the internal structure of the lungs and the air sac, and the shape, size and external surface of the liver were visible in the cranial direction. In the smaller snakes the bifurcation and caudal part of the trachea could be viewed, provided the endoscope was positioned in a retrograde orientation. The caudal orientation of the endoscope made it possible to view the gall bladder and the size, shape and surface of the spleen. In some cases, the pancreas and the surface of the stomach and colon could be monitored. Endoscopy through the air sac also made it possible to check the major veins in the coelom. The snakes were monitored for at least 30 days after the intervention and no changes in their respiratory function or general health were observed. PMID:16565339

  12. Endometriosis in a Spigelian Hernia Sac: An Unexpected Finding

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Vernadakis, Spiridon

    2015-01-01

    Describes the existence of endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac. Spigelian Hernia is a rare ventral hernia, presenting difficulties in diagnosis and carrying a high incarceration and obstruction risk. Endometriomas occur due to implantation of endometrial cells into a surgical wound, most often after a cesarean delivery. A 37-year-old woman presented to our department with persistent abdominal pain, exacerbating during menses, and vomiting for 2 days. Physical examination revealed a mass-like lesion in the border between the left-upper and left-lower quadrant. Ultrasound examination was inconclusive and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed an abdominal wall mass. During surgery, a spigelian hernia was found 5 to 7 cm above a previous cesarean incision. Tissue like “chocolate cysts” was present at the hernia sac. Hernia was repaired while tissue was excised and sent for histological examination that confirmed the diagnosis. Spigelian hernia is a hernia presenting difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Endometrioma in a spigelian hernia sac is a rare diagnosis, confirmed only histologically. Clinical suspicion can be posed only through symptoms and thorough investigation. PMID:25594648

  13. De novo development and progression of endolymphatic sac tumour in von hippel-lindau disease: an observational study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Eze, Nwaneka; Huber, Alexander; Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST) are rare invasive lesions of the temporal bone that are commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. This report describes serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) findings over a period of 6 years in a 12-year-old patient who developed an ELST after 3.5 years surveillance for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 1.5 × 8 mm tumor was identified on MRI within the endolymphatic duct when the patient presented with audiovestibular symptoms due to intralabyrinthine hemorrhage. The tumor demonstrated subsequent growth over 25 months until the patient agreed to undergo surgical resection by subtotal petrosectomy. De novo development and the natural history have been described only in six previous cases. MRI is regarded to be unreliable with respect to the ability to demonstrate an ELST in the presence of intralabyrinthine hemorrhage, with only two out of four previously reported patients demonstrating positive MRI findings. Little is known about the precise origin (endolymphatic duct versus sac), growth, and symptom correlation. This case highlights that new audiovestibular symptoms are a potential clinical clue and intralabyrinthine hemorrhage is a neuroimaging indicator for the presence of an ELST, which based on high-resolution MRI appears to originate in the endolymphatic duct rather than sac. PMID:24436921

  14. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya Nishimura, Jun-ichi Hase, Soichiro Yamasaki, Motoshige

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  15. Laparoscopic resection of a retroperitoneal hemangioma arising from ovarian vessels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Seok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Hemangiomas are known to be common benign tumors. However, hemangiomas of female genital organs are very rare. Furthermore, a retroperitoneal hemangioma arising from ovarian vessels has never been reported. Here we report a case of a 29-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma arising from the ovarian vessels of infundibulopelvic ligament, which was treated with laparoscopic resection. The operating time was 30 minutes, and resection was carried out with minimal blood loss. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. Laparoscopic resection of this type of hemangioma is feasible. PMID:19896610

  16. Exome Sequencing of Bilateral Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Suggests Independent Development Lineages12

    PubMed Central

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M.; Berg, Kaja G.; Bakken, Anne C.; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2015-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  17. Exome sequencing of bilateral testicular germ cell tumors suggests independent development lineages.

    PubMed

    Brabrand, Sigmund; Johannessen, Bjarne; Axcrona, Ulrika; Kraggerud, Sigrid M; Berg, Kaja G; Bakken, Anne C; Bruun, Jarle; Fosså, Sophie D; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Lehne, Gustav; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2015-02-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, the precursor of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), is hypothesized to arise during embryogenesis from developmentally arrested primordial germ cells (PGCs) or gonocytes. In early embryonal life, the PGCs migrate from the yolk sac to the dorsal body wall where the cell population separates before colonizing the genital ridges. However, whether the malignant transformation takes place before or after this separation is controversial. We have explored the somatic exome-wide mutational spectra of bilateral TGCT to provide novel insight into the in utero critical time frame of malignant transformation and TGCT pathogenesis. Exome sequencing was performed in five patients with bilateral TGCT (eight tumors), of these three patients in whom both tumors were available (six tumors) and two patients each with only one available tumor (two tumors). Selected loci were explored by Sanger sequencing in 71 patients with bilateral TGCT. From the exome-wide mutational spectra, no identical mutations in any of the three bilateral tumor pairs were identified. Exome sequencing of all eight tumors revealed 87 somatic non-synonymous mutations (median 10 per tumor; range 5-21), some in already known cancer genes such as CIITA, NEB, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA), and WHSC1. SUPT6H was found recurrently mutated in two tumors. We suggest independent development lineages of bilateral TGCT. Thus, malignant transformation into intratubular germ cell neoplasia is likely to occur after the migration of PGCs. We reveal possible drivers of TGCT pathogenesis, such as mutated PDGFRA, potentially with therapeutic implications for TGCT patients. PMID:25748235

  18. Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Kaori; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kanamori, Anriko; Machida, Hiromi; Kojima, Masaru; Fukasawa, Ichio

    2016-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma arising from uterine adenomyosis is extremely rare. We encountered such a patient and herein provide a review of the literature. A 56-year-old woman was referred for a huge pelvic tumor, suspected to be an advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma. Intraoperative inspection revealed a mass, mainly located in the uterine myometrium, invading the uterine serosa. The tumor had previously spontaneously ruptured and disseminated to the pelvic cavity. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed an infiltrative pattern of biphasic tumor cells composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and a nonepithelial component with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Benign endometrial glands with stromal cells were found adjacent to the area of the carcinosarcoma. The endometrium and both ovaries and fallopian tubes were microscopically free of tumor cells. The final diagnosis was heterologous type carcinosarcoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation, originating from uterine adenomyosis. PMID:26663238

  19. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date. PMID:27003980

  20. Pathology of eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  1. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  2. Melanoma arising after imiquimod use.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sharad P

    2014-01-01

    Imiquimod belongs to the class of 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolones-drugs originally developed as nucleoside analogues with the aim of finding new potential antiviral agents (Harrison et al., 1988). Indeed, Imiquimod was first released as treatment for genital warts before its actions against skin cancer were studied. Imiquimod is a relatively small sized molecule (Mr = 240.3) and is hydrophobic, allowing it to penetrate the skin epidermal barrier and therefore making it suitable for topical formulations (Gerster et al., 2005). Imiquimod has shown itself effective against skin cancers and precancerous lesions, especially basal cell cancers and actinic keratosis (Salasche et al., 2002, Beutner et al., 1999). There have been reports of Imiquimod being used as topical treatment against cutaneous metastases of melanoma and some authors have reported its use as first-line therapy against melanoma in situ (Smyth et al., 2011, Gagnon, 2011). We report a case of an invasive malignant melanoma arising de novo at the specific site of application of Imiquimod (Aldara cream 5%) for a biopsy-proven superficial BCC. Therefore while Imiquimod has added to our topical armamentarium against skin cancer, care must be exercised in prescribing this treatment and it is especially important to follow up patients regularly. PMID:25431597

  3. SacPox from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a proficient lactonase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SacPox, an enzyme from the extremophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sac), was isolated by virtue of its phosphotriesterase (or paraoxonase; Pox) activity, i.e. its ability to hydrolyze the neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides. Later on, SacPox was shown to belong to the Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase family that comprises natural lactonases, possibly involved in quorum sensing, and endowed with promiscuous, phosphotriesterase activity. Results Here, we present a comprehensive and broad enzymatic characterization of the natural lactonase and promiscuous organophosphorus hydrolase activities of SacPox, as well as a structural analysis using a model. Conclusion Kinetic experiments show that SacPox is a proficient lactonase, including at room temperature. Moreover, we discuss the observed differences in substrate specificity between SacPox and its closest homologues SsoPox and SisLac together with the possible structural causes for these observations. PMID:24894602

  4. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    PubMed

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  5. The SAC51 Family Plays a Central Role in Thermospermine Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Fukushima, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Mai; Ishii, Nami; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Motose, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Taku

    2016-08-01

    The acaulis5 (acl5) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is defective in the biosynthesis of thermospermine and shows a dwarf phenotype associated with excess xylem differentiation. SAC51 was identified from a dominant suppressor of acl5, sac51-d, and encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein. The sac51-d mutant has a premature termination codon in an upstream open reading frame (uORF) that is conserved among all four members of the SAC51 family, SAC51 and SACL1-SACL3 This suggests that thermospermine cancels the inhibitory effect of the uORF in main ORF translation. Another suppressor, sac57-d, has a mutation in the conserved uORF of SACL3 To define further the function of the SAC51 family in the thermospermine response, we analyzed T-DNA insertion mutants of each gene. Although sacl1-1 may not be a null allele, the quadruple mutant showed a semi-dwarf phenotype but with an increased level of thermospermine and decreased sensitivity to exogenous thermospermine that normally represses xylem differentiation. The sac51-1 sacl3-1 double mutant was also insensitive to thermospermine. These results suggest that SAC51 and SACL3 play a key role in thermospermine-dependent negative control of thermospermine biosynthesis and xylem differentiation. Using 5' leader-GUS (β-glucuronidase) fusion constructs, however, we detected a significant enhancement of the GUS activity by thermospermine only in SAC51 and SACL1 constructs. Furthermore, while acl5-1 sac51-1 showed the acl5 dwarf phenotype, acl5-1 sacl3-1 exhibited an extremely tiny-plant phenotype. These results suggest a complex regulatory network for the thermospermine response in which SAC51 and SACL3 function in parallel pathways. PMID:27388339

  6. Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pegas, Karla Lais; Milani, Daniel Marini; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Guerra, Enilde Heloena; Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings. PMID:21151524

  7. [The orbital implant after exenteration of the orbit with the preservation of the eyelids and the conjunctival sac].

    PubMed

    Krásný, J; Novák, V; Otradovec, J

    2006-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the orbital exenteration presents the most mutilating surgical procedure. The surgical technique presented by authors, preserves the eyelids and conjunctival sac. This surgical procedure was suggested and repeatedly performed in adult patients with extensive benign tumors (mostly meningeomas) by J. Otradovec and J. Safár. The enucleation of the eyeball preceded this type of surgery. The final state made it possible to put the prosthesis into the conjunctival sac. Today we inform about further development of this surgical technique and according to our own experiences we widen its indications to some malignant tumors (rhabdomyosarcoma and metastases of the retinoblastoma, etc.) in children. The initial cutaneous incision starts in the eyebrow area and is directed toward the bone of the orbital rim. The preparation of the tissue underneath the intact conjunctival sac to the lower aspect of the bone orbital rim follows. After folding the conjuctival-cutaneous sac back, the real content of the orbit is exenterated in the classical manner. After the hemostasis in the orbital apex, the flap is returned to its primary position and suturing of the primary incision in anatomical layers terminates the surgery. The authors refer about a boy, now 17 years old, who underwent at the age of three years the exenteration of the orbit in this manner due to a rhabdomyosarcoma. The authors also refer about the development and application of a special type of prosthesis made from silicone rubber--implant grade--filling out the orbital space and forming the anterior segment of the eye. The prosthesis was created from a classical orbital implant, regularly used in enucleation surgery and a conjunctival implant, a convex-concave plate with diameter of 20 mm. Both parts are made from the same type of silicon rubber and were connected together by vulcanization. The orbital implant was eliptically extended according to the measurements of the orbital casting made from

  8. Characterization of the sacQ genes from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Amory, A; Kunst, F; Aubert, E; Klier, A; Rapoport, G

    1987-01-01

    The sacQ gene from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Deletion analysis shows that it encodes a 46-amino-acid polypeptide homologous to the B. subtilis sacQ gene product. The polypeptide, when it is overexpressed, activates the expression of a number of target genes in B. subtilis, all encoding secreted enzymes: alkaline protease, levansucrase, beta-glucanase(s), xylanase, and alpha-amylase. The maximum stimulations measured for alkaline protease and levansucrase were by a factor of 70 and 50, respectively, when the sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was present on a multicopy plasmid in B. subtilis. The sacQ genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, cloned in the same multicopy plasmid, were compared under the same conditions. The sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was more efficient than the sacQ gene from B. subtilis in producing the hypersecretion phenotype. The sacQ structural genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were placed under the control of the same inducible promoter. Hypersecretion was specifically obtained under conditions of full induction of the promoter. The target site of levansucrase regulation by sacQ was identified as a 440-base-pair fragment located in the 5' noncoding region of sacB, suggesting transcriptional control. Images PMID:3098732

  9. Potentiodynamic polarization effect on phase and microstructure of SAC305 solder in hydrochloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaini, Nurwahida Binti Mohd; Nazeri, Muhammad Firdaus Bin Mohd

    2016-07-01

    The corrosion analysis of SAC305 lead free solder was investigated in Hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Potentiodynamic polarization was used to polarize the SAC305. The effect of polarization on the phase and microstructure were compared to as-prepared SAC305 solder. Potentiodynamic polarization introduces mixed corrosion products on the surface of SAC305 solder. The XRD analysis confirms that the mixed corrosion products emerged on the surface after polarization by formation of SnO and SnO2 of which confirmed that dissolution of Sn was dominant during polarization. Microstructure analysis reveal the presence of gap and porosities produced limits the protection offered by the passivation film.

  10. Spatiotemporal control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by Sac2 regulates endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, FoSheng; Hu, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the spatial- and temporal-restricted generation and turnover of phosphoinositides (PIs) by a cascade of PI-metabolizing enzymes is a key regulatory mechanism in the endocytic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the Sac1 domain–containing protein Sac2 is a PI 4-phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in vitro. We further show that Sac2 colocalizes with early endosomal markers and is recruited to transferrin (Tfn)-containing vesicles during endocytic recycling. Exogenous expression of the catalytically inactive mutant Sac2C458S resulted in altered cellular distribution of Tfn receptors and delayed Tfn recycling. Furthermore, genomic ablation of Sac2 caused a similar perturbation on Tfn and integrin recycling as well as defects in cell migration. Structural characterization of Sac2 revealed a unique pleckstrin-like homology Sac2 domain conserved in all Sac2 orthologues. Collectively, our findings provide evidence for the tight regulation of PIs by Sac2 in the endocytic recycling pathway. PMID:25869669

  11. The PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 triad in human breast cancer: Functional link between elevated Sac3 phosphatase and enhanced proliferation of triple negative cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomov, Ognian C. Filios, Catherine Sbrissa, Diego Chen, Xuequn Shisheva, Assia

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We assess PAS complex proteins and phosphoinositide levels in breast cancer cells. •Sac3 and ArPIKfyve are markedly elevated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. •Sac3 silencing inhibits proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. •Phosphoinositide profiles are altered in breast cancer cells. •This is the first evidence linking high Sac3 with breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and 5-phosphatase Sac3 are scaffolded by ArPIKfyve in the PIKfyve–ArPIKfyve–Sac3 (PAS) regulatory complex to trigger a unique loop of PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} synthesis and turnover. Whereas the metabolizing enzymes of the other 3-phosphoinositides have already been implicated in breast cancer, the role of the PAS proteins and the PtdIns3P–PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} conversion is unknown. To begin elucidating their roles, in this study we monitored the endogenous levels of the PAS complex proteins in cell lines derived from hormone-receptor positive (MCF7 and T47D) or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (BT20, BT549 and MDA-MB-231) as well as in MCF10A cells derived from non-tumorigenic mastectomy. We report profound upregulation of Sac3 and ArPIKfyve in the triple negative vs. hormone-sensitive breast cancer or non-tumorigenic cells, with BT cell lines showing the highest levels. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sac3, but not that of PIKfyve, significantly inhibited proliferation of BT20 and BT549 cells. In these cells, knockdown of ArPIKfyve had only a minor effect, consistent with a primary role for Sac3 in TNBC cell proliferation. Intriguingly, steady-state levels of PtdIns(3,5)P{sub 2} in BT20 and T47D cells were similar despite the 6-fold difference in Sac3 levels between these cell lines. However, steady-state levels of PtdIns3P and PtdIns5P, both regulated by the PAS complex, were significantly reduced in BT20 vs. T47D or MCF10A cell lines, consistent with elevated Sac3 affecting directly or

  12. Cyclocoelid ( Morishitium sp.) Trematodes from an Air Sac of a Purple Sandpiper, Calidris maritima (Brünnich).

    PubMed

    Shutler, Dave; Mallory, Mark L; Elderkin, Mark; McLaughlin, J Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Like many shorebirds, purple sandpipers ( Calidris maritima [Brünnich] Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) have experienced population declines in recent years, but causes of these declines have not been established. As part of a larger study to identify causes of these declines, we collected and examined 25 purple sandpipers in coastal Nova Scotia, Canada during March 2013. In the course of dissections to collect tissue samples, we detected a cluster of trematodes in the air sac of 1 bird that were subsequently identified as cyclocoelids belonging to the genus Morishitium Witenberg, 1928, which we believe is the first report of this genus of parasites in this host. Cyclocoelids have been reported from other scolopacids and other shorebird families, but we are unaware of reports of serious pathology arising from these trematodes. Given this and the low prevalence (4%) in our sample, our data cannot ascribe declines in purple sandpiper populations to these trematodes, but our sample is limited both spatially and temporally. PMID:26779884

  13. Vienna SAC-SOS: Analysis of the European VLBI Sessions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, C. T.; Pavetich, P.; Nilsson, T.; Böhm, J.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics (IGG) of the Vienna University of Technology as an IVS Special Analysis Center for Specific Observing Sessions (SAC-SOS) has analyzed the European VLBI sessions using the software VieVS. Between 1990 and 2011, 115 sessions have been carried out. The analyzed baselines have lengths ranging from approximately 445 to 4580 km, and they show good repeatabilities, apart from the ones containing station Simeiz. The station velocities have also been investigated. The stations situated in the stable part of Europe have not shown significant relative movements w.r.t. Wettzell, whereas the stations located in the northern areas have the largest vertical motions as a result of the post glacial isostatic rebound of the zone. The stations placed in Italy, around the Black Sea, in Siberia, and near the Arctic Circle show the largest relative horizontal motions because they belong to different geodynamical units.

  14. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection.

  15. The influence of locomotion on air-sac pressures in little penguins.

    PubMed

    Boggs, D F; Baudinette, R V; Frappell, P B; Butler, P J

    2001-10-01

    Air-sac pressures have been reported to oscillate with wing beat in flying magpies and with foot paddling in diving ducks. We sought to determine the impact on air-sac pressure of wing beats during swimming and of the step cycle during walking in little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Fluctuations averaged 0.16+/-0.06 kPa in the interclavicular air sacs, but only 0.06+/-0.04 kPa in the posterior thoracic sac, generating a small differential pressure between sacs of 0.06+/-0.02 kPa (means +/- S.E.M., N=4). These fluctuations occurred at approximately 3 Hz and corresponded to wing beats during swimming, indicated by electromyograms from the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles. There was no abdominal muscle activity associated with swimming or exhalation, but the abdominal muscles were active with the step cycle in walking penguins, and oscillations in posterior air-sac pressure (0.08+/-0.038 kPa) occurred with steps. We conclude that high-frequency oscillations in differential air-sac pressure enhance access to and utilization of the O(2) stores in the air sacs during a dive. PMID:11707507

  16. Finite element analysis of stresses developed in the blood sac of a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Haut Donahue, T L; Dehlin, W; Gillespie, J; Weiss, W J; Rosenberg, G

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a 3D finite element (FE) model of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to predict stresses in the blood sac. The hyperelastic stress-strain curves for the segmented poly(ether polyurethane urea) (SPEUU) blood sac were determined in both tension and compression using a servo-hydraulic testing system at various strain rates. Over the range of strain rates studied, the sac was not strain rate sensitive, however the material response was different for tension versus compression. The experimental tension and compression properties were used in a FE model that consisted of the pusher plate, blood sac and pump case. A quasi-static analysis was used to allow for nonlinearities due to contact and material deformation. The 3D FE model showed that blood sac stresses are not adversely affected by the location of the inlet and outlet ports of the device and that over the systolic ejection phase of the simulation the prediction of blood sac stresses from the full 3D model and an axisymmetric model are the same. Minimizing stresses in the blood sac will increase the longevity of the blood sac in vivo. PMID:19131267

  17. IN VITRO/IN VIVO COMPARISON OF YOLK SAC FUNCTION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yolk sac function and development of rat embryos grown in vitro for 24 hrs starting on day 10.5 were compared to those of embryos grown in utero. he embryos grown in vitro had significantly fewer somites, shorter crown-rump length and smaller yolk sac diameter when compared to th...

  18. Development of the endolymphatic sac in chick embryos, with reference to the degradation of otoconia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Kaname, H.; Narita, N.; Ishii, T.; Igarashi, M.; Fermin, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac of chick embryos (from embryonic day 7 to 1-day-old chicks) was studied light- and electron-microscopically. At stage 30-31 (embryonic day 7-7.5), the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac were cuboidal to columnar in shape. Microvilli were relatively well developed. The intercellular space was wide. In the endolymphatic space of the endolymphatic sac, varying shapes and sizes of otoconia-like bodies were often observed. Intracytoplasmic phagosomes containing these bodies were rarely found. After stage 37 (embryonic day 11), otoconia-like bodies in the endolymphatic sac decreased in number and size. They were almost the same as the otoconia in the macular organs, ultrastructurally. These findings indicate that the endolymphatic sac of the chick embryos may possess the function of otoconial degradation and removal of calcium from otoconia.

  19. Fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi: report of a unique case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yu, Bo; Shi, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Shi, Qun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor. To the author’s best knowledge, no previous case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi has been reported. Here we reported the first case of fibrosarcoma arising from gouty tophi. A case of 58-year-old man was presented with a mass with ulcer and infection in the second joint of left middle finger for 2 months, with long standing gouty tophi. The tumor was biopsied and the biopsy showed complete excision of the tumor. With the pathological and immunohistochemical features considered, the diagnosis of fibrosarcoma associated with gouty tophi was made. The clinical findings, pathological characteristics and treatment were described. PMID:26097616

  20. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  1. Neurocytoma arising from a mature ovary teratoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juan-Han; Yang, Lian-He; Lin, Xu-Yong; Dai, Shun-Dong; Qiu, Xue-Shan; Wang, En-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Central neurocytoma/extraventricular neurocytoma is a central nervous system (CNS) tumor composed of uniform round cells with neuronal differentiation. The typical lesions of central neurocytoma/extraventricular neurocytoma are at the interventricular foramen of the lateral ventricles (central neurocytoma) or brain parenchyma (extraventricular neurocytoma). Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor commonly found in young women. Herein, we report a 24-year-old female with neurocytoma in a mature teratoma of the right ovary. The histological examinations showed mature epidermis, skin appendages, adipose and bone tissues in the tumor; microscopic foci of immature cartilage tissues were also found in some parts. In addition, massive solid sheets and uniform round tumor cells were found in the neuroectodermal tissues, with the formation of neuropil-like islands. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that the tumor cells were synaptophysin- and NeuN-positive but GFAP-negative. Based on these findings, the woman was diagnosed with neurocytoma arising from mature ovary teratoma, with microscopic foci of immature cartilage tissues. This is the fourth case report of neurocytoma outside the CNS to date. PMID:26376790

  2. Nordic rattle: the hoarse vocalization and the inflatable laryngeal air sac of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban; Fritsch, Guido; Nygrén, Kaarlo; Weissengruber, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal air sacs have evolved convergently in diverse mammalian lineages including insectivores, bats, rodents, pinnipeds, ungulates and primates, but their precise function has remained elusive. Among cervids, the vocal tract of reindeer has evolved an unpaired inflatable ventrorostral laryngeal air sac. This air sac is not present at birth but emerges during ontogenetic development. It protrudes from the laryngeal vestibulum via a short duct between the epiglottis and the thyroid cartilage. In the female the growth of the air sac stops at the age of 2–3 years, whereas in males it continues to grow up to the age of about 6 years, leading to a pronounced sexual dimorphism of the air sac. In adult females it is of moderate size (about 100 cm3), whereas in adult males it is large (3000–4000 cm3) and becomes asymmetric extending either to the left or to the right side of the neck. In both adult females and males the ventral air sac walls touch the integument. In the adult male the air sac is laterally covered by the mandibular portion of the sternocephalic muscle and the skin. Both sexes of reindeer have a double stylohyoid muscle and a thyroepiglottic muscle. Possibly these muscles assist in inflation of the air sac. Head-and-neck specimens were subjected to macroscopic anatomical dissection, computer tomographic analysis and skeletonization. In addition, isolated larynges were studied for comparison. Acoustic recordings were made during an autumn round-up of semi-domestic reindeer in Finland and in a small zoo herd. Male reindeer adopt a specific posture when emitting their serial hoarse rutting calls. Head and neck are kept low and the throat region is extended. In the ventral neck region, roughly corresponding to the position of the large air sac, there is a mane of longer hairs. Neck swelling and mane spreading during vocalization may act as an optical signal to other males and females. The air sac, as a side branch of the vocal tract, can be considered as

  3. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Chikako; Morinaga, Masahiro; Yagi, Tomoko; Tsuji, Chieko; Toshida, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery. Subjects and methods The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis. Results The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%), among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%), followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%). All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7%) were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%), the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%). The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or a history of allergic conjunctivitis. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci showed a significantly higher detection rate in diabetic patients than nondiabetic patients (20.3% versus 7.0%, P < 0.05). The percentage of all isolates resistant to levofloxacin, cefmenoxime, and tobramycin was 14.0%, 15.2%, and 17.9%, respectively, with no significant differences among these drugs. Conclusion

  4. The First Transmembrane Domain of Lipid Phosphatase SAC1 Promotes Golgi Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinzhi; Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.; Mayinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The lipid phosphatase Sac1 cycles between endoplasmic reticulum and cisternal Golgi compartments. In proliferating mammalian cells, a canonical dilysine motif at the C-terminus of Sac1 is required for coatomer complex-I (COP-I)-binding and continuous retrieval to the ER. Starvation triggers accumulation of Sac1 at the Golgi. The mechanism responsible for Golgi retention of Sac1 is unknown. Here we show that the first of the two transmembrane regions in human SAC1 (TM1) functions in Golgi localization. A minimal construct containing only TM1 and the adjacent flanking sequences is concentrated at the Golgi. Transplanting TM1 into transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) induces Golgi accumulation of this normally plasma membrane and endosomal protein, indicating that TM1 is sufficient for Golgi localization. In addition, we determined that the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SAC1 also promotes Golgi localization, even when TM1 is mutated or absent. We conclude that the distribution of SAC1 within the Golgi is controlled via both passive membrane thickness-dependent partitioning of TM1 and a retention mechanism that requires the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. PMID:23936490

  5. Invasive breast carcinoma arising in microglandular adenosis: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Eun; Bae, Young Kyung

    2013-12-01

    Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare benign disease that shows an infiltrative growth pattern of small glands, and it may progress to include atypia and carcinoma. Here we report two cases of breast carcinoma arising in MGA. Case 1 was a 44-year-old woman with a previous history of ductal carcinoma in situ in her right breast. During a follow-up, a 1.8 cm mass-like lesion was found in her left breast. An excisional biopsy suggested that the lesion was breast carcinoma. Case 2 was a 57-year-old woman with a 2.9 cm mass in her right breast. A core needle biopsy of the lesion suggested invasive carcinoma. Both patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Both tumors lacked a myoepithelial cell layer and stained positively for S-100, lysozyme, and α1-antitrypsin, which is typical of MGA. Both cases showed invasive carcinoma arising in MGA. PMID:24454466

  6. Myofibroblastoma arising in mammary hamartoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Diego M; Cruz, Dênnis Baroni; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Pêgas, Karla Laís; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma (MFB) is a rare mesenchymal tumor arising in breast's soft tissue with a great variety of microscopic features that can be mistaken with a wide variety of biphasic lesions. The authors report a rare case of myofibroblastoma of the breast arising in a mammary hamartoma (MH), present a review of the clinicopathological features of these lesions, and make some diagnostic considerations. The tumour consisted of a well-circumscribed nodule. MFB component comprised about fifty percent of the lesion and was made up of bipolar spindle cells arranged in fascicular clusters separated by bands of hyalinized collagen. There were fat cells and several residual hamartoma glands intermingled and distorted in MFB area. MFB component was positive for Desmin, CD34, bcl-2, and Calponin. To the best of our knowledge, MFB has not been reported in MH, neither has any of the reports described mammary glands joined within MFB. PMID:21151720

  7. The effect of pigeon yolk sac fluid on the growth behavior of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan; Cheng, Haixia; Shen, Xinyu; Tong, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Previous experiments have proved that thermodynamically unstable calcium carbonate vaterite can exist for long periods in the yolk sac of a pigeon embryo. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effect of in vitro mineralization of yolk sac fluid on calcium carbonate by direct precipitation. Experiments were conducted using pigeon yolk sac fluid and using lecithin extracted from pigeon yolk sac fluid as a control to investigate the regulating effects of the organic components in the embryo on the formation of the calcium carbonate precipitate. Multiple characterization methods were employed to study the various morphological patterns, sizes, crystal growth, and crystal phase transformations of the calcium carbonate precipitates as regulated by the yolk sac fluid extracted at different stages of incubation. The experimental results demonstrate that as the incubation proceeds towards the later stages, the composition and environmental features of the yolk sac fluid become more favorable for the formation of relatively unstable calcium carbonate phases with high energies of the vaterite state. The experiments conducted with extracted lecithin as the template for crystal growth yielded similar results. A large amount of organic molecules with polar functional groups carried by the yolk sac fluid have strong effects and can both initially induce the crystallization and regulate the aggregation of calcium carbonate. Furthermore, this regulation process is found to be closely related to the lecithin contained in yolk sac fluid. These observations confirm the changes in yolk sac fluid composition during incubation have significant effects on the production of vaterite, which implicates the calcium transport during embryo growth. PMID:25681477

  8. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  9. Observational Opportunities with the CUBIC Experiment on SAC-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousek, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Moskalenko, E. I.

    1996-12-01

    The CUBIC experiment on the SAC-B satellite is now collecting data on the Diffuse X-Ray Background and bright point sources over an energy range of 0.2 - 10 keV with energy resolution ranging from 40 - 160 eV over this bandpass. CUBIC observations, several of which are discussed in other posters at this session, provide 2 - 4 high quality spectra per week. CUBIC was built as a PI-class instrument, and at present data rights are divided between Penn State (90%) and Leicester University (10%). We present the observing plan for the first six months of CUBIC operations. We are currently collaborating with several astronomers who are not on the CUBIC team but have expressed interest in one or more of these targets. We invite additional collaborations on targets which are not currently assigned to a specific observer. In order to make these data more accessible to the astronomical community, we are proposing to institute a modest Guest Investigator program. If supported by ADP funding, this would permit observing requests from outside astronomers and would place a large fraction of the CUBIC data in a public archive at the HEASARC.

  10. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Solid Tumors That Have Relapsed or Not Responded to Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis. PMID:25676911

  12. Histological and histochemical analyses of the cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Zhaoping; Wang, Rucai

    2007-10-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (λC ≤ 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  14. Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Paul C.; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.; Varricchio, David J.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Larsson, Hans C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (“stomach ribs”), which suggest that diverticulae of the air sac system were present in surface tissues of the thorax. Conclusions/Significance We present a four-phase model for the evolution of avian air sacs and costosternal-driven lung ventilation based on the known fossil record of theropod dinosaurs and osteological correlates in extant birds: (1) Phase I—Elaboration of paraxial cervical air sacs in basal theropods no later than the earliest Late Triassic. (2) Phase II—Differentiation of avian ventilatory air sacs, including both cranial (clavicular air sac) and caudal (abdominal air sac) divisions, in basal tetanurans during the Jurassic. A heterogeneous respiratory tract with compliant air sacs, in turn, suggests the presence of rigid, dorsally attached lungs with flow-through ventilation. (3) Phase III—Evolution of a primitive costosternal pump in maniraptoriform theropods before the close of the Jurassic. (4) Phase IV—Evolution of an advanced costosternal pump in maniraptoran theropods before the close of the

  15. Transcriptome analysis of biomineralisation-related genes within the pearl sac: host and donor oyster contribution.

    PubMed

    McGinty, E L; Zenger, K R; Jones, D B; Jerry, D R

    2012-03-01

    Cultured pearl production is a complex biological process involving the implantation of a mantle graft from a donor pearl oyster along with a bead nucleus into the gonad of a second recipient host oyster. Therefore, pearl production potentially involves the genetic co-operation of two oyster genomes. Whilst many genes in the mantle tissue have been identified and linked to shell biomineralisation in pearl oysters, few studies have determined which of these biomineralisation genes are expressed in the pearl sac and potentially linked to pearl biomineralisation processes. It is also uncertain whether the host or donor oyster is primarily responsible for the expression of biomineralisation genes governing pearl formation, with only two shell matrix proteins previously identified as being expressed by the donor oyster in the pearl sac. To further our understanding of pearl formation, the pearl sac transcriptome of Pinctada maxima and Pinctada margaritifera was each sequenced to an equivalent 5× genome coverage with putative molluscan biomineralisation-related genes identified. Furthermore, the host and donor contribution of these expressed genes within the pearl sac were quantified using a novel approach whereby two pearl oyster species harbouring unique genomes, P. maxima or P. margaritifera, were used to produce xenografted pearl sacs. A total of 19 putative mollusc biomineralisation genes were identified and found to be expressed in the pearl sacs of P. maxima and P. margaritifera. From this list of expressed genes, species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified within seven of these genes; Linkine, N66, Perline, N44, MSI60, Calreticulin and PfCHS1. Based on the presence/absence of species diagnostic gene transcripts within xenografted pearl sacs, all seven genes were found to be expressed by the species used as the donor oyster. In one individual we also found that the host was expressing Linkine. These results convincingly show for the

  16. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  17. Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Peterson, E.K.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Deposition of anal-sac secretions by captive wolves was investigated by a labelling technique using protein-bound iodine125 and food dye. Wolves deposited secretions on some but not all scats. Adult males, especially the alpha male, deposited anal-sac secretions more frequently while defecating than did females or juveniles. Secretions sometimes also were deposited independently of defecation, suggesting a dual role in communication by these substances.

  18. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL–Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  19. Sac1--Vps74 structure reveals a mechanism to terminate phosphoinositide signaling in the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yiying; Deng, Yongqiang; Horenkamp, Florian; Reinisch, Karin M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2014-08-25

    Sac1 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus that controls organelle membrane composition principally via regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling. We present a characterization of the structure of the N-terminal portion of yeast Sac1, containing the conserved Sac1 homology domain, in complex with Vps74, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase effector and the orthologue of human GOLPH3. The interface involves the N-terminal subdomain of the Sac1 homology domain, within which mutations in the related Sac3/Fig4 phosphatase have been linked to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disorder CMT4J and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Disruption of the Sac1–Vps74 interface results in a broader distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate within the Golgi apparatus and failure to maintain residence of a medial Golgi mannosyltransferase. The analysis prompts a revision of the membrane-docking mechanism for GOLPH3 family proteins and reveals how an effector of phosphoinositide signaling serves a dual function in signal termination.

  20. Acoustic analysis of primate air sacs and their effect on vocalization.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bart

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic impedance of primate air sacs and their interaction with the vocal tract. A lumped element model is derived and it is found that the inertance of the neck and the volume of the air sac are relevant, as well as the mass and stiffness of the walls (depending on the tissue). It is also shown that at low frequencies, radiation from the air sac can be non-negligible, even if the mouth is open. It is furthermore shown that an air sac can add one or two low resonances to the resonances of the oral tract, and that it shifts up the oral tract's resonances below approximately 2000 Hz, and shifts them closer together. The theory was verified by acoustic measurements and applied to the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). The theory describes the physical models and the siamang calls correctly, but appears incomplete for the howler monkey vocalizations. The relation between air sacs and the evolution of speech is discussed briefly, and it is proposed that an air sac would reduce the ability to produce distinctive speech, but would enhance the impression of size of the vocalizer. PMID:20000947

  1. Glomus-like bodies within a neurofibroma: a novel neoplasm arising in neurofibromatosis type 1 or a coincidence?

    PubMed

    Thareja, Sumeet; Honigbaum, Alexis; Jukic, Drazen

    2015-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a relatively common genetic disorder with variable phenotypes. Tumors with features of both glomus tumors and neurofibromas are exceedingly rare in literature. Herein, we report a not yet described neoplasm with features of both a glomangioma/glomus tumor and a neurofibroma arising in a patient with segmental neurofibromatosis. Our case report supports the theory of a common lineage/ancestor cell between neurofibromas and glomus tumors and adds it to the spectrum of neoplasms that may arise in the setting of Von Recklinghausen's disease. PMID:25384450

  2. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L; Barron, Megan E; Roa, Jinae N

    2014-03-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3(-), and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3(-) sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3(-)-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H(+) absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  3. Established and potential physiological roles of bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tresguerres, Martin; Barott, Katie L.; Barron, Megan E.; Roa, Jinae N.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently recognized source of the signaling molecule cyclic AMP (cAMP) that is genetically and biochemically distinct from the classic G-protein-regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Mammalian sAC is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and it may be present in the nucleus and inside mitochondria. sAC activity is directly stimulated by HCO3−, and sAC has been confirmed to be a HCO3− sensor in a variety of mammalian cell types. In addition, sAC can functionally associate with carbonic anhydrases to act as a de facto sensor of pH and CO2. The two catalytic domains of sAC are related to HCO3−-regulated adenylyl cyclases from cyanobacteria, suggesting the cAMP pathway is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sensing CO2 levels and/or acid/base conditions. Reports of sAC in aquatic animals are still limited but are rapidly accumulating. In shark gills, sAC senses blood alkalosis and triggers compensatory H+ absorption. In the intestine of bony fishes, sAC modulates NaCl and water absorption. And in sea urchin sperm, sAC may participate in the initiation of flagellar movement and in the acrosome reaction. Bioinformatics and RT-PCR results reveal that sAC orthologs are present in most animal phyla. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the physiological roles of sAC in aquatic animals and suggests additional functions in which sAC may be involved. PMID:24574382

  4. Endometrial carcinoma arising in a bicornuate uterus

    PubMed Central

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cha, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinomas arising in a bicornuate uterus are rare, only five case of which have been previously reported. We present a case of endometrial cancer arising in a bicornuate uterus, occurring in a 65-year-old woman. Unlike previously reported cases, our case showed mixed endometrial adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in one horn and focal adenocarcinoma in the other. Adequate tissue sampling of both horns is necessary for accurate diagnosis of malignancy in patients with a bicornuate uterus. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this abnormality in cases when endometrial cancer is suspected but histology fails to confirm. PMID:25264532

  5. A Case of Ectopic ACTH-Producing Pulmonary Carcinoid Arising in an Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seijiro; Kitahara, Akihiko; Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Ohashi, Riuko; Kameda, Yoichi; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-04-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-producing bronchopulmonary carcinoid arising in a bronchopulmonary sequestration is extremely rare. The case of a 67-year-old woman with a 1.7-cm nodule in the mediastinal side of the left lower lobe is presented. At 52 years of age, she was diagnosed as having ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, no ectopic source of ACTH-secretion was detected. Seven years later, she underwent a bilateral adrenalectomy because of aggravation of her health condition. This time, tumor excision was performed by thoracoscopic surgery. The tumor adhered sparsely to the mediastinal pleura and the left lower lobe and was bluntly separated from these tissues. Pathologically, the tumor was a typical carcinoid arising in an extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the secretion of ACTH by bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor cells. After surgery, the serum ACTH level was almost normalized, and the dexamethasone (1 mg) suppression test showed significant suppression of ACTH. PMID:26378053

  6. Lymphangiosarcoma arising after 33 years within a background of chronic filariasis: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Naveen; Viswanathan, Seethalakshmi; Rekhi, Bharat; Jambhekar, Nirmala A

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous angiosarcoma or lymphangiosarcoma represents an uncommon aggressive tumor known to arise on a background of chronic lymphedema secondary to various etiologies, principally following surgery or irradiation. There have been rarely reported cases of angiosarcoma following infective conditions that eventuate with lymphatic stasis. We report a case of angiosarcoma arising after 33 years within a background of filariasis. Awareness of this association can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this potentially fatal malignant tumor. PMID:22211335

  7. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  8. A status report on the development of SAC2000: A new seismic analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, P.; Minner, L.

    1995-08-01

    We are developing a new Seismic Analysis Code (SAC2000) that will meet the research needs of the seismic research and treaty monitoring communities. Our first step in this development was to rewrite the original Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) -- a Fortran code that was approximately 140,000 lines long -- in the C programming language. This rewrite has resulted in a much more robust code that is faster, more efficient, and more portable than the original. We have implemented important processing capabilities such as convolution and binary monograms, and we have significantly enhanced several previously existing capabilities. For example, the spectrogram command now produces a correctly registered plot of the input time series and a color image of the output spectrogram. We have also added an image plotting capability with access to 17 predefined color tables or custom color tables. A rewritten version of the readcss command can now be used to access any of the documented css.3.0 database data formats, a capability that is particularly important to the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) and the monitoring community. A much less visible, but extremely important contribution is the correction of numerous inconsistencies and errors that have evolved because of piecemeal development and limited maintenance since SAC was first written. We have also incorporated on-line documentation and have made SAC documentation available on the Internet via the world-wide-web at http://www-ep/tvp/sac.html.

  9. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    PubMed Central

    You, Yongsheng; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wu, Wencan; Xiao, Tianlin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs) in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR). The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5%) and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%). The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele. PMID:27242921

  10. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish. PMID:26035592

  11. Developmental expression of otoconin-22 in the bullfrog endolymphatic sac and inner ear.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Onda, Tomoaki; Hidaka, Yoshie; Yajima, Shinya; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2004-05-01

    In amphibians, calcium carbonate crystals are present in the endolymphatic sac and the inner ear. The formation of these crystals is considered to be facilitated by a protein called otoconin-22. We examined the spatial and temporal expression of otoconin-22 during the development of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunofluorescence techniques. By RT-PCR, otoconin-22 mRNA was first detected in embryos at Shumway stage 20, and this expression pattern continues in late stages. The first otoconin-22 mRNA-positive reaction was detected in stage 22 embryos in the placode of the endolymphatic sac. Otoconin-22 protein was observed in the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac at stage 24. On the other hand, a whole-mount ISH technique showed the first expression of otoconin-22 mRNA in the inner ear, in addition to the endolymphatic sac, at the mid-phase of Shumway stage 25. We discuss the role of otoconin-22 in the formation of calcium carbonate crystals in the endolymphatic sac and inner ear. PMID:15100243

  12. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  13. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  14. Pollen tubes introduce Raspberry bushy dwarf virus into embryo sacs during fertilization processes.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Masamichi; Yoshida, Tetu; Shimura, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-10-01

    We developed a fertilization method in which pollen tubes entered into embryo sacs without any need to contact surrounding female sporophytic cells by using Torenia fournieri (Torenia) plants under the condition of hindering movement of the virus from a stigma, which is the first infection site leading to systemic infection. When RBDV-infected Torenia pollen grains were used for the developed fertilization method, the virus was transmitted to the seeds by pollen tubes germinating from them. On the other hand, no seeds were infected with the virus when Torenia plants were pollinated with healthy Torenia pollen grains in combination with RBDV-infected raspberry pollen grains, which caused the virus infection in the stigma by penetration of their pollen tubes arrested in its style. Our results indicate that vertical transmission of RBDV by pollen occurs in the transport of the virus into embryo sacs by pollen tubes reaching the embryo sacs. PMID:26176979

  15. A New Technique for Reduction the Phase Induced Intensity Noise in SAC-OCDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan

    2011-12-01

    A new code for reduction the phase induced intensity noise has been presented. The new code is proposed for Spectral Amplitude-Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Accesses (SAC-OCDMA). This new code family we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code reduced the effect of Multi Access Interference (MAI) due to it is the property of variable cross correlation. We find that the performance of the DCS code is a batter than other SAC-OCDMA codes such as; Random Diagonal (RD) code, Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) code. Through the mathematical calculation and simulation analysis, for the bit-error rate of DCS code is significantly better than other SAC-OCDMA codes, the effect of Phase Induced Intensity Noise is reduced. In addition, proofof-principle simulations of 10 Gb/s for 20 km have been successfully demonstrated and achieved low BER compared to the other codes.

  16. Anisotropic shrinkage of insect air sacs revealed in vivo by X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Rongchang; Du, Guohao; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Feixiang; Deng, Biao; Xie, Honglan; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Air sacs are thought to be the bellows for insect respiration. However, their exact mechanism of action as a bellows remains unclear. A direct way to investigate this problem is in vivo observation of the changes in their three-dimensional structures. Therefore, four-dimensional X-ray phase contrast microtomography is employed to solve this puzzle. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional image series reveals that the compression of the air sac during respiration in bell crickets exhibits obvious anisotropic characteristics both longitudinally and transversely. Volumetric changes of the tracheal trunks in the prothorax further strengthen the evidence of this finding. As a result, we conclude that the shrinkage and expansion of the insect air sac is anisotropic, contrary to the hypothesis of isotropy, thereby providing new knowledge for further research on the insect respiratory system. PMID:27580585

  17. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  18. Retroperitoneal Endodermal Sinus Tumor Patient with Palliative Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    This article is a case reflection of a personal encounter on the palliative care treatment required after the removal of a complicated case of a primary extra-gonadal retro-peritoneal endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). This reflection is from the perspective of a recently graduated MD student who spent one month with an Indian pain management and palliative care team at the Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi PMID:26962288

  19. Transcriptome-based profiling of yolk sac-derived macrophages reveals a role for Irf8 in macrophage maturation.

    PubMed

    Hagemeyer, Nora; Kierdorf, Katrin; Frenzel, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Ringelhan, Marc; Abdullah, Zeinab; Godin, Isabelle; Wieghofer, Peter; Costa Jordão, Marta Joana; Ulas, Thomas; Yorgancioglu, Gülden; Rosenbauer, Frank; Knolle, Percy A; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Schultze, Joachim L; Prinz, Marco

    2016-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that tissue macrophages (MΦ) arise from embryonic progenitors of the yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver and colonize tissues before birth. Further studies have proposed that developmentally distinct tissue MΦ can be identified based on the differential expression of F4/80 and CD11b, but whether a characteristic transcriptional profile exists is largely unknown. Here, we took advantage of an inducible fate-mapping system that facilitated the identification of CD45(+)c-kit(-)CX3CR1(+)F4/80(+) (A2) progenitors of the YS as the source of F4/80(hi) but not CD11b(hi) MΦ. Large-scale transcriptional profiling of MΦ precursors from the YS stage to adulthood allowed for building computational models for F4/80(hi) tissue macrophages being direct descendants of A2 progenitors. We further identified a distinct molecular signature of F4/80(hi) and CD11b(hi) MΦ and found that Irf8 was vital for MΦ maturation. Our data provide new cellular and molecular insights into the origin and developmental pathways of tissue MΦ. PMID:27412700

  20. Experimental demonstration of variable weight SAC-OCDMA system for QoS differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Sahbudin, Ratna Kalos Zakiah; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Anas, Siti Barirah Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the experimental and simulation results of variable-weight spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (VW-SAC-OCDMA) system is demonstrated. In the proposed system, three users with weights of 6, 4 and 2 each operating at data rate of 1.25 Gb/s represent video, data and voice services, respectively. Results show that for back-to-back system minimum average power of -20 dBm per chip is required to maintain the acceptable performance. Transmission up to 60 km of fiber is demonstrated. Using mathematical approximation the capacity of VW-SAC-OCDMA system is demonstrated.

  1. Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Richard J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Gower, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) indicate that pterosaurs possessed components of a bird-like respiratory system, including a series of ventilatory air-sacs. However, the presence of PSP in the oldest known pterosaurs has not been unambiguously demonstrated by previous studies. Here we provide the first unequivocal documentation of PSP in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic pterosaurs. This demonstrates that PSP and, by inference, air-sacs were probably present in the common ancestor of almost all known pterosaurs, and has broader implications for the evolution of respiratory systems in bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs. PMID:19411265

  2. Primary seminoma arising in the middle mediastinum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    XU, JING; ZHAO, JINGLAN; GENG, SHAOQING; WANG, QI; WANG, PENGFEI; ZHANG, CHUNLING; ZHU, XIONGZENG; JI, YOUXIN

    2016-01-01

    Primary mediastinal seminoma often occurs in the anterior mediastinum of young males. It is unusual for the tumor to originate in the middle or posterior mediastinum, and such cases have rarely been reported in the English literature. The present study reports the case of a 52-year-old man with a 3.0-cm primary seminoma arising in the middle mediastinum. The patient presented with the symptoms of cough and chest tightness. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) scans revealed unique abnormal FDG uptake in the middle mediastinum. A mediastinoscopy was performed and integral excision was found to be difficult. A biopsy was performed and the histological examination revealed a primary seminoma. Following 4 cycles of a standard bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen, and chest irradiation at a total dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions, the tumor exhibited a partial response, decreasing in size, and FDG uptake was no longer observed on 18F-FDG-PET scan. The last follow-up date was April 2016 and the patient has remained disease-free for 20 months. PMID:27347149

  3. Complete Surgical Resection of a Leiomyosarcoma Arising from the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Hirofumi; Minamimura, Keisuke; Endo, Yuhei; Irie, Shoichi; Hirata, Toru; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mafune, Ken-ichi; Mori, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with chief complaint of right hypochondoralgia. Abdominal ultrasound showed a retroperitoneal tumor in the suprarenal region of the right kidney. Computed tomography revealed an enhanced lobular tumor with irregular, circumscribed, and indistinct border. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was performed. The tumor consisted of spindle-shaped cells with a giant nucleus and multinuclear cells. The diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma by immunohistochemical staining. The patient underwent surgery accessed by a right eighth intercostal thoracoabdominal incision. The tumor was completely resected, accompanied by removal of the posterosuperior segment of the right hepatic lobe, right adrenal gland, and a portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC). The histopathologic diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma arising from the IVC. We present a rare case of a successfully managed leiomyosarcoma of the IVC. This case suggests the importance of curative surgical resection of the tumor due to low efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for leiomyosarcoma. PMID:26167180

  4. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-74 Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C certification, all warranted Contracting Officers, regardless of series,...

  5. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-74 Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. To maintain FAC-C certification, all warranted Contracting Officers, regardless of series,...

  6. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  7. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  8. Modeling the Rate-Dependent Durability of Reduced-Ag SAC Interconnects for Area Array Packages Under Torsion Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Vikram; Menon, Sandeep; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael G.

    2013-08-01

    Solder durability models frequently focus on the applied strain range; however, the rate of applied loading, or strain rate, is also important. In this study, an approach to incorporate strain rate dependency into durability estimation for solder interconnects is examined. Failure data were collected for SAC105 solder ball grid arrays assembled with SAC305 solder that were subjected to displacement-controlled torsion loads. Strain-rate-dependent (Johnson-Cook model) and strain-rate-independent elastic-plastic properties were used to model the solders in finite-element simulation. Test data were then used to extract damage model constants for the reduced-Ag SAC solder. A generalized Coffin-Manson damage model was used to estimate the durability. The mechanical fatigue durability curve for reduced-silver SAC solder was generated and compared with durability curves for SAC305 and Sn-Pb from the literature.

  9. Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-02-15

    We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. PMID:24128573

  10. 2 CFR Appendix X to Part 200 - Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data Collection Form (Form SF-SAC) X Appendix X to Part 200 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and... PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Pt. 200, App. X Appendix X to Part 200—Data...

  11. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

  12. Late Sac Behavior after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Onohara, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Shimoe, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masafumi; Takahashi, Toshiki; Kishimoto, Jyunji; Mizuno, Akihiro; Kei, Junichi; Nakai, Mikizou; Sakaki, Masayuki; Suhara, Hitoshi; Kasashima, Fuminori; Endo, Masamitsu; Nishina, Takeshi; Furuyama, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Masakazu; Iwata, Keiji; Marumoto, Akira; Urata, Yasuhisa; Sato, Katsutoshi; Ryugo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sac behavior after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is considered as a surrogate for the risk of late rupture. The purpose of the study is to assess the sac behavior of AAAs after EVAR. Methods and Results: Late sac enlargement (LSE) (≥5 mm) and late sac shrinkage (LSS) (≥5 mm) were analyzed in 589 consecutive patients who were registered at 14 national centers in Japan. The proportions of patients who had LSE at 1, 3 and 5 years were 2.6% ± 0.7%, 10.0% ± 1.6% and 19.0% ± 2.9%. The proportions of patients who had LSS at 1, 3 and 5 years were 50.1% ± 0.7%, 59.2% ± 2.3% and 61.7% ± 2.7%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two variables as a risk factor for LSE; persistent endoleak (Odds ratio 9.56 (4.84–19.49), P <0.001) and low platelet count (Odds ratio 0.92 (0.86–0.99), P = 0.0224). The leading cause of endoleak in patients with LSE was type II. Conclusions: The incidence of LSE is not negligible over 5 year period. Patients with persistent endoleak and/or low platelet count should carefully be observed for LSE. Clinical Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000008345). PMID:27375803

  13. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301.603-72 Section 301.603-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority,...

  14. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements. 301.603-72 Section 301.603-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 301.603-72 FAC-C and HHS...

  15. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on... Training and Certification Handbook. (d) HHS SAC certification is based on three sets of requirements... the HHS Contracting Workforce Training and Certification Handbook....

  16. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on... Training and Certification Handbook. (d) HHS SAC certification is based on three sets of requirements... the HHS Contracting Workforce Training and Certification Handbook....

  17. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on... Training and Certification Handbook. (d) HHS SAC certification is based on three sets of requirements... the HHS Contracting Workforce Training and Certification Handbook....

  18. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) for the aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment for the Aquarius/SAC-D mission has been developed for assessing the accuracy of soil moisture retrievals from passive L-band remote sensing. The implementation of the OSSE is based on: a 1-km land surface model over the Red-Arkansas River Basin, a forward mi...

  19. Tissue-resident macrophages originate from yolk-sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gomez Perdiguero, Elisa; Klapproth, Kay; Schulz, Christian; Busch, Katrin; Azzoni, Emanuele; Crozet, Lucile; Garner, Hannah; Trouillet, Celine; de Bruijn, Marella F; Geissmann, Frederic; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2015-02-26

    Most haematopoietic cells renew from adult haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), however, macrophages in adult tissues can self-maintain independently of HSCs. Progenitors with macrophage potential in vitro have been described in the yolk sac before emergence of HSCs, and fetal macrophages can develop independently of Myb, a transcription factor required for HSC, and can persist in adult tissues. Nevertheless, the origin of adult macrophages and the qualitative and quantitative contributions of HSC and putative non-HSC-derived progenitors are still unclear. Here we show in mice that the vast majority of adult tissue-resident macrophages in liver (Kupffer cells), brain (microglia), epidermis (Langerhans cells) and lung (alveolar macrophages) originate from a Tie2(+) (also known as Tek) cellular pathway generating Csf1r(+) erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) distinct from HSCs. EMPs develop in the yolk sac at embryonic day (E) 8.5, migrate and colonize the nascent fetal liver before E10.5, and give rise to fetal erythrocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and monocytes until at least E16.5. Subsequently, HSC-derived cells replace erythrocytes, granulocytes and monocytes. Kupffer cells, microglia and Langerhans cells are only marginally replaced in one-year-old mice, whereas alveolar macrophages may be progressively replaced in ageing mice. Our fate-mapping experiments identify, in the fetal liver, a sequence of yolk sac EMP-derived and HSC-derived haematopoiesis, and identify yolk sac EMPs as a common origin for tissue macrophages. PMID:25470051

  20. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  1. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. C. M.; Wijesekara, Kolitha B.

    2002-01-01

    In angiosperms, archesporial cells in the anther primordium undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen, the sole occupants of anther sacs. Anther sacs are held together by a matrix of parenchyma cells, the connective tissue. Cells of the connective tissue are not known to differentiate. We report the differentiation of parenchyma cells in the connective tissue of two Gordonia species into pollen-like structures (described as pseudopollen), which migrate into the anther sacs before dehiscence. Pollen and pseudopollen were distinguishable by morphology and staining. Pollen were tricolpate to spherical while pseudopollen were less rigid and transparent with a ribbed surface. Both types were different in size, shape, staining and surface architecture. The ratio of the number of pseudopollen to pollen was 1:3. During ontogeny in the connective tissue, neither cell division nor tetrad formation was observed and hence pseudopollen were presumed to be diploid. Only normal pollen germinated on a germination medium. Fixed preparations in time seemed to indicate that pseudopollen migrate from the connective tissue into the anther sac.

  2. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Singh, Swati; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR) in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis. Results A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60) years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13) showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15) and 40% (six of 15), respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15). One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium. Conclusion An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR. PMID:27462137

  3. Significance of DNA quantification in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Codesal, J; Paniagua, R; Regadera, J; Fachal, C; Nistal, M

    1991-01-01

    A cytophotometric quantification of DNA in tumor cells was performed in histological sections of orchidectomy specimens from 36 men with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), 7 of them showing more than one tumor type. Among the variants of seminoma (classic and spermatocytic) the lowest DNA content were in spermatocytic seminoma. With respect to non-seminomatous tumors (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma), choriocarcinomas showed the highest DNA content, and the lowest value was found in teratomas. No significant differences were found between the average DNA content of seminomas (all types) and non-seminomatous tumors (all types). Both embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor showed similar DNA content when they were the sole tumor and when they were found associated with other tumors. In this study, except for the 4 cases of teratoma and the case of spermatocytic seminoma, all TGCT examined did not show modal values of DNA content in the diploid range. Such an elevated frequency of aneuploidism in these tumors may be helpful for their diagnosis. PMID:1666273

  4. An unusual cause of acute headache: subarachnoid free air secondary to spontaneous bronchopleurodurosubarachnoid fistula from a Pancoast tumor.

    PubMed

    Kazimirko, Dmitriy N; Parker, Ellen E; Joyner, David A; Berry, Teddi H; Taylor, Charlotte S; Nichols, Todd A; Khan, Majid A

    2016-09-01

    Pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis are related to transgression of the barriers to the central nervous system. We present a patient with a Pancoast tumor treated with palliative chemoradiation who developed symptomatic spinal and intracranial air caused by spontaneous bronchopleurodurosubarachnoid fistula secondary to direct tumor invasion into the thecal sac. PMID:27594957

  5. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid–solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  6. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid-solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  7. Primitive Fitting Based on the Efficient multiBaySAC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although RANSAC is proven to be robust, the original RANSAC algorithm selects hypothesis sets at random, generating numerous iterations and high computational costs because many hypothesis sets are contaminated with outliers. This paper presents a conditional sampling method, multiBaySAC (Bayes SAmple Consensus), that fuses the BaySAC algorithm with candidate model parameters statistical testing for unorganized 3D point clouds to fit multiple primitives. This paper first presents a statistical testing algorithm for a candidate model parameter histogram to detect potential primitives. As the detected initial primitives were optimized using a parallel strategy rather than a sequential one, every data point in the multiBaySAC algorithm was assigned to multiple prior inlier probabilities for initial multiple primitives. Each prior inlier probability determined the probability that a point belongs to the corresponding primitive. We then implemented in parallel a conditional sampling method: BaySAC. With each iteration of the hypothesis testing process, hypothesis sets with the highest inlier probabilities were selected and verified for the existence of multiple primitives, revealing the fitting for multiple primitives. Moreover, the updated version of the initial probability was implemented based on a memorable form of Bayes’ Theorem, which describes the relationship between prior and posterior probabilities of a data point by determining whether the hypothesis set to which a data point belongs is correct. The proposed approach was tested using real and synthetic point clouds. The results show that the proposed multiBaySAC algorithm can achieve a high computational efficiency (averaging 34% higher than the efficiency of the sequential RANSAC method) and fitting accuracy (exhibiting good performance in the intersection of two primitives), whereas the sequential RANSAC framework clearly suffers from over- and under-segmentation problems. Future work will aim at further

  8. Intestinal-Type Adenocarcinoma Arising in a Mature Cystic Teratoma of the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Clark, Mary E; Will, Micah D

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present a rare case of intestinal type adenocarcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma (MCT) and review all previously reported similar cases with emphasis on the immunohistochemical characteristics of prior cases. Nine prior cases of intestinal type adenocarcinoma arising in MCT have been previously reported. Two of the prior cases as well as this case have been associated with CA19-9 elevation. CK20 is consistently strongly positive and CK7 is usually negative in cases of intestinal type adenocarcinoma arising in MCT. This contrasts with mucinous tumors of the ovary which are known to be usually CK7 strongly positive and inconsistently CK20 positive. The pattern of strong CK20 staining and often negative or weak CK7 staining is common to mucinous neoplasms arising in MCT. These findings suggest that the less common subset of primary mucinous ovarian tumors that have strong CK20 staining and partial or negative CK7 staining may represent a group of tumors with germ cell origin rather than the more common surface epithelial origin. PMID:26937866

  9. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management. PMID:26697253

  10. New development of the yolk sac theory in diabetic embryopathy: molecular mechanism and link to structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Dong, Daoyin; Reece, E Albert; Lin, Xue; Wu, Yanqing; AriasVillela, Natalia; Yang, Peixin

    2016-02-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for structural birth defects, including congenital heart defects and neural tube defects. With the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in women of childbearing age, diabetes mellitus-induced birth defects have become an increasingly significant public health problem. Maternal diabetes mellitus in vivo and high glucose in vitro induce yolk sac injuries by damaging the morphologic condition of cells and altering the dynamics of organelles. The yolk sac vascular system is the first system to develop during embryogenesis; therefore, it is the most sensitive to hyperglycemia. The consequences of yolk sac injuries include impairment of nutrient transportation because of vasculopathy. Although the functional relationship between yolk sac vasculopathy and structural birth defects has not yet been established, a recent study reveals that the quality of yolk sac vasculature is related inversely to embryonic malformation rates. Studies in animal models have uncovered key molecular intermediates of diabetic yolk sac vasculopathy, which include hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, and its inhibitor thioredoxin-1, c-Jun-N-terminal kinases, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Yolk sac vasculopathy is also associated with abnormalities in arachidonic acid and myo-inositol. Dietary supplementation with fatty acids that restore lipid levels in the yolk sac lead to a reduction in diabetes mellitus-induced malformations. Although the role of the human yolk in embryogenesis is less extensive than in rodents, nevertheless, human embryonic vasculogenesis is affected negatively by maternal diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic studies have identified potential therapeutic targets for future intervention against yolk sac vasculopathy, birth defects, and other complications associated with diabetic pregnancies. PMID:26432466

  11. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  12. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  13. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  14. Gallbladder herniation into the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Numata, Koji; Kunishi, Yosuke; Kurakami, Yuichi; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Yoshida, Tatsuya; Osaragi, Tomohiko; Yoneyama, Katsuya; Kasahara, Akio; Yamamoto, Yuuji; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of gallbladder hernia into the lesser sac through the foramen of Winslow. The patient was a 90-year-old woman, admitted to hospital with obstructive jaundice. Computed tomography (CT) showed a left-deviated and remarkably enlarged gallbladder dragging the liver, and a dilated intrahepatic bile duct. The deviated gallbladder was thought to compress the common bile duct, causing the obstruction. Laparoscopic examination revealed gallbladder herniation into the lesser sac without a floating gallbladder; thus, we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herniation of the gallbladder is the rarest of all internal hernias and most reported cases have involved a floating gallbladder. The case we report here is therefore considered especially unusual. PMID:23338597

  15. Multi-level security for computer networking: SAC digital network approach

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, W.; Poutre, D.L.

    1983-10-01

    For telecommunications systems simultaneously handling data of different security levels, multilevel secure (MLS) operation permits maximum use of resources by automatically providing protection to users with various clearances and needs-to-know. The strategic air command (SAC) is upgrading the primary record data system used to command and control its strategic forces. The upgrade, called the SAC Digital Network (SACDIN), is designed to provide multilevel security to support users and external interfaces, with allowed accesses ranging from unclassified to top secret. SACDIN implements a security kernel based upon the Bell and Lapadula security model. This study presents an overview of the SACDIN security architecture and describes the basic message flow across the MLS network. 7 references.

  16. Development of SAC-OCDMA in FSO with multi-wavelength laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi, Majid; Mamdoohi, Ghazaleh; Muhammad Noor, Ahmad Shukri; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Ahmad Anas, Siti Barirah

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a free space optical network, based on spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) with a multi-wavelength laser source. A detailed theoretical analysis that represents the characteristics of SAC-OCDMA system was developed. In addition to the impact of turbulence, influences of several system noises such as optical beat interference (OBI), relative intensity noise, and receiver noises, have been studied. From the numerical results, it was found that the influence of OBI is more dominant, especially at higher received power. Two different codes, namely, modified quadratic congruence and modified double weight, are then compared with the latter which provides better performance. A transmission distance of 2.6 km with 10 users and an 8 cm aperture diameter is advisable whenever the turbulence is moderate. These results can be improved when a beam divergence smaller than 1 mrad is utilized.

  17. Lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Olaleye, Oladejo; Salleh, Shizalia; David, Don; Bickerton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This was an unusual case of lacrimal sac compression by an anterior ethmoidal mucocele presenting as a late complication of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) that was jointly managed by ophthalmic and ENT surgeons via an endoscopic approach. A 22-year-old lady presented with a 12-month history of a painless lump in her left medial canthus area and a 6-month history of left intermittent epiphora. She had a DCR when she was 15 years old with initial symptom control until recent recurrence. There were no nasal or other eye symptoms. The rest of the eye and nasendoscopic examinations were unremarkable. An MRI scan suggested a dacryocystocele; however, a further CT scan revealed a 1.6 cm cystic lesion consistent with an anterior ethmoidal mucocele compressing the lacrimal sac. An endoscopic left anterior ethmoidectomy with marsupialisation of the mucocele was performed in combination with an endoscopic DCR. She made good post-operative recovery. PMID:24964413

  18. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB).

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lorenzo, Luz; Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  19. Intrinsic Levanase Activity of Bacillus subtilis 168 Levansucrase (SacB)

    PubMed Central

    Raga-Carbajal, Enrique; Olvera, Clarita; Rodríguez-Alegría, Maria Elena; Carrillo-Nava, Ernesto; Costas, Miguel; López Munguía, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Levansucrase catalyzes the synthesis of fructose polymers through the transfer of fructosyl units from sucrose to a growing fructan chain. Levanase activity of Bacillus subtilis levansucrase has been described since the very first publications dealing with the mechanism of levan synthesis. However, there is a lack of qualitative and quantitative evidence regarding the importance of the intrinsic levan hydrolysis of B. subtilis levansucrase and its role in the levan synthesis process. Particularly, little attention has been paid to the long-term hydrolysis products, including its participation in the final levan molecules distribution. Here, we explored the hydrolytic and transferase activity of the B. subtilis levansucrase (SacB) when levans produced by the same enzyme are used as substrate. We found that levan is hydrolyzed through a first order exo-type mechanism, which is limited to a conversion extent of around 30% when all polymer molecules reach a structure no longer suitable to SacB hydrolysis. To characterize the reaction, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was employed and the evolution of the hydrolysis products profile followed by HPLC, GPC and HPAEC-PAD. The ITC measurements revealed a second step, taking place at the end of the reaction, most probably resulting from disproportionation of accumulated fructo-oligosaccharides. As levanase, levansucrase may use levan as substrate and, through a fructosyl-enzyme complex, behave as a hydrolytic enzyme or as a transferase, as demonstrated when glucose and fructose are added as acceptors. These reactions result in a wide variety of oligosaccharides that are also suitable acceptors for fructo-oligosaccharide synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that SacB in the presence of levan and glucose, through blastose and sucrose synthesis, results in the same fructooligosaccharides profile as that observed in sucrose reactions. We conclude that SacB has an intrinsic levanase activity that contributes to the final

  20. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF COXIELLA BURNETII IN THE CHICK YOLK SAC1

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, R. L.; Fukushi, K.; Pickens, E. G.; Lackman, D. B.

    1964-01-01

    Anacker, R. L. (Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Mont.), K. Fukushi, E. G. Pickens, and D. B. Lackman. Electron microscopic observations of the development of Coxiella burnetii in the chick yolk sac. J. Bacteriol. 88:1130–1138. 1964.—Yolk sac material, obtained daily over a period of 1 week from embryos inoculated with seed of phase I Coxiella burnetii strain Ohio 314 containing 250 units of penicillin, was examined by electron microscopy and other techniques for the presence of rickettsiae. The concentration of rickettsiae in the yolk sac, as determined by electron microscopy, light microscopy, the complement-fixation test, recovery of organisms, and mouse infectivity, was low for the first 3 days, increased rapidly 3 to 5 days after infection, and then remained relatively constant. Rickettsiae in 3- to 7-day cultures, when observed by electron microscopy, had dense fibrillar centers surrounded by less-dense cytoplasmic material containing granules approximately 15 mμ in diameter. The whole was enclosed by multiple external layers. Many appeared to be in various stages of binary fission, and one form which contained a cross-wall was observed. These forms readily combined with ferritin-labeled specific antibody. In rare instances, several kinds of ”atypical” forms which did not combine with ferritin-labeled antibody were found in the cytoplasm of yolk-sac cells 4 to 5 days after inoculation; it is not certain whether these forms are artifacts or normal stages in the maturation of C. burnetii. These atypical forms were not observed in subsequent experiments in which embryonated eggs were inoculated with doses of penicillin varying from 0 to 4,000 units per egg. Images PMID:14219028

  1. Macrofauna community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds SAC, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2012-11-01

    Over the past two decades, growing concerns have been raised regarding the effects of towed fishing gears, such as trawls and dredges, on deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Trawling disturbs the benthic communities both physically and biologically, and can eliminate the most vulnerable organisms and modify habitat structure; chronically disturbed communities are often dominated by opportunistic species. The European Union is under obligation to designate a network of offshore Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by the end of 2012 based on the perceived expectation that these networks will help protect marine biodiversity and that within these areas, faunal abundance and diversity will be higher than the surrounding fished areas. The Darwin Mounds, only discovered in 1998, are located in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic at a depth of ~ 1000 m. Deep-water trawling regularly took place in the region of the Darwin Mounds; however in 2004 the mounds were designated as the first offshore SAC in UK and the area is now closed to bottom trawling. As part of the HERMIONE programme the influence of human impact on the Oceans was one of the key themes and in June 2011, an investigation of the macrofaunal community structure at comparable sites both inside and outside of the Darwin Mound SAC was undertaken. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. This could indicate that a few years of preservation are not enough time to determine a recovery by the macrofaunal community of cold-water ecosystems and that a continued

  2. Intestinal handling of bisacodyl and picosulphate by everted sacs of the rat jejunum and stripped colon.

    PubMed

    Hillestad, B; Sund, R B; Buajordet, M

    1982-10-01

    Bisacodyl (BIS) is the acetic acid di-ester of the laxative diphenol 2-(4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl)methyl-pyridine. A HPLC-method which permits the simultaneous determination of BIS and its monodesacetylated (MONO) as well as totally desacetylated (DES) form, has been used to study the intestinal handling of BIS (20 nmol/ml), when the compound was incubated for 60 min. at the mucosal side of the preparations specified. In the jejunal mucosal fluid, BIS disappeared completely in short time, and there was a nearly equivalent rise in DES. MONO was transitory present. Hydrolysis was also rapid in mucosal fluid which had been in contact with jejunal sacs for 30 sec., but BIS was stable in blank incubations. Hydrolysis of BIS was slower by colonic than by jejunal sacs, and all three molecular forms were present during incubation. It seemed still slower in mucosal fluid which had been in contact with colonic sacs for 5 min. BIS just as DES accumulated in the jejunal and colonic serosal fluid mainly as conjugates (greater than 95%), and DES was in all cases the only unconjugated metabolite present. Drug accumulation in jejunal serosal fluid was the same whether BIS or DES was added. However, more drug seemed to accumulate on the serosal side of colonic sacs when incubated with BIS instead of DES. In similar experiments with picosulphate, which is the sulphuric acid di-ester analogue of BIS, free DES was not detected in the mucosal fluid during incubation. The amounts of laxative accumulating in the serosal fluid were less than 1/10 of those observed with BIS. PMID:7180502

  3. Computed tomographic epidurography: an aid to understanding deformation of the lumbar dural sac by epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, T; Kano, T; Sano, T; Irie, M

    1999-09-01

    Local anaesthetics injected into the epidural space may deform the dural sac to a variable degree, thereby contributing to variability in the extent of the block. We investigated deformation of the lumbar dural sac after injection into the lumbar epidural space. The subjects were 26 patients with low-back pain who underwent lumbar epidurography and computed tomographic (CT) epidurography, of whom seven also underwent myelography and computed tomographic myelography. The epidural space was entered via the sacral hiatus in 24 patients and through the L5/S1 interspace in two patients. Ten millilitres of local anaesthetic was then injected into the epidural space followed by 20 mL of contrast medium. Computed tomographic epidurography was undertaken approximately 30-min after the epidural injection at the mid-vertebral and mid-discal levels from the first lumbar through to the first sacral vertebrae. The dural sac usually showed an oval or hexagonal shape on the transverse views at the first and second lumbar vertebral levels, and the shape of an inverted triangle below the level of the third lumbar vertebra. A median line of translucency was also observed on the posteroanterior epidurographic view in 25 of the 26 patients. This line was though to be a manifestation of the dural deformation to the inverted triangle. Dural sac deformation usually shows a specific pattern, although there are individual variations. Dural deformability is an important consideration in any analysis of the spread of epidural block or of the changes of epidural pressure after epidural injection of local anaesthetics. PMID:10549463

  4. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  5. Nodulocystic Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising Directly from a Seborrheic Keratosis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shibao, Kana; Okiyama, Naoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Seborrheic keratoses (SKs) are common epidermal tumors composed of benign keratinocytes. Malignant skin tumors including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) rarely arise within SKs. We report a rare case of an 82-year-old man with nodulocystic BCC that appeared at the center of a scaly hyperpigmented SK that had been presented for more than 10 years. It was histologically confirmed that CK19-positive BCC arose directly from the wall of the pseudohorn cyst, a part of the SK. Nodular and/or cystic BCC also rarely arise within SKs while the most common histologic type of BCC within SKs is the superficial type. Careful observation of SKs is important even though it is rarely a background condition for malignant transformation. PMID:27512194

  6. Apocrine hidrocystoma arising from nevus sebaceous on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Tejaswi, Cherukuri; Rangaraj, Murugaiyan; Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a hamartoma with an uneventful course since birth but many benign or malignant tumors are known to develop in about one third of the patients. A 37-year-old woman with asymptomatic hairless raised lesion over the scalp since birth presented with change in the morphology of the lesions associated with itching and irritation since one month. On examination, multiple well-defined hyperpigmented verrucous plaques coalescing with each other were seen over the right parietal scalp associated with alopecia. A single well-defined soft skin-colored cystic swelling of size 1 × 2 cm was seen interspersed within the plaque. After a clinical diagnosis of nevus sebaceous, a biopsy of the cyst was done, which revealed a large cyst lined by columnar and myoepithelial cells in the dermis. The columnar cells at a few places showed "decapitation secretion" giving the impression of apocrine hidrocystoma. Post-excision of the cyst, biopsy of the entire nevus was done and the histopathological diagnosis correlated with the clinical diagnosis of nevus sebaceous. Apocrine hidrocystoma developing from a sebaceous nevus over the scalp is a rarity with only three other cases of it arising on the scalp being reported and none of them developed from a sebaceous nevus. PMID:27057493

  7. Apocrine hidrocystoma arising from nevus sebaceous on the scalp

    PubMed Central

    Tejaswi, Cherukuri; Rangaraj, Murugaiyan; Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a hamartoma with an uneventful course since birth but many benign or malignant tumors are known to develop in about one third of the patients. A 37-year-old woman with asymptomatic hairless raised lesion over the scalp since birth presented with change in the morphology of the lesions associated with itching and irritation since one month. On examination, multiple well-defined hyperpigmented verrucous plaques coalescing with each other were seen over the right parietal scalp associated with alopecia. A single well-defined soft skin-colored cystic swelling of size 1 × 2 cm was seen interspersed within the plaque. After a clinical diagnosis of nevus sebaceous, a biopsy of the cyst was done, which revealed a large cyst lined by columnar and myoepithelial cells in the dermis. The columnar cells at a few places showed “decapitation secretion” giving the impression of apocrine hidrocystoma. Post-excision of the cyst, biopsy of the entire nevus was done and the histopathological diagnosis correlated with the clinical diagnosis of nevus sebaceous. Apocrine hidrocystoma developing from a sebaceous nevus over the scalp is a rarity with only three other cases of it arising on the scalp being reported and none of them developed from a sebaceous nevus. PMID:27057493

  8. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Che-Wei; Chi, Hung-Pin; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hsu, Ying-Che; Chan, Leong-Perng; Kuo, Wen-Rei

    2006-01-01

    Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result. PMID:16740172

  9. The sac mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveal transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of cysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ravina, Cristina G; Chang, Chwenn-In; Tsakraklides, George P; McDermott, Jeffery P; Vega, Jose M; Leustek, Thomas; Gotor, Cecilia; Davies, John P

    2002-12-01

    Algae and vascular plants are cysteine (Cys) prototrophs. They are able to import, reduce, and assimilate sulfate into Cys, methionine, and other organic sulfur-containing compounds. Characterization of genes encoding the enzymes required for Cys biosynthesis from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reveals that transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms regulate the pathway. The derived amino acid sequences of the C. reinhardtii genes encoding 5'-adenylylsulfate (APS) reductase and serine (Ser) acetyltransferase are orthologous to sequences from vascular plants. The Cys biosynthetic pathway of C. reinhardtii is regulated by sulfate availability. The steady-state level of transcripts and activity of ATP sulfurylase, APS reductase, Ser acetyltransferase, and O-acetyl-Ser (thiol) lyase increase when cells are deprived of sulfate. The sac1 mutation, which impairs C. reinhardtii ability to acclimate to sulfur-deficient conditions, prevents the increase in accumulation of the transcripts encoding these enzymes and also prevents the increase in activity of all the enzymes except APS reductase. The sac2 mutation, which does not affect accumulation of APS reductase transcripts, blocks the increase in APS reductase activity. These results suggest that APS reductase activity is regulated posttranscriptionally in a SAC2-dependent process. PMID:12481091

  10. Evaluation of Refractivity Profiles from CHAMP and SAC-C GPS Radio Occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Ao, Chi On; Joiner, Joanna; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Hoff, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    The GeoForschungsZentrum's Challenging Minisatellite Payload for Geophysical Research and Application (CHAMP, Germany-US) and the Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales' Satelite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C, Argentina-US) missions are the first missions to carry a second-generation Blackjack Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. One of the new features of this receiver is its ability to sense the lower troposphere closer to the surface than the proof-of-concept GPS Meteorology experiment (GPS/MET). Since their launch, CHAMP and SAC-C have collected thousands of GPS radio occultations, representing a wealth of measurements available for data assimilation and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). In order to evaluate the refractivity data derived by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from raw radio occultation measurements, we use Data Assimilation Office (DAO) 6-hour forecasts as an independent state of the atmosphere. We compare CHAMP and SAC-C refractivity (processed by JPL) with refractivity calculated from the DAO global fields of temperature, water vapor content and humidity. We show statistics of the differences as well as histograms of the differences.

  11. Sac3, an Snf1-like serine/threonine kinase that positively and negatively regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J P; Yildiz, F H; Grossman, A R

    1999-01-01

    The Sac3 gene product of Chlamydomonas positively and negatively regulates the responses of the cell to sulfur limitation. In wild-type cells, arylsulfatase activity is detected only during sulfur limitation. The sac3 mutant expresses arylsulfatase activity even when grown in nutrient-replete medium, which suggests that the Sac3 protein has a negative effect on the induction of arylsulfatase activity. In contrast to its effect on arylsulfatase activity, Sac3 positively regulates the high-affinity sulfate transport system-the sac3 mutant is unable to fully induce high-affinity sulfate transport during sulfur limitation. We have complemented the sac3 mutant and cloned a cDNA copy of the Sac3 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Sac3 gene product is similar to the catalytic domain of the yeast Snf1 family of serine/threonine kinases and is therefore classified as a Snf1-related kinase (SnRK). Specifically, Sac3 falls within the SnRK2 subfamily of kinases from vascular plants. In addition to the 11 subdomains common to Snf1-like serine/threonine kinases, Sac3 and the plant kinases have two additional subdomains and a highly acidic C-terminal region. The role of Sac3 in the signal transduction system that regulates the responses of Chlamydomonas to sulfur limitation is discussed. PMID:10368187

  12. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  13. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Erica C.; Sciallis, Andrew P.; Miller, Barbra S.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  14. A novel hemizygous SACS mutation identified by whole exome sequencing and SNP array analysis in a Chinese ARSACS patient.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, X B; Zi, X H; Shen, L; Hu, Zh M; Huang, Sh X; Yu, D L; Li, H B; Xia, K; Tang, B S; Zhang, R X

    2016-03-15

    The array of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) has expanded worldwide after the first description in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Québec. Here, we report a Chinese ARSACS patient presenting progressive peripheral neuropathy (CMTNS2=15) with horizontal gaze nystagmus and mild spastic gait. Genetic studies including whole exome sequencing (WES), Sanger sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis revealed a novel hemizygous nonsense mutation (c.11803C>T, p.Gln3935X) of SACS and a 1.33Mb deletion involved in SACS on chromosome 13q12.12 in the patient. Our findings highlight the necessity of SACS mutation screening in the gene panel of inherited peripheral neuropathies, and stress the need of testing copy number variation (CNV) in SACS mutation screening. PMID:26944128

  15. Complete Recovery of Visual Disorder Following Surgical Resection of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Arising in the Pterygopalatine Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Cui, Meng; Li, Peng; Wang, Jiheng; Luo, Ruihua; Qi, Jinxing; Zhao, Ming; Lou, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) arising in the pterygopalatine fossa was rare, only 3 cases have been reported. In previous literature, few authors reported whether the visual deficit could be resolved following the resection of the tumor. One patient with visual dysfunction induced by ACC arising in the pterygopalatine fossa was reported. Complete visual recovery was achieved following the operation. And the patient was satisfied with the appearance and the functional results in the follow-up. Visual loss contributed by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa could recover in selected patients. PMID:26039119

  16. ARISE - Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Linfield, R. P.; Wannier, P. G.; Preston, R. A.; Hirabayashi, H.; Zensus, J. A.; Veal, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    A mission is described called ARISE, Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth. ARISE will will provide affordable very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using second- generation VLBI and one or more inflatable space radio telescopes.

  17. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in the larva of the japanese red-bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the late stage larva of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster (stage 57), was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The two endolymphatic sacs are located at the dorsal-medial side of the otic vesicle on the dorsal-lateral side of the midbrain in the cranial cavity. The wall of the sac is composed of a layer of cubical epithelial cells with loose, interposed intercellular spaces. The sac contains a large luminal cavity, in which endolymph and numerous otoconia are present. The epithelial cells of different portions of the sac have a similar structure. These cells contain an abundance of cytoplasmic organelles, including ribosomes, Golgi complexes, and numerous vesicles. Two types of vesicles are found in the epithelial cells: the "floccular" vesicle and the "granular" vesicle. The floccular vesicles are located in the supra- and lateral-nuclear cytoplasm and contain floccular material. The granular vesicles have a fine granular substance and are usually situated apposed to the apical cell membrane. The granular vesicles are suggested to be secreted into the lumen, while the floccular vesicles are thought to be absorbed from the lumen and conveyed to the intercellular spaces by the epithelial cells. The apical surfaces of the epithelial cells bear numerous microvilli. Apparently floating cells, which bear long microvilli on the free surfaces, are observed in the lumen of the ES. Based on the fine structure, the function of the endolymphatic sac of the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster is discussed.

  18. Influencing Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Sac Shrinkage and Enlargement after EVAR: Clinical Reviews before Introduction of Preoperative Coil Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Arudo; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Tamura, Kentaro; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Taichi; Yoshitaka, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Background: We previously reported effectiveness of coil embolization (CE) to aortic branched vessels before endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) because of significant shrinkage of aneurysmal sac. In this study, we investigated EVAR cases to clarify influential factors of aneurysmal shrinkage and enlargement. Methods: 148 consecutive cases before the introduction of CE were retrospectively reviewed based on the presence of PT2EL (persistent type 2 endoleak) and change in sac diameter after EVAR by multivariate analysis. Results: (A) PT2EL risk factors were patent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and thinner mural thrombus inside aneurysmal sac. (B) Sac enlargement risk factors were antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and female gender. (C) Sac shrinkage predictive factors were the absences of thoracic aortic aneurysm, antiplatelet intake, PT2EL, and coronary artery disease. Conclusion: CE to IMA was considered to be effective because patent IMA and antiplatelet intake were significant risk factors for sac enlargement. So, more meticulous therapeutic strategy, including treatment priority (AAA first or CAD first) and choice of treatment (EVAR vs. AAA) based on anatomical features of AAA was required to improve late outcomes. PMID:25298830

  19. Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai Shuai; Wang, Fang; Tan, Su Jian; Wang, Ming Xiu; Sui, Na; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14–16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize. PMID:25566277

  20. Penguin lungs and air sacs: implications for baroprotection, oxygen stores and buoyancy.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; St Leger, J; Scadeng, M

    2015-03-01

    The anatomy and volume of the penguin respiratory system contribute significantly to pulmonary baroprotection, the body O2 store, buoyancy and hence the overall diving physiology of penguins. Therefore, three-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomographic (CT) scans of live penguins were utilized to measure lung volumes, air sac volumes, tracheobronchial volumes and total body volumes at different inflation pressures in three species with different dive capacities [Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), king (Aptenodytes patagonicus) and emperor (A. forsteri) penguins]. Lung volumes scaled to body mass according to published avian allometrics. Air sac volumes at 30 cm H2O (2.94 kPa) inflation pressure, the assumed maximum volume possible prior to deep dives, were two to three times allometric air sac predictions and also two to three times previously determined end-of-dive total air volumes. Although it is unknown whether penguins inhale to such high volumes prior to dives, these values were supported by (a) body density/buoyancy calculations, (b) prior air volume measurements in free-diving ducks and (c) previous suggestions that penguins may exhale air prior to the final portions of deep dives. Based upon air capillary volumes, parabronchial volumes and tracheobronchial volumes estimated from the measured lung/airway volumes and the only available morphometry study of a penguin lung, the presumed maximum air sac volumes resulted in air sac volume to air capillary/parabronchial/tracheobronchial volume ratios that were not large enough to prevent barotrauma to the non-collapsing, rigid air capillaries during the deepest dives of all three species, and during many routine dives of king and emperor penguins. We conclude that volume reduction of airways and lung air spaces, via compression, constriction or blood engorgement, must occur to provide pulmonary baroprotection at depth. It is also possible that relative air capillary and parabronchial volumes are

  1. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. PMID:22718415

  2. [Mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Rieker, R J; Marx, A; Agaimy, A; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the thymus and mediastinum account for only 2 % of neoplasms of the mediastinum and are therefore very rare. With very few exceptions the histology, immunohistochemistry and (based on current knowledge) molecular biology of mediastinal soft tissue tumors are not different from their counterparts in other organs. Characteristic features are more concerned with clinical epidemiological and therapeutic aspects as well as the multitude of possible differential diagnoses. With the exception of organ-specific tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), virtually all entities encountered in peripheral soft tissues can also arise in the mediastinum. Primary mediastinal soft tissue sarcomas (STS) must be distinguished from secondary radiation-induced STS after irradiation, e. g. for breast cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma and from STS arising as somatic type malignancies in mediastinal germ cell tumors. PMID:27488616

  3. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  4. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca{sup 2+} permeant SACs. {yields} The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. {yields} Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. {yields} SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch (<20%) of a rubber substrate increased ET-1 secretion, and 4 {mu}M GsMTx-4 (a specific inhibitor of SACs) inhibited secretion by 30%. GsMTx-4 did not alter basal ET-1 levels in the absence of stretch. Decreasing the calcium influx by lowering extracellular calcium also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion without effecting ET-1 secretion in unstretched controls. Furthermore, inhibiting SACs with the less specific inhibitor streptomycin also inhibited stretch-induced ET-1 secretion. The data can be explained with a simple model in which ET-1 secretion depends on an internal Ca{sup 2+} threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  5. [Sigmoidoperianal fistula associated with diverticulitis and Cul de Sac situation--diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Weyand, G; Rinast, E; Englert, A; Houf, M

    2002-07-01

    We report on the case of a 64-year-old female patient who presented herself in our outpatient clinic because of a perianal fistula with recurrent abscesses. We describe the step diagnostics and the surgical treatment of the causal sigmoido-perianal fistula with diverticulitis and Cul de sac situation. Clinical examination, fistulography, colonoscopy and MRT were part of the precise representation and preparation for the high anterior rectosigmoidal resection with simultaneous rectopexy according to Sudeck which were performed without complications. The sigmoidoperianal fistula must be taken into account as a differential diagnosis of a recalcitrant high perianal fistula. PMID:12122593

  6. Early sac shrinkage predicts a low risk of late complications after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Bastos Gonçalves, F; Baderkhan, H; Verhagen, H J M; Wanhainen, A; Björck, M; Stolker, R J; Hoeks, S E; Mani, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneurysm shrinkage has been proposed as a marker of successful endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Patients with early postoperative shrinkage may experience fewer subsequent complications, and consequently require less intensive surveillance. Methods Patients undergoing EVAR from 2000 to 2011 at three vascular centres (in 2 countries), who had two imaging examinations (postoperative and after 6–18 months), were included. Maximum diameter, complications and secondary interventions during follow-up were registered. Patients were categorized according to early sac dynamics. The primary endpoint was freedom from late complications. Secondary endpoints were freedom from secondary intervention, postimplant rupture and direct (type I/III) endoleaks. Results Some 597 EVARs (71·1 per cent of all EVARs) were included. No shrinkage was observed in 284 patients (47·6 per cent), moderate shrinkage (5–9 mm) in 142 (23·8 per cent) and major shrinkage (at least 10 mm) in 171 patients (28·6 per cent). Four years after the index imaging, the rate of freedom from complications was 84·3 (95 per cent confidence interval 78·7 to 89·8), 88·1 (80·6 to 95·5) and 94·4 (90·1 to 98·7) per cent respectively. No shrinkage was an independent risk factor for late complications compared with major shrinkage (hazard ratio (HR) 3·11; P < 0·001). Moderate compared with major shrinkage (HR 2·10; P = 0·022), early postoperative complications (HR 3·34; P < 0·001) and increasing abdominal aortic aneurysm baseline diameter (HR 1·02; P = 0·001) were also risk factors for late complications. Freedom from secondary interventions and direct endoleaks was greater for patients with major sac shrinkage. Conclusion Early change in aneurysm sac diameter is a strong predictor of late complications after EVAR. Patients with major sac shrinkage have a very low risk of complications for up to 5 years. This parameter may be used to tailor postoperative surveillance. PMID:24752772

  7. Evolution of Newcastle Disease Virus Quasispecies Diversity and Enhanced Virulence after Passage through Chicken Air Sacs

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Shengqing; Li, Chuanfeng; Sun, Yingjie; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiangle; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been reported that lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates have the potential to become velogenic after their transmission and circulation in chickens, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, a highly velogenic NDV variant, JS10-A10, was generated from the duck-origin lentogenic isolate JS10 through 10 consecutive passages in chicken air sacs. The velogenic properties of this selected variant were determined using mean death time (MDT) assays, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI), histopathology, and the analysis of host tissue tropism. In contrast, JS10 remained lentogenic after 20 serial passages in chicken eggs (JS10-E20). The JS10, JS10-A10, and JS10-E20 genomes were sequenced and found to be nearly identical, suggesting that both JS10-A10 and JS10-E20 were directly generated from JS10. To investigate the mechanism for virulence enhancement, the partial genome covering the F0 cleavage site of JS10 and its variants were analyzed using ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and the proportions of virulence-related genomes in the quasispecies were calculated. Velogenic NDV genomes accumulated as a function of JS10 passaging through chicken air sacs. Our data suggest that lentogenic NDV strains circulating among poultry might be a risk factor to future potential velogenic NDV outbreaks in chickens. IMPORTANCE An avirulent isolate, JS10, was passaged through chicken air sacs and embryos, and the pathogenicity of the variants was assessed. A virulent variant, JS10-A10, was generated from consecutive passage in air sacs. We developed a deep-sequencing approach to detect low-frequency viral variants across the NDV genome. We observed that virulence enhancement of JS10 was due to the selective accumulation of velogenic quasispecies and the concomitant disappearance of lentogenic quasispecies. Our results suggest that because it is difficult to avoid contact between natural waterfowl

  8. Loss of PiT-1 Results in Abnormal Endocytosis in the Yolk Sac Visceral Endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Wallingford, Mary C.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2014-01-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE. PMID:25138534

  9. Enhancement of Processability and Electrical Resistance by Use of Ag-Based Composite Inks Containing Ultrafine SAC305 Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Moo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Jang, Seok Pil; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    We propose use of Ag/Sn-3.0 (wt.%) Ag-0.5 Cu (SAC305) composite ink to reduce sintering temperature, sintering time, and material costs. The SAC305 nanoparticle (NP) surfaces were not capped by any stabilizers, which are detrimental to the resistivity of the sintered tracks. Compared with commercial pure Ag ink, use of Ag/3.2 (vol.%) SAC305 composite ink containing ultrafine SAC305 NPs resulted in outstandingly enhanced processability, enabling faster sintering at low temperatures. The average sheet resistance of composite ink samples sintered for 25 min at 170°C was as low as 0.011 Ω/□, comparable with that of a pure Ag sample sintered for over 30 min at 220°C. The morphology and the differential scanning calorimetry curves enabled explanation of the changes in the sintering behavior and sheet resistance. The Ag/SAC305 clusters in the composite ink sintered at 170°C grew, on average, to ~201.1-226.1 nm as a result of faster local liquid-phase sintering, and most of the Ag particles were mutually linked, dramatically changing the microstructure.

  10. The Candida albicans fimbrin Sac6 regulates oxidative stress response (OSR) and morphogenesis at the transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Qilin; Wang, Yuzhou; Xiao, Chenpeng; Li, Jianrong; Huo, Da; Zhang, Dan; Jia, Chang; Li, Mingchun

    2016-09-01

    The actin cytoskeleton coordinates numerous fundamental cellular processes. Fimbrins are a class of evolutionally conserved ABPs that mediate actin bundling and regulate actin dynamics and functions. In this study, we identified the fimbrin Sac6 from the important fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Interestingly, deletion of SAC6 led to increased tolerance to oxidative stress, while its overexpression caused hyper-susceptibility to this stress. Further investigations revealed that Sac6, by interaction with actin, negatively regulated the cytosol-to-nucleus transport of the key OSR (oxidative stress response) transcription factor Cap1 and consequent expression of OSR genes. Moreover, loss of Sac6 enhanced hyphal maintenance, and its overexpression caused a defect in hyphal development, which was attributed to abnormal expression of morphogenesis-related genes. In addition, Sac6 was involved in regulation of secretion of lytic enzymes and virulence of C. albicans. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which fimbrin transcriptionally regulates OSR and morphogenesis, and sheds a novel light on the functions of actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27275845

  11. Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Shinji; Miyake, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint is extremely rare. We describe an 11-year-old boy who complained of a gradual swelling mass of the lateral knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high signal intensity tumor on T1- and T2-weighted images with a thickened septa and nodular lesion that showed low signal intensity. The radiologist suggested the possible differential diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. At operation, the tumor was found under the iliotibial tract and was not in contact with the knee joint. Histopathologically, this lesion was diagnosed as lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint. On MRI, the appearance of lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint differed from that of conventional intra-articular lipoma arborescens. In this report, we describe a case of extra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint bursa and discuss the diagnosis and etiology. PMID:27382924

  12. Diagnostic pitfall in the diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisa; Varikatt, Winny; Dexter, Mark; Ng, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm typically affecting the bones of young adults. It may also arise in somatic soft tissue, the CNS and other organs. It has a characteristic biphasic histological pattern composed of highly undifferentiated small round cells and islands of well-differentiated hyaline cartilage. We report a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising from the right tentorium cerebelli in a 21-year-old woman with symptoms relating to mass effect. Histological examination demonstrated a purely small round cell appearance in a specimen obtained during partial resection at an outside institution, leading to an erroneous diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma was made only after tissue obtained during a definitive complete macroscopic removal involving the regional tentorium cerebelli, transverse and sigmoid dural venous sinuses which showed a prominent cartilaginous component. We discuss the features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma arising in the CNS, the important differential diagnoses of small round-cell tumors within the CNS, and the differentiating features of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma from Ewing sarcoma/PNET, medulloblastoma, hemangiopericytoma, monophasic synovial sarcoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour. PMID:21615516

  13. Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sredni, Simone T; Tomita, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RT), or malignant rhabdoid tumors, are among the most aggressive and lethal forms of human cancer. They can arise in any location in the body but are most commonly observed in the brain, where they are called atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and in the kidneys, where they are called rhabdoid tumors of the kidney. The vast majority of rhabdoid tumors present with a loss of function in the SMARCB1 gene, also known as INI1, BAF47, and hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recently, mutations in a 2nd locus of the SWI/SNF complex, the SMARCA4 gene, also known as BRG1, were found in rhabdoid tumors with retention of SMARCB1 expression. Familial cases may occur in a condition known as rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS). In RTPS, germline inactivation of 1 allele of a gene occurs. When the mutation occurs in the SMARCB1 gene, the syndrome is called RTPS1, and when the mutation occurs in the SMARCA4 gene it is called RTPS2. Children presenting with RTPS tend to develop tumors at a younger age, but the impact that germline mutation has on survival remains unclear. Adults who carry the mutation tend to develop multiple schwannomas. The diagnosis of RTPS should be considered in patients with RT, especially if they have multiple primary tumors, and/or in individuals with a family history of RT. Because germline mutations result in an increased risk of carriers developing RT, genetic counseling for families with this condition is recommended. PMID:25494491

  14. Metastatic Malignant Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; John, Veena S.; Liang, Sharon X.; D'Agostino, Catherine A.; Menzin, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) in a 47-year-old female who presented with hirsutism, virilization, and amenorrhea. At the time of laparotomy, the tumor had already spread to the pelvic cul-de-sac. She underwent a total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and tumor resection with no residual disease. She received three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) and is now free of disease 24 months after surgery. Literature review of ovarian steroid cell tumors NOS including clinicopathological features and clinical management was performed. PMID:27375912

  15. Maternal-fetal immunoglobulin transport: Studies on the binding, internalization, and release of IgG by chick yolk sac tissue and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transported from the yolk across the endodermal cells of the yolk sac and into the fetal circulation during chick embryonic development, thus providing the chick with passive immunity until it becomes immunocompetent. Saturable, Fc-specific receptors are present on the endodermal cells and are believed to mediate this transfer. In this study, IgG receptors were shown to be present on the yolk sac endodermal cells throughout the 21 days of development, although most of the transport occurs during the last 3 days prior to hatching. Fluorescently conjugated IgG was internalized by a receptor mechanism into small apical vesicles in yolk sac endoderm throughout, but cells from 19 day yolk sacs internalized more conjugate than those from 14 day yolk sacs. This was confirmed and quantitated by assaying the internalization of {sup 125}I-IgG into yolk sac tissue. IgG was internalized by a receptor mediated mechanism, reaching a steady state level after 1 to 2 hours. Although both ages of yolk sac tissue possessed the same number of surface IgG receptors, as measured by equilibrium binding assays at 4{degree}C, 19 day yolk sac had the capacity to internalize six times as much IgG by a receptor mechanism as 14 day yolk sac.

  16. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: evidence from multidisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Hu, Yibo; Yan, Li; Nie, Yonggang; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the world's most endangered mammals and remains threatened by environmental and anthropogenic pressure. It is commonly argued that giant pandas are an evolutionary cul-de-sac because of their specialized bamboo diet, phylogenetic changes in body size, small population, low genetic diversity, and low reproductive rate. This notion is incorrect, arose from a poor understanding or appreciation of giant panda biology, and is in need of correction. In this review, we summarize research across morphology, ecology, and genetics to dispel the idea, once and for all, that giant pandas are evolutionary dead-end. The latest and most advanced research shows that giant pandas are successful animals highly adapted to a specialized bamboo diet via morphological, ecological, and genetic adaptations and coadaptation of gut microbiota. We also debunk misconceptions around population size, population growth rate, and genetic variation. During their evolutionary history spanning 8 My, giant pandas have survived diet specialization, massive bamboo flowering and die off, and rapid climate oscillations. Now, they are suffering from enormous human interference. Fortunately, continued conservation effort is greatly reducing impacts from anthropogenic interference and allowing giant panda populations and habitat to recover. Previous ideas of a giant panda evolutionary cul-de-sac resulted from an unsystematic and unsophisticated understanding of their biology and it is time to shed this baggage and focus on the survival and maintenance of this high-profile species. PMID:25274274

  17. Automatic registration of terrestrial point clouds based on panoramic reflectance images and efficient BaySAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhizhong

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a new approach to automatic registration of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds utilizing a novel robust estimation method by an efficient BaySAC (BAYes SAmpling Consensus). The proposed method directly generates reflectance images from 3D point clouds, and then using SIFT algorithm extracts keypoints to identify corresponding image points. The 3D corresponding points, from which transformation parameters between point clouds are computed, are acquired by mapping the 2D ones onto the point cloud. To remove false accepted correspondences, we implement a conditional sampling method to select the n data points with the highest inlier probabilities as a hypothesis set and update the inlier probabilities of each data point using simplified Bayes' rule for the purpose of improving the computation efficiency. The prior probability is estimated by the verification of the distance invariance between correspondences. The proposed approach is tested on four data sets acquired by three different scanners. The results show that, comparing with the performance of RANSAC, BaySAC leads to less iterations and cheaper computation cost when the hypothesis set is contaminated with more outliers. The registration results also indicate that, the proposed algorithm can achieve high registration accuracy on all experimental datasets.

  18. A novel approach for noninvasive drug delivery and sensing through the amniotic sac.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Aharon; Amar-Lewis, Eliz; Mann, Ella; Goldbart, Riki; Traitel, Tamar; Jelinek, Raz; Hallak, Mordechai; Kost, Joseph

    2014-06-10

    Current invasive prenatal tests (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) are known for their risk to the fetus. In the last decade, the use and awareness of these prenatal tests have increased, resulting in growing demand for a safe, non-invasive, and accurate prenatal test. Chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) have long been used to increase transport phenomena across skin and other membranes (e.g., tympanic membrane). The amniotic sac membrane is called the chorioamnion (CA) membrane and serves as the physical barrier between the fetus and the mother. In this research, the effect of CPEs on human CA mass transport was evaluated both in vitro and ex vivo. The results show that the tested CPEs exhibit an enhancing effect on CA mass transport. Based on the permeability results, two mechanisms of action were suggested: "extractors" and "fluidizers". Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and rapid colorimetric screening measurements supported the mechanisms, based on which, more potent compounds were designed and tested for their enhancing effect. The enhancing mass transport effect of CPEs on CA membrane may be used both for sampling of cell-free DNA and for noninvasively administering drugs and other biological agents to the amniotic sac. PMID:24685707

  19. Performance Analysis of SAC Optical PPM-CDMA System-Based Interference Rejection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsowaidi, N.; Eltaif, Tawfig; Mokhtar, M. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we aim to theoretically analyse optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system that based on successive interference cancellation (SIC) using pulse position modulation (PPM), considering the interference between the users, imperfection cancellation occurred during the cancellation process and receiver noises. Spectral amplitude coding (SAC) scheme is used to suppress the overlapping between the users and reduce the receiver noises effect. The theoretical analysis of the multiple access interference (MAI)-limited performance of this approach indicates the influence of the size of M-ary PPM on OCDMA system. The OCDMA system performance improves with increasing M-ary PPM. Therefore, it was found that the SIC/SAC-OCDMA system using PPM technique along with modified prime (MPR) codes used as signature sequence code offers significant improvement over the one without cancellation and it can support up to 103 users at the benchmarking value of bit error rate (BER) = 10-9 with prime number p = 11 while the system without cancellation scheme can support only up to 52 users.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Goodnight, Andrea L; Traslavina, Ryan P; Emanuelson, Karen; Affolter, Verena K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Vernau, William; Williams, Colette; Wu, Connie I-kuan; Sturges, Beverly K; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2013-12-01

    A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas. PMID:24450071

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland—Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Konishi, Fumio; Yoshida, Takayoshi; Yoshinaga, Yasuo; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Lefor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland is extremely rare. Most anal canal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma is infrequently diagnosed. Diagnostic criteria and the standard treatment for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal have not been clearly defined, in part because of the rarity of this lesion. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 84-year-old man who presented with a piece of tissue prolapsing from the anus. An incisional biopsy showed adenocarcinoma, and an abdomino-perineal resection was then performed. Cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 19 (CK19) stained positive in the specimen, suggesting that the tumor developed from an anal gland. The patient was discharged after surgery without any complications. DISCUSSION Exact diagnostic criteria for adenocarcinoma of the anal canal have not been previously described. In the present case, CK7 and CK19 were stained, and the tumor showed positivity for both of these markers, which is compatible with the staining patterns of anal gland origin cancer. Radical resection is recommended rather than local resection, because of the tumor's high recurrence rate. Some authors recommend combined modality treatment with preoperative or postoperative chemoradiotherapy because of the high rate of distant recurrence. CONCLUSION The preoperative diagnosis of adenocarcinoma arising from an anal gland is not easily established. However, it may be possible to suspect an anal glandular adenocarcinoma based on a meticulous physical examination, appropriate diagnostic studies and pathological findings on biopsy. PMID:24705191

  2. Skin manifestations of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Jonathan S; Braverman, Irwin M

    2016-06-01

    The skin signs of benign and malignant endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors are manifold and early identification of these dermatologic features is crucial in initiating timely diagnosis and management. This article reviews the salient cutaneous features of these tumors that arise in the classic endocrine glands, lung and gastrointestinal tract either as individual neoplasms or as part of a syndrome. PMID:27178685

  3. Radical Carinal Resection for a Glomic Tumor.

    PubMed

    Bellier, Jocelyn; Sage, Edouard; Gonin, François; Longchampt, Elisabeth; Chapelier, Alain

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with increasing dyspnea secondary to a tumor arising from the carina. After desobstruction by bronchoscopy, the pathologic analysis revealed a glomic tumor. Carinal resection and reconstruction were performed with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and the long-term result was excellent. PMID:27449451

  4. Les rivières et les sources de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac: extrait du rapport sur les eaux souterraines de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C., Jr.; Lemoine, Rémy C.

    1949-01-01

    Les principales rivières de la Plaine du Cul-de-Sac, la Rivière Grise ou Grande Rivière du Cul-de-Sac et la Rivière Blanche, prennent naissance sur le flanc Nord du Massif de la Selle à des altitudes de 1,300 à 1,800 mètres au dessus du niveau de la mer. Elles coulent à l’amont à travers des gorges profondes et sont éloignées de 9 Kms. dans la partie central de la bordure Sud de la plaine.

  5. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  6. Myoblast cytonemes mediate Wg signaling from the wing imaginal disc and Delta-Notch signaling to the air sac primordium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    The flight muscles, dorsal air sacs, wing blades, and thoracic cuticle of the Drosophila adult function in concert, and their progenitor cells develop together in the wing imaginal disc. The wing disc orchestrates dorsal air sac development by producing decapentaplegic and fibroblast growth factor that travel via specific cytonemes in order to signal to the air sac primordium (ASP). Here, we report that cytonemes also link flight muscle progenitors (myoblasts) to disc cells and to the ASP, enabling myoblasts to relay signaling between the disc and the ASP. Frizzled (Fz)-containing myoblast cytonemes take up Wingless (Wg) from the disc, and Delta (Dl)-containing myoblast cytonemes contribute to Notch activation in the ASP. Wg signaling negatively regulates Dl expression in the myoblasts. These results reveal an essential role for cytonemes in Wg and Notch signaling and for a signal relay system in the myoblasts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06114.001 PMID:25951303

  7. Prevascular femoral hernia and its relation with inferior epigastric vessels: a rare presentation of the femoral hernia sac.

    PubMed

    Boshnaq, Mohamed; Phan, Yih Chyn; Akhtar, Mansoor; Hamade, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department, with a 2-week history of a painful lump on his right groin. A diagnosis of an irreducible right femoral hernia was made. As such, an urgent operation was carried out on the same day, and the patient was found to have a rare prevascular femoral hernia in which the sac was lying over the femoral vessels and split by the inferior epigastric vessels into 2 components resembling 2 trouser limbs. The hernia sac presented in a different and challenging way that necessitated meticulous dissection and full orientation of the anatomy of the femoral triangle. Complete dissection and control of the inferior epigastric vessels, and complete reduction of the sac followed by repair with a prosthetic mesh plug were performed successfully. The patient was discharged home the next day. PMID:27090547

  8. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  9. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Testicular Teratoma and Presenting as Sister Mary Joseph Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kalyan; Bagchi, Dibakar

    2011-01-01

    The most common somatic type malignancy arising in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is sarcoma. Development of carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely rare event. Most cases of metastatic umbilical nodules (Sister Mary Joseph nodule) develop from adenocarcinomas. Fifteen percent of such cases have unknown origin; but development from a testicular squamous cell carcinoma has not yet been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of somatic type squamous cell carcinoma arising in a testicular teratoma. It is also possibly the first reported case of its kind which presented with a metastatic umbilical nodule. This possibility should be kept in mind while evaluating metastatic umbilical nodules in young male patients. PMID:22413055

  11. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-01-01

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion. PMID:27323128

  12. Enlarging cells initiating apomixis in Hieracium praealtum transition to an embryo sac program prior to entering mitosis.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tucker, Matthew R; Taylor, Jennifer M; Johnson, Susan D; Spriggs, Andrew; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Oelkers, Karsten; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2013-09-01

    Hieracium praealtum forms seeds asexually by apomixis. During ovule development, sexual reproduction initiates with megaspore mother cell entry into meiosis and formation of a tetrad of haploid megaspores. The sexual pathway ceases when a diploid aposporous initial (AI) cell differentiates, enlarges, and undergoes mitosis, forming an aposporous embryo sac that displaces sexual structures. Embryo and endosperm development in aposporous embryo sacs is fertilization independent. Transcriptional data relating to apomixis initiation in Hieracium spp. ovules is scarce and the functional identity of the AI cell relative to other ovule cell types is unclear. Enlarging AI cells with undivided nuclei, early aposporous embryo sacs containing two to four nuclei, and random groups of sporophytic ovule cells not undergoing these events were collected by laser capture microdissection. Isolated amplified messenger RNA samples were sequenced using the 454 pyrosequencing platform and comparatively analyzed to establish indicative roles of the captured cell types. Transcriptome and protein motif analyses showed that approximately one-half of the assembled contigs identified homologous sequences in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), of which the vast majority were expressed during early Arabidopsis ovule development. The sporophytic ovule cells were enriched in signaling functions. Gene expression indicative of meiosis was notably absent in enlarging AI cells, consistent with subsequent aposporous embryo sac formation without meiosis. The AI cell transcriptome was most similar to the early aposporous embryo sac transcriptome when comparing known functional annotations and both shared expressed genes involved in gametophyte development, suggesting that the enlarging AI cell is already transitioning to an embryo sac program prior to mitotic division. PMID:23864557

  13. The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-04-08

    Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

  14. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  15. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.111 Section 536.111 National... UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.111 Investigation of claims...

  16. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.111 Section 536.111 National... UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.111 Investigation of claims...

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis Arising From an Enterocutaneous Fistula in a Case of an Appendiceal Mucocele

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun Young

    2015-01-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare tumorous condition of the appendix. Many patients with AM are admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain or discomfort, and many cases are found incidentally. Although the rate of complications in patients with AM is very low, if left untreated, a mucocele may rupture and produce a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with necrotizing fasciitis arising from an enterocutaneous fistula caused by AM. PMID:26817021

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis Arising From an Enterocutaneous Fistula in a Case of an Appendiceal Mucocele.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Young; Park, Won Cheol

    2015-12-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare tumorous condition of the appendix. Many patients with AM are admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain or discomfort, and many cases are found incidentally. Although the rate of complications in patients with AM is very low, if left untreated, a mucocele may rupture and produce a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with necrotizing fasciitis arising from an enterocutaneous fistula caused by AM. PMID:26817021

  19. Renal Cell Carcinoma Arising From Renal Allograft Detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuehong; Wang, Tie

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma arising from renal allograft is a rare condition. A 56-year-old man with a history of 3 renal transplantation due to renal failure presented poor appetite and weight loss for 3 months. Possibility of tumor of unknown origin was suspected. For this reason, an FDG PET/CT was performed, and the images showed a hypermetabolic focus in the lower pole of the left renal transplant, suggestive of a malignant lesion. Subsequent pathological examination following allograft nephrectomy confirmed grade 4 renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26825198

  20. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    PubMed

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used. PMID:26115799

  1. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  2. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Reducing Light Pollution in U.S. Coastal Regions Using the High Sensitivity Cameras on the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Jane C.; Knowlton, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Light pollution has significant adverse biological effects on humans, animals, and plants and has resulted in the loss of our ability to view the stars and planets of the universe. Over half of the U.S. population resides in coastal regions where it is no longer possible to see the stars and planets in the night sky. Forty percent of the entire U.S. population is never exposed to conditions dark enough for their eyes to convert to night vision capabilities. In coastal regions, urban lights shine far out to sea where they are augmented by the output from fishing boat, cruise ship and oil platform floodlights. The proposed candidate solution suggests using HSCs (high sensitivity cameras) onboard the SAC-C and Aquarius/SAC-D satellites to quantitatively evaluate light pollution at high spatial resolution. New products modeled after pre-existing, radiance-calibrated, global nighttime lights products would be integrated into a modified Garstang model where elevation, mountain screening, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering by aerosols, and atmospheric extinction along light paths and curvature of the Earth would be taken into account. Because the spatial resolution of the HSCs on SAC-C and the future Aquarius/SAC-D missions is greater than that provided by the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) OLS (Operational Linescan System) or VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite), it may be possible to obtain more precise light intensity data for analytical DSSs and the subsequent reduction in coastal light pollution.

  4. Activity in the Shuttle Action Center (SAC) of the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo was taken in the Shuttle Action Center (SAC) of the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC during the mission.

  5. Amniotic Sac Herniation Through a Prior Cornual Scar in The Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio F.; Costantine, Maged M.; Saade, George; Makhlouf, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Uterine rupture occurs in less than 0.1% of pregnancies. This complication can be detrimental to mother and fetus if not detected and managed in a timely manner. We report an unusual presentation of uterine scar rupture that was diagnosed on ultrasound in a completely stable patient with reassuring fetal status. Case Report A 24-year-old Gravida 5, Para 3 with history of cornual resection for ectopic pregnancy and two previous uterine ruptures presented at 30 weeks' gestation with worsening abdominal pain. Ultrasound identified herniation of the amniotic sac with fetal parts. The patient underwent cesarean delivery and cornual defect repair. Conclusion Close observation and early delivery remain vital to the patient's management. PMID:26495171

  6. Automatic measurement of early gestational sac diameters from one scan session

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Siping; Li, Shengli; Wang, Tianfu

    2011-03-01

    Gestational sac (GS) diameters are commonly measured by routine ultrasound in early pregnancy. However, manually searching for the standardized plane of GS (SPGS) and measuring the diameters are time-consuming. In this paper, we develop a three-stage automatic solution for this procedure. In order to precisely and efficiently locate the position of GS in each frame, a coarse to fine GS detection scheme based on AdaBoost algorithm is explored. Then, an efficient method based on local context information is introduced to reduce the false positives (FP) generated by the above detection process. Finally, a database (DB) guided spectral segmentation is proposed to separate GS region from the background for further diameters measurement. Experiments carried out on 31 videos show that by using the proposed methods, the number of SPGS searching error is only one, and the average measurement error is 0.059 for the length diameters and 0.083 for the depth diameters.

  7. Hysteroscopic Removal of Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy Following Failed Intramuscular/Intra-Sac Methotrexate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Purisch, Stephanie E.; Brandt, Justin S.; Montes, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cervical pregnancy is a diagnosis associated with significant morbidity, specifically life-threatening hemorrhage that potentially requires hysterectomy to prevent maternal death. Conservative and fertility-sparing management strategies are poorly described in the literature, and there is no clear standard of care. Case: The patient was a 34-year-old gravida 1, para 0 who had conceived spontaneously after laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis, and was found to have cervical pregnancy. She received both intramuscular and intra-sac methotrexate, with no resolution of the ectopic pregnancy. The pregnancy was removed hysteroscopically. Results: Subsequently, the patient was able to achieve a normal clinical pregnancy with ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination. This pregnancy was carried to term. Conclusions: Although cervical pregnancy is particularly hazardous and potentially fatal, conservative/fertility-sparing management of these pregnancies can be successful. (J GYNECOL SURG 28:369) PMID:24761129

  8. Five new species of the Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Araneae: Corinnidae).

    PubMed

    Haddad, Charles R; Mbo, Zingisile

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical dark sac spider genus Messapus Simon, 1898 (Corinnidae: Corinninae) currently only comprises two described species, the type species M. martini Simon, 1898 and M. natalis (Pocock, 1898), which have both recently been redescribed. The leg and setal morphology of Messapus is studied using scanning electron microscopy for the first time, for M. martini and M. tigris sp. n., and additional characters are provided to supplement a recent generic description. Five new species are described in the current paper: M. megae sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Zimbabwe), M. meridionalis sp. n. (♀, from South Africa), M. seiugatus sp. n. (♀, from Guinea), M. tigris sp. n. (♀, from Botswana and Namibia), and M. tropicus sp. n. (♂ ♀, from Democratic Republic of the Congo). All five species are arboreal spiders occurring on bark, lower foliage strata and the canopies of forest and savannah trees. An identification key to the seven species of the genus is provided. PMID:26701488

  9. A new approach for selective rat endolymphatic sac epithelium collection to obtain pure specific RNA.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kosuke; Miyashita, Takenori; Matsubara, Ai; Mori, Terushige; Inamoto, Ryuhei; Nishiyama, Akira; Mori, Nozomu

    2008-11-21

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is an organ that is located in the temporal bone. Its anatomical location makes ES tissue collection without any contamination very difficult, and sometimes accurate molecular analyses of the ES are prevented due to this matter. In the present study, a new selective ES epithelial tissue collection method was attempted using laser capture microdissection to obtain pure ES RNA without any contamination. The validity of this method was demonstrated by RT-PCR with three specific primer pairs against osteocalcin, calponin H1, and NKCC2, which are specific proteins in bone, smooth muscle, and kidney/ES cells, respectively. From the RT-PCR results, the high specificity and sufficient sensitivity of the new method was indicated. It is considered that the new method is optimal for ES collection without contamination and it will be able to contribute to future analyses of the ES. PMID:18809376

  10. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D) structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s) and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s) (when applicable), experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available via the web

  11. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the yolk sacs of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, C A F; Oliveira, V C; Oliveira, L J; Carvalho, A F; Sampaio, R V; Mançanares, A C F; Souza, A F; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2015-10-01

    The yolk sac (YS) represents a promising source of stem cells for research because of the hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell niches that are present in this structure during the development of the embryo. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of YS tissue and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bovine YSs. Our results show that the YS is macroscopically located in the exocoelomic cavity in the ventral portion of the embryo and consists of a transparent membrane formed by a central sac-like portion and two ventrally elongated projections. Immunohistochemistry analyses were positive for OCT4, CD90, CD105, and CD44 markers in the YS of both gestational age groups. The MSCs of bovine YS were isolated using enzymatic digestion and were grown in vitro for at least 11 passages to verify their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization that revealed the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79 and the absence of CD45, CD44, and CD79, which are positive and negative markers of MSCs, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (chondrogenic: Alcian Blue, osteogenic: Alizarin Red, and adipogenic: Oil Red O) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analyses showed no differences in the patterns of gene expression between the groups or passages tested, with the exception of the expression of SOX2, which was slightly different in the G1P3 group compared to the other groups. Our results suggest that YS tissue from bovines can be used as a source of MSCs, which makes YS tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:26143361

  12. Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors; A 10-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Nasibeh; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of germ cell tumors in patients admitted to our center during a ten year period. Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, patients with the pathological diagnosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) were included. All records were evaluated and patients followed by personal visit in clinic or phone call. Data regarding age, sex, tumor site, bio-chemical assay, pathology, treatment and outcomes were gathered. For qualitative variables we computed frequency and percentage and for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version16.0. Findings : Forty four patients consisted of 32 girls (72.7%) and 12 boys (27.3%). Their median age was 23 months. The most common pathological tumor types were 18 (40.9%) mature teratomas and 14 (31.8%) yolk sac tumors. Extra gonadal tumors were more prevalent (32 cases) and consisted of 21 (47.7%) sacrcoccygeal, 7 (15.9%) retroperitoneal, 2 (4.4%) mediastinal and 2 (4.4%) cervical tumors. In gonadal tumors 9 patients had ovarian and 3 patients testicular involvement. Staging at the time of diagnosis revealed stage one in 23 (52.3%) cases. All patients were treated surgically and the most common procedure was total resection in 41 (93.2%) patients. Fifteen (34.1%) patients received chemotherapy. In follow-up 31 (77.5%) patients were in complete remission, 9 (22.5%) had died, and 4 cases did not appear to follow-up visits. The median survival was 16 months (IQR 4-49 months). The highest mortality rate was found in patients with yolk sac tumors (8 of 13 cases). Conclusion: The patients with extra-gonadal GCT and a high AFP level have the worst prognosis and lower survival rate. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:25755868

  13. Biology and Treatment of Rhabdoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Geller, James I; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy that primarily affects infants and young children. These tumors typically arise in the brain and kidney, although extrarenal, non-central nervous system tumors in almost all soft-tissue sites have been described. SMARCB1 is a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and functions as a tumor suppressor in the vast majority of rhabdoid tumors. Patients with germline mutations or deletions affecting SMARCB1 are predisposed to the development of rhabdoid tumors, as well as the genetic disorder schwannomatosis. The current hypothesis is that rhabdoid tumors are driven by epigenetic dysregulation, as opposed to the alteration of a specific biologic pathway. The strategies for novel therapeutic approaches based on what is currently known about rhabdoid tumor biology are presented. PMID:26349416

  14. Survival Outcome of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qing-Zhuang; Li, De-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhen-Gang; Wu, Yue-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) is a rare benign tumor of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. It is destructive or bone-remodeling, tends to recur after surgical resection, and has a significant malignant potential. The present study aimed to perform a retrospective analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from IP, including characteristics, survival outcome, and predictors of associated malignancy. Methods: The medical records of 213 patients diagnosed with IP from January 1970 to January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-seven patients were diagnosed with SCC/IP; their clinical characteristics, treatments, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Results: Of the 87 patients with SCC/IP, the 5- and 10-year overall survival outcomes were 39.6% and 31.8%, respectively. Twenty-nine of these patients received surgery and 58 received combined surgery and radiation. Of the patients with stages III–IV, the 5-year survival rate was 30.7% for those treated with surgery only and 39.9% for those given the combination treatment (P = 0.849). Factors associated with significantly poor prognosis were advanced-stage, metachronous tumors, or with cranial base and orbit invasion. Age, synchronous or metachronous tumors, and pathological stage were independent risk factors for mortality, shown by multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Patients with SCC/IP had low overall survival outcomes. Advanced age, stage, and metachronous tumors are the main factors affecting prognosis. Treatment planning should consider high-risk factors to improve survival outcome. PMID:26365962

  15. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  16. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  17. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  18. The endolymphatic sac in patients with Ménière's disease: correlation between the MRI and the surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Fukaya, T; Noda, M

    2000-10-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is thought to have close relations to pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops. Here is reported a retrospective study of 41 patients (42 ears) with Meniere's disease who underwent MRI prior to endolymphatic sac surgery. Based on proton-density weighted image (PDI) and T2-weighted image (T2), the ES including an endolymphatic duct (ED) were estimated whether it was detectable or not. Fourteen ESs were detected on both images (Group A), 14 ESs were detected only on PDI (Group B), and the remaining 14 ESs were not detected on either image (Group D). The actual shape of the sac, obtained from surgical findings, was classified into three (normoplastic, atrophic, invisible). Seventeen ears showed normoplastic ESs and 14 showed atrophic ESs. ES was not detected in 11 ears during surgery, and these findings were compared with image classification. From the study data, normoplastic ESs tend to be observed on both images whereas atrophic or invisible sacs were hardly observed on T2. This classification of ES on MRI was thought to correlate with surgical findings and this correlation was statistically significant (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. r(s) = 0.58, p < 0.01). PMID:11200591

  19. Low flow venous malformation lesion presented with medial canthal swelling simulating swelling of the lacrimal sac origin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ALSwaina, Nayef F.; ALSuhaibani, Adel H.

    2015-01-01

    Low flow venous malformation lesions (e.g. cavernous venous malformations) are commonly seen in the orbit and peri-orbital area. Common conditions may present with unexpected presentation. Here we report a 50 years old male patient with low flow venous malformation lesion presented with medial canthal swelling similar to the swelling typically seen in lacrimal sac related pathologies. PMID:26309438

  20. The effect of the renin—angiotensin system on mucosal water and sodium transfer in everted sacs of rat jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Ann D.; Munday, Kenneth A.

    1970-01-01

    1. Mucosal water and sodium transfer were measured in everted sacs of rat jejunum. 2. Rats maintained on a high sodium diet did not show consistently reduced mucosal water transfer and aldosterone also failed to stimulate transfer unless the control untreated values were low. 3. Adrenalectomy produced little reduction in mucosal water transfer and aldosterone was without effect on water transfer in sacs from adrenalectomized rats. 4. Vasopressin had no effect on mucosal transfer. 5. Levels of water transfer were not reduced after hypophysectomy nor did aldosterone injection increase transfer. 6. Mucosal water transfer in sacs from adrenalectomized—nephrectomized rats was low and was significantly increased by aldosterone injection or by injection of crude kidney extract. 7. A significant increased mucosal water and sodium transfer was observed when sacs from adrenalectomized—nephrectomized rats were incubated with angiotensin at a concentration of 10-10g/ml. 8. It is suggested that the renin—angiotensin system may be involved in the maintenance of sodium homoeostasis by a direct action on sodium transporting mechanisms. PMID:4322443

  1. 48 CFR 301.603-74 - Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement for retention of FAC-C and HHS SAC certification. 301.603-74 Section 301.603-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career...

  2. Combined anti-solvent and cooling method of manufacturing indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Jeong; Song, Geon-Hyung; Chang, Kwan-Young; Kim, Chang-Sam; Choi, Guang J.

    2014-12-01

    The anti-solvent approach has been demonstrated as one potential industrial method to produce pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with high purity. In this study, we combined the anti-solvent method with cooling to maximize the yield of the solution-based co-crystallization between indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC). The cooling start time was the key process parameter; other parameters were fixed based on results of preliminary work. Highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders were produced via the combined method, regardless of the cooling start time, and the yield was substantially enhanced. However, some material properties, such as crystallinity and particle size, were affected by the cooling start time; i.e., whether cooling was started before nucleation (pre-nucleation cooling) or after nucleation (post-nucleation cooling). When pre-nucleation cooling was applied, a greater degree of supersaturation led to nucleation of α-IMC and IMC-SAC together. The metastable α-IMC eventually transitioned to stable IMC-SAC co-crystal particles, followed by crystal growth. When post-nucleation cooling was applied, the transient α-IMC was not detected during the entire process.

  3. Distal regeneration involves the age dependent activity of branchial sac stem cells in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal−distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age‐related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration. PMID:25893097

  4. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  5. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  6. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    PubMed Central

    Paral, Kristen M.; Raca, Gordana; Krausz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG) or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site. PMID:26682080

  7. A Demonstration of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) Rev. 1 Software for the Hanford Remediation Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Nichols, William E.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2006-11-06

    The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a suite of interrelated computer codes that provides the capability to conduct large-scale environmental assessments on the Hanford Site. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Department of Energy, SAC models the fate and transport of radioactive and chemical contaminants, starting with the inventory of those contaminants in waste sites, simulating transport through the environment, and continuing on through impacts to the environment and humans. Separate modules in the SAC address inventory, release from waste forms, water flow and mass transport in the vadose zone, water flow and mass transport in the groundwater, water flow and mass transport in the Columbia River, air transport, and human and ecological impacts. The SAC supports deterministic analyses as well as stochastic analyses using a Monte Carlo approach, enabling SAC users to examine the effect of uncertainties in a number of key parameters. The initial assessment performed with the SAC software identified a number of areas where both the software and the analysis approach could be improved. Since that time the following six major software upgrades have been made: (1) An air pathway model was added to support all-pathway analyses. (2) Models for releases from glass waste forms, buried graphite reactor cores, and buried naval reactor compartments were added. (3) An air-water dual-phase model was added to more accurately track the movement of volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. (4) The ability to run analyses was extended from 1,000 years to 10,000 years or longer after site closure. (5) The vadose zone flow and transport model was upgraded to support two-dimensional or three-dimensional analyses. (6) The ecological model and human risk models were upgraded so the concentrations of contaminants in food products consumed by humans are produced by the ecological model. This report documents the functions in the SAC software and provides a

  8. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight. PMID:24570471

  9. Quantitative data on blood flow during tumor PDT obtained by laser Doppler spectroscopy in the hen's egg test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoorts, Anja; Rood, H. A.; Klotz, Marcus; Moser, Joerg G.; Rosenbruch, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen supply is the most important requirement of type II photodynamic reactions. Prerequisite in photodynamic tumor therapy is an intact tumor blood flow during irradiation. Most photosensitizers destroy tumor vessels due to accumulation in endothelial cells. As a prerequisite to develop novel photosensitizing drugs an in-vivo test system is required to quantitatively assess for inertness of those sensitizers to the blood supply. We adapted and further developed a system capable of measuring the relative oxygen supply to heterotransplanted tumors on the yolk sac membrane (YSM) of fertilized chicken eggs.

  10. Ovarian Small Cell Carcinoma of Pulmonary Type Arising in Mature Cystic Teratomas With Metastases to the Contralateral Ovary.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Alejandro; Schuldt, Maolly; Chamorro, Clara; Crespo-Lora, Vicente; Nogales, Francisco F

    2015-08-01

    A bilateral small cell ovarian carcinoma pulmonary-type (SCCOPT), arising in bilateral mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) presented as stage IIIB in a 37-year-old woman. Microscopically, tumor nests were related to the dermoid protuberance and expressed pancytokeratin, EMA, CD56, chromogranin A, NSE, synaptophysin, and SOX2. SALL4 was also focally positive. CDX2, TTF1, PAX8, CK7, CK20, and several neuroendocrine gut hormones were negative. Serum NSE was elevated. This case represents a SCCOPT arising in an MCT in the right ovary with metastasis to the left one also containing a synchronous MCT. Surface implants and lymphovascular invasion suggested metastasis from the right ovarian SCCOPT and excluded a metastatic origin from usual locations of small cell carcinoma (SCC). SCCOPT is morphologically identical to SCC elsewhere, even sharing NSE serum elevation. Although the tumor was closely related to teratomatous mature tissues, a complex immunohistochemical panel failed to provide a tissue of origin. PMID:25990936

  11. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O.; Gabordi, Robert C.; Smith, Prudence V.

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed. PMID:27293861

  12. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O; Gabordi, Robert C; Smith, Prudence V; Toloza, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed. PMID:27293861

  13. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this

  14. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  15. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    PubMed

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  16. Langerhans cell sarcoma arising from the root of tongue: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ming-Juan; Liu, Guo; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS), a rare malignant disease with markedly malignant cytological features and poor outcome, originates from Langerhans cells and most commonly affects the lymph nodes, skin, and bone. This paper presents the case of a 58-year-old female with LCS at the root of her tongue, with neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis observed during 47 months of follow up following radiotherapy for more than one month after complete tumor resection. Histological and immunophenotypic tests revealed that the malignant tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, CD1a, and LCA, and partially positive for CD3ε. By contrast, the tumor cells were negative for langenin, CD30, HMB45, PCK, CK5/6, and P63. Their Ki-67proliferation index ranged from 30% to 40%. This neoplasm was diagnosed as LCS according to the classification of WHO2008. This work is the first report on LCS arising from the root of tongue. This rare case may serve as a reference for future clinical studies. PMID:26823886

  17. Langerhans cell sarcoma arising from the root of tongue: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ming-Juan; Liu, Guo; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell sarcoma (LCS), a rare malignant disease with markedly malignant cytological features and poor outcome, originates from Langerhans cells and most commonly affects the lymph nodes, skin, and bone. This paper presents the case of a 58-year-old female with LCS at the root of her tongue, with neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis observed during 47 months of follow up following radiotherapy for more than one month after complete tumor resection. Histological and immunophenotypic tests revealed that the malignant tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, CD1a, and LCA, and partially positive for CD3ε. By contrast, the tumor cells were negative for langenin, CD30, HMB45, PCK, CK5/6, and P63. Their Ki-67proliferation index ranged from 30% to 40%. This neoplasm was diagnosed as LCS according to the classification of WHO2008. This work is the first report on LCS arising from the root of tongue. This rare case may serve as a reference for future clinical studies. PMID:26823886

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Inverted Schneiderian Papilloma: A Case Report with Oral Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alexandre Simões; Bravo-Calderón, Diego Maurício; Ferreira, Mariana Pisinato; Oliveira, Denise Tostes

    2014-01-01

    Inverted Schneiderian papilloma is an uncommon benign tumor that presents tendency to recur and propensity to be associated with malignancy in approximately 10% of the cases. Some of these lesions are isolated in the maxillary sinus, and predominantly affect white males with mean age of 50 years. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from inverted Schneiderian papilloma in the maxillary sinus extending to the mouth. The patient was submitted to extraction of a maxillary molar tooth four months before the exacerbation of the symptoms of nasal airway obstruction and facial enlargement. Computed tomography scan revealed a sinonasal mass causing opacification of the right maxillary sinus with destruction of the lateral nasal wall and maxillary sinus floor. The patient was referred to an oncology center for treatment and died from tumor progression one year after the cancer was diagnosed. The intention of this report is to alert dentists to include the inverted Schneiderian papilloma, either associated with squamous cell carcinoma, or not, in the differential diagnosis of maxillary sinus tumors with aggressive behavior, which may extend to the oral cavity or involve roots of teeth. PMID:25057422

  19. Spread of Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm Arising from the Cystic Duct of the Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Yoshihiko; Yokota, Yuki; Komoto, Satoshi; Kubota, Nobuhito; Okamoto, Takahiro; Ishido, Nobuhiro; Okino, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a variant type of the bile duct carcinoma characterized by intraductal growth. IPNB is also recognized as a precursor of invasive carcinoma. We describe herein an extremely rare case of IPNB arising from the cystic duct. A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of epigastralgia and abnormal levels of biliary tract enzyme. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion spreading from the cystic duct to the upper-middle bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated diffuse duct dilation with a grossly visible intraductal mass and amorphous blobs, suggesting the presence of mucobilia or scattered tumors. We performed extrahepatic bile duct resection with lymphadenectomy. Macroscopically, a friable papillary tumor originated from the cystic duct grows intraluminally into the bile duct. Pathologically, the tumor was found to be intramucosal adenocarcinoma spreading to the whole extrahepatic bile duct, which was compatible with IPNB. We should discuss the features and progression processes of IPNB through this precious case.

  20. Symmetric Lipomatosis Arising in the Tongue Presenting as Macroglossia and Articulatory Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Ken; Satsukawa, Arata; Taguchi, Takahide; Harada, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric lipomatosis is definitively characterized by symmetric, tumorous lipomatous proliferation of adipose tissue that often develops in the head and neck, shoulders, and upper trunk. However, in the oral region, symmetric lipomatosis of the tongue (SLT) is an extremely rare condition related to generalized lipidosis that is often caused by chronic alcoholism. It is characterized by multiple symmetric lipomatous nodules and diffuse bilateral swelling located within the tongue. We report an extremely rare case of SLT arising in an 80-year-old man with a long history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. He exhibited multiple soft nodular protrusions on the bilateral margin of the tongue presenting as macroglossia for years. Although MR imaging showed multiple fatty masses on both sides of the tongue, there was no elevated tumor mass on the bilateral margin. The patient underwent bilateral partial glossectomy under general anesthesia. Histopathologically, the resected tumor exhibited diffuse infiltration with mature adipose tissue lacking a fibrous capsule. Due to the lipidosis and the unusual presentation of multiple lesions, the lesion was ultimately diagnosed as SLT. At present, after surgery, the patient wears a full-denture and is in excellent condition, with no sign of recurrence, improved QOL, and recovery of masticatory, articulatory, and speech intelligibility functions. PMID:27413566

  1. Modeling and simulation of blood flow in a sac-type left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Najarian, Siamak; Firouzi, Faramarz; Fatouraee, Nasser; Dargahi, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are among the most important mechanical artificial hearts in medical equipment industry. Since the need for heart transplantation is on the rise, there is a requirement for implantable LVADs, which can be safely used for long-term purposes. One of the most promising kinds of these devices is the sac-type LVAD (ST-LVAD) that has the ability to generate pulsatile flow. In this study and for the first time, three different models of ST-LVAD are analyzed numerically. In the first model, the motion of the elastic membrane wall is simplified, while in the second model, the motion is assumed to be wavy. The pressure boundary conditions are added to the second model to allocate for the effect of pressure on the flow pattern, and hence, form the third model. The simulation results of the analyzed models show that in this particular type of LVAD, the viscous term of the applied stress from the fluid on the moving wall is negligible, compared with the pressure term. Additionally, it can be concluded that the motion pattern of the moving wall does not affect the blood flow pattern in a great deal. Furthermore, the inclusion of the fluid pressure in the boundary conditions does not have a major influence on the blood flow pattern. PMID:17611298

  2. Electrogenic transport and K+ ion channel expression by the human endolymphatic sac epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Jin Young; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Michelle J.; Jung, JinSei; Moon, In Seok; Moon, Sung K.; Choi, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    The endolymphatic sac (ES) is a cystic organ that is a part of the inner ear and is connected to the cochlea and vestibule. The ES is thought to be involved in inner ear ion homeostasis and fluid volume regulation for the maintenance of hearing and balance function. Many ion channels, transporters, and exchangers have been identified in the ES luminal epithelium, mainly in animal studies, but there has been no functional study investigating ion transport using human ES tissue. We designed the first functional experiments on electrogenic transport in human ES and investigated the contribution of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport, which has been rarely identified, even in animal studies, using electrophysiological/pharmacological and molecular biological methods. As a result, we identified functional and molecular evidence for the essential participation of K+ channels in the electrogenic transport of human ES epithelium. The identified K+ channels involved in the electrogenic transport were KCNN2, KCNJ14, KCNK2, and KCNK6, and the K+ transports via those channels are thought to play an important role in the maintenance of the unique ionic milieu of the inner ear fluid. PMID:26655723

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of air sac catfishes of the Heteropneustes fossilis species complex (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae).

    PubMed

    Ratmuangkhwang, Sahat; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2014-10-01

    The air sac catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae), is widely distributed in freshwaters of the Indian subcontinent and mainland southeast Asia. No comprehensive molecular studies that cover the broad distributional areas have been carried out to date. Here, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences to suggest that the Heteropneustes fossilis species complex consists of three clades that may potentially be separate species with distinct geographical distribution (southeast Asia, northeastern India, and southwestern India). The first and second clades are more closely related to each other than they are to the third clade. Within the first clade there is a basal divergence of a subclade consisting of individuals from the Upper Irrawaddy River basin of Myanmar, which share some morphological traits with members of the Indian clades. Our molecular and morphological data are congruent with hypotheses that the Early-Middle Miocene disconnection between the paleo-Tsangpo River and the Irrawaddy River caused the vicariant divergence between southeast Asian and northeastern Indian clades, and that the southeast Asian Heteropneustes originated from the Upper Irrawaddy. PMID:24875251

  4. alpha 1-Fetoprotein mRNA of rat yolk sac and hepatoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, J F; Decha-Umphai, W; Commer, P

    1979-01-01

    Rat alpha 1-fetoprotein mRNA was isolated and purified to apparent homogeneity by means of immunoadsorption and oligo (dT) cellulose affinity chromatography. Purified AFP mRNA migrated as a 21S peak in 2.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The translation product of this mRNA in micrococcal nuclease treated reticulocyte lysate was identified as AFP by specific immunoprecipitation, SDS-gel electrophoresis and tryptic digestion analysis. DNA complimentary to AFP mRNA was synthesized with avian meyloblastosis virus RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. This AFP cDNA was used as a probe to quantitate AFP mRNA in the developing rat liver and to compare the complexity and diversity of AFP mRNA derived from the normal rat liver and Morris hepatoma 7777. We found that the amount of functional AFP mRNA is decreasing during liver development. There is very little, if any, AFP mRNA in the adult rat liver. A high degree of homology between the AFP mRNA sequences of yolk sac and hepatoma was also found. PMID:91159

  5. Investigating the Physical Basis of Aquarius/SAC-D Salinity Retrievals' Regional SST Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) plays an important, and yet to be fully understood, role in sea-surface sailinty (SSS) retrievals. The Version-3 release of Aquarius/SAC-D salinity retrievals applied an empirically derived adjustment to SSS that is a function of SST. This adjustment was derived after noticing regional salinity biases relative to modeled and in situ salinity observations. These SSS biases correlate well with climatological SST maps. While the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment has already been implemented in the ADPS standard processing, there is great value in determining the physical basis of this bias adjustment. Understanding the root causes of this adjustment will enable improved Aquarius's salinity retrievals, as well as ensure that no true SSS-SST correlations or variability are being removed by the adjustment. There are several factors contributing to the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment, which may be classified into direct, correlated, and indirect effects. Direct effects include the dependence of the sea-water dielectric constant on SST and the dependence of the roughness model on SST. Correlated effects include a small mis-modeling of the atmospheric oxygen absorption, which correlates with SST. Indirect effects include other errors sources such as reflected galactic radiation and RFI that produce ocean-basin-wide anomalies that are being misinterpreted as an SST effect. This presentation will demonstrate how the ΔSSS(SST) adjustment was derived, as well as present our findings regarding the physical basis of this adjustment.

  6. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bowen, Charles; Seelye, James G.; Locke, Jeffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about 10 degrees C (from a base of 1-4 degrees C) over 14 h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98, and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of rings.

  7. Mass-marking of otoliths of lake trout sac fry by temperature manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, R.A.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Bowen, C. II; Seelye, J.G.; Locke, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The otoliths of 676,000 sac fry of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in 1986, and of 1,100,000 in 1987, were marked by daily manipulation of water temperature. The fish were stocked into Lake Huron in the spring. Otolith marks consisted of groups of daily growth rings accentuated into recognizable patterns by steadily raising and lowering the temperature about IOA?C (from a base of 1-4A?C) over 14h. In 1987, groups of marked and control fish were held for 6 months. The otoliths were removed from samples of the fish, embedded in epoxy, thin-sectioned by grinding in the sagittal plane, etched, and viewed by using a combination of a compound microscope (400-1000x) and a video enhancement system. One or more readable otolith sections were obtained from 39 of a sample of 40 fish. Three independent readers examined 41 otoliths for marks and correctly classified the otoliths, with accuracies of 85, 98,and 100%, as being from marked or unmarked fish. The exact number of rings in a recognizable pattern sometimes differed from the number of temperature cycles to which the fish were exposed. Counts of daily rings within groups of six rings varied less than counts within groups of three rings.

  8. Unique stereocontrol in carborane chemistry: skeletal alkylcarbonation (SAC) versus exoskeletal alkylmethylation (EAM) reactions.

    PubMed

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Holub, Josef; Macháček, Jan; Hnyk, Drahomír; Štíbr, Bohumil; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Růžička, Aleš

    2015-04-13

    Reactions between the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) dicarbaborane and acyl chlorides, RCOCl (2), are subject to stereocontrol that completely changes the nature of the reaction products. While most chlorides produce the 8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H11 (3) tricarbollides (by skeletal alkylcarbonation=SAC), bulky RCOCls (2; where R=1-adamantyl, 2 a; 1-mesityl, 2 b; 9-anthranyl, 2 c; 1-naphthyl, 2 d) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) in the presence of triethylamine at 40-60 °C gave a series of entirely different 1-R-2-CH3-closo-1,6-C2B8H8 (4) dicarbaboranes upon acidification with conc. H2SO4 (by exosleletal alkylmehylation=EAM). Both types of reactions seem to proceed via a common [8-R-nido-7,8,9-C3B8H10](-) (3(-)) anion which in the EAM case is unstable because of steric crowd and undergoes rearrangement via the isomeric [R-nido-7,8,10-C3B8H10](-) tricarbollide structures which, on protonation, undergo reductive extraction of one CH vertex to generate the 2-CH3 substituent in structure 4. PMID:25708127

  9. Modeling and simulating aircraft stability and control—The SimSAC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Arthur

    2011-11-01

    This paper overviews the SimSAC Project, Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design. It reports on the three major tasks: development of design software, validating the software on benchmark tests and applying the software to design exercises. CEASIOM, the Computerized Environment for Aircraft Synthesis and Integrated Optimization Methods, is a framework tool that integrates discipline-specific tools for conceptual design. At this early stage of the design it is very useful to be able to predict the flying and handling qualities of this design. In order to do this, the aerodynamic database needs to be computed for the configuration being studied, which then has to be coupled to the stability and control tools to carry out the analysis. The benchmarks for validation are the F12 windtunnel model of a generic long-range airliner and the TCR windtunnel model of a sonic-cruise passenger transport concept. The design, simulate and evaluate (DSE) exercise demonstrates how the software works as a design tool. The exercise begins with a design specification and uses conventional design methods to prescribe a baseline configuration. Then CEASIOM improves upon this baseline by analyzing its flying and handling qualities. Six such exercises are presented.

  10. Migrating bullet in the thecal sac at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit.

    PubMed

    Koban, Orkun; Çal, Hasan; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Özcan-Ekşi, Emel Ece; Öğrenci, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    Bullets can lodge in the organs, blood vessels or thecal sac. To our knowledge, a migrating bullet at the level of the conus medullaris without neurological deficit has never been reported. We present our patient along with a discussion of bullet migration in the spinal canal and its mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to a gunshot wound in the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. He had no neurological deficit. Spinal CT scan and plain radiography showed the bullet had passed through the L2 vertebral body and had migrated downwards until it had lost its energy and come to rest in the spinal canal at the L3 vertebra level. There was a grade 5 injury to the pancreas head concomitant with mesenteric injury of the transverse colon, harboring a 0.5 cm hole. He had an emergent laparotomy to have a Roux-en-Y reconstruction and repair of the transverse colon. After his general status stabilized, he was taken back to the operating room to extract the bullet from the spinal canal. L3 and partial L2 laminectomy were performed. The dura was opened and the bullet was observed intrathecally. No cerebrospinal fluid fistula was observed. The surgeries and post-operative period were uneventful. PMID:26921138

  11. Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  12. Apospory appears to accelerate onset of meiosis and sexual embryo sac formation in sorghum ovules

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetically unreduced (2n) embryo sacs (ES) form in ovules of gametophytic apomicts, the 2n eggs of which develop into embryos parthenogenetically. In many apomicts, 2n ES form precociously during ovule development. Whether meiosis and sexual ES formation also occur precociously in facultative apomicts (capable of apomictic and sexual reproduction) has not been studied. We determined onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation for 569 Sorghum bicolor genotypes, many of which produced 2n ES facultatively. Results Genotype differences for onset timing of meiosis and sexual ES formation, relative to ovule development, were highly significant. A major source of variation in timing of sexual germline development was presence or absence of apomictic ES, which formed from nucellar cells (apospory) in some genotypes. Genotypes that produced these aposporous ES underwent meiosis and sexual ES formation precociously. Aposporous ES formation was most prevalent in subsp. verticilliflorum and in breeding lines of subsp. bicolor. It was uncommon in land races. Conclusions The present study adds meiosis and sexual ES formation to floral induction, apomictic ES formation, and parthenogenesis as processes observed to occur precociously in apomictic plants. The temporally diverse nature of these events suggests that an epigenetic memory of the plants' apomixis status exists throughout its life cycle, which triggers, during multiple life cycle phases, temporally distinct processes that accelerate reproduction. PMID:21223576

  13. Primary Endodermal Epithelial Cell Culture from the Yolk Sac Membrane of Japanese Quail Embryos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Jen; Wang, Siou Huei; Pan, Yu Hui; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    We established an endodermal epithelial cell culture model (EEC) for studying the function of certain enzymes and proteins in mediating nutrient utilization by avian embryos during development. Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days and then yolk sac membranes (YSM) were collected to establish the EEC culture system. We isolated the embryonic endoderm layer from YSM, and sliced the membrane into 2 - 3 mm pieces and partially digested with collagenase before seeding in 24-well culture plates. The EECs proliferate out of the tissue and are ready for cell culture studies. We found that the EECs had typical characteristics of YSM in vivo, for example, accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of sterol O-acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase. The partial digestion treatment significantly increased the successful rate of EEC culture. Utilizing the EECs, we demonstrated that the expression of SOAT1 was regulated by the cAMP dependent protein kinase A related pathway. This primary Japanese quail EEC culture system is a useful tool to study embryonic lipid transportation and to clarify the role of genes involved in mediating nutrient utilization in YSM during avian embryonic development. PMID:27022687

  14. Development of Multi-Service (MS) for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaee, Majid H.; Seyedzadeh, Saleh; Adnan Fadhil, Hilal; Barirah Ahmad Anas, Siti; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-Service Optical Code Division Multiple Access (MS-OCDMA) code based on Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) is proposed in this paper. The advantage of proposed code on setting a variable number of users in a basic code matrix with a fixed code weight makes it more flexible in generating codewords. The appropriate quality of service required for various network applications can be provided by choosing a different number of users for the basic code matrix of MS code. The properties of the proposed code is compared with other OCDMA codes in terms of code length and maximum cross-correlation. The performance of the MS code mathematically analysed and probability of error for users is plotted as a function of the number of active users and optical received power. Shot, phase induced intensity and thermal noises are considered in mathematical analysis. Results show that by choosing code weight of 4 and optimizing number of users per sequence, the MS code supports up to 82 users, each operating at a bit-rate of 622 Mbps with reference to the Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

  15. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light. PMID:26432407

  16. Fetus in Fetu in the Scrotal Sac: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yi; Song, Bo; Chen, Siyuan; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yang, Gang; Gao, Xia; Xiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare congenital anomaly. The most common site at which FIF occurs is the retroperitoneum. The mechanisms underlying the development of FIF have not been fully elucidated. The monozygotic twin theory postulates that FIF results from the unequal division of the totipotent cells of the blastocyst. However, the monozygotic twin theory does not explain all cases of FIF. Herein, we describe the clinical characteristics of a 20-day-old infant with scrotal sac swelling. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed the presence of a mass consistent with a FIF rather than a teratoma. Surgical removal and a subsequent pathological evaluation demonstrated that the anencephalic fetus exhibited limb buds adjacent to a palpable vertebral column, supporting the diagnosis of FIF. The infant had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. In the present report, the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and management of FIF, as well as new concepts emerging in this area of research, are discussed. Although the majority of cases of FIF may be diagnosed preoperatively, FIF should be distinguished from teratoma because the latter has substantial malignant potential. The recommended treatment for FIF is complete resection. To confirm the diagnosis of FIF, pathological examination, karyotyping, serologic marker assessment, and DNA restriction site mapping should be performed after removing the mass. Although FIF is thought to be a benign disorder, follow-up is necessary as a precaution against malignant recurrence, which has been described once. PMID:26266375

  17. Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenheimer, C.E.

    1983-06-01

    Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

  18. A Rhabdomyosarcoma Arising in the Larynx of a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Yamate, Jyoji; Murai, Fumi; Izawa, Takeshi; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    A neoplastic nodular lesion, 2 × 3 cm in diameter, was found in the larynx of a 6-year-old spayed female dog. The tumor was ill-circumscribed, consisting histologically of large round cells with abundant cytoplasm interspersed with small round cells with less cytoplasm and occasional multinucleated cells (myotubes). Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for myoglobin, desmin and vimentin in varying degrees, but negative for S-100 protein, GFAP or cytokeratin. Cytoplasmic myofilaments/myofibrils with a dense Z-line-like structure were seen, the fine structures of which were complemented by PTAH stain. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a rhabdomyosarcoma, a very rare tumor in the larynx of dogs. PMID:22272059

  19. Rapid decrease in tumor perfusion following VEGF blockade predicts long-term tumor growth inhibition in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Adler, Alexander P; Cooper, Blerta; Griffith, Jennifer; Wei, Yi; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key upstream mediator of tumor angiogenesis, and blockade of VEGF can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease tumor growth. However, not all tumors respond well to anti-VEGF therapy. Despite much effort, identification of early response biomarkers that correlate with long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy has been difficult. These difficulties arise in part because the functional effects of VEGF inhibition on tumor vessels are still unclear. We therefore assessed rapid molecular, morphologic and functional vascular responses following treatment with aflibercept (also known as VEGF Trap or ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in preclinical tumor models with a range of responses to anti-VEGF therapy, including Colo205 human colorectal carcinoma (highly sensitive), C6 rat glioblastoma (moderately sensitive), and HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (resistant), and correlated these changes to long-term tumor growth inhibition. We found that an overall decrease in tumor vessel perfusion, assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), and increases in tumor hypoxia correlated well with long-term tumor growth inhibition, whereas changes in vascular gene expression and microvessel density did not. Our findings support previous clinical studies showing that decreased tumor perfusion after anti-VEGF therapy (measured by DCE-US) correlated with response. Thus, measuring tumor perfusion changes shortly after treatment with VEGF inhibitors, or possibly other anti-angiogenic therapies, may be useful to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:23238831

  20. A rare case of carcinoid tumor in a tailgut cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Asad; Le, Brian H.; Carter, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Tailgut cysts are rare congenital lesions that arise from the failure of regression of the embryological tailgut. We report a case of neoplastic transformation of tailgut cyst to carcinoid tumor which is exceedingly uncommon. PMID:27406449

  1. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Questions arising under this part. 221.110 Section 221.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK...

  2. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Questions arising under this part. 221.110 Section 221.110 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK...

  3. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  4. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.110 Questions arising under this part. (a) This part governs “any purpose credit” extended by a lender “secured directly or indirectly by margin stock... ultimate, of buying or carrying margin stock, “ with certain exceptions, and provides that the maximum...

  5. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.110 Questions arising under this part. (a) This part governs “any purpose credit” extended by a lender “secured directly or indirectly by margin stock... ultimate, of buying or carrying margin stock, “ with certain exceptions, and provides that the maximum...

  6. Errors arising from incorrect orientation of E test strips.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S; Yam, T S

    1995-01-01

    Major errors arise if E test strips are placed upside down. Asymmetric zones, or no zone at all, may result. MICs indicated by upside-down tests were almost always considerably higher than true values. This situation differs markedly from that for conventional testing, where orientation of disks is not important. PMID:7665686

  7. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  8. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  9. Fairy Chemicals, 2-Azahypoxanthine and 2-Aza-8-oxohypoxanthine, Regulate Carotenoid Accumulation in Citrus Juice Sacs in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Zhang, Lancui; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Yahata, Masaki; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Kato, Masaya

    2015-08-19

    "Fairy chemicals", 2-azahypoxanthine (AHX) and 2-aza-8-oxohypoxanthine (AOH), are two novel plant-growth regulating compounds isolated from a fairy ring forming fungus, Lepista sordida. In the present study, the effects of AHX and AOH on the accumulation of carotenoids and expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) in vitro. The results showed that AHX and AOH regulated carotenoid metabolism in the citrus juice sacs. Carotenoid accumulation was induced by AHX in the second week and by AOH in the fourth week. In the meanwhile, the modification of carotenoid accumulation by the AHX and AOH treatments was highly regulated at the transcriptional level. The results presented herein provide new information on the functions of AHX and AOH in plants and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms by which AHX and AOH stimulate plant growth. PMID:26208741

  10. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  11. Tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique : à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Zizi, Mohamed; Ziouziou, Imad; El Yacoubi, Souhail; Khmou, Mouna; Jahid, Ahmed; Mahassini, Najat; Karmouni, Tariq; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Iben Attya

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Les tumeurs du sac vitellin du testicule sont rares chez l’adulte. Ces tumeurs se caractérisent par un mauvais pronostic à un stade métastatique avancé. Cependant, nous rapportons, dans le présent article, le cas clinique d’un adulte de 32 ans qui présentait une tumeur du sac vitellin du testicule au stade IIIc métastatique. Ce patient a subi une orchidectomie haute, accompagnée de quatre cycles de chimiothérapie à base de bléomycine, d’étoposide et de cisplatine. Il a répondu complètement au traitement, moyennant un recul de deux ans. PMID:25295144

  12. Motor control of sound frequency in birdsong involves the interaction between air sac pressure and labial tension

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-01-01

    Frequency modulation is a salient acoustic feature of birdsong. Its control is usually attributed to the activity of syringeal muscles, which affect the tension of the labia responsible for sound production. We use experimental and theoretical tools to test the hypothesis that for birds producing tonal sounds such as domestic canaries (Serinus canaria), frequency modulation is determined by both the syringeal tension and the air sac pressure. For different models, we describe the structure of the isofrequency curves, which are sets of parameters leading to sounds presenting the same fundamental frequencies. We show how their shapes determine the relative roles of syringeal tension and air sac pressure in frequency modulation. Finally, we report experiments that allow us to unveil the features of the isofrequency curves. PMID:24730873

  13. Percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a professional football player using sublaminar epidural injection for thecal sac displacement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Michael V; Park, Andrew; Bumpass, David; Jennings, Jack W; Matava, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    A case of percutaneous discal cyst rupture in a 25-year-old professional American football player is reported. The patient presented with a 3-day history of severe left-sided back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a discal cyst effacing the left L4-L5 lateral recess, with interposed thecal sac. A sublaminar epidural injection was performed displacing the thecal sac, exposing the discal cyst, and allowing for percutaneous perforation. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms after discal cyst rupture and was able to compete in a professional football game 3 days later. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous rupture is a therapeutic modality that may be considered for treatment of a symptomatic discal cyst. PMID:25541445

  14. [Mediastinal Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumor with Sarcoid-like Reaction in the Regional Lymph Nodes].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Akira; Kanauchi, Naoki; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Hikaru; Watanabe, Isamu

    2015-06-01

    A 26-year-old man was admitted because of an abnormal shadow on a chest roentgenogram. Computed tomography(CT) revealed a very large tumor in the anterior mediastinum and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Examination of a CT-guided biopsy specimen revealed a yolk-sac tumor. The patient received 4 courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, the tumor was markedly reduced in size, but the lymphadenopathy remained. The patient underwent thoracoscopic biopsy of the mediastinal lymph nodes. Sarcoid nodules were found in all the biopsied nodes, and the lymphadenopathy was thought to be a sarcoid-like reaction associated with the germ cell tumor. Resection of the residual tumor was performed according to the treatment algorithm of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. There were no viable tumor cells in the resected tissue. The patient is free of recurrence and without any sign of generalized sarcoidosis 3 years after the surgery. PMID:26066869

  15. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  16. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  17. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    PubMed

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2016-02-01

    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium. PMID:26418893

  18. Human Chorionic Gonadotropine in Cul-de-sac Fluid in Tubal Ectopic Pregnacy; A New Diagnostic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Karahasanoglu, Ayse; Ozdemir, Mucize; Yazicioglu, Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although new diagnostic abilities are being utilised increasingly yet early detection of tubal pregnancy remains a challenge. The use of highly sensitive hCG kits has facilitated the early diagnosis of a pregnancy. But it takes time to determine the localisation of the pregnancy. Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy may reduce the morbidity of ectopic pregnancy. Aim This study was conducted to analyse the cul-de-sac and serum βhCG ratio in tubal ectopic pregnancy cases which may be a new diagnostic approach for ectopic pregnancy. Materials and Methods Between January 2004 and July 2011, 263 patients with ectopic pregnancy were included in the study. Risk factors of patients and treatment modalities were evaluated. hCG was measured in peripheral serum and peritoneal fluid, obtained by puncture of Douglas pouch in 52 patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy. hCG level was determined in the cul-de-sac fluid and in the maternal serum for comparison. Results Tubectomy (5.3%), history of abortion (9.5%), history of previous surgery (14.8%), previous cesarean section (8%) and pelvic infamatorry disease (15.9 %) were the important risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in our cases. In 51 of 52 patients with tubal pregnancy, the cul-de-sac hCG vaule and the serum hCG value ratio was >1. Conclusion It is concluded that the ratio of hCG in cul-de –sac and serum can be used for the verification of tubal ectopic pregnancy in addition to other diagnostic methods. This may help rapid confirmation of the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27190895

  19. Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS): an online service for near-real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H.; Theys, N.; Clarisse, L.; van Geffen, J.; van Gent, J.; Van Roozendael, M.; van der A, R.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Clerbaux, C.; Valks, P.; Hedelt, P.; Prata, F.; Rasson, O.; Sievers, K.; Zehner, C.

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions emit plumes of ash and gases into the atmosphere, potentially at very high altitudes. Ash-rich plumes are hazardous for airplanes as ash is very abrasive and easily melts inside their engines. With more than 50 active volcanoes per year and the ever-increasing number of commercial flights, the safety of airplanes is a real concern. Satellite measurements are ideal for monitoring global volcanic activity and, in combination with atmospheric dispersion models, to track and forecast volcanic plumes. Here we present the Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS, sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem"_target="blank">http://sacs.aeronomie.be/ecosystem), which is a free online service initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the near-real-time (NRT) satellite monitoring of volcanic plumes of SO2 and ash. It combines data from three ultraviolet (UV)-visible and three infrared (IR) spectrometers. The UV-vis sensors are the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) on-board the two polar orbiting meteorological satellites (MetOp-A & MetOp-B) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The IR sensors are the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on-board MetOp-A & MetOp-B. This new multi-sensor warning system of volcanic emissions is based on the selective detection of SO2 and ash. This system is optimised to avoid false alerts while at the same time limiting the number of notifications in case of large plumes. A successful rate with more than 95% of notifications corresponding to true volcanic activity is obtained by the SACS system.

  20. Embolization for type 2 endoleak with sac expansion after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: safety and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Kenji; Yamagami, Takuji; Urashima, Masaki; Tomiyoshi, Hideki; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and outcome of embolization as treatment for persistent type 2 endoleak (T2EL) occurring after abdominal aortic stent graft implantation. This retrospective study included seven consecutive patients (one female, six males, mean age 72 years, range 66-88 years) with T2EL between January 2011 and September 2012. In all, T2EL was associated with an increase more than 5 mm in the aneurysm. The endoleak cavity or feeding artery was embolized with coils and/or n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Clinical success was defined as regression or stabilization of the aneurysm sac irrespective of residual endoleaks on follow-up CT studies. At the time of T2EL intervention, mean aneurysm sac diameter was 63 mm (range 52-72 mm), and mean increase size of aneurysm sac diameter was 7 mm (range 5-13). Mean follow-up period was 6.0 ± 6.2 months (range 3-18 months). Our technical success rate was 100 %. Clinical success was obtained in 5 (71.4 %) of the seven patients. One patient was embolized three times due to sac expansion. T2EL was treated by transarterial embolization in eight procedures, and one procedure was performed by direct puncture embolization. There were no major complications; two procedures elicited minor complications: transient back pain and muscle weakness of the left lower leg. We suggest embolization was safe and effective treatment, a less invasive treatment option comparison to open repair, as one choice to address T2EL. PMID:27006871

  1. Efficacy of Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty Does Not Correlate with Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area in Single Level Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Moon, Bongju; Choi, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Sul; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a minimally invasive treatment. The efficacy of PEN has been relatively well investigated; however, the relationship between the clinical effectiveness of PEN and the severity of spinal canal stenosis by disc material has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of PEN according to the dural sac cross-sectional area in single level disc disease. Materials and Methods This study included 363 patients with back pain from single level disc disease with and without radiculopathy. Patients were categorized into groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material: Category 1, less or more than 50%; and Category 2, three subgroups with lesser than a third, between a third and two thirds, and more than two thirds. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for back pain and leg pain and Odom's criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results The demographic data showed no difference between groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material except age (older age correlated with more spinal canal compromise). The dural sac cross-sectional area did not correlate with the VAS scores for back and leg pain after PEN in single level disc disease in Groups 1 and 2. Odom's criteria after PEN were also not different according to dural sac cross-sectional area by disc material. Conclusion PEN is an effective procedure in treating single level lumbar disc herniation without affecting dural sac cross-sectional area. PMID:25837174

  2. Anastomosing hemangioma arising from the kidney: a case of slow progression in four years and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Lin; Yu, Wen-Juan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hui; Zhuang, Jie; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Li, Yu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is a renal anastomosing hemangioma which developed slowly in the past four years. A 25-year-old woman was found a mass localized in the upper portion four years ago, and only slow progression in the past four years. She underwent a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of right kidney and diagnosed as anastomosing hemangioma. On histology the vascular components of the tumor had an anastomosing pattern without well-definite margins. Immunohistochemically, only endothelial markers (CD31, CD34) were expressed on the vascular components of tumor cells. Smooth muscle actin (SMA), cytokeratin (CK), EMA and S-100 and so on were all negative in the epithelioid tumor cells. The patient was alive at 16 months after operation, without any evidence recurrence or metastasis. Anastomosing hemangioma is an extremely rare vascular neoplasm; only 23 cases were previously described until now. Our report of anastomosing hemangioma arising from the kidney with slow progression will improve the knowledge of primary vascular tumors arising in the kidney. PMID:25973131

  3. Ovarian tumors of the hen.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N

    1987-01-01

    Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PMID:3665870

  4. Target cells for avian myeloblastosis virus in embryonic yolk sac and relationship of cell differentiation to cell transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Boettiger, D; Durban, E

    1984-01-01

    The yolk sac of the 12-day chicken embryo retains the blast stage progenitors to cells of the myeloid lineages with a very low level of contamination by more mature myeloid cells which have begun to express the characteristic myeloid cell markers. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments have supported the hypothesis that target cells for the BAI-A strain of avian myeloblastosis virus are contained within the myeloid lineages. An assay system for avian myeloblastosis virus was developed which utilizes this yolk sac cell system and which appears to be more sensitive than previous published assays. In addition, the kinetics of a liquid culture transformation system is presented in which at least 4% of the yolk sac cell population was transformed in a relatively synchronous fashion at 2 days after infection. The morphological transformation preceded an increased rate of cell proliferation. Cell separation procedures provided a 10- to 20-fold enrichment of target cells and demonstrated that the target cell population copurifies with macrophage colony-forming cells which are the committed progenitors to the macrophage lineage. In combination with earlier work, this work demonstrated that cells committed to the macrophage lineage at all stages of differentiation may serve as target cells for infection by avian myeloblastosis virus. PMID:6699939

  5. SLC26A4 Targeted to the Endolymphatic Sac Rescues Hearing and Balance in Slc26a4 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangming; Sanneman, Joel D.; Harbidge, Donald G.; Zhou, Fei; Ito, Taku; Nelson, Raoul; Picard, Nicolas; Chambrey, Régine; Eladari, Dominique; Miesner, Tracy; Griffith, Andrew J.; Marcus, Daniel C.; Wangemann, Philine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of human hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct. SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, an anion exchanger expressed in a variety of epithelial cells in the cochlea, the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Slc26a4 Δ/Δ mice are devoid of pendrin and develop a severe enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, fail to acquire hearing and balance, and thereby provide a model for the human phenotype. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses human SLC26A4 controlled by the promoter of ATP6V1B1. Crossing this transgene into the Slc26a4 Δ/Δ line restored protein expression of pendrin in the endolymphatic sac without inducing detectable expression in the cochlea or the vestibular sensory organs. The transgene prevented abnormal enlargement of the membranous labyrinth, restored a normal endocochlear potential, normal pH gradients between endolymph and perilymph in the cochlea, normal otoconia formation in the vestibular labyrinth and normal sensory functions of hearing and balance. Our study demonstrates that restoration of pendrin to the endolymphatic sac is sufficient to restore normal inner ear function. This finding in conjunction with our previous report that pendrin expression is required for embryonic development but not for the maintenance of hearing opens the prospect that a spatially and temporally limited therapy will restore normal hearing in human patients carrying a variety of mutations of SLC26A4. PMID:23874234

  6. Ruptured yolk sacs and visceral fungi in emergent pink salmon alevins: histopathology and relation to marine survival.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Heintz, Ronald A

    2010-01-25

    Marine survival of anadromous salmon species is highly variable, and causes of this variability are often unknown. In the 1990s, cultured pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha alevins from 2 different regions in Alaska, USA, had years with increased postemergent mortality that could not be attributed to viruses, bacteria, or parasites. In both regions, lifetime marine survival of the most severely affected fish groups was as low as 1.1% in 1 region and 0.13% in the other region. To determine causes of morbidity, alevins from both regions were sampled for detailed histopathology (n = 144 and 36). Microscopic lesions associated with increased postemergent mortality included ruptured yolk sacs or 'coagulated yolk' (up to 38% of abnormal fish affected) and invasive fungi in the stomach or swimbladder (up to 39% of abnormal fish affected). The diagnosis of a ruptured yolk sac was based on the presence of yolk protein in the peritoneal cavity. Putative yolk proteins sometimes also distended peritoneal macrophages, systemic vessels, hepatocyte cytoplasm, splenic macrophages, and renal ducts. The most severe case of visceral fungi had hyphae invading from the stomach into the swimbladder and kidney. In the hatchery with the greatest postemergent mortality, 38% of the abnormal fish sampled had no significant microscopic lesions. We hypothesize that ruptured yolk sacs and visceral fungi occurred in fish that were predisposed to develop these lesions because of poor body condition. High prevalence of these lesions might be a useful marker for predicting poor marine survival. PMID:20225673

  7. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. PMID:26201370

  8. Percutaneous Treatment of an Infected Aneurysmal Sac Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula with a History of Stent-Graft Treatment for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Numan, Furuzan Gulsen, Fatih; Cantasdemir, Murat; Solak, Serdar; Arbatli, Harun

    2012-06-15

    A 68-year-old man who was subjected to stent-grafting of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) 4 months previously was admitted to our hospital with constitutional symptoms, including high fever, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and backache. An infected aneurysmal sac was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) findings, and an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) was identified during esophagoscopy. CT-guided aspiration was performed using a 20-G Chiba needle, confirming the presence of infection. For treatment of the infected aneurysmal sac, CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage in a prone position was performed under general anesthesia with left endobronchial intubation. Drainage catheter insertion was successfully performed using the Seldinger technique, which is not a standard treatment of an infected aneurysmal sac. Improvement in the patient's clinical condition was observed at follow-ups, and CT showed total regression of the collection in the aneurysmal sac.

  9. Pediatric germ cell tumors presenting beyond childhood?

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, J W; Stoop, J A; Rijlaarsdam, M A; Biermann, K; Smit, V T H B M; Hersmus, R; Looijenga, L H J

    2015-01-01

    Four cases are reported meeting the criteria of a pediatric (i.e., Type I) testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT), apart from the age of presentation, which is beyond childhood. The tumors encompass the full spectrum of histologies of pediatric TGCT: teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and various combinations of the two, and lack intratubular germ cell neoplasia/carcinoma in situ in the adjacent parenchyma. The neoplasms are (near)diploid, and lack gain of 12p, typical for seminomas and non-seminomas of the testis of adolescents and adults (i.e., Type II). It is proposed that these neoplasms are therefore late appearing pediatric (Type I) TGCT. The present report broadens the concept of earlier reported benign teratomas of the post-pubertal testis to the full spectrum of pediatric TGCT. The possible wide age range of pediatric TGCT, demonstrated in this study, lends credence to the concept that TGCT should according to their pathogenesis be classified into the previously proposed types. This classification is clinically relevant, because Type I mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are candidates for testis conserving surgery, as opposed to Type II mature teratomas, which have to be treated as Type II (malignant) non-seminomas. PMID:25427839

  10. Loss of BubR1 acetylation causes defects in spindle assembly checkpoint signaling and promotes tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Inai; Lee, Hae-ock; Choi, Eunhee; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Mi-Sun; Min, Jaewon; Park, Pil-Gu; Lee, Seonju; Kong, Young-Yun; Gong, Gyungyub

    2013-01-01

    BubR1 acetylation is essential in mitosis. Mice heterozygous for the acetylation-deficient BubR1 allele (K243R/+) spontaneously developed tumors with massive chromosome missegregations. K243R/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) exhibited a weakened spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) with shortened mitotic timing. The generation of the SAC signal was intact, as Mad2 localization to the unattached kinetochore (KT) was unaltered; however, because of the premature degradation of K243R-BubR1, the mitotic checkpoint complex disassociated prematurely in the nocodazole-treated condition, suggesting that maintenance of the SAC is compromised. BubR1 acetylation was also required to counteract excessive Aurora B activity at the KT for stable chromosome–spindle attachments. The association of acetylation-deficient BubR1 with PP2A-B56α phosphatase was reduced, and the phosphorylated Ndc80 at the KT was elevated in K243R/+ MEFs. In relation, there was a marked increase of micronuclei and p53 mutation was frequently detected in primary tumors of K243R/+ mice. Collectively, the combined effects of failure in chromosome–spindle attachment and weakened SAC cause genetic instability and cancer in K243R/+ mice. PMID:23878276

  11. The Relevance of Rodent-Specific Tumors in Cancer Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory animal species have organs that do not specifically occur in humans and somtimes tumors arise in these organs. The lack of direct site concordance frequently results in significant debate on the human relevance of tumors that arise from rodent specific organs. The re...

  12. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  13. SAC-SMA a priori parameter differences and their impact on distributed hydrologic model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziya; Koren, Victor; Reed, Seann; Smith, Michael; Zhang, Yu; Moreda, Fekadu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2012-02-01

    SummaryDeriving a priori gridded parameters is an important step in the development and deployment of an operational distributed hydrologic model. Accurate a priori parameters can reduce the manual calibration effort and/or speed up the automatic calibration process, reduce calibration uncertainty, and provide valuable information at ungauged locations. Underpinned by reasonable parameter data sets, distributed hydrologic modeling can help improve water resource and flood and flash flood forecasting capabilities. Initial efforts at the National Weather Service Office of Hydrologic Development (NWS OHD) to derive a priori gridded Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model parameters for the conterminous United States (CONUS) were based on a relatively coarse resolution soils property database, the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) (Soil Survey Staff, 2011) and on the assumption of uniform land use and land cover. In an effort to improve the parameters, subsequent work was performed to fully incorporate spatially variable land cover information into the parameter derivation process. Following that, finer-scale soils data (the county-level Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) ( Soil Survey Staff, 2011a,b), together with the use of variable land cover data, were used to derive a third set of CONUS, a priori gridded parameters. It is anticipated that the second and third parameter sets, which incorporate more physical data, will be more realistic and consistent. Here, we evaluate whether this is actually the case by intercomparing these three sets of a priori parameters along with their associated hydrologic simulations which were generated by applying the National Weather Service Hydrology Laboratory's Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) ( Koren et al., 2004) in a continuous fashion with an hourly time step. This model adopts a well-tested conceptual water balance model, SAC-SMA, applied on a regular spatial grid, and links to physically

  14. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  15. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology. PMID:25527298

  16. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers. PMID:26176314

  17. Maize EMBRYO SAC family peptides interact differentially with pollen tubes and fungal cells

    PubMed Central

    Woriedh, Mayada; Merkl, Rainer; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    EMBRYO SAC1-4 (ES1-4) peptides belong to the defensin subgroup of cysteine-rich peptides known to mediate pollen tube burst in Zea mays (maize). ES1-4 are reported here to also be capable of inhibiting germination and growth of the maize fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Ustilago maydis at higher concentrations. Dividing the peptides into smaller pieces showed that a 15-amino-acid peptide located in a highly variable loop region lacking similarity to other defensins or defensin-like peptides binds to maize pollen tube surfaces, causing swelling prior to burst. This peptide fragment and a second conserved neighbouring fragment showed suppression of fungal germination and growth. The two peptides caused swelling of fungal cells, production of reactive oxygen species, and finally the formation of big vacuoles prior to burst at high peptide concentration. Furthermore, peptide fragments were found to bind differently to fungal cells. In necrotrophic F. graminearum, a peptide fragment named ES-d bound only at cell surfaces whereas the peptide ES-c bound at cell surfaces and also accumulated inside cells. Conversely, in biotrophic U. maydis, both peptide fragments accumulated inside cells, but, if applied at higher concentration, ES-c but not ES-d accumulated mainly in vacuoles. Mapping of peptide interaction sites identified amino acids differing in pollen tube burst and fungal response reactions. In summary, these findings indicate that residues targeting pollen tube burst in maize are specific to the ES family, while residues targeting fungal growth are conserved within defensins and defensin-like peptides. PMID:26071527

  18. Lacrimal Sac Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Metastases to the Cavernous Sinus Following Dacryocystorhinostomy Treated with Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Jonathan C.P.; Beigi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report a very good outcome in a 44-year-old woman in whom cancer was missed as the cause of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and dacryocystitis and which was deemed inoperable after spreading to the cavernous sinus. Case Report The patient was referred to our unit 12 months following uneventful right dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This had been complicated by the formation of a significant canthal swelling 6 months later, which had been excised at that time. The symptom of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and scar recurrence prompted the referral to our unit. Examination and biopsy confirmed a malignancy. Despite extensive surgery, including concurrent radical neck dissection and parotidectomy, within 6 months, her mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found to have spread to the cavernous sinus, restricting blood flow from the carotid and causing an abducens nerve palsy. Though deemed inoperable at first, Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery was sought as treatment for her disease, resulting in a good outcome 4 years after surgery. Conclusion Experience from this case suggests the importance of considering malignancy as a cause in young patients when presenting with nasolacrimal duct obstruction. In such cases, and perhaps for all patients, biopsy specimens should be submitted as many tumours are found incidentally at the time of dacryocystorhinostomy. Whilst the external approach to dacryocystorhinostomy may identify abnormal anatomy intraoperatively, prompting biopsy, this is less likely with an endonasal approach where osteotomy precedes sac visualisation. The endonasal approach may therefore be less appropriate in such cases where malignancy is suspected as osteotomy may aid in the spread. PMID:27462255

  19. Detection and Management of Air Sac Trematodes (Szidatitrema Species) in Captive Multispecies Avian Exhibits.

    PubMed

    Delaski, Kristina M; Nelson, Sudona; Dronen, Norman O; Craig, Thomas M; Pond, Joel; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    From 2 exhibits in a zoological collection, 2 juvenile fairy bluebirds ( Irena puella ) and 1 adult blue-grey tanager (Thraupis episcopus) died within 3 months of one another. The cause of death was attributed to air sac trematodes, which were identified as Szidatitrema species based on morphology of adult trematodes and miracidia isolated from a snail intermediate host. To determine the extent of trematodiasis in the collection, individual exhibits within the same building as the original presenting cases were assessed, with birds representing 27 avian species from 9 orders. Sampling consisted of individual (n = 244) and pooled same-species group (n = 193) fecal examinations, and for some individuals, and tracheal swab (n = 106), resulting in a total of 543 samples. In addition, tracheal swabs were performed on 14 birds for comparative cytology, but no parasites were found. Flukes were positively identified in 4 tracheal swab samples (4%), 37 individual fecal samples (15%), and 52 of the group fecal samples (27%). When results of the swab method were compared with those of fecal examination, fecal testing was significantly associated (P < .001) with positive results. Based on these results, a screening process was instituted of 3- or 4-day combined fecal samples evaluated by both sedimentation and flotation techniques 2 weeks before outgoing shipments or intrazoo transfers of birds housed in exhibits known to have snail populations. Snail control methods also were initiated in all exhibits. Treatment with praziquantel was carried out on a case-by-case basis, and included oral, parenteral, and nebulized administration. Although control measures were expected to manage the infection and reduce distribution of the parasite to other collections, complete eradication of trematodes in the population is unlikely. PMID:26771325

  20. [Mesorectal Lymph Node Metastasis Arising from Rectal Invasion by an Ovarian Cancer--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Mizuki, Toru; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Yagi, Yutaka; Tajima, Yosuke; Nakano, Mae; Nakano, Masato; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakata, Jun; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Koyama, Yu; Wakai, Toshifumi; Enomoto, Takayuki

    2015-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman presenting with abdominal distension was diagnosed with a tumor in the right ovary. A chest-abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan revealed multiple lung metastases, multiple liver metastases, and peritoneal dissemination. Invasion of the rectum by peritoneal dissemination of the Douglas' pouch was suspected. She was diagnosed with Stage Ⅳ right ovarian cancer and was treated with preoperative chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, debulking surgery of the abdominal cavity (total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, partial omentectomy, and Hartmann's procedure) was performed. Because there was swelling observed in multiple mesorectal lymph nodes, lymph node dissection was performed based on methods used for rectal cancer surgery. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed multiple mesorectal lymph node metastases arising from ovarian cancer. We suggest that mesorectal lymph node dissection be considered a part of debulking surgery for ovarian cancers that have invaded the rectum. PMID:26805344

  1. Opposite phenotypes of cancer and aging arise from alternative regulation of common signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Yashin, Anatoly I

    2003-12-01

    Phenotypic features of malignant and senescent cells are in many instances opposite. Cancer cells do not "age"; their metabolic, proliferative, and growth characteristics are opposite to those observed with cellular aging (both replicative and functional). In many such characteristics cancer cells resemble embryonic cells. One can say that cancer manifests itself as a local, uncontrolled "rejuvenation" in an organism. Available evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the opposite phenotypic features of aging and cancer arise from the opposite regulation of genes participating in apoptosis/growth arrest or growth signal transduction pathways in cells. This fact may be applicable in the development of new anti-aging treatments. Genes that are contrarily regulated in cancer and aging cells (e.g., proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressors) could be candidate targets for anti-aging interventions. Their "cancer-like" regulation, if strictly controlled, might help to rejuvenate the human organism. PMID:15033776

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Arising in Multifocal Pharyngolaryngeal Oncocytic Papillary Cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, Markus; Müller, Klaus-Michael; Koopmann, Mario; Rudack, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report on a rare case of a laryngeal carcinoma arising in a multifocal pharyngolaryngeal oncocytic papillary cystadenoma (OPC). The disease of a 63-year-old man is well documented by computed and positron emission tomography, histology, and electron microscopy. We could show that an OPC can even develop in the pharynx. The coexistence of both tumors makes this a challenging diagnosis for pathologists. Treated by surgery and radiotherapy, both lesions dissolved. Based on the literature available, we discuss the theory that the laryngeal carcinoma might be the result of a true metaplasia facilitated by chronic irritation and recommend a regular follow-up for OPC too. As in benign oncocytic lesions, we could show that the detection of numerous mitochondria is a diagnostic indicator for malignant variants as well. PMID:25211046

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of ampullary tumors].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Moreno De Vega, Vicente; Domènech, Eugeni; Boix, Jaume

    2009-02-01

    Tumors of the ampulla of Vater are called ampullary tumors and can arise from any of the three epithelia (duodenal, pancreatic and biliary) that delimit the papilla. These tumors are clinically important and early identification, appropriate staging and proper treatment are essential. The symptoms of these tumors are non-specific and not always evident. All ampullary tumors must be resected but opinions differ on the optimal method of excision. Currently, controlled trials are lacking and consequently the treatment chosen must be individually tailored according to the characteristics of the patient and the tumor. Curative treatment may be endoscopic or surgical. In patients who are not candidates for curative treatment, palliative treatment through drainage can be performed. PMID:19231683

  4. A Rare Nasopharyngeal Teratoma Arising From the Vomer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoxiao; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Li, Chenghao

    2016-03-01

    Teratomas are rare germ cell neoplasms derived from the 3 germinal layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). Nasopharyngeal teratoma is a very rare teratoma arising anywhere from the oronasal cavity, regarded as an expanding, avity filling lesion, with a high mortality rate because of severe airway obstruction, especially in the neonatal period and make up only 2% of all teratomas. The authors present a case of an infant girl with a single, finger-like, hairy teratoma arising from the vomer and protruding from the mouth with bilateral complete cleft palate, cleft lip, and cleft alveolus. Complete intraoral resection of the teratoma and cleft lip repair was conducted simultaneously. Reconstruction of the cleft palate was performed at a later stage. Recurrence occurred 9 months after surgery and extended complete surgical excision was performed after recurrence, with no recurrence observed again to date. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of congenital mature teratoma. PMID:26854776

  5. Bend stresses arising from ion-exchange diffusion in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Babukova, M.V.; Glebov, L.B.; Nikonorov, N.V.; Petrovskii, G.T.

    1985-11-01

    This paper demonstrates experimental confirmation of the presence of gigastresses arising under ion exchange, for the purpose of providing data relating to the magnitudes of stress greater than 1 GPa in these ion-exchange layers. To determine the stresses, a bend method was used on a specimen under nonuniform load. Small values of bend were determined on an IT-70 inferometer. With larger values of bend the radius of curvature of the surface was determined by measuring the focal distance in the beam of a He-Ne laser reflected from the specimen. Bending is observed in silicate glass subjected to unilateral ion-exchange diffusion of K/sup +/. It is shown that the bending of the specimens is caused by compressive stresses arising in the diffusion layer and having a value of greater than 1.5 GPa. The changes in the refractive index (RI) in the diffusion layer are determined primarily by the photoelastic effect.

  6. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Arising in CALR Mutated Essential Thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Langabeer, Stephen E.; Haslam, Karl; O'Brien, David; Kelly, Johanna; Andrews, Claire; Ryan, Ciara; Flavin, Richard; Hayden, Patrick J.; Bacon, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an existing myeloproliferative neoplasm is rare with historical cases unable to differentiate between concomitant malignancies or leukemic transformation. Molecular studies of coexisting JAK2 V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms and mature B cell malignancies indicate distinct disease entities arising in myeloid and lymphoid committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. Mutations of CALR in essential thrombocythemia appear to be associated with a distinct phenotype and a lower risk of thrombosis yet their impact on disease progression is less well defined. The as yet undescribed scenario of pro-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia arising in CALR mutated essential thrombocythemia is presented. Intensive treatment for the leukemia allowed for expansion of the original CALR mutated clone. Whether CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms predispose to the acquisition of additional malignancies, particularly lymphoproliferative disorders, is not yet known. PMID:26904322

  7. The chordoma arised from ilium: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongkun; Niu, Xiaohui; Li, Lan; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Chordomas are malignant tumors that originate in embryonic notochordal remnants. The sacrum and skull are the most common sites; the mobile spine and other bones are extremely rare sites. We describe a 45-year-old man who presented with a lytic lesion in his left ilium. Imaging and pathology of a biopsy specimen suggested a malignant bone tumor; wide resection was accordingly performed. The morphology and immunohistochemistry of the operative specimen showed obvious characteristics of classic chordoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a chordoma originating in the ilium. Chordoma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of lytic lesions in the ilium. PMID:26730357

  8. The pathophysiology of medication errors: how and where they arise

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Sarah E; Ferner, Harriet S; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Errors arise when an action is intended but not performed; errors that arise from poor planning or inadequate knowledge are characterized as mistakes; those that arise from imperfect execution of well-formulated plans are called slips when an erroneous act is committed and lapses when a correct act is omitted. Some tasks are intrinsically prone to error. Examples are tasks that are unfamiliar to the operator or performed under pressure. Tasks that require the calculation of a dosage or dilution are especially susceptible to error. The tasks of prescribing, preparation, and administration of medicines are complex, and are carried out within a complex system; errors can occur at each of many steps and the error rate for the overall process is therefore high. The error rate increases when health-care professionals are inexperienced, inattentive, rushed, distracted, fatigued, or depressed; orthopaedic surgeons and nurses may be more likely than other health-care professionals to make medication errors. Medication error rates in hospital are higher in paediatric departments and intensive care units than elsewhere. Rates of medication errors may be higher in very young or very old patients. Intravenous antibiotics are the drugs most commonly involved in medication errors in hospital; antiplatelet agents, diuretics, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most likely to account for ‘preventable admissions’. Computers effectively reduce the rates of easily counted errors. It is not clear whether they can save lives lost through rare but dangerous errors in the medication process. PMID:19594527

  9. Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Chen, Clara C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [123I/131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [ 111In]pentetreotide, [68Ga] somatostatin analogs, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [11C/18F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [11C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([99mTc] (V) DMSA, and [18F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21167384

  10. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  11. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  12. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, and the condition, or histology , of the cancer cells when observed under a microscope. "Favorable" histology is associated with a good chance of a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and ...

  13. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  14. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor in most children is unknown. A missing iris of the eye (aniridia) is a birth ... Nausea Swelling in the abdomen (abdominal hernia or mass) Vomiting Exams and Tests The doctor or nurse ...

  15. Genetic analysis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas arising from different areas.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Tamura, Gen; Kato, Noriko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Kondo, Shigeo; Motoyama, Teiichi

    2003-09-01

    Although cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) occur most frequently in sun-exposed areas of the skin, they can also arise in non-sun-exposed areas. Some risk factors for cutaneous SCC, such as ultraviolet (UV) light, are well known. However, the major factor for carcinogenesis may depend on the site of the tumor as well as the ethnicity of the patient. In this study we examined 41 Japanese cutaneous SCC cases, focusing on the area of appearance and the presence of genetic alteration, with 27 cases from sun-exposed areas, 10 from non-sun-exposed areas (excluding genital areas), and four from burn scars from sun-exposed areas. Squamous cell carcinomas arising in sun-exposed areas showed less frequent p53 gene mutations compared to SCC arising in non-sun-exposed areas. Ultraviolet light-specific mutations were found in only two cases of SCC from sun-exposed areas. Human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA was detected in two cases (7.4%) of the sun-exposed areas and none of the non-sun-exposed or scar areas. The frequency of loss of heterozygosity on D5S178 in non-sun-exposed SCC was significantly higher than in sun-exposed SCC. Furthermore, the incidence of fractional allelic loss (FAL) was significantly higher in non-sun-exposed SCC than in sun-exposed SCC. Our findings suggest that sun-exposed SCC in Japan may be relatively less involved with p53 mutation, and that non-sun-exposed SCC acquire more genetic alterations than sun-exposed SCC. PMID:14507317

  16. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels. PMID:25674278

  17. Ovarian malignant mixed germ cell tumor with clear cell carcinoma in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Zai-Ping; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors of germ origin. Most patients are adolescent and young women, approximately two-thirds of them are under 20 years of age, occasionally in postmenopausal women. But clear cell carcinoma usually occurs in older patients (median age: 57-year old), and closely related with endometriosis. Here we report a case of a 55-year old woman with right ovarian mass that discovered by B ultrasonic. Her serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were elevated. Pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a mixed germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and mature teratoma) with clear cell carcinoma in a background of endometriosis. Immunohistochemical staining showed SALL4 and PLAP were positive in germ cell tumor area, hCG, CD30 and OCT4 were positive in epithelial-like cells and giant synctiotrophoblastic cells, AFP, AAT, CD117 and Glyp3 were positive in yolk sac component, EMA and CK7 were positive in clear cell carcinoma, CD10 was positive in endometrial cells of endometriotic area. She was treated with surgery followed by seven courses of chemotherapy. She is well and serum levels of hCG and AFP have been decreased to normal levels. PMID:25674278

  18. α-Fetoprotein-producing ovarian tumor in a postmenopausal woman with germ cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shiori; Yasuda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    α-Fetoprotein (AFP)-producing ovarian tumors (APOTs) are rarely encountered in postmenopausal women, irrespective of whether they are of the germ cell or non-germ cell type. The APOTs that do occur in postmenopausal women are characterized by variable histologies such as hepatoid carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and epithelial malignancies, most of which are combined. We herein present a case with APOT, which arose in a 58-year-old, gravida 2, para 2, postmenopausal woman. Preoperatively, the tumor, which was in the right ovary, was found to produce AFP (102768.0 ng/mL). The tumor was evenly composed of glands mimicking secretory endometrial gland or fetal gut accompanied by abundant stroma. Immunohistochemically, these glands were positive for SALL4, glypican-3, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β. We considered the present case as an AFP-producing adenocarcinoma with adenofibroma showing germ cell differentiation, but it seemed controversial that this tumor should be designated as a yolk sac tumor of the glandular type. The expression profiles of SALL4, OCT4, glypican-3, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β were thought to provide interesting implications to characterize the present case. PMID:22056036

  19. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  20. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article.

    PubMed

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-11-16

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  1. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Judy S.; Singleton, Ciera S.; Miele, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas, and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems such as Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required. PMID:27148486

  2. Hepatic cancer stem cells may arise from adult ductal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Kostas C; Talianidis, Iannis

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as cells within tumors that can self-renew and differentiate into heterogeneous lineages of cancerous cells. The origin of CSCs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that CSCs in hepatocellular carcinoma could be generated via oncogenic transformation and partial differentiation of adult hepatic ductal progenitor cells.

  3. Endovascular Repair of a Right-Sided Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Associated with a Right Aortic Arch and a Left Subclavian Artery Arising from a Kommerell's Diverticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Klonaris, Chris Avgerinos, Efthimios D.; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Matthaiou, Alexandros; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Psarros, Vasileios; Bastounis, Elias

    2009-07-15

    This case report describes the endovascular repair of a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with a right aortic arch and an aberrant left subclavian artery. A 76-year-old male with multiple comorbidities was incidentally found to have a right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 6.2 cm. Additionally, there was a right aortic arch with a retroesophageal segment and separate arch branches arising in the following order: left common carotid artery, right common carotid artery, right subclavian artery, and left subclavian artery that was aberrant, arising from a Kommerrell's diverticulum. The aneurysm was successfully excluded by deployment of a Zenith TX1 36 x 32 x 20-mm stent-graft using wire traction technique via the left femoral and right brachial arteries in order to deal with two severe aortic angulations. At 18-month follow-up the patient was doing well, with aneurysm sac shrinkage to 5.9 cm and no signs of endoleak or migration. Endovascular repair of right-sided descending thoracic aortic aneurysms with a right arch and aberrant left subclavian artery is feasible, safe, and effective. In such rare configurations, which demand considerably increased technical dexterity and center experience, endovascular repair emerges as an attractive therapeutic option.

  4. Primary cerebellar endodermal sinus tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hongmei; Zhang, Chun; Gong, Honghan; Guo, Linghong; Yu, Chen; Zeng, Xianjun

    2014-10-01

    Endodermal sinus tumors are rare malignant germ cell tumors that usually originate from the gonads and are rarely observed extragonadally. Pure primary endodermal sinus tumors of the cerebellar hemisphere are extremely rare and patients diagnosed with the disease often have a poor prognosis. The symptoms of YSTs are unspecific and associated with the location of tumors. Intracranial YSTs (such as cerebellar hemispheres) always present with symptoms including headache and poor vision. The present study reports the case of a three-year-old male who presented to The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University (Nanchang, China) with a headache that had persisted for one month, and then worsened for the last 10 days. This was accompanied by vomiting and gait disturbance. An abnormal signal mass was identified in the left cerebellar hemisphere on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The case initially presented as a medulloblastoma and the patient was followed up for six months. The final pathology report revealed an endodermal sinus tumor, also known as a yolk sac tumor. Six months following resection of the left cerebellar tumor, the patient succumbed to recurrence of the disease, due to acute vomiting and severe headache. PMID:25202397

  5. Ancient schwannoma arising from mental nerve. A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Subhashraj, Krishnaraj; Balanand, Subramanian; Pajaniammalle, Subhashraj

    2009-01-01

    Schwannoma is an intraoral rare, benign neoplasm derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. "Ancient schwannoma" shows histopathological features, such as degenerative changes and atypical nuclei, and may easily be confused with malignant neoplasms. Ancient schwannoma of the head and neck region is relatively uncommon and very few cases had been reported in the oral cavity. We present a case of ancient schwannoma arising from the mental nerve in a 19 year old male which was of eight months duration. Examination revealed a 30 x 25 mm firm, strawberry-like mass in the periapical region of the left lower first premolar, extending anteriorly to the canine and posteriorly to the first molar, obliterating the buccal vestibule, with an intact overlying mucosa. Ultrasonography showed that the tumor was closely associated with the mental nerve on the left side, suggestive of a peripheral neural sheath tumor. Complete excision of the lesion was done under local anesthesia, preserving the mental nerve. The histological picture was strongly suggestive of ancient schwannoma (Antoni A type). There was no evidence of recurrence 18 months after excision. The clinicopathological aspects of this special case are discussed, and the literature regarding this entity is reviewed. PMID:19114949

  6. Primary malignant lymphoma arising in postmastectomy lymphedema. Another facet of the Stewart-Treves syndrome.

    PubMed

    d'Amore, E S; Wick, M R; Geisinger, K R; Frizzera, G

    1990-05-01

    In rare cases, primary malignant lymphomas may arise in the soft tissues. Only one previous case has arisen in the context of chronic lymphedema. Because of the clinical appearance of such lesions, which resemble violaceous nodular or plaquelike tumors, they may be confused clinically with lymphedema-associated angiosarcomas occurring after radical mastectomy (Stewart-Treves syndrome). Furthermore, the histologic appearance of some lymphomas and angiosarcomas may also be similar. We studied two women with primary postmastectomy lymphedema-related malignant lymphoma in the soft tissues of the upper arm. These tumors arose 11 and 30 years, respectively, after radical removal of ductal mammary carcinomas. Histologically, one neoplasm mimicked metastatic carcinoma or epithelioid angiosarcoma; whereas the other was initially confused with a variety of pathologic entities, including vasculitis, epithelioid hemangioma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The lymphoid nature of both lesions was confirmed by immunoreactivity for leukocyte common antigen in addition to the B-lymphocyte marker, L26. Conversely, vascular and epithelial determinants were absent. One patient's disease pursued an indolent course; she died of unknown causes but with no evidence of lymphoma at last follow-up. The second patient is currently in remission on chemotherapy. Awareness of the existence of lymphedema-related malignant lymphoma and familiarity with methods used for its distinction from epithelioid vascular sarcomas should prevent unnecessary surgery. PMID:2327551

  7. New perspective on molecular markers as promising therapeutic targets in germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20-40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and non-seminomas germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences in clinical features, therapy, and prognosis, and both show characteristics of the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs). Many discovered biomarkers including HMGA1, GPR30, Aurora-B, estrogen receptor β, and others have given further advantages to discriminate between histological subgroups and could represent useful therapeutic targets. PMID:27195201

  8. Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina in children: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Raha, Kalpana; Sinha, Swapan K; De, Anuradha; Bera, Pranati; Pati, Shyamapada

    2009-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the vagina in infants and children are rare, with primary germ cell tumor (endodermal sinus tumor [EST]) being rarer, which carries a dismal prognosis. This tumor is often clinically mistaken as botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma and, on histopathological examination, is often misdiagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma. Two cases of EST of the vagina in infants aged 9 and 17 months are reported. Both the patients presented with bleeding per vagina and clinically and by ultrasonography were diagnosed as sarcoma botryoides. Both were diagnosed as primary yolk sac tumors. The serum alfa fetoprotein (AFP) level was 4325 and 9328 ng/ml, respectively. One patient aged 9 months expired 2 months after receiving chemotherapy. The other, aged 17 months, was given chemotherapy followed by surgery with reduction of the AFP levels. PMID:19679975

  9. New perspective on molecular markers as promising therapeutic targets in germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chieffi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent solid malignant tumors in men 20–40 years of age and the most frequent cause of death from solid tumors in this age group. TGCTs comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and non-seminomas germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). NSGCTs can be further divided into embryonal carcinoma, Teratoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Seminomas and NSGCTs present significant differences in clinical features, therapy, and prognosis, and both show characteristics of the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs). Many discovered biomarkers including HMGA1, GPR30, Aurora-B, estrogen receptor β, and others have given further advantages to discriminate between histological subgroups and could represent useful therapeutic targets. PMID:27195201

  10. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the intestinal type arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a rare case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mature cystic teratomas (MCTs) are the most common germ cell tumors of the ovary. Malignant tranformation occurs in 1-2% of these neoplasms. Although most of the malignancies arising from MCTs are squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal type is extremery rare. We herein present a case of adenocarcinoma of the intestinal type arising from a MCT. Case A 49-year-old female underwent surgery for a left ovarian tumor. The histology of the cyst walls revealed a MCT with a few hair shafts and a squamous layer, while another part of the tumor showed adenocarcinoma of the intestinal type. Five years after surgery, she is alive without disease. PMID:23216975

  11. An Unusual Tumor of the Breast - Extraskeletal Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    TAŞLI, FUNDA; ÖZKÖK, GÜLIZ; AYKAS, AHMET; POSTACI, HAKAN; USLU, ADAM

    2014-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor presenting as a breast mass is uncommon. It may pose a diagnostic challenge. In order to increase awareness and identify potential diagnostic pitfalls, we report a 24 year-old woman extraosseous Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor arising in the breast. PMID:24791212

  12. Soft tissue tumors of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Johncilla, Melanie; Jo, Vickie Y

    2016-03-01

    Primary soft tissue tumors arising in the sinonasal tract are rare. While many mesenchymal neoplasms have been reported in the nasal cavity, sinuses, and nasopharynx, few are distinctive to this anatomic region. Some tumor types are relatively more common in this area, such as schwannoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and sinonasal hemangiopericytoma are unique entities of the sinonasal tract, as well as the recently characterized biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma. This review discusses the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features and currently known molecular data of the more frequently encountered soft tissue tumors of the sinonasal tract. PMID:26472693

  13. Mixed adeno(neuro)endocrine carcinoma arising from the ectopic gastric mucosa of the upper thoracic esophagus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of mixed adenoendocrine carcinoma of the upper thoracic esophagus arising from ectopic gastric mucosa. A 64-year-old man who had been diagnosed with an esophageal tumor on the basis of esophagoscopy was referred to our hospital. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed the presence of ectopic gastric mucosa and an adjacent pedunculated lesion located on the posterior wall of the upper thoracic esophagus. Subtotal esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection was performed. A microscopic examination revealed that there was a partially intermingling component of neuroendocrine carcinoma adjacent to a tubular adenocarcinoma which was conterminous with the area of the ectopic gastric mucosa. Although the tubular adenocarcinoma was confined to the mucosa and submucosa, the neuroendocrine carcinoma had invaded the submucosaand there was vascular permeation. Each component accounted for 30% or more of the tumor, so the final histopathological diagnosis was mixed adenoendocrine carcinoma of the upper thoracic esophagus arising from ectopic gastric mucosa. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not performed, because the postoperative tumor stage was IA. The patient was well and had no evidence of recurrence 16 months after surgery. PMID:24139488

  14. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  15. Development of the endolymphatic sac and duct in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Harrison, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    The development and maturation of the endolymphatic sac (ES) and duct (ED) were studied in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. The ES first appears as an oval capsule at the dorsal-medial tip of the otic vesicle at stage 39, about 11 days after oviposition. The ES consists of polymorphous epithelial cells with a minimum of cytoplasm. The intercellular space (IS) between the epithelial cells is narrow and has a smooth surface. At stage 44, the size of the ES increases as many vacuoles in the IS become filled. At stage 46, 18 days after oviposition, the ES elongates markedly and a slit-like lumen is found in the ES. The epithelium contains a few cell organelles which are scattered in the cytoplasm. The vacuoles in the IS are fused, which expands the IS. Two days later (stage 48), floccular material (endolymph) is present in the expanded lumen. The IS dilates and has a wide and irregular appearance. At stage 50, approximately 26 days after oviposition, the ES extends and expands significantly and crystals (otoconia) can now be seen in the widened lumen of the ES. The cytoplasm of the cuboidal epithelial cells contains an abundance of vesicles surrounded by ribosomes and Golgi complexes. Intercellular digitations are formed in the expanded IS. At stage 54, the ES forms a large bellow-like pouch. Numerous otoconia accumulate in the lumen. Free floating cells and cell debris can be seen in the lumen at this stage. The epithelial cells contain numerous cytoplasmic organelles which are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Granules are found in the apical and lateral cytoplasm. The IS is loose and displays a labyrinthine appearance. The primitive ED first appears as a connection between the ES and the saccule but no lumen is present inside at stage 39. At stage 46, a narrow lumen is formed in the ED, which corresponds to the formation of the ES lumen. At stage 50, as the ED extends, floccular material is seen in the lumen. At stage 54, the ED bears numerous microvilli on its

  16. Parabolic Perturbation of a Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problem Arising in Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, P.; Grasselli, M.

    We study a transport-diffusion initial value problem where the diffusion codlicient is "small" and the transport coefficient is a time function depending on the solution in a nonlinear and nonlocal way. We show the existence and the uniqueness of a weak solution of this problem. Moreover we discuss its asymptotic behaviour as the diffusion coefficient goes to zero, obtaining a well-posed first-order nonlinear hyperbolic problem. These problems arise from mathematical models of muscle contraction in the framework of the sliding filament theory.

  17. Preconditioning a product of matrices arising in trust region subproblems

    SciTech Connect

    Hribar, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.

    1996-03-01

    In solving large scale optimization problems, we find it advantageous to use iterative methods to solve the sparse linear systems that arise. In the ETR software for solving equality constrained optimization problems, we use a conjugate gradient method to approximately solve the trust region subproblems. To speed up the convergence of the conjugate gradient routine, we need to precondition matrices of the form Z{sup T} W Z, which are not explicitly stored. Four preconditioners were implemented and the results for each are given.

  18. Renal cell carcinoma arising in a regressed multicystic dysplastic kidney.

    PubMed

    Rackley, R R; Angermeier, K W; Levin, H; Pontes, J E; Kay, R

    1994-11-01

    Controversy surrounds the management of multicystic dysplastic kidney. Recent advances in radiological imaging have resulted in a higher incidence of its detection, and they provide an accurate noninvasive means of diagnosis and followup. Consequently, the need for surgical removal of these lesions is being reevaluated. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma arising from solid renal dysplasia associated with a regressed multicystic dysplastic kidney. We emphasize the potential risk of nonoperative management of these lesions and further define the spectrum of malignant degeneration associated with renal dysplasia. PMID:7933196

  19. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  20. [Craniosinusonasal tumors].

    PubMed

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Egorova, V K

    1997-01-01

    Tumors extending into the nasal cavity, cranium, and paranasal sinuses have a number of distinctive features to take into consideration. Among them are the communication with an open air, high incidence of associated intracranial infections, specific complications (i.e. suppurative sinusitis, polyps, mucocele, pneumocephalus, nasal CSF leak). The features mentioned make these lesions unique. 50 consecutive patients underwent treatment in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. The diagnosis was confirmed either by CT, MRI, or at operation. Rhinological and otoneurological signs were also subjected to analysis. Most frequently these tumors (the majority of which were meningiomas (n = 34) extended into the nasal cavity (40 patients) and paranasal sinuses (n = 50). It was noted that the clinical signs vary depending on the histological type of tumor, its location and direction of growth (i.e. medial or lateral). Medially growing tumors usually involved 2-4 sinuses, while laterally growing tumors involved only one sinus. Among the symptoms, disturbances of smell, conductive hearing impairment, deformation of both the soft and hard palate, slowing of the experimental nystagmus due to disturbed extraocular movements. Some light is shed on the differential diagnosis, indications for various surgical approaches (transcranial, transnasal, and facial). The results of surgical treatment and postoperative complications are presented in the paper. The diagnosis and treatment of such patients require an interdisciplinary approach while would involve a team of a neurosurgeon, neuroradiologist, otoneurologist, and a neuro-ophthalmologist. PMID:9424946

  1. [Inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the bladder expelled through the urethral meatus in a girl].

    PubMed

    Sarr, A; Thiam, I; Gueye, D; Sow, Y; Fall, B; Thiam, A; Sine, B; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory pseudo-tumors of the bladder are rare benign tumors that mostly arise in the differential diagnosis of sarcomas in children. The authors report an unusual case of pedunculated inflammatory pseudo-tumor of the bladder that externalized by the urethral meatus in a 13-year-old girl. The treatment consisted of a ligation-resection of the pedicle, followed by resection of the tumor. After regular follow-up for 18 months there was no tumor recurrence. PMID:26552617

  2. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J; Pugno, Nicola M

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0)) in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2) = 0.97). PMID:22347380

  3. Meckel’s diverticulum mesentery along with its band forming a hernial sac: A rare case of internal herniation

    PubMed Central

    Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Chandrashekhar; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common congenital gastrointestinal anomaly. However, only 2% of cases are symptomatic. It can cause intestinal obstruction by various mechanisms as volvulus, adhesions, Littre’s hernia, intussusception. Case presentation An unusual case of internal herniation of small bowel loops into complete hernia sac formed by unusual mesentery of Meckel’s diverticulum which was present upto the adhesive band, extending from tip of the Meckel’s diverticulum to the adjacent mesentery of small intestine leading to small bowel obstruction (SBO). Diverticulectomy with resection of adjacent ileum with ileo-ileal anastomosis was done. Discussion Internal herniation by MD leading to SBO is an extremely rare complication. In literature, cases of internal hernia through mesentry of Meckel’s diverticulum, through mesodiverticular band, adhesion of inflamed end of MD to corresponding base of mesentry, fibrous cord extending upto umblical wall have been reported but in our case, patient had both adhesion band along with internal herniation into sac formed by unusual mesentry of the meckel’s diverticulum and the adhesion band. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult with only 6–12% of cases diagnosed correctly. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients with intestinal obstruction or high risk of incarceration. Conclusion Meckel’s diverticulum causing internal hernia is rare event. It’s presentation due to herniation of bowel loops into sac formed by mesentery attached to diverticulum and the adhesion is rarest, with non specific signs and symptoms. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment prevent further complications. PMID:25790912

  4. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  5. Evidence of the Most Stretchable Egg Sac Silk Stalk, of the European Spider of the Year Meta menardi

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J.; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the “European spider of the year 2012”, from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03±0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5–1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ0) in the range of 0.33–0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R2 = 0.97). PMID:22347380

  6. Surgical case of intracranial osteoma arising from the falx

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Tsuboi, Toshiyuki; Noda, Kosumo; Miyata, Shiro; Ota, Nakao; Hamada, Fumihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial osteomas completely unrelated to osseous tissues are extremely rare. In the present study, the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with persistent headache is reported. Computed tomography (CT) and bone window CT revealed an ossified lesion in the frontal area. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA)/CT venography fusion imaging demonstrated that the mass was located just below the superior sagittal sinus and cortical veins, and had adhered partially to these veins. Surgery achieved complete tumor removal with preservation of the cortical veins and superior sagittal sinus. The histological examination findings were compatible with osteoma. The present postoperative course was uneventful. The present rare case of intracranial osteoma originating from the falx was successfully treated surgically. Preoperative FIESTA/CT venography fusion imaging was very useful to demonstrate adhesion between the tumor mass and the superior sagittal sinus and cortical veins.

  7. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  8. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Glockzin, Gabriel; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer (pmCRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standardization of oncologic treatment regimens for pmCRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neoadjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investigated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome. PMID:27602235

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Fulbright/Sac River Landfill, Missouri (first remedial action), September 1988. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    The Fulbright and Sac River Landfills are located just north of the City of Springfield, Missouri, in a semirural area. The landfills were operated by the city for the disposal of municipal and industrial solid wastes. The site, however, could endanger human health or the environment in the future through exposure of the industrial wastes through erosion of the landfill cover. The selected remedial action for this site includes: removal of the drum and drum remnants found in the sinkhole and associated trench east of the Fulbright Landfill; sampling the removed contents to determine hazardous characteristics; proper offsite treatment or disposal.

  10. Malignant melanoma arising in melanin-producing medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira; Otsuru, Minoru; Daa, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We report a case of malignant melanoma arising in medullary thyroid carcinoma that has not yet been described. Presentation of case A 66-year-old woman presented with a mass in her thyroid. The resected mass was black in color, and was composed of a mixture of classic medullary thyroid carcinoma and pleomorphic atypical cells containing melanin pigments. The pleomorphic atypical cells were morphologically consistent with malignant melanoma, and expressed Melan-A, HMB-45, and S-100 protein as determined by immunohistochemistry. Some of these cells were also positive for calcitonin and chromogranin A. Although the malignant melanoma metastasized to the lymph nodes, the patient remained free from local recurrence and distant metastasis and the primary malignant melanoma lesion was not identified for up to 11 years after the thyroidectomy. Discussion 11 melanin-producing MTC cases have been reported to date. In the reported cases, the term “malignant melanoma” was not used, likely because the melanin-containing carcinoma cells were not morphologically consistent with malignant melanoma, but with medullary carcinoma. Conclusion Malignant melanoma arising in MTC may have a favorable prognosis. PMID:26852361

  11. [Thymic tumors].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Mahé, M; Bretel, J-J; Roberti, E; Ruffié, P

    2005-11-01

    Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare and slow-growing tumors, which develop within the anterior mediastinum. Thymomas are often associated with autoimmune disorders and most particularly myasthenia gravis. The treatment of choice remains a complete surgical resection. Postoperative radiotherapy is often combined in case of invasive thymoma invading into adjacent organs. Postoperative radiotherapy in stage II with invasion into capsule has been more controversial lately. In inoperable locally advanced, or metastatic thymic tumors, neoadjuvant cisplatin-based followed by surgery and radiotherapy has given interesting results in the past years. PMID:16168694

  12. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  13. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  14. Over-expression of HOX-8, the human homologue of the mouse Hox-8 homeobox gene, in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tanaka, M; Iwase, T; Naito, Y; Sugimura, H; Kino, I

    1993-07-15

    A human ovarian yolk sac tumor cDNA library was screened for homeobox genes with an oligonucleotide probe under low stringent condition. Three homeobox genes were isolated, two of which were identified as HHO.c1 and HB24. The third was highly homologous with the mouse Hox-8 gene and was designated as HOX-8. Studies on RNAs from 25 human tumor tissues and cell lines showed that the profile of HOX-8 expression was different from those of HHO.c1 and HB24. The expression of HOX-8 was not detected in hematopoietic tumor cells, in which HHO.c1 and HB24 were highly expressed. HOX-8 was expressed at higher levels in a variety of tumors of epithelial origin than in their corresponding normal tissues more frequently than HHO.c1 and HB24. All three homeobox genes were highly expressed in a yolk sac tumor, an immature tumor of gonadal origin. These results suggest that HOX-8 plays a more important role in human tumors of epithelial origin than those of hematopoietic origin. PMID:7687426

  15. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Cynthia; Chai, Wanxing; Yu, Victoria E.; Yu, Run

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), a group of endocrine tumors arising in the pancreas, are among the most common neuroendocrine tumors. The genetic causes of familial and sporadic PNETs are somewhat understood, but their molecular pathogenesis remains unknown. Most PNETs are indolent but have malignant potential. The biological behavior of an individual PNET is unpredictable; higher tumor grade, lymph node and liver metastasis, and larger tumor size generally indicate a less favorable prognosis. Endocrine testing, imaging, and histological evidence are necessary to accurately diagnose PNETs. A 4-pronged aggressive treatment approach consisting of surgery, locoregional therapy, systemic therapy, and complication control has become popular in academic centers around the world. The optimal application of the multiple systemic therapeutic modalities is under development; efficacy, safety, availability, and cost should be considered when treating a specific patient. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of specific types of PNETs and familial PNET syndromes, including the novel Mahvash disease, are summarized. PMID:23237225

  16. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... org Tel: 773-577-8750; 800-886-2282 Fax: 847-827-9918 National Brain Tumor Society 55Chapel ... http://www.braintumor.org Tel: 866-455-3214 Fax: 617-924-9998 Pituitary Network Association P.O. ...

  17. A sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (sNHE) is critical for expression and in vivo bicarbonate regulation of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Jie; Bobulescu, I. Alexandru; Quill, Timothy A.; McLeroy, Paul; Moe, Orson W.; Garbers, David L.

    2007-01-01

    We previously identified a sperm-specific Na+/H+ exchanger (sNHE) principally localized to the flagellum. Disruption of the sNHE gene in mice resulted in absolute male infertility associated with a complete loss of sperm motility. Here, we show that the sNHE-null spermatozoa fail to develop the cAMP-dependent protein tyrosine phosphorylation that coincides with the functional maturation occurring upon incubation in capacitating conditions in vitro. Both the sperm motility defect and the lack of induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation are rescued by the addition of cell-permeable cAMP analogs, suggesting that cAMP metabolism is impaired in spermatozoa lacking sNHE. Our analyses of the bicarbonate-dependent soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) signaling pathway in sNHE-null sperm cells reveal that sNHE is required for the expression of full-length sAC, and that it is important for the bicarbonate stimulation of sAC activity in spermatozoa. Furthermore, both codependent expression and coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that sNHE and sAC associate with each other. Thus, these two proteins appear to be components of a signaling complex at the sperm flagellar plasma membrane. We propose that the formation of this complex efficiently modulates intracellular pH and bicarbonate levels through the rapid and effective control of sAC and sNHE activities to facilitate sperm motility regulation. PMID:17517652

  18. Case report of malignant pulmonary parenchymal glomus tumor: imaging features and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jane D; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Giri, Dilip D; Hwang, Sinchun

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumor is rare tumor which arises from glomus body and is most frequently found in the soft tissue of the extremities. The lung is a rare ectopic site, and a malignant glomus tumor arising from pulmonary parenchyma is particularly uncommon. To deepen our understanding on their imaging features, we report a case of malignant glomus tumor of pulmonary parenchyma confirmed with surgical histopathology and immunochemistry and review the medical literature on pulmonary parenchymal glomus tumors with emphasis on their imaging features. PMID:26498485

  19. Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.

  20. Hairy Polyp of the Nasopharynx Arising from the Eustachian Tube.

    PubMed

    Wu, Judy; Schulte, Jefree; Yang, Carina; Baroody, Fuad; Ginat, Daniel Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Hairy polyps of the nasopharynx display characteristic radiological imaging findings, including the presence of fat in the polypoid mass. Furthermore, diagnostic imaging is useful for delineating the site of origin of these lesions, which can facilitate surgical planning. For instance hairy polyps that arise from the right Eustachian tube can be amputated via a trans-nasal approach with endoscopy, but may necessitate a two stage approach in order to avoid injury to critical structures, such as the internal carotid artery. On histology, hairy polyps comprise an outer keratinizing squamous epithelium with adnexal tissue, including hair follicles, and central fibroadipose and cartilaginous tissue. These features are exemplified in this sine qua non radiology-pathology correlation article. PMID:25939422