Sample records for saccharomyces cerevisiae dynein

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Amy C.; Wickner, Reed B.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23–46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  2. Epigenetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Grunstein, Michael; Gasser, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a well-studied model system for heritable silent chromatin, in which a nonhistone protein complex—the SIR complex—represses genes by spreading in a sequence-independent manner, much like heterochromatin in higher eukaryotes. The ability to study mutations in histones and to screen genome-wide for mutations that impair silencing has yielded an unparalleled depth of detail about this system. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of the SIR-chromatin complex bring us much closer to a molecular understanding of how Sir3 selectively recognizes the deacetylated histone H4 tail and demethylated histone H3 core. The existence of appropriate mutants has also shown how components of the silencing machinery affect physiological processes beyond transcriptional repression. PMID:23818500

  3. Dichlorofluoromethane Inactivates Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, J. L.; Marth, E. H.; Fennema, O.

    1975-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was incubated in aerosol cans containing YM broth and dichlorofluoromethane (f-21). The presence and number of viable cells were determined by inoculating (1% vol/vol) YM broth and by the plate count procedure (YM agar). Inactivation of the yeast was greater or more rapid when: (i) the thermodynamic activity (saturation value) of f-21 became greater through increasing the concentration of chemical from 0.5 to 1.5% (wt/wt) in a given volume (20, 40, or 80 ml) of broth, or by holding the concentration of chemical constant but increasing the volume of broth in the test vessel, (ii) the temperature of treatment was increased (7, 22, 37, and 47 C), (iii) samples with 1.5% (wt/wt) f-21 were agitated, (iv) young (8 h) rather than old (36 h or 10 days) cells were treated, and (v) cells were grown in YM broth without, rather than with, glucose. Adjusting the pH (6.3 to 4.0) of broth before treatment, pretreating the substrate with f-21, or distilling the chemical before use had no effect on viability of cells when treated with f-21. Yeast cells inactivated by f-21, chlorine, or heat were more resistant to disruption by sonic treatment than were viable cells. PMID:234713

  4. Xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kötter; Michael Ciriacy

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a comparative study of xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants expressing two key enzymes in xylose metabolism, xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and in a prototypic xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis. In the absence of respiration (see text), baker's yeast cells convert half of the xylose to xylitol and ethanol, whereas P. stipilis cells display rather

  5. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, S; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransferase activity, our observation led to the conclusion that S. cerevisiae synthesizes cysteine by sulfhydrylation of serine with hydrogen sulfide and by cleavage of cystathionine which is synthesized from serine and homocysteine. Images PMID:6373742

  6. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Simon; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge regarding Saccharomyces cerevisiae has accumulated over time, and today S. cerevisiae serves as a widley used biotechnological production organism as well as a eukaryotic model system. The high transformation efficiency, in addition to the availability of the complete yeast genome sequence, has facilitated genetic manipulation of this microorganism, and new approaches are constantly being taken to metabolicially engineer this organism in order to suit specific needs. In this paper, strategies and concepts for metabolic engineering are discussed and several examples based upon selected studies involving S. cerevisiae are reviewed. The many different studies of metabolic engineering using this organism illustrate all the categories of this multidisciplinary field: extension of substrate range, improvements of producitivity and yield, elimination of byproduct formation, improvement of process performance, improvements of cellular properties, and extension of product range including heterologous protein production. PMID:10704473

  7. Genetic analysis of longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Kaeberlein, Matt (Matt Robert), 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Aging is a universal process that affects organisms from yeast to humans. Replicative life span in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is defined as the number of daughter cells produced by a mother cell prior to ...

  8. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  9. The proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. The proteins of highly pure yeast mitochondria were separated by several bioenergetics, apoptosis, and the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and iron (1­4). Many diseases have been human genes involved in diseases possess functional homologues in yeast. Because of the excellent

  10. A halotolerant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola, R; Corona, M; Zinker, S

    1996-01-01

    FRD, a nuclear and dominant spontaneous mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of growing in up to 2 M NaCl, was isolated. Compared with parental cells, the mutant cells have a lower intracellular Na+/K+ ratio, shorter generation times in the presence of 1 M NaCl, and alterations in gene expression. PMID:8631691

  11. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  12. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  13. Genomic Convergence toward Diploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Genomic Convergence toward Diploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aleeza C. Gerstein, Hye-Jung E, British Columbia, Canada Genome size, a fundamental aspect of any organism, is subject to a variety of mutational and selection pressures. We investigated genome size evolution in haploid, diploid, and tetraploid

  14. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody...

  15. Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22084423

  16. Cell Wall Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Guillaume; Bussey, Howard

    2006-01-01

    An extracellular matrix composed of a layered meshwork of ?-glucans, chitin, and mannoproteins encapsulates cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organelle determines cellular morphology and plays a critical role in maintaining cell integrity during cell growth and division, under stress conditions, upon cell fusion in mating, and in the durable ascospore cell wall. Here we assess recent progress in understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of cell wall synthesis and its remodeling in S. cerevisiae. We then review the regulatory dynamics of cell wall assembly, an area where functional genomics offers new insights into the integration of cell wall growth and morphogenesis with a polarized secretory system that is under cell cycle and cell type program controls. PMID:16760306

  17. [Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for sclareol production].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhou, Yongjin; Liu, Wujun; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2013-08-01

    Sclareol is a member of labdane type diterpenes mostly used as fragrance ingredient. To enable microbial production of sclareol, synthetic pathways were constructed by incorporating labdenediol diphosphate synthase (LPPS) and terpene synthase (TPS) of the plant Salvia sclarea into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that sclareol production could be benefited by overexpression of key enzyme for precursor biosynthesis, construction of fusion protein for substrate channeling, and removal of signal peptides from LPPS and TPS. Under optimal shake flask culture conditions, strain S6 produced 8.96 mg/L sclareol. These results provided useful information for development of heterologous hosts for production of terpenoids. PMID:24364354

  18. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  19. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for or blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in expression of viral components. Here we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901

  20. Survival kit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for anhydrobiosis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Sebastien; Rapoport, Alexander; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Yeast cells are well adapted to interfacial habitats, such as the surfaces of soil or plants, where they can resist frequent fluctuations between wet and dry conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as an anhydrobiotic organism, and it has been the subject of numerous studies that aimed to elucidate this ability. Extensive data have been obtained from these studies based on a wide range of experimental approaches, which have added significantly to our understanding of the cellular bases and mechanisms of resistance to desiccation. The aim of this review is to provide an integrated view of these mechanisms in yeast and to describe the survival kit of S. cerevisiae for anhydrobiosis. This kit comprises constitutive and inducible mechanisms that prevent cell damage during dehydration and rehydration. This review also aims to characterize clearly the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis itself based on detailed descriptions of the causes and effects of the constraints imposed on cells by desiccation. These constraints mainly lead to mechanical, structural, and oxidative damage to cell components. Considerations of these constraints and the possible utilization of components of the survival kit could help to improve the survival of sensitive cells of interest during desiccation. PMID:25172136

  1. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Salusjärvi; Matti Kankainen; Rabah Soliymani; Juha-Pekka Pitkänen; Merja Penttilä; Laura Ruohonen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was

  2. Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Chu, Angela M; Ni, Li; Connelly, Carla; Riles, Linda; Véronneau, Steeve; Dow, Sally; Lucau-Danila, Ankuta; Anderson, Keith; André, Bruno; Arkin, Adam P; Astromoff, Anna; El-Bakkoury, Mohamed; Bangham, Rhonda; Benito, Rocio; Brachat, Sophie; Campanaro, Stefano; Curtiss, Matt; Davis, Karen; Deutschbauer, Adam; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Flaherty, Patrick; Foury, Francoise; Garfinkel, David J; Gerstein, Mark; Gotte, Deanna; Güldener, Ulrich; Hegemann, Johannes H; Hempel, Svenja; Herman, Zelek; Jaramillo, Daniel F; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L; Kötter, Peter; LaBonte, Darlene; Lamb, David C; Lan, Ning; Liang, Hong; Liao, Hong; Liu, Lucy; Luo, Chuanyun; Lussier, Marc; Mao, Rong; Menard, Patrice; Ooi, Siew Loon; Revuelta, Jose L; Roberts, Christopher J; Rose, Matthias; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Scherens, Bart; Schimmack, Greg; Shafer, Brenda; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Sookhai-Mahadeo, Sharon; Storms, Reginald K; Strathern, Jeffrey N; Valle, Giorgio; Voet, Marleen; Volckaert, Guido; Wang, Ching-yun; Ward, Teresa R; Wilhelmy, Julie; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Yang, Yonghong; Yen, Grace; Youngman, Elaine; Yu, Kexin; Bussey, Howard; Boeke, Jef D; Snyder, Michael; Philippsen, Peter; Davis, Ronald W; Johnston, Mark

    2002-07-25

    Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under six well-studied conditions: high salt, sorbitol, galactose, pH 8, minimal medium and nystatin treatment. Less than 7% of genes that exhibit a significant increase in messenger RNA expression are also required for optimal growth in four of the tested conditions. Our results validate the yeast gene-deletion collection as a valuable resource for functional genomics. PMID:12140549

  3. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant cells that are conditionally defective only for the resumption of proliferation from stationary phase provides evidence that stationary phase is a unique developmental state. Strains with mutations affecting entry into and survival during stationary phase have also been isolated, and the mutations have been shown to affect at least seven different cellular processes: (i) signal transduction, (ii) protein synthesis, (iii) protein N-terminal acetylation, (iv) protein turnover, (v) protein secretion, (vi) membrane biosynthesis, and (vii) cell polarity. The exact nature of the relationship between these processes and survival during stationary phase remains to be elucidated. We propose that cell cycle arrest coordinated with the ability to remain viable in the absence of additional nutrients provides a good operational definition of starvation-induced stationary phase. PMID:8393130

  4. Ribosomal DNA magnification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kaback, D B; Halvorson, H O

    1978-01-01

    Strains monosomic for chromosome I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain 25 to 35% fewer rRNA genes than do normal diploid strains. When these strains are repeatedly subcultured, colonies are isolated that have magnified their number of rRNA genes to the diploid amount while remaining monosomic for chromosome I. We have determined the amount of DNA complementary to rRNA in viable haploid spores derived from a magnified monosomic strain. Some of these haploids contained 24 to 48% more rRNA genes than a normal euploid strain. These extra genes may be responsible for the increased number of rRNA genes in the strain monosomic for chromosome I. Genetic analysis of the haploids containing extra rRNA genes suggested that these genes are linked to chromosomal DNA and are heterozygous. They were not closely linked to any centromere and were not located on chromosome I. Furthermore, all the DNA complementary to rRNA in one of these haploid strains with magnified rRNA genes sedimented at a chromosomal molecular weight, consistent with chromosomal linkage. In addition, several new mutations mapping on chromosome I were used to show that ribosomal DNA magnification was not due to a chromosome I duplication. PMID:348680

  5. Transcriptional changes associated with ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragana Stanley; Paul J. Chambers; Anthony Borneman; Sarah Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces spp. are widely used for ethanol production; however, fermentation productivity is negatively affected by the impact of ethanol\\u000a accumulation on yeast metabolic rate and viability. This study used microarray and statistical two-way ANOVA analysis to compare\\u000a and evaluate gene expression profiles of two previously generated ethanol-tolerant mutants, CM1 and SM1, with their parent,\\u000a Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A, in the presence

  6. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  7. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  8. Genome-Scale Reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolic Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Forster; Iman Famili; Patrick Fu; Bernhard Ø; Jens Nielsen

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reconstructed using currently available genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The metabolic reactions were compartmentalized between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and transport steps between the compartments and the environment were included. A total of 708 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were accounted for in the reconstructed network, corresponding to 1035 metabolic

  9. Characteristic genome rearrangements in experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) isolated after 100­500 genera- tions of growth in glucose-limited chemostats. Changes of chromosome 4 that includes the high-affinity hexose transporters; one of these also had the aforementioned asexually for 100­500 genera- tions in glucose-limited continuous culture. Paquin and Adams (1) found

  10. Inhibition of glycolysis by furfural in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirupama Banerjee; Rakesh Bhatnagar; L. Viswanathan

    1981-01-01

    Furfural, a Maillard reaction product, was found to inhibit growth and alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural concentrations above 1 mg ml-1 significantly decreased CO2 evolution by resuspended yeast cells. Important glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, triosephosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase and alcohol dehydrogenase were assayed in presence of furfural. Dehydrogenases appeared to be the most sensitive enzymes and are probably

  11. Flocculation of industrial and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Sieiro; Natalia M. Reboredo; Tomás G. Villa

    1995-01-01

    Summary A comparative study has been made of different laboratory and industrial wild-type strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to their flocculation behavior. All strains were inhibited by mannose and only one by maltose. In regard to the stability of these characters in the presence of proteases and high salt concentrations, a relevant degree of variation was found among the strains.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pp. 507519

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pp. 507­519 Dean Calahan- tion tolerance in budding yeast that establish it as a powerful genetic system to understand, pp. 561­577 Sang Chul Choi and Jody Hey Although genetic data can be used to determine which

  13. Size control models of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wheals

    1982-01-01

    By using time-elapsed photomicroscopy, the individual cycle times and sizes at bud emergence were measured for a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing exponentially under balanced growth conditions in a specially constructed filming slide. There was extensive variability in both parameters for daughter and parent cells. The data on 162 pairs of siblings were analyzed for agreement with the predictions

  14. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PEARL MILLET BY USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four pearl millet genotypes were tested for their potential as raw material for fuel ethanol production in this study. Ethanol fermentation was performed both in flasks on a rotary shaker and in a 5-L bioreactor by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24860). For rotary-shaker fermentation, the fi...

  15. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan Antibodies in Familial Crohn's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boualem Sendid; Jean-François Quinton; Gwénaële Charrier; Olivier Goulet; Antoine Cortot; Bruno Grandbastien; Daniel Poulain; Jean-Frédéric Colombel

    1998-01-01

    Objective:Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCA) are associated with Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ASCA in families in which at least two members were affected with Crohn's disease.Methods:A total of 20 families including two (n = 15) or more (n = 5) patients with Crohn's disease were tested for ASCA with use of

  16. THE FUNCTION OF THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. M. Stoppani; S. L. S. de Favelukes; L. Conches; E. Ramos; M. M. Pigretti

    1959-01-01

    The role of the citric acid cycle in yeast was investigated. ; Suspensions of fasting Saccharomyces cerevisiae were incubated with carbon-14 ; bicarbonate and substrates in a closed vessel connected with a volume ; compensator, and simultaneous measurements of the oxygen consumption were made ; under equal experimental conditions. (C.H.);

  17. Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Armaleo; Guang-Ning Ye; Theodore M. Klein; Katherine B. Shark; John C. Sanford; Stephen Albert Johnston

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten microprojectiles coated with nucleic acid and accelerated to velocities of approximately 500 m\\/s, can penetrate living cells and tissues with consequent expression of the introduced genes (Klein et al. 1987). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used here as a model system to define the basic parameters governing the biolistic (biological-ballistic) delivery of DNA into cells. Among the physical factors affecting the

  18. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  19. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-01

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. PMID:25956738

  20. Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    ARTICLE Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production in Fed on a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction is developed for in silico analysis of Saccharomyces Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; dynamic flux bal- ance analysis; genome-scale metabolic

  1. Manifold anomalies in gene expression in a vineyard isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed by

    E-print Network

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    Manifold anomalies in gene expression in a vineyard isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from wine grapes in a Tuscan vineyard, along with the diploid progeny obtained number of genes. We conclude that natural vineyard populations of S. cerevisiae can harbor alleles

  2. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  3. Performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1077 or Saccharomyces boulardii 1079

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Pinos-Rodríguez; P. H. Robinson; M. E. Ortega; S. L. Berry; G. Mendoza; R. Bárcena

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate supplementation with the yeast products Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 (SC) and Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SB) on performance of calves, 24 Holstein calves (12 males, 12 females) were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments being: C (control treatment), SC (1g\\/d); or SB (1g\\/d). Calves were fed whole milk (4.5l\\/d) and a starter feed ad libitum from 4d

  4. L-Asparaginase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an extracellular Enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, P C; Roon, R J

    1975-01-01

    During recent studies conducted with suspensions of three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it was observed that ammonia was rapidly liberated when L-asparagine was added to the medium. Subsequent investigation has revealed that these strains of S. cerevisiae have an externally active asparaginase as well as an internally active one. The appearance of the external asparaginase is stimulated by nitrogen starvation, requires an available energy source, and is prevented by cycloheximide. The internal enzyme appears to be constitutive. The external activity is relatively insensitive to para-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibition, whereas the internal activity is highly inhibited by this compound. PMID:238936

  5. Statistics-based model for prediction of chemical biosynthesis yield from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Yi

    Background: The robustness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in facilitating industrial-scale production of ethanol extends its utilization as a platform to synthesize other metabolites. Metabolic engineering strategies, typically ...

  6. ULTRAVIOLET MICROSCOPY OF THE VACUOLE OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE DURING SPORULATION

    PubMed Central

    Svihla, G.; Dainko, J. L.; Schlenk, F.

    1964-01-01

    Svihla, G. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill.), J. L. Dainko, and F. Schlenk. Ultraviolet microscopy of the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during sporulation. J. Bacteriol. 88:449–456. 1964.—Normal cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cells containing, in their vacuoles, large quantities of S-adenosylmethionine were induced to sporulate. In the latter case, the strong ultraviolet absorption of the compound permitted photomicrographic observation of cytological detail. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses of cell extracts supplemented the cytological studies. The vacuole is abolished at the onset of sporulation, and its contents may be observed temporarily in the intersporular space. As sporulation progresses, the material is discharged into the culture medium. Sporulation of both types of cells also leads to a release of nucleic acid fragments into the culture medium. Images PMID:14203363

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  8. The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

    2014-03-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

  9. Purification of Arp2/3 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, Lynda K.; Rosen, Michael K.; Padrick, Shae B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Much of cellular control over actin dynamics comes through regulation of actin filament initiation. At the molecular level, this is accomplished through a collection of cellular protein machines, called actin nucleation factors, which position actin monomers to initiate a new actin filament. The Arp2/3 complex is a principal actin nucleation factor used throughout the eukaryotic family tree. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be not only an excellent genetic platform for the study of the Arp2/3 complex, but also an excellent source for the purification of endogenous Arp2/3 complex. Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of endogenous Arp2/3 complex from wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protocol produces material suitable for biochemical study, and yields milligram quantities of purified Arp2/3 complex. PMID:23868593

  10. DOT4 Links Silencing and Cell Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALON KAHANA; DANIEL E. GOTTSCHLING

    Transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at specific loci and is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Rap1p and the Sir proteins. We studied the function of a recently identified gene, DOT4, that disrupts silencing when overexpressed. DOT4 encodes an ubiquitin processing protease (hydrolase) that is primarily located in the nucleus. By two-hybrid analysis, the amino-terminal third of Dot4p

  11. Posttranscriptional regulation in the myo1? mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marielis E Rivera-Ruiz; José F Rodríguez-Quiñones; Pearl Akamine; José R Rodríguez-Medina

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae myosin type II-deficient (myo1?) strains remain viable and divide, despite the absence of a cytokinetic ring, by activation of the PKC1-dependent cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP). Since the myo1? transcriptional fingerprint is a subset of the CWIP fingerprint, the myo1? strain may provide a simplified paradigm for cell wall stress survival. RESULTS: To explore the post-transcriptional regulation

  12. Effect of Polygodial on the Mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER S. LUNDE; ISAO KUBO

    2000-01-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced de- crease in external pH at 3.13 mg\\/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial.

  13. Response to different oxidants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ure2? mutant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatina T. Todorova; Ventsislava Y. Petrova; Stéphane Vuilleumier; Anna V. Kujumdzieva

    2009-01-01

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae\\u000a ure2? mutant strain was investigated in the presence of diverse oxidant compounds. The inability of the strain to grow on a medium\\u000a supplemented with H2O2 was confirmed and a relationship between diminishing levels of glutathione (GSH) and peroxide sensitivity was established.\\u000a Data for the lack of significant effect of URE2 disruption on the cellular growth in

  14. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Xylose Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; C. Fredrik Wahlbom; Márk Gárdonyi; Willem H. van Zyl; Ricardo R. Cordero Otero; L eif J. Jönsson

    Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanolic fermentation of xylose is summarized with emphasis on progress made during the last decade. Advances in xylose\\u000a transport, initial xylose metabolism, selection of host strains, transformation and classical breeding techniques applied\\u000a to industrial polyploid strains as well as modeling of xylose metabolism are discussed. The production and composition of\\u000a the substrates — lignocellulosic

  15. Properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane dicarboxylate transporter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Aliverdieva; D. V. Mamaev; D. I. Bondarenko; K. F. Sholtz

    2006-01-01

    Transport of succinate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using the endogenous coupled mitochondrial succinate oxidase system. The dependence of succinate oxidation\\u000a rate on the substrate concentration was a curve with saturation. At neutral pH the K\\u000a m value of the mitochondrial “succinate oxidase” was fivefold less than that of the cellular “succinate oxidase”. O-Palmitoyl-L-malate,\\u000a not penetrating across the plasma

  16. Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevan J. Krogan; Gerard Cagney; Haiyuan Yu; Gouqing Zhong; Xinghua Guo; Alexandr Ignatchenko; Joyce Li; Shuye Pu; Nira Datta; Aaron P. Tikuisis; Thanuja Punna; José M. Peregrín-Alvarez; Michael Shales; Xin Zhang; Michael Davey; Mark D. Robinson; Alberto Paccanaro; James E. Bray; Anthony Sheung; Bryan Beattie; Dawn P. Richards; Veronica Canadien; Atanas Lalev; Frank Mena; Peter Wong; Andrei Starostine; Myra M. Canete; James Vlasblom; Samuel Wu; Chris Orsi; Sean R. Collins; Shamanta Chandran; Robin Haw; Jennifer J. Rilstone; Kiran Gandi; Natalie J. Thompson; Gabe Musso; Peter St Onge; Shaun Ghanny; Mandy H. Y. Lam; Gareth Butland; Amin M. Altaf-Ul; Shigehiko Kanaya; Ali Shilatifard; Erin O'Shea; Jonathan S. Weissman; C. James Ingles; Timothy R. Hughes; John Parkinson; Mark Gerstein; Shoshana J. Wodak; Andrew Emili; Jack F. Greenblatt

    2006-01-01

    Identification of protein–protein interactions often provides insight into protein function, and many cellular processes are performed by stable protein complexes. We used tandem affinity purification to process 4,562 different tagged proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each preparation was analysed by both matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to increase coverage and accuracy.

  17. Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Linderholm; Carrie L. Findleton; Gagandeep Kumar; Yeun Hong; Linda F. Bisson

    2008-01-01

    A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total

  18. Allicin-induced global gene expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Yu; Na Guo; Rizeng Meng; Bin Liu; Xudong Tang; Jing Jin; Yumei Cui; Xuming Deng

    2010-01-01

    To understand the response mechanisms of fungus cells upon exposure to the natural fungicide allicin, we performed commercial\\u000a oligonucleotide microarrays to determine the overall transcriptional response of allicin-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain L1190. Compared with the transcriptional profiles of untreated cultures, 147 genes were significantly upregulated,\\u000a and 145 genes were significantly downregulated in the allicin-treated cells. We interpreted the microarray data

  19. Tritium-induced lethal and genetic changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Burki; E. Moustacchi

    1977-01-01

    Haploid and diploid yeast cell strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were labeled with (6-³H)uracil, a general precursor of nucleic acids. Damage from tritium decay was accumulated at 4°C. Tritium-induced reporductive death, gene conversion, and mutation were compared to the same effects produced by gamma radiation. In all cases, the results were qualitatively similar to gamma rays, suggesting that the genetic hazard

  20. Multilocus sequence typing of oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Muñoz; Alicia Gómez; Virginia Robles; Patricia Rodríguez; Eduardo Cebollero; Laura Tabera; Alfonso V. Carrascosa; Ramon Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the application of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis for molecular discrimination at the strain level of Spanish wine yeast strains. The discrimination power of MLST is compared to mitochondrial RFLP analysis. Fragments of the ADP1, ACC1, RPN2, GLN4, and ALA1 genes were amplified by PCR from chromosomal DNA of 18 wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Ten polymorphic

  1. Genetic engineering of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Genetic engineering has been successfully applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for different purposes: extension of substrate range, improvement of productivity and yield, elimination of by-products, improvement of process performance and cellular properties, and extension of product range. The potential of genetically engineered yeasts for the massive production of biofuels as bioethanol and other nonfuel products from renewable resources as lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates has been recognized. For such applications, robust industrial strains of S. cerevisiae have to be used. Here, some relevant genetic and genomic characteristics of industrial strains are discussed in relation to the problematic of the genetic engineering of such strains. General molecular tools applicable to the manipulation of S. cerevisiae industrial strains are presented and examples of genetically engineered industrial strains developed for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass are given. PMID:22160914

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a nomadic yeast with no niche?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Matthew R.; Greig, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Different species are usually thought to have specific adaptations, which allow them to occupy different ecological niches. But recent neutral ecology theory suggests that species diversity can simply be the result of random sampling, due to finite population sizes and limited dispersal. Neutral models predict that species are not necessarily adapted to specific niches, but are functionally equivalent across a range of habitats. Here, we evaluate the ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most important microbial species in human history. The artificial collection, concentration and fermentation of large volumes of fruit for alcohol production produce an environment in which S. cerevisiae thrives, and therefore it is assumed that fruit is the ecological niche that S. cerevisiae inhabits and has adapted to. We find very little direct evidence that S. cerevisiae is adapted to fruit, or indeed to any other specific niche. We propose instead a neutral nomad model for S. cerevisiae, which we believe should be used as the starting hypothesis in attempting to unravel the ecology of this important microbe. PMID:25725024

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yong-Su; Laplaza, Jose M; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2004-11-01

    Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for d-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase (XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and d-xylulokinase (XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3, mRNA transcript levels for glycolytic, fermentative, and pentose phosphate enzymes did not change significantly on glucose or xylose under aeration or oxygen limitation. However, expression of genes encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respiration enzymes (HXK1, ADH2, COX13, NDI1, and NDE1), and regulatory proteins (HAP4 and MTH1) increased significantly when cells were cultivated on xylose, and the genes for respiration were even more elevated under oxygen limitation. These results suggest that recombinant S. cerevisiae does not recognize xylose as a fermentable carbon source and that respiratory proteins are induced in response to cytosolic redox imbalance; however, lower sugar uptake and growth rates on xylose might also induce transcripts for respiration. A petite respiration-deficient mutant (rho degrees ) of the engineered strain produced more ethanol and accumulated less xylitol from xylose. It formed characteristic colonies on glucose, but it did not grow on xylose. These results are consistent with the higher respiratory activity of recombinant S. cerevisiae when growing on xylose and with its inability to grow on xylose under anaerobic conditions. PMID:15528549

  5. C resonance assignment of the acyl carrier protein subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase

    E-print Network

    Wider, Gerhard

    of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase Daniel R. Perez Æ Gerhard Wider Received: 13 January 2009 resonances assignment of the acyl carrier protein domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase Fatty acid synthase (FAS) Biological context Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are part of a family

  6. GC content and recombination: reassessing the causal effects for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 GC content and recombination: reassessing the causal effects for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae in "Genetics 183, 1 (2009) 31-8" DOI : 10.1534/genetics.109.105049 #12;2 Running title: GC and recombination: causality in yeast Keywords: recombination, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GC content, biased gene conversion

  7. Whole-genome expression analysis of snf swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    Whole-genome expression analysis of snf swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Priya Sudarsanam (received for review September 22, 1999) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf Swi complex has been previ- ously mutants deleted for a gene encoding one conserved (Snf2) or one unconserved (Swi1) Snf Swi component

  8. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    LETTERS Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1, obesity and other diseases1­5 . The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems

  9. Small Toxic Protein Encoded on Chromosome VII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Makanae, Koji; Kintaka, Reiko; Ishikawa, Koji; Moriya, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found an unknown element that caused growth inhibition after its copy number increased in the 3? region of DIE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we further identified this element and observed that overexpression of a small protein (sORF2) of 57 amino acids encoded in this region caused growth inhibition. The transcriptional response and multicopy suppression of the growth inhibition caused by sORF2 overexpression suggest that sORF2 overexpression inhibits the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. sORF2 was not required in the normal growth of S. cerevisiae, and not conserved in related yeast species including S. paradoxus. Thus, sORF2 (designated as OTO1) is an orphan ORF that determines the specificity of this species. PMID:25781884

  10. Direct evidence for a xylose metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, C.A.; Carvallo, S.; Easson, D.D.; Akedo, M.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Xylose transport, xylose reductase, and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes in the xylose catabolic pathway necessary for the conversion of xylose xylulose are present, although S. cerevisiae cannot grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Xylose transport is less efficient than glucose transport, and its rate is dependent upon aeration. Xylose reductase appears to be a xylose inducible enzyme and xylitol dehydrogenase activity is constitutive, although both are repressed by glucose. Both xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are five- to tenfold lower in S. cerevisie as compared to Candida utilis. In vivo conversion of /sup 14/C-xylose in S. cerevisiage is demonstrated and xylitol is detected, although no significant levels of any other /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites (e.g., ethanol) are observed. 22 references.

  11. Functional evaluation of serine 252 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Cardemil, Emilio; Jabalquinto, Ana M

    2009-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase mutant Ser252Ala, affecting the conserved Walker A serine residue, was characterized to elucidate the role of this serine residue. The substitution did not result in changes in the protein structure, as indicated by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and gel-exclusion chromatography. Kinetic analysis of the mutated enzyme in both directions of the main reaction and in the two secondary reactions showed an approximately 50-fold increase in apparent K(m) for oxaloacetate with minor alterations in the other kinetic parameters. These results show that the hydroxyl group of serine 252 is required for proper oxaloacetate interaction. PMID:18996167

  12. Dual system for potassium transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Navarro, A; Ramos, J

    1984-01-01

    In a newly formulated growth medium lacking Na+ and NH4+, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grew maximally at 5 microM K+. Cells grown under these conditions transported K+ with an apparent Km of 24 microM, whereas cells grown in customary high-K+ medium had a significantly higher Km (2 mM K+). The two types of transport also differed in carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone sensitivity, response to ATP depletion, and temperature dependence. The results can be accounted for either by two transport systems or by one system operating in two different ways. PMID:6384187

  13. Human acylphosphatase cannot replace phosphoglycerate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Hoek, P; Modesti, A; Ramponi, G; Kötter, P; van Dijken, J P; Pron, J T

    2001-10-01

    Human acylphosphatase (h-AP, EC 3.6.1.7) has been reported to catalyse the hydrolysis of the 1-phosphate group of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. In vivo operation of this reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would bypass phosphoglycerate kinase and thus reduce the ATP yield from glycolysis. To investigate whether h-AP can indeed replace the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase, a multi-copy plasmid carrying the h-AP gene under control of the yeast TDH3 promoter was introduced into a pgk1 delta mutant of S. cerevisiae. A strain carrying the expression vector without the h-AP cassette was used as a reference. For both strains, steady-state carbon- and energy-limited chemostat cultures were obtained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h(-1) on a medium containing a mixture of glucose and ethanol (15% and 85% on a carbon basis, respectively). Although the h-AP strain exhibited a high acylphosphatase activity in cell extracts, switching to glucose as sole carbon and energy source resulted in a complete arrest of glucose consumption and growth. The lack of a functional glycolytic pathway was further evident from the absence of ethanol formation in the presence of excess glucose in the culture. As h-AP cannot replace yeast phosphoglycerate kinase in vivo, the enzyme is not a useful tool to modify the ATP yield of glycolysis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11761363

  14. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2013-07-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine-rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein ?-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine-rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with ?-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg. PMID:23532098

  15. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine–rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein ?-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine–rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with ?-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg. PMID:23532098

  16. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Demirci, A; Pometto, A L; Ho, K L

    1997-10-01

    Biofilms are natural forms of cell immobilization in which microorganisms attach to solid supports. At ISU, we have developed plastic composite-supports (PCS) (agricultural material (soybean hulls or oat hulls), complex nutrients, and polypropylene) which stimulate biofilm formation and which supply nutrients to the attached microorganisms. Various PCS blends were initially evaluated in repeated-batch culture-tube fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24859) in low organic nitrogen medium. The selected PCS (40% soybean hull, 5% soybean flour, 5% yeast extract-salt and 50% polypropylene) was then used in continuous and repeated-batch fermentation in various media containing lowered nitrogen content with selected PCS. During continuous fermentation, S. cerevisiae demonstrated two to 10 times higher ethanol production in PCS bioreactors than polypropylene-alone support (PPS) control. S. cerevisiae produced 30 g L-1 ethanol on PCS with ammonium sulfate medium in repeated batch fermentation, whereas PPS-control produced 5 g L-1 ethanol. Overall, increased productivity in low cost medium can be achieved beyond conventional fermentations using this novel bioreactor design. PMID:9439005

  17. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  18. Properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane dicarboxylate transporter.

    PubMed

    Aliverdieva, D A; Mamaev, D V; Bondarenko, D I; Sholtz, K F

    2006-10-01

    Transport of succinate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using the endogenous coupled mitochondrial succinate oxidase system. The dependence of succinate oxidation rate on the substrate concentration was a curve with saturation. At neutral pH the K(m) value of the mitochondrial "succinate oxidase" was fivefold less than that of the cellular "succinate oxidase". O-Palmitoyl-L-malate, not penetrating across the plasma membrane, completely inhibited cell respiration in the presence of succinate but not glucose or pyruvate. The linear inhibition in Dixon plots indicates that the rate of succinate oxidation is limited by its transport across the plasmalemma. O-Palmitoyl-L-malate and L-malate were competitive inhibitors (the K(i) values were 6.6 +/- 1.3 microM and 17.5 +/- 1.1 mM, respectively). The rate of succinate transport was also competitively inhibited by the malonate derivative 2-undecyl malonate (K(i) = 7.8 +/- 1.2 microM) but not phosphate. Succinate transport across the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is not coupled with proton transport, but sodium ions are necessary. The plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is established to have a carrier catalyzing the transport of dicarboxylates (succinate and possibly L-malate and malonate). PMID:17125465

  19. Multilocus sequence typing of oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosario; Gómez, Alicia; Robles, Virginia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Cebollero, Eduardo; Tabera, Laura; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-12-01

    This study describes the application of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis for molecular discrimination at the strain level of Spanish wine yeast strains. The discrimination power of MLST is compared to mitochondrial RFLP analysis. Fragments of the ADP1, ACC1, RPN2, GLN4, and ALA1 genes were amplified by PCR from chromosomal DNA of 18 wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Ten polymorphic sites were found in the five loci analyzed showing 13 different genotypes, with 11 of them represented by only one strain. RFLP analysis of the same 18 wine yeast strains showed seventeen different mitochondrial patterns. Phylogenetic relationships among the strains analyzed, inferred by MLST data, showed wine isolates of S. cerevisiae as a rather homogeneous group. The discrimination potential of mitochondrial RFLP analysis was superior to the MLST scheme used in this work. However, MLST analysis allowed an easy construction of reliable phylogenetic trees. MLST analysis offers the possibility of typing wine S. cerevisiae strains simultaneously to the study of the genetic relationship among them. PMID:19835769

  20. Endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: internalization of enveloped viruses into spheroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Makarow, M

    1985-01-01

    When vesicular stomatitis virus was incubated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae spheroplasts at 37 degrees C, part of the virus was internalized by the spheroplasts as shown by the following criteria. (i) The spheroplast-associated virus was protected from proteinase K digestion, which releases surface-bound virus by degrading the envelope glycoproteins. (ii) The spheroplast-associated virus was resistant to mild Triton X-100 treatment, which readily solubilizes the virus. The same results were obtained with Semliki Forest virus. Internalization of the two viruses followed linear kinetics up to 90 min at 37 degrees C. Internalization was concentration- and temperature-dependent. At 11 degrees C no uptake could be detected for at least 2 h. Homogenization and organelle fractionation protocols were designed for the S. cerevisiae spheroplasts to study the compartments into which the virions were internalized. Three compartments containing both marker viruses could be separated in density gradients. One coincided with vacuole markers, one banded at a slightly higher and one at a similar density to the plasma membrane markers. Thus, S. cerevisiae spheroplasts appear to have the capability of endocytosing particulate markers like viruses. The companion paper describes internalization of two soluble macromolecules, alpha-amylase and fluorescent dextran, into intact cells. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2992948

  1. Analysis a Stiff Limit Cycle with CSP: Glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    Analysis a Stiff Limit Cycle with CSP: Glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Panayotis D. Kourdis1 glycolysis model, by employing the Computational Singular Perturbation algorithm. It is shown that, due

  2. Exploring Iron Metabolism and Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Integrative Biophysical and Bioanalytical Approach 

    E-print Network

    Park, Jinkyu

    2013-12-03

    Fe metabolism in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using an integrative systems-level approach involving M?ssbauer, EPR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ICP-MS, combined with conventional biochemical techniques. Wild-type cells growing...

  3. Control of cell division by nutrients, and ER stress signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Guo, Jinbai

    2007-09-17

    Cell cycle progression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was monitored in continuous cultures limited for glucose or nitrogen. The G1 cell cycle phase, before initiation of DNA replication, did not exclusively expand when growth rate decreased...

  4. Exploring Iron Metabolism and Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Integrative Biophysical and Bioanalytical Approach

    E-print Network

    Park, Jinkyu

    2013-12-03

    Fe metabolism in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using an integrative systems-level approach involving M?ssbauer, EPR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ICP-MS, combined with conventional biochemical techniques. Wild-type cells growing...

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose fermentation patterns and to increase numbers of rumen bacteria, especially cellulolytic species (Wallace and fermentation of cellulose by an anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3, which is particularly

  6. Spectroscopic and analytical characterization of the distribution of iron in intact mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Hudder, Brandon Neal

    2006-10-30

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and M�¶ssbauer spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of iron in mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These organelles were packed into EPR and M�¶ssbauer cuvettes, affording spectra...

  7. Interaction among Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone receptors during endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-I; Schandel, Kimberly A.; Jenness, Duane D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates endocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in this process. ?-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, we found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the ?-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, recognition of the endocytosis signal sequence and recognition of the ligand-induced conformational change are likely to be two independent events. PMID:24682008

  8. Modeling growth and telomere dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bertuch, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    A general branching process is proposed to model a population of cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae following loss of telomerase. Previously published experimental data indicate that a population of telomerase-deficient cells regain exponential growth after a period of slowing due to critical telomere shortening. The explanation for this phenomenon is that some cells engage telomerase-independent pathways to maintain telomeres that allow them to become “survivors.” Our model takes into account random variation in individual cell cycle times, telomere length, finite replicative lifespan of mother cells, and survivorship. We identify and estimate crucial parameters such as the probability of an individual cell becoming a survivor, and compare our model predictions to experimental data. PMID:20018194

  9. Replication of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, “naked” RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3? and the cytoplasmic 5? RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  10. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire

    2011-04-01

    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, "naked" RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3' and the cytoplasmic 5' RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  11. Overexpressed ribosomal proteins suppress defective chaperonins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M Anaul; Sherman, Fred

    2008-12-01

    The chaperonin Cct complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of eight different subunits encoded by eight essential genes, CCT1-CCT8. This Cct complex is responsible for the folding of a number of proteins including actin and tubulin. We have isolated and characterized 22 multicopy suppressors of the temperature-sensitive allele, cct4-1, which encodes an altered protein with a G345D replacement that diminishes ATP hydrolysis. Fourteen of the suppressors encode ribosomal proteins, four have roles in ribosome biogenesis, two have phosphatase activities, one is involved in protein synthesis and one of the suppressors corresponded to Cct4p. Some of the suppressors also acted on certain cct1, cct2, cct3 and cct6 mutations. We suggest that certain overexpressed ribosomal and other proteins can act as weak chaperones, phenotypically alleviating the partial defects of mutationally altered Cct subunits. PMID:18680526

  12. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOEpatents

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  13. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhan, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  14. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling-ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-dong; Zhan, Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  15. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 1275-1279. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25545362

  16. Mutational Analysis of Morphologic Differentiation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Blacketer, M. J.; Madaule, P.; Myers, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A genetic analysis was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms controlling cellular morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sixty mutant strains exhibiting abnormally elongated cell morphology were isolated. The cell elongation phenotype in at least 26 of the strains resulted from a single recessive mutation. These mutations, designated generically elm (elongated morphology), defined 14 genes; two of these corresponded to the previously described genes GRR1 and CDC12. Genetic interactions between mutant alleles suggest that several ELM genes play roles in the same physiological process. The cell and colony morphology and growth properties of many elm mutant strains are similar to those of wild-type yeast strains after differentiation in response to nitrogen limitation into the pseudohyphal form. Each elm mutation resulted in multiple characteristics of pseudohyphal cells, including elongated cell shape, delay in cell separation, simultaneous budding of mother and daughter cells, a unipolar budding pattern, and/or the ability to grow invasively beneath the agar surface. Mutations in 11 of the 14 ELM gene loci potentiated pseudohyphal differentiation in nitrogen-limited medium. Thus, a subset of the ELM genes are likely to affect control or execution of a defined morphologic differentiation pathway in S. cerevisiae. PMID:7498768

  17. Quantifying separation and similarity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbes are key ecosystem drivers; however, we have little theory and few data elucidating the processes influencing their observed population patterns. Here we provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of population separation and similarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of providing a more detailed account of the population processes occurring in microbes. Over 10?000 individual isolates were collected from native plants, vineyards and spontaneous ferments of fruit from six major regions spanning 1000?km across New Zealand. From these, hundreds of S. cerevisiae genotypes were obtained, and using a suite of analytical methods we provide comprehensive quantitative estimates for both population structure and rates of gene flow or migration. No genetic differentiation was detected within geographic regions, even between populations inhabiting native forests and vineyards. We do, however, reveal a picture of national population structure at scales above ?100?km with distinctive populations in the more remote Nelson and Central Otago regions primarily contributing to this. In addition, differential degrees of connectivity between regional populations are observed and correlate with the movement of fruit by the New Zealand wine industry. This suggests some anthropogenic influence on these observed population patterns. PMID:25062126

  18. Heterologous Production of Dihomo-?-Linolenic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Aki, Tsunehiro; Ono, Kazuhisa; Uemura, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    To make dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) (20:3n-6) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we introduced Kluyveromyces lactis ?12 fatty acid desaturase, rat ?6 fatty acid desaturase, and rat elongase genes. Because Fad2p is able to convert the endogenous oleic acid to linoleic acid, this allowed DGLA biosynthesis without the need to supply exogenous fatty acids on the media. Medium composition, cultivation temperature, and incubation time were examined to improve the yield of DGLA. Fatty acid content was increased by changing the medium from a standard synthetic dropout medium to a nitrogen-limited minimal medium (NSD). Production of DGLA was higher in the cells grown at 15°C than in those grown at 20°C, and no DGLA production was observed in the cells grown at 30°C. In NSD at 15°C, fatty acid content increased up until day 7 and decreased after day 10. When the cells were grown in NSD for 7 days at 15°C, the yield of DGLA reached 2.19 ?g/mg of cells (dry weight) and the composition of DGLA to total fatty acids was 2.74%. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in S. cerevisiae without supplying the exogenous fatty acids. PMID:17873077

  19. Coordinated induction of multi-gene pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Ning, Jonathan C.; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial operons are nature’s tool for regulating and coordinating multi-gene expression in prokaryotes. They are also a gene architecture commonly used in the biosynthesis of many pharmaceutically important compounds and industrially useful chemicals. Despite being an important eukaryotic production host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has never had such gene architecture. Here, we report the development of a system to assemble and regulate a multi-gene pathway in S. cerevisiae. Full pathways can be constructed using pre-made parts from a plasmid toolbox. Subsequently, through the use of a yeast strain containing a stably integrated gene switch, the assembled pathway can be regulated using a readily available and inexpensive compound—estradiol—with extremely high sensitivity (10 nM). To demonstrate the use of the system, we assembled the five-gene zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in a single step and showed the ligand-dependent coordinated expression of all five genes as well as the tightly regulated production of zeaxanthin. Compared with a previously reported constitutive zeaxanthin pathway, our inducible pathway was shown to have 50-fold higher production level. PMID:23262224

  20. Isolation of the gene encoding adenylate cyclase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Casperson, G F; Walker, N; Bourne, H R

    1985-01-01

    By complementation of the cyr1-1 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have isolated yeast genomic DNA containing the structural gene that encodes the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1). The isolated DNA restored adenylate cyclase activity to cyr1-1 mutants and directed integration at the CYR1 locus. Wild-type strains transformed with CYR1 DNA on the high copy number vector YEp24 contained 4- to 6-fold more adenylate cyclase activity than strains carrying the plasmid with no insert. This result suggests that expression of the CYR1 gene product, rather than that of other polypeptide components of the adenylate cyclase system, limits total adenylate cyclase activity in S. cerevisiae. CYR1-containing plasmids also complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the cell division cycle mutation cdc35-1, which confers a phenotype under restrictive conditions similar to that of cyr1-1 and maps to the same locus. Further, cdc35-1 cam mutants, which contain mutations that enable them to take up cAMP from the medium, grew at the restrictive temperature in the presence of exogenous cAMP. These observations support the view that CDC35 and CYR1 are allelic and confirm the hypothesis that cAMP synthesis is required for cells to pass through the "start" position of the cell division cycle. PMID:2991907

  1. Transcriptional regulation by ergosterol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S J; Crowley, J H; Parks, L W

    1996-01-01

    Sterol biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an energy-expensive, aerobic process, requiring heme and molecular oxygen. Heme, also synthesized exclusively during aerobic growth, not only acts as an enzymatic cofactor but also is directly and indirectly responsible for the transcriptional control of several yeast genes. Because of their biosynthetic similarities, we hypothesized that ergosterol, like heme, may have a regulatory function. Sterols are known to play a structural role in membrane integrity, but regulatory roles have not been characterized. To test possible regulatory roles of sterol, the promoter for the ERG3 gene, encoding the sterol C-5 desaturase, was fused to the bacterial lacZ reporter gene. This construct was placed in strains making aberrant sterols, and the effect of altered sterol composition on gene expression was monitored by beta-galactosidase activity. The absence of ergosterol resulted in a 35-fold increase in the expression of ERG3 as measured by beta-galactosidase activity. The level of ERG3 mRNA was increased as much as ninefold in erg mutant strains or wild-type strains inhibited in ergosterol biosynthesis by antifungal agents. The observed regulatory effects of ergosterol on ERG3 are specific for ergosterol, as several ergosterol derivatives failed to elicit the same controlling effect. These results demonstrate for the first time that ergosterol exerts a regulatory effect on gene transcription in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8816455

  2. The gene for a major exopolyphosphatase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, H; Shiba, T; Kornberg, A

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding a major exopolyphosphatase (scPPX1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (H. Wurst and A. Kornberg, J. Biol. Chem. 269:10996-11001, 1994) has been isolated from a genomic library. The gene, located at 57 kbp from the end of the right arm of chromosome VIII, encodes a protein of 396 amino acids. Overexpression in Escherichia coli allowed the ready purification of a recombinant form of the enzyme. Disruption of the gene did not affect the growth rate of S. cerevisiae. Lysates from the mutants displayed considerably lower exopolyphosphatase activity than the wild type. The enzyme is located in the cytosol, whereas the vast accumulation of polyphosphate (polyP) of the yeast is in the vacuole. Disruption of PPX1 in strains with and without deficiencies in vacuolar proteases allowed the identification of exopolyphosphatase activity in the vacuole. This residual activity was strongly reduced in the absence of vacuolar proteases, indicating a dependence on proteolytic activation. A 50-fold-lower protease-independent activity could be distinguished from this protease-dependent activity by different patterns of expression during growth and activation by arginine. With regard to the levels of polyP in various mutants, those deficient in vacuolar ATPase retain less than 1% of the cellular polyP, a loss that is not offset by additional mutations that eliminate the cytosolic exopolyphosphatase and the vacuolar polyphosphatases dependent on vacuolar protease processing. PMID:7860598

  3. Physiological adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for improved butanol tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butanol is a chemical with potential uses as biofuel and solvent, which can be produced by microbial fermentation. However, the end product toxicity is one of the main obstacles for developing the production process irrespective of the choice of production organism. The long-term goal of the present project is to produce 2-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of solvents such as butanol and understanding the mechanisms by which tolerant strains of S. cerevisiae adapt to them would be an important contribution to the development of a bio-based butanol production process. Results A butanol tolerant S. cerevisiae was achieved through a series of sequential batch cultures with gradual increase of 2-butanol concentration. The final mutant (JBA-mut) tolerates all different alcohols tested at higher concentrations compared to the wild type (JBA-wt). Proteomics analysis of the two strains grown under mild butanol-stress revealed 46 proteins changing their expression by more than 1.5-fold in JBA-mut, 34 of which were upregulated. Strikingly, 21 out of the 34 upregulated proteins were predicted constituents of mitochondria. Among the non-mitochondrial up-regulated proteins, the minor isoform of Glycerol-3-phosphatase (Gpp2) was the most notable, since it was the only tested protein whose overexpression was found to confer butanol tolerance. Conclusion The study demonstrates several differences between the butanol tolerant mutant and the wild type. Upregulation of proteins involved in the mitochondrial ATP synthesizing machinery constituents and glycerol biosynthesis seem to be beneficial for a successful adaptation of yeast cells to butanol stress. PMID:23855998

  4. Single QTLmapping and nucleotide-level resolution ofa physiologic trait in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Single QTLmapping and nucleotide-level resolution ofa physiologic trait in wine Saccharomyces microarray; aneuploidy; ASP1 ; wine fermentation. Abstract Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains Yeasts used in wine fermentation are derived from wild strains capable of developing in grape juice

  5. Cd Impact on Metabolic Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae over an Extended Period and Implications for Bioremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Wang; Aga McCarthney; Xuan Qiu; Rui Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between Cd of different concentrations (1, 2, and 3 mg\\/L) and metabolic active cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in YPD batch cultures for a time period of 168 hours. Temporal variations of cell biomass, protein yields, and aqueous and intracellular Cd concentrations were measured. S. cerevisiae cells were inhibited to grow by the presence of Cd at low

  6. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  7. Identification of genes required for growth under ethanol stress using transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takahashi; H. Shimoi; K. Ito

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits high ethanol tolerance compared with other microorganisms. The mechanism of ethanol tolerance in yeast is thought to be regulated by many genes. To identify some of these genes, we screened for ethanol-sensitive S. cerevisiae strains among a collection of mutants obtained using transposon mutagenesis. Five ethanol-sensitive (ets) mutants were isolated from approximately 7000 mutants created

  8. Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards

    E-print Network

    Fay, Justin

    Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards unrelated to fermentations. Strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes, wine must and vineyards worldwide- associated barriers to gene flow. Here, we make use of the relatively recent establish- ment of vineyards

  9. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  10. Genome Snapshot: a new resource at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) presenting an overview of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi E. Hirschman; Rama Balakrishnan; Karen R. Christie; Maria C. Costanzo; Selina S. Dwight; Stacia R. Engel; Dianna G. Fisk; Eurie L. Hong; Michael S. Livstone; Robert S. Nash; Julie Park; Rose Oughtred; Marek S. Skrzypek; Barry Starr; Chandra L. Theesfeld; Jennifer Williams; Rey Andrada; Gail Binkley; Qing Dong; Stuart R. Miyasato; Anand Sethuraman; Mark Schroeder; Mayank K. Thanawala; Shuai Weng; Kara Dolinski; David Botstein; J. Michael Cherry

    2006-01-01

    Sequencing and annotation of the entire Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome has made it pos- sible to gain a genome-wide perspective on yeast genes and gene products. To make this information available on an ongoing basis, the Saccharomyces 20Genome Database (SGD) (http:\\/\\/www.yeastgenome. org\\/) has created the Genome Snapshot (http:\\/\\/db. yeastgenome.org\\/cgi-bin\\/genomeSnapShot.pl). The Genome Snapshot summarizes the current state of knowledge about the genes

  11. Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides tools to identify and analyze sequences from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related sequences from other organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Christie; Shuai Weng; Rama Balakrishnan; Maria C. Costanzo; Kara Dolinski; Selina S. Dwight; Stacia R. Engel; Becket Feierbach; Dianna G. Fisk; Jodi E. Hirschman; Eurie L. Hong; Laurie Issel-tarver; Robert S. Nash; Anand Sethuraman; Barry Starr; Chandra L. Theesfeld; Rey Andrada; Gail Binkley; Qing Dong; Mark Schroeder; David Botstein; J. Michael Cherry

    2004-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http:\\/\\/ www.yeastgenome.org\\/), a scientific database of the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has recently developed several new resources that allow the comparison and integration of information on a genome-wide scale, enabling the user not only to find detailed information about individual genes, but also to make connections across groups of genes

  12. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

  13. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases, the transcription activation function of Met4 is prevented by Met30p, which binds to the Met4 inhibitory region. In addition to the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex, transcriptional regulation involves two zinc finger-containing proteins, Met31p and Met32p. The AdoMet-mediated control of the sulfur amino acid pathway illustrates the molecular strategies used by eucaryotic cells to couple gene expression to metabolic changes. PMID:9409150

  14. Lis1 Acts as a “Clutch” between the ATPase and Microtubule-Binding Domains of the Dynein Motor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie; Roberts, Anthony J.; Leschziner, Andres E.; Reck-Peterson, Samara L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The lissencephaly protein Lis1 has been reported to regulate the mechanical behavior of cytoplasmic dynein, the primary minus-end-directed microtubule motor. However, the regulatory mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we address this issue using purified proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a combination of techniques, including single-molecule imaging and single-particle electron microscopy. We show that rather than binding to the main ATPase site within dynein's AAA+ ring or its microtubule-binding stalk directly, Lis1 engages the interface between these elements. Lis1 causes individual dynein motors to remain attached to microtubules for extended periods, even during cycles of ATP hydrolysis that would canonically induce detachment. Thus, Lis1 operates like a “clutch” that prevents dynein's ATPase domain from transmitting a detachment signal to its track-binding domain. We discuss how these findings provide a conserved mechanism for dynein functions in living cells that require prolonged microtubule attachments. PMID:22939623

  15. Adenine deaminase and adenine utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Deeley, M C

    1992-01-01

    Compared with other purine salvage and nitrogen catabolism enzymatic activities, adenine deaminase (adenine aminohydrolase [AAH]; EC 3.5.4.2) activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is uniquely regulated. AAH specific activity is not induced by adenine and is reduced sevenfold when cells are cultivated in medium containing proline in place of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. Exogenous adenine enters metabolic pathways primarily via the function of either AAH or adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT; EC 2.4.2.7). Exogenous adenosine cannot normally be utilized as a purine source. Strains efficiently utilized adenosine or inosine when grown in pH 4.5 medium containing Triton X-100. A recessive mutation permitting utilization of adenosine or inosine in standard media was isolated. In both situations, growth of purine auxotrophs required either AAH or APRT activity. With medium containing either ammonium or proline as a nitrogen source, minimum doubling times of purine auxotrophs deficient in either APRT or AAH were measured. In proline-based medium, AAH and APRT permitted equal utilization of exogenous adenine. In ammonium-based medium, the absence of APRT increased the minimum doubling time by 50%. Similar experiments using sufficient exogenous histidine to feedback inhibit histidine biosynthesis failed to affect the growth rates of adenine auxotrophs blocked in AAH or APRT, indicating that the histidine-biosynthetic pathway does not play a significant role in adenine utilization. The gene that encodes AAH in S. cerevisiae was isolated by complementation using yeast strain XD1-1, which is deficient in AAH, APRT, and purine synthesis. A 1.36-kb EcoRI-SphI fragment was demonstrated to contain the structural gene for AAH by expressing this DNA in Escherichia coli under control of the trp promoter-operator. Northern (RNA) studies using the AAH-, APRT-, and CDC3-coding regions indicated that AAH regulation was not mediated at the level of transcription or mRNA degradation. Images PMID:1577682

  16. Adaptive Evolution of a Lactose-Consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae Recombinant?

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc; Teixeira, José A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation. A flocculent lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (?-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was constructed previously but showed poor efficiency in lactose fermentation. This strain was therefore subjected to an evolutionary engineering process (serial transfer and dilution in lactose medium), which yielded an evolved recombinant strain that consumed lactose twofold faster, producing 30% more ethanol than the original recombinant. We identified two molecular events that targeted the LAC construct in the evolved strain: a 1,593-bp deletion in the intergenic region (promoter) between LAC4 and LAC12 and a decrease of the plasmid copy number by about 10-fold compared to that in the original recombinant. The results suggest that the intact promoter was unable to mediate the induction of the transcription of LAC4 and LAC12 by lactose in the original recombinant and that the deletion established the transcriptional induction of both genes in the evolved strain. We propose that the tuning of the expression of the heterologous LAC genes in the evolved recombinant was accomplished by the interplay between the decreased copy number of both genes and the different levels of transcriptional induction for LAC4 and LAC12 resulting from the changed promoter structure. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude other possible mutations that may have contributed to the improved lactose fermentation phenotype. This study illustrates the usefulness of simple evolutionary engineering approaches in strain improvement. The evolved strain efficiently fermented threefold-concentrated cheese whey, providing an attractive alternative for the fermentation of lactose-based media. PMID:18245248

  17. Xylulose and glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in chemostat culture.

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, H; Yu, S; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24860 was cultivated in chemostat culture under anoxic conditions with 111.1 mmol of glucose liter-1 alone or with a mixture of 66.7 mmol of xylulose liter-1 and 111.1 mmol of glucose liter-1. The substrate consumption rate was 5.4 mmol g of cells-1 h-1 for glucose, whereas for xylulose it was 1.0 mmol g of cells-1 h-1. The ethanol yield decreased from 0.52 carbon mole of ethanol produced per carbon mole of sugar consumed during the utilization of glucose alone to 0.49 carbon mole produced per carbon mole consumed during the simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose, while cell biomass was maintained at 2.04 to 2.10 g liter-1. Xylulose coutilization was accompanied by a shift in product formation from ethanol to acetate and arabinitol. Xylulokinase activity was absent during glucose metabolism but detectable during simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose. Xylulose cometabolism resulted in increased in vitro activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and an increased concentration of the intracellular metabolite fructose 1,6-diphosphate without significant changes in the concentrations of 6-phosphogluconate and pyruvate. The results are discussed in relation to (i) altered enzyme activities and (ii) the redox flux of the cell. PMID:8633869

  18. d-Xylulose Fermentation to Ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lin-Chang; Gong, Cheng-Shung; Chen, Li-Fu; Tsao, George T.

    1981-01-01

    We used commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to study the conversion of d-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of d-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for d-xylulose fermentation was 35°C, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of d-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of d-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of 4% or more. The slow conversion rate of d-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from d-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield. PMID:16345828

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve 1-hexadecanol production.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of a vast array of surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce 1-hexadecanol by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) from barn owl (Tyto alba). In order to improve fatty alcohol production, we have manipulated both the structural genes and the regulatory genes in yeast lipid metabolism. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) was over-expressed, which improved 1-hexadecanol production by 56% (from 45mg/L to 71mg/L). Knocking out the negative regulator of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, RPD3, further enhanced 1-hexadecanol production by 98% (from 71mg/L to 140mg/L). The cytosolic acetyl-CoA supply was next engineered by expressing a heterologous ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which increased the production of 1-hexadecanol by an additional 136% (from 140mg/L to 330mg/L). Through fed-batch fermentation using resting cells, over 1.1g/L 1-hexadecanol can be produced in glucose minimal medium, which represents the highest titer reported in yeast to date. PMID:25466225

  20. Autonomous oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during batch cultures on trehalose.

    PubMed

    Jules, Matthieu; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc

    2005-03-01

    We report that autonomous oscillations, which usually happen in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures of yeast at low dilution rate, were also observed in trehalose discontinuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This unexpected oscillatory behaviour was therefore examined using fast Fourier transformation of online gas measurements. This robust mathematical analysis underlined the existence of two types of oscillation. The first was found to be linked to the cell cycle because (a) the periodicity corresponded to a fraction of the generation time and (b) the oscillations were accompanied by a transient increase in the budding index, mobilization of storage carbohydrates, and fermentative activity. Moreover, these oscillations occurred in a range of specific growth rates between 0.04 and 0.15 h(-1). All these criteria were consistent with the cell-cycle-related metabolic oscillations observed in the same range of growth rates in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The second type were short-period respiratory oscillations, independent of the specific growth rate. Both types of oscillation were found to take place consecutively and/or simultaneously during batch culture on trehalose. In addition, mobilization of intracellular trehalose emerged as a key parameter for the sustainability of these autonomous oscillations as they were no longer observed in a mutant defective in neutral trehalase activity. We propose that batch culture on trehalose may be an excellent device for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie autonomous oscillations in yeast. PMID:15752364

  1. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion

    PubMed Central

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by zinc, an essential mineral required for growth and metabolism. Cells depleted of zinc contain increased levels of phosphatidylinositol and decreased levels of phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition to the major phospholipids, the levels of the minor phospholipids phosphatidate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate decrease in the vacuole membrane of zinc-depleted cells. Alterations in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine can be ascribed to an increase in PIS1-encoded phosphatidylinositol synthase activity and to decreases in the activities of CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes including the CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase, respectively. Alterations in the minor vacuole membrane phospholipids are due to the induction of the DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase. These changes in the activities of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes result from differential regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription. Under zinc-deplete conditions, the positive transcription factor Zap1p stimulates the expression of the DPP1 and PIS1 genes through the cis-acting element UASZRE. In contrast, the negative regulatory protein Opi1p, which is involved in inositol-mediated regulation of phospholipid synthesis, represses the expression of the CHO1 gene through the cis-acting element UASINO. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis may provide an important mechanism by which cells cope with the stress of zinc depletion, given the roles that phospholipids play in the structure and function of cellular membranes. PMID:16807089

  2. Chromatin remodeling during Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Verdone, L; Camilloni, G; Di Mauro, E; Caserta, M

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed at both low and high resolution the distribution of nucleosomes over the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter region in its chromosomal location, both under repressing (high-glucose) conditions and during derepression. Enzymatic treatments (micrococcal nuclease and restriction endonucleases) were used to probe the in vivo chromatin structure during ADH2 gene activation. Under glucose-repressed conditions, the ADH2 promoter was bound by a precise array of nucleosomes, the principal ones positioned at the RNA initiation sites (nucleosome +1), at the TATA box (nucleosome -1), and upstream of the ADR1-binding site (UAS1) (nucleosome -2). The UAS1 sequence and the adjacent UAS2 sequence constituted a nucleosome-free region. Nucleosomes -1 and +1 were destabilized soon after depletion of glucose and had become so before the appearance of ADH2 mRNA. When the transcription rate was high, nucleosomes -2 and +2 also underwent rearrangement. When spheroplasts were prepared from cells grown in minimal medium, detection of this chromatin remodeling required the addition of a small amount of glucose. Cells lacking the ADR1 protein did not display any of these chromatin modifications upon glucose depletion. Since the UAS1 sequence to which Adr1p binds is located immediately upstream of nucleosome -1, Adr1p is presumably required for destabilization of this nucleosome and for aiding the TATA-box accessibility to the transcription machinery. PMID:8628264

  3. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanxiao; Wood, Karl V.; Morgan, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids are valuable natural products derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The objective of this study was to create a host for the biosynthesis of naringenin, the central precursor of many flavonoids. This was accomplished by introducing the phenylpropanoid pathway with the genes for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and chalcone synthase (CHS) from Hypericum androsaemum into two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, AH22 and a pad1 knockout mutant. Each gene was cloned and inserted into an expression vector under the control of a separate individual GAL10 promoter. Besides its PAL activity, the recombinant PAL enzyme showed tyrosine ammonia lyase activity, which enabled the biosynthesis of naringenin without introducing cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). 4CL catalyzed the conversion of both trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to their corresponding CoA products, which were further converted to pinocembrin chalcone and naringenin chalcone by CHS. These chalcones were cyclized to pinocembrin and naringenin. The yeast AH22 strain coexpressing PAL, 4CL, and CHS produced approximately 7 mg liter?1 of naringenin and 0.8 mg liter?1 of pinocembrin. Several by-products, such as 2?,4?,6?-trihydroxydihydrochalcone and phloretin, were also identified. Precursor feeding studies indicated that metabolic flux to the engineered flavonoid pathway was limited by the flux to the precursor l-tyrosine. PMID:15932991

  4. Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Linderholm, Angela L.; Findleton, Carrie L.; Kumar, Gagandeep; Hong, Yeun; Bisson, Linda F.

    2008-01-01

    A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total of 88 mutants produced darker colony colors than the parental strain, and 4 produced colonies significantly lighter in color. There was no correlation between the appearance of a dark colony color on BiGGY agar and H2S production in synthetic juice media. Sixteen null mutations were identified as leading to the production of increased levels of H2S in synthetic juice using the headspace analysis assay. All 16 mutants also produced H2S in actual juices. Five of these genes encode proteins involved in sulfur containing amino acid or precursor biosynthesis and are directly associated with the sulfate assimilation pathway. The remaining genes encode proteins involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell membrane integrity, cell energy regulation and balance, or other metabolic functions. The levels of hydrogen sulfide production of each of the 16 strains varied in response to nutritional conditions. In most cases, creation of multiple deletions of the 16 mutations in the same strain did not lead to a further increase in H2S production, instead often resulting in decreased levels. PMID:18192430

  5. Regulation of cystathionine gamma-lyase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Naito, K; Shirahige, Y; Yamamoto, M

    1991-11-01

    Regulation of the two enzymes in reverse trans-sulfuration was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In wild-type strains, cystathionine gamma-lyase, but not cystathionine beta-synthase, was depressed nearly 15-fold if cells were starved for both inorganic and organic sulfur compounds. In a met17 strain which is defective of O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase, the same enzyme was derepressed if organic sulfur compounds were limited; the repressive effect was in the order of glutathione greater than methionine greater than cysteine. The repressive effect of methionine was not observed, however, in a cys2 cys4 strain which is deficient of serine O-acetyltransferase and cystathionine beta-synthase, indicating that methionine itself is not the effector. The weak repressive effect of cysteine was attributed to inefficient uptake of this amino acid. Our observations indicate that cystathionine gamma-lyase is the target of regulation in reverse trans-sulfuration and that cysteine is very likely to be the effector of this regulation. PMID:1789005

  6. Protein phosphatase type 1 regulates ion homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Hart, Tara; Wu, Xiaolin; Tatchell, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) is encoded by the essential gene GLC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. glc7-109 (K259A, R260A) has a dominant, hyperglycogen defect and a recessive, ion and drug sensitivity. Surprisingly, the hyperglycogen phenotype is partially retained in null mutants of GAC1, GIP2, and PIG1, which encode potential glycogen-targeting subunits of Glc7. The R260A substitution in GLC7 is responsible for the dominant and recessive traits of glc7-109. Another mutation at this residue, glc7-R260P, confers only salt sensitivity, indicating that the glycogen and salt traits of glc7-109 are due to defects in distinct physiological pathways. The glc7-109 mutant is sensitive to cations, aminoglycosides, and alkaline pH and exhibits increased rates of l-leucine and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide uptake, but it is resistant to molar concentrations of sorbitol or KCl, indicating that it has normal osmoregulation. KCl suppresses the ion and drug sensitivities of the glc7-109 mutant. The CsCl sensitivity of this mutant is suppressed by recessive mutations in PMA1, which encodes the essential plasma membrane H(+)ATPase. Together, these results indicate that Glc7 regulates ion homeostasis by controlling ion transport and/or plasma membrane potential, a new role for Glc7 in budding yeast. PMID:11973298

  7. Effect of Polygodial on the Mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Christopher S.; Kubo, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 3.13 ?g/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial. In contrast, the two other membrane-bound ATPases in yeast were found to be susceptible to the compound. The mitochondrial ATPase was inhibited by polygodial in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations similar to the fungicidal concentration, whereas the vacuolar ATPase was only slightly inhibited. Cytoplasmic petite mutants, which lack mitochondrial DNA and are respiration deficient, were significantly less susceptible to polygodial than the wild type, as was shown in time-kill curves. A pet9 mutant which lacks a functional ADP-ATP translocator and is therefore respiration dependent was rapidly inhibited by polygodial. The results of these susceptibility assays link enzyme inhibition to physiological effect. Previous studies have reported that plasma membrane disruption is the mechanism of polygodial-induced cell death; however, these results support a more complex picture of its effect. A major target of polygodial in yeast is mitochondrial ATP synthase. Reduction of the ATP supply leads to a suppression of Pma1 ATPase activity and impairs adaptive responses to other facets of polygodial's cellular inhibition. PMID:10858359

  8. The nucleotide sequence of chromosome I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, H; Kaback, D B; Zhong, W; Vo, D T; Clark, M W; Fortin, N; Hall, J; Ouellette, B F; Keng, T; Barton, A B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome I from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a DNA molecule of approximately 231 kbp and is the smallest naturally occurring functional eukaryotic nuclear chromosome so far characterized. The nucleotide sequence of this chromosome has been determined as part of an international collaboration to sequence the entire yeast genome. The chromosome contains 89 open reading frames and 4 tRNA genes. The central 165 kbp of the chromosome resembles other large sequenced regions of the yeast genome in both its high density and distribution of genes. In contrast, the remaining sequences flanking this DNA that comprise the two ends of the chromosome and make up more than 25% of the DNA molecule have a much lower gene density, are largely not transcribed, contain no genes essential for vegetative growth, and contain several apparent pseudogenes and a 15-kbp redundant sequence. These terminally repetitive regions consist of a telomeric repeat called W', flanked by DNA closely related to the yeast FLO1 gene. The low gene density, presence of pseudogenes, and lack of expression are consistent with the idea that these terminal regions represent the yeast equivalent of heterochromatin. The occurrence of such a high proportion of DNA with so little information suggests that its presence gives this chromosome the critical length required for proper function. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7731988

  9. Size control models of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wheals, A E

    1982-04-01

    By using time-lapse photomicroscopy, the individual cycle times and sizes at bud emergence were measured for a population of saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing exponentially under balanced growth conditions in a specially constructed filming slide. There was extensive variability in both parameters for daughter and parent cells. The data on 162 pairs of siblings were analyzed for agreement with the predictions of the transition probability hypothesis and the critical-size hypothesis of yeast cell proliferation and also with a model incorporating both of these hypotheses in tandem. None of the models accounted for all of the experimental data, but two models did give good agreement to all of the data. The wobbly tandem model proposes that cells need to attain a critical size, which is very variable, enabling them to enter a start state from which they exit with first order kinetics. The sloppy size control model suggests that cells have an increasing probability per unit time of traversing start as they increase in size, reaching a high plateau value which is less than one. Both models predict that the kinetics of entry into the cell division sequence will strongly depend on variability in birth size and thus will be quite different for daughters and parents of the asymmetrically dividing yeast cells. Mechanisms underlying these models are discussed. PMID:7050671

  10. Variability in individual cell cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lord, P G; Wheals, A E

    1981-08-01

    The kinetics of cell proliferation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 4 growth rates using time-lapse cinephotomicrography. Cells were grown on media with a high refractive index to reveal greater intracellular detail under the phase-contrast microscope. The morphological cell-cycle events scored were: bud emergence, nuclear migration, nuclear division, onset of cytokinesis and cell separation. Cell size was measured at cell separation and at bud emergence. The daughter-cycle time was always longer than the parent-cycle time mainly due to the large difference in the lengths of the unbudded phases. Parent cells had a shorter budded period than daughter cells. The large variance in daughter-cycle times was accounted for by the large variance in the lengths of the unbudded phase of daughter cells. The duration and variability of the periods in the cyclc from nuclear migration onwards were equivalent for parent and daughter cells. Daughter cells were always smaller than parent cells at division. There was wide variation in cell size at both division and bud emergence. The results indicated that a modified deterministic model could best explain cell proliferation kinetics in yeast. The data were used to evaluate 2 different models. The 'sloppy size control' model of Wheals (1981 a) was more consistent with the data than the 'tandem' model of Shilo, Shilo & Simchen (1976). The distribution of unbudded periods of daughter cells suggested that there was an additional incompressible period not present in parent cells. PMID:7033253

  11. Size control models of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wheals, A.E.

    1982-04-01

    By using time-elapsed photomicroscopy, the individual cycle times and sizes at bud emergence were measured for a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing exponentially under balanced growth conditions in a specially constructed filming slide. There was extensive variability in both parameters for daughter and parent cells. The data on 162 pairs of siblings were analyzed for agreement with the predictions of the transition probability hypothesis and the critical-size hypothesis of yeast cell proliferation and also with a model incorporating both of these hypotheses in tandem. None of the models accounted for all of the experimental data, but two models did give good agreement to all of the data. The wobbly tandem model proposes that cells need to attain a critical size, which is very variable, enabling them to enter a start state from which they exit with first-order kinetics. The sloppy size control model suggests that cells have an increasing probability per unit time of traversing start as they increase in size, reaching a high plateau value which is less than one. Both models predict that the kinetics of entry into the cell division sequence will strongly depend on variability in birth size and thus will be quite different for daughters and parents of the asymmetrically dividing yeast cells. Mechanisms underlying these models are discussed.

  12. Principles of MAP kinase signaling specificity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Monica A; Madhani, Hiten D

    2004-01-01

    Cells respond to a plethora of signals using a limited set of intracellular signal transduction components. Surprisingly, pathways that transduce distinct signals can share protein components, yet avoid erroneous cross-talk. A highly tractable model system in which to study this paradox is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which harbors three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades that share multiple signaling components. In this review we first describe potential mechanisms by which specificity could be achieved by signaling pathways that share components. Second, we summarize key features and components of the yeast MAPK pathways that control the mating pheromone response, filamentous growth, and the response to high osmolarity. Finally, we review biochemical analyses in yeast of mutations that cause cross-talk between these three MAPK pathways and their implications for the mechanistic bases for signaling specificity. Although much remains to be learned, current data indicate that scaffolding and cross pathway inhibition play key roles in the maintenance of fidelity. PMID:15568991

  13. Transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jatinder; Kumar, Deept; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Singhal, Vibha; Jervis, Jody; Garst, James F; Slaughter, Stephen M; DeSantis, Andrea M; Potts, Malcolm; Helm, Richard F

    2005-12-01

    A transcriptional analysis of the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743 to controlled air-drying (desiccation) and subsequent rehydration under minimal glucose conditions was performed. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle was observed to increase during drying and remained in this state during the rehydration phase. When the BY4743 expression profile for the dried sample was compared to that of a commercially prepared dry active yeast, strikingly similar expression changes were observed. The fact that these two samples, dried by different means, possessed very similar transcriptional profiles supports the hypothesis that the response to desiccation is a coordinated event independent of the particular conditions involved in water removal. Similarities between "stationary-phase-essential genes" and those upregulated during desiccation were also noted, suggesting commonalities in different routes to reduced metabolic states. Trends in extracellular and intracellular glucose and trehalose levels suggested that the cells were in a "holding pattern" during the rehydration phase, a concept that was reinforced by cell cycle analyses. Application of a "redescription mining" algorithm suggested that sulfur metabolism is important for cell survival during desiccation and rehydration. PMID:16332871

  14. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  15. Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, James E; Norville, Julie E; Mali, Prashant; Rios, Xavier; Aach, John; Church, George M

    2013-04-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea use RNA-guided nuclease activity to provide adaptive immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. The CRISPR-Cas components, Cas9 gene and a designer genome targeting CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), show robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity at targeted endogenous genomic loci in yeast. Using constitutive Cas9 expression and a transient gRNA cassette, we show that targeted double-strand breaks can increase homologous recombination rates of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotide donors by 5-fold and 130-fold, respectively. In addition, co-transformation of a gRNA plasmid and a donor DNA in cells constitutively expressing Cas9 resulted in near 100% donor DNA recombination frequency. Our approach provides foundations for a simple and powerful genome engineering tool for site-specific mutagenesis and allelic replacement in yeast. PMID:23460208

  16. Mitochondria-mediated nuclear mutator phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Anne Karin; Chatterjee, Aditi; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Singh, Keshav K.

    2003-01-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism, we analyzed the consequences of disrupting mitochondrial function on mutagenesis of the nuclear genome. We measured the frequency of canavanine-resistant colonies as a measure of nuclear mutator phenotype. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a nuclear mutator phenotype (i) when oxidative phosphorylation is blocked in wild-type yeast at mitochondrial complex III by antimycin A and (ii) in mutant strains lacking the entire mitochondrial genome (rho0) or those with deleted mitochondrial DNA (rho–). The nuclear mutation frequencies obtained for antimycin A-treated cells as well as for rho– and rho0 cells were ?2- to 3-fold higher compared to untreated control and wild-type cells, respectively. Blockage of oxidative phosphorylation by antimycin A treatment led to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, inactivation of mitochondrial activity (rho– and rho0) led to decreased intracellular levels of ROS. We also demonstrate that in rho0 cells the REV1, REV3 and REV7 gene products, all implicated in error-prone translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), mediate mutagenesis in the nuclear genome. However, TLS was not involved in nuclear DNA mutagenesis caused by inhibition of mitochondrial function by antimycin A. Together, our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is mutagenic and multiple pathways are involved in this nuclear mutator phenotype. PMID:12853606

  17. Initiation of recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid meiosis.

    PubMed Central

    De Massy, B; Baudat, F; Nicolas, A

    1994-01-01

    In most eukaryotes during prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine by coordinated molecular and cellular processes. To directly test whether or not the early steps of the initiation of recombination depend on the presence of a homologous chromosome, we have examined the formation and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the earliest physical landmark of recombination initiation) in various haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of entering meiosis. We find that DSBs occur in haploid meiosis, showing that the presence of a homolog is not required for DSB formation. DSBs occur at the same positions in haploid and diploid meioses. However, these two types of meiosis exhibit subtle differences with respect to the timing of formation and levels of DSBs. In haploid meiosis, a slower rate of DSB formation and a reduction in the frequency of DSB (at one of the three sites analyzed) were observed. These results might indicate that interactions between homologs play a role in the formation of meiotic DSBs. Furthermore, haploid strains exhibit a pronounced delay in the disappearance of meiotic DSBs compared to diploid strains, which suggests that sister chromatid interactions for DSB repair are inhibited in haploid meiosis. Images PMID:7991559

  18. Functional studies of aldo-keto reductases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qing; Griest, Terry A.; Harter, Theresa M.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast. PMID:17140678

  19. Functional studies of aldo-keto reductases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Griest, Terry A; Harter, Theresa M; Petrash, J Mark

    2007-03-01

    We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast. PMID:17140678

  20. Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

  1. Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production

    PubMed Central

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Sardi, Maria; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Martin, Joel A.; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Christopher G.; Lipzen, Anna; Sato, Trey K.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic plant material is a viable source of biomass to produce alternative energy including ethanol and other biofuels. However, several factors—including toxic byproducts from biomass pretreatment and poor fermentation of xylose and other pentose sugars—currently limit the efficiency of microbial biofuel production. To begin to understand the genetic basis of desirable traits, we characterized three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with robust growth in a pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysate or tolerance to stress conditions relevant to industrial biofuel production, through genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis. All stress resistant strains were highly mosaic, suggesting that genetic admixture may contribute to novel allele combinations underlying these phenotypes. Strain-specific gene sets not found in the lab strain were functionally linked to the tolerances of particular strains. Furthermore, genes with signatures of evolutionary selection were enriched for functional categories important for stress resistance and included stress-responsive signaling factors. Comparison of the strains’ transcriptomic responses to heat and ethanol treatment—two stresses relevant to industrial bioethanol production—pointed to physiological processes that were related to particular stress resistance profiles. Many of the genotype-by-environment expression responses occurred at targets of transcription factors with signatures of positive selection, suggesting that these strains have undergone positive selection for stress tolerance. Our results generate new insights into potential mechanisms of tolerance to stresses relevant to biofuel production, including ethanol and heat, present a backdrop for further engineering, and provide glimpses into the natural variation of stress tolerance in wild yeast strains. PMID:25364804

  2. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Roy D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Karig, David K [ORNL; Cooke, John F [ORNL; Cox, Chris D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  3. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  4. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HML? and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Caffeine and Theobromine Production

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g. tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed. PMID:25133732

  6. Thermosensitive mutations affecting ribonucleic acid polymerases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thonart, P; Bechet, J; Hilger, F; Burny, A

    1976-01-01

    Among 150 temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants which we have isolated, 15 are specifically affected in ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis. Four of these mutants exhibit particularly drastic changes and were chosen for a more detailed study. In these four mutants, RNA synthesis is immediately blocked after a shift at the nonpermissive temperature (37 C), protein synthesis decays at a rate compatible with messenger RNA half-life, and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis increases by about 40%. All the mutations display a recessive phenotype. The segregation of the four allelic pairs ts-/ts+ in diploids is mendelian, and the four mutants belong to three complementation groups. The elution patterns (diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex) of the three RNA polymerases of the mutants grown at 37 C for 3.5 h show very low residual activities. The in vitro thermodenaturation confirms the in vivo results; the half-lives of the mutant activities at 45 C are 10 times smaller than those of the wild-type enzymes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that the synthesis of all species of RNA is thermosensitive. The existence of three distinct genes, which are each indispensable for the activity of the three RNA polymerases in vivo as well as in vitro, strongly favors the hypothesis of three common subunits in the three RNA polymerases. PMID:1107309

  7. Kem Mutations Affect Nuclear Fusion in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Ljungdahl, P. O.; Fink, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    We have identified mutations in three genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KEM1, KEM2 and KEM3, that enhance the nuclear fusion defect of kar1-1 yeast during conjugation. The KEM1 and KEM3 genes are located on the left arm of chromosome VII. Kem mutations reduce nuclear fusion whether the kem and the kar1-1 mutations are in the same or in different parents (i.e., in both kem kar1-1 X wild-type and kem X kar1-1 crosses). kem1 X kem1 crosses show a defect in nuclear fusion, but kem1 X wild-type crosses do not. Mutant kem1 strains are hypersensitive to benomyl, lose chromosomes at a rate 10-20-fold higher than KEM(+) strains, and lose viability upon nitrogen starvation. In addition, kem1/kem1 diploids are unable to sporulate. Cells containing a kem1 null allele grow very poorly, have an elongated rod-shape and are defective in spindle pole body duplication and/or separation. The KEM1 gene, which is expressed as a 5.5-kb mRNA transcript, contains a 4.6-kb open reading frame encoding a 175-kD protein. PMID:2076815

  8. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-28

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offsmore »between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.« less

  9. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science and Univ. of Tenneessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Karig, D. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Cooke, J. F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cox, C. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Simpson, M. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science and Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2010-09-28

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  10. Rapid identification of chemical genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, David; Nelson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Determining the mode of action of bioactive chemicals is of interest to a broad range of academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial scientists. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote for which a complete collection of ~6,000 gene deletion mutants and hypomorphic essential gene mutants are commercially available. These collections of mutants can be used to systematically detect chemical-gene interactions, i.e. genes necessary to tolerate a chemical. This information, in turn, reports on the likely mode of action of the compound. Here we describe a protocol for the rapid identification of chemical-genetic interactions in budding yeast. We demonstrate the method using the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which has a well-defined mechanism of action. Our results show that the nuclear TRAMP RNA exosome and DNA repair enzymes are needed for proliferation in the presence of 5-FU, which is consistent with previous microarray based bar-coding chemical genetic approaches and the knowledge that 5-FU adversely affects both RNA and DNA metabolism. The required validation protocols of these high-throughput screens are also described. PMID:25867090

  11. Genes Required for Vacuolar Acidity in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Preston, R. A.; Reinagel, P. S.; Jones, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Mutations that cause loss of acidity in the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by screening colonies labeled with the fluorescent, pH-sensitive, vacuolar labeling agent, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Thirty nine vacuolar pH (Vph(-)) mutants were identified. Four of these contained mutant alleles of the previously described PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7 genes. The remaining mutants defined eight complementation groups of vph mutations. No alleles of the VAT2 or TFP1 genes (known to encode subunits of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase) were identified in the Vph(-) screen. Strains bearing mutations in any of six of the VPH genes failed to grow on medium buffered at neutral pH; otherwise, none of the vph mutations caused notable growth inhibition on standard yeast media. Expression of the vacuolar protease, carboxypeptidase Y, was defective in strains bearing vph4 mutations but was apparently normal in strains bearing any of the other vph mutations. Defects in vacuolar morphology at the light microscope level were evident in all Vph(-) mutants. Strains that contained representative mutant alleles of the 17 previously described PEP genes were assayed for vacuolar pH; mutations in seven of the PEP genes (including PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7) caused loss of vacuolar acidity. PMID:1628805

  12. Processing pathway for protease B of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The vacuolar protease B of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a subtilisin- like protease encoded by the PRB1 gene. Antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide and an Escherichia coli-derived PRB1 open reading frame (ORF) protein cross-react with authentic protease B from yeast. By using these antibodies, the posttranslational biosynthetic pathway of protease B has been elucidated. Preproprotease B is a 76-kD unglycosylated precursor that enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it receives one asparagine-linked (Asn-linked) and an undetermined number of non-Asn-linked carbohydrate side chains. The large glycosylated intermediate is proteolytically processed to a 39-kD form before exiting the ER. In the Golgi complex, the 39-kD form becomes 40 kD, due to elaboration of the Asn-linked side chain. The carboxyterminal end of the 40-kD proprotease B undergoes protease A- mediated processing to a 37-kD intermediate, which in turn is quickly processed to 31-kD mature protease B. The ultimate processing step removes a peptide containing the Asn-linked chain; mature PrB has only non-Asn-linked carbohydrate. PMID:2645294

  13. Localization of polyphosphate in vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Urech, K; Dürr, M; Boller, T; Wiemken, A; Schwencke, J

    1978-03-01

    Virtually all of the polyphosphate (PP) present in yeast protoplasts can be recovered in a crude particulate fraction if polybase-induced lysis is used for disrupting the protoplasts. This fraction contains most of the vacuoles, mitochondria and nuclei. Upon the purification of vacuoles the PP is enriched to the same extent as are the vacuolar markers. The amount of PP per vacuole is comparable to the amount of PP per protoplast. The possibility that PP is located in the cell wall is also considered. In the course of the incubation necessary for preparing protoplasts, 20% of the cellular PP is broken down. As this loss of PP occurs to the same extent in the absence of cell wall degrading enzymes, it is inferred that internal PP is metabolically degraded, no PP being located in the cell walls. It is concluded that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae most if not all of the PP is located in the vacuoles, at least under the growth conditions used. PMID:348146

  14. Regulation of repressible acid phosphatase gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, J M; Willcocks, T; Halvorson, H O; Bostian, K A

    1985-01-01

    We examined the genetic system responsible for transcriptional regulation of repressible acid phosphatase (APase; orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase [acid optimum, EC 3.1.3.2]) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the molecular level by analysis of previously isolated and genetically well-defined regulatory gene mutants known to affect APase expression. These mutants identify numerous positive- (PHO4, PHO2, PHO81) and negative-acting (PHO80, PHO85) regulatory loci dispersed throughout the yeast genome. We showed that the interplay of these positive and negative regulatory genes occurs before or during APase gene transcription and that their functions are all indispensible for normal regulation of mRNA synthesis. Biochemical evidence suggests that the regulatory gene products they encode are expressed constitutively. More detailed investigation of APase synthesis is a conditional PHO80(Ts) mutant indicated that neither PHO4 nor any other protein factor necessary for APase mRNA synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by PHO80. Moreover, in the absence of PHO80, the corepressor, presumed to be a metabolite of Pi, did not inhibit their function in the transcriptional activation of APase. Images PMID:3915785

  15. Cell, Vol. 117, 4756, April 2, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer3 Helicase Stimulates

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Cell, Vol. 117, 47­56, April 2, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer3 of genes including ZIP1, ZIP2,tion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MER3 gene is ZIP3, MSH4, MSH5, MLH1, MLH3, EXO1, and MER3known to affect selectively crossover, but not non- are specifically required

  16. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea that wine making strains have been domesticated for wine production. In this study, we demonstrate that humans can distinguish between wines produced using wine strains and wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as its sibling species, Saccharomyces paradoxus. Wine strains produced wine with fruity and floral characteristics, whereas wild strains produced wine with earthy and sulfurous characteristics. The differences that we observe between wine and wild strains provides further evidence that wine strains have evolved phenotypes that are distinct from their wild ancestors and relevant to their use in wine production. PMID:22093681

  17. Rapid Identification and Enumeration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells in Wine by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, P.; Querol, A.; Fernández-Espinar, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the beneficial role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the food industry for food and beverage production, it is able to cause spoilage in wines. We have developed a real-time PCR method to directly detect and quantify this yeast species in wine samples to provide winemakers with a rapid and sensitive method to detect and prevent wine spoilage. Specific primers were designed for S. cerevisiae using the sequence information obtained from a cloned random amplified polymorphic DNA band that differentiated S. cerevisiae from its sibling species Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. The specificity of the primers was demonstrated for typical wine spoilage yeast species. The method was useful for estimating the level of S.?cerevisiae directly in sweet wines and red wines without preenrichment when yeast is present in concentrations as low as 3.8 and 5 CFU per ml. This detection limit is in the same order as that obtained from glucose-peptone-yeast growth medium (GPY). Moreover, it was possible to quantify S. cerevisiae in artificially contaminated samples accurately. Limits for accurate quantification in wine were established, from 3.8 × 105 to 3.8 CFU/ml in sweet wine and from 5 × 106 to 50?CFU/ml in red wine. PMID:16269715

  18. Computational identification of non-coding RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, John P.; Eddy, Sean R.

    2003-01-01

    We screened for new structural non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the genome sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using computational comparative analysis of genome sequences from five related species of Saccharomyces. The screen identified 92 candidate ncRNA genes. Thirteen showed discrete transcripts when assayed by northern blot. Of these, eight appear to be novel ncRNAs ranging in size from 268 to 775 nt, including three new H/ACA box small nucleolar RNAs. PMID:12853629

  19. Thermal Denaturation Kinetics of Yeast Proteins in Whole Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Otero; J. R. Wagner; M. C. Vasallo; M. C. Añón; L. García; J. C. Jiménez; J. C. López

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of thermal denaturation of yeast proteins in intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae instant dry yeast and Kluyveromyces fragilis L-1930 have been studied through differential scanning calorimetry. Maximum deflection-peak temperatures (TP) were greater for S. cerevisiae (66.65°C) than for K. fragilis (63.21 °C). Kinetic parameters showed that the former was slightly more resistant to thermal protein denaturation and exhibited

  20. Relationship between cadmium sensitivity and degree of plasma membrane fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Howlett; S. V. Avery

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the redox-active metal copper has recently been found to be influenced by cellular fatty acid composition. This study\\u000a sought to investigate whether fatty acid composition affected plasma membrane permeabilisation and whole-cell toxicity induced\\u000a by the redox-inactive metal cadmium. S. cerevisiae NCYC 1383 was enriched with the polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleate (18:2) and linolenate (18:3)

  1. Alcoholic fermentation of carbon sources in biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae : current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonius J. A. van Maris; Derek A. Abbott; Eleonora Bellissimi; Joost van den Brink; Marko Kuyper; Marijke A. H. Luttik; H. Wouter Wisselink; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. van Dijken; Jack T. Pronk

    2006-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production from plant biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of great economic and environmental significance. This paper reviews the current status with respect to alcoholic fermentation of the main plant biomass-derived monosaccharides by this yeast. Wild-type S. cerevisiae strains readily ferment glucose, mannose and fructose via the Embden–Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, while galactose is fermented via the Leloir

  2. Protein Kinase A, TOR, and Glucose Transport Control the Response to Nutrient Repletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew G. Slattery; Dritan Liko; Warren Heideman

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient repletion leads to substantial restructuring of the transcriptome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression levels of approximately one-third of all S. cerevisiae genes are altered at least twofold when a nutrient-depleted culture is transferred to fresh medium. Several nutrient-sensing pathways are known to play a role in this process, but the relative contribution that each pathway makes to the total

  3. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during industrial bioethanol fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing-Zhi Li; Jing-Sheng Cheng; Bin Qiao; Ying-Jin Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely applied in large-scale industrial bioethanol fermentation; however, little is known about the molecular responses\\u000a of industrial yeast during large-scale fermentation processes. We investigated the global transcriptional responses of an\\u000a industrial strain of S. cerevisiae during industrial continuous and fed-batch fermentation by oligonucleotide-based microarrays. About 28 and 62% of all genes\\u000a detected showed differential gene expression during

  4. Biogenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mating Pheromone a-Factor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Sapperstein, Stephanie K.; Choi, Jonathan D.; Michaelis, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone a-factor is a prenylated and carboxyl methylated extracellular peptide signaling molecule. Biogenesis of the a-factor precursor proceeds via a distinctive multistep pathway that involves COOH-terminal modification, NH2-terminal proteolysis, and a nonclassical export mechanism. In this study, we examine the formation and fate of a-factor biosynthetic intermediates to more precisely define the events that occur during a-factor biogenesis. We have identified four distinct a-factor biosynthetic intermediates (P0, P1, P2, and M) by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and SDSPAGE. We determined the biochemical composition of each by defining their NH2-terminal amino acid and COOH-terminal modification status. Unexpectedly, we discovered that not one, but two NH2-terminal cleavage steps occur during the biogenesis of a-factor. In addition, we have shown that COOH-terminal prenylation is required for the NH2-terminal processing of a-factor and that all the prenylated a-factor intermediates (P1, P2, and M) are membrane bound, suggesting that many steps of a-factor biogenesis occur in association with membranes. We also observed that although the biogenesis of a-factor is a rapid process, it is inherently inefficient, perhaps reflecting the potential for regulation. Previous studies have identified gene products that participate in the COOH-terminal modification (Ram1p, Ram2p, Ste14p), NH2-terminal processing (Ste24p, Axl1p), and export (Ste6p) of a-factor. The intermediates defined in the present study are discussed in the context of these biogenesis components to formulate an overall model for the pathway of a-factor biogenesis. PMID:9015298

  5. Expression of Heteropolymeric Ferritin Improves Iron Storage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Ji-Hye; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Park, Seung-Moon; Jahng, Kwang-Yeup; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to express different amount of heavy (H)- and light (L)-chain subunits of human ferritin by using a low-copy integrative vector (YIp) and a high-copy episomal vector (YEp). In addition to pep4::HIS3 allele, the expression host strain was bred to have the selection markers leu2? and ura3? for YIplac128 and YEp352, respectively. The heterologous expression of phytase was used to determine the expression capability of the host strain. Expression in the new host strain (2805-a7) was as high as that in the parental strain (2805), which expresses high levels of several foreign genes. Following transformation, Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated the expression of H- and L-chain genes. The recombinant yeast was more iron tolerant, in that transformed cells formed colonies on plates containing more than 25 mM ferric citrate, whereas none of the recipient strain cells did. Prussian blue staining indicated that the expressed isoferritins were assembled in vivo into a complex that bound iron. The expressed subunits showed a clear preference for the formation of heteropolymers over homopolymers. The molar ratio of H to L chains was estimated to be 1:6.8. The gel-purified heteropolymer took up iron faster than the L homopolymer, and it took up more iron than the H homopolymer did. The iron concentrations in transformants expressing the heteropolymer, L homopolymer, and H homopolymer were 1,004, 760, and 500 ?g per g (dry weight) of recombinant yeast cells, respectively. The results indicate that heterologously expressed H and L subunits coassemble into a heteropolymer in vivo and that the iron-carrying capacity of yeast is further enhanced by the expression of heteropolymeric isoferritin. PMID:12676675

  6. Studies of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    den Hollander, J.A.; Ugurbil, K.; Brown, T.R.; Bednar, M.; Redfield, C.; Shulman, R.G.

    1986-01-14

    Glucose metabolism was followed in suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using 13C NMR and 14C radioactive labeling techniques and by Warburg manometer experiments. These experiments were performed for cells grown with various carbon sources in the growth medium, so as to evaluate the effect of catabolite repression. The rate of glucose utilization was most conveniently determined by the 13C NMR experiments, which measured the concentration of (1-13C)glucose, whereas the distribution of end products was determined from the 13C and the 14C experiments. By combining these measurements the flows into the various pathways that contribute to glucose catabolism were estimated, and the effect of oxygen upon glucose catabolism was evaluated. From these measurements, the Pasteur quotient (PQ) for glucose catabolism was calculated to be 2.95 for acetate-grown cells and 1.89 for cells grown on glucose into saturation. The Warburg experiments provided an independent estimate of glucose catabolism. The PQ estimated from Warburg experiments was 2.9 for acetate-grown cells in excellent agreement with the labeled carbon experiments and 4.6 for cells grown into saturation, which did not agree. Possible explanations of these differences are discussed. From these data an estimate is obtained of the net flow through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The backward flow through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2-ase) was calculated from the scrambling of the 13C label of (1-13C)glucose into the C1 and C6 positions of trehalose. Combining these data allowed us to calculate the net flux through phosphofructokinase (PFK). For acetate-grown cells we found that the relative flow through PFK is a factor of 1.7 faster anaerobically than aerobically.

  7. MET17 and hydrogen sulfide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Spiropoulos, A; Bisson, L F

    2000-10-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H(2)S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H(2)S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H(2)S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H(2)S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H(2)S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H(2)S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H(2)S production and release. PMID:11010893

  8. MET17 and Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spiropoulos, Apostolos; Bisson, Linda F.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H2S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H2S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H2S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H2S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H2S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H2S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H2S production and release. PMID:11010893

  9. Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Cid, V J; Durán, A; del Rey, F; Snyder, M P; Nombela, C; Sánchez, M

    1995-01-01

    In fungi and many other organisms, a thick outer cell wall is responsible for determining the shape of the cell and for maintaining its integrity. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism for the study of cell wall synthesis, and over the past few decades, many aspects of the composition, structure, and enzymology of the cell wall have been elucidated. The cell wall of budding yeasts is a complex and dynamic structure; its arrangement alters as the cell grows, and its composition changes in response to different environmental conditions and at different times during the yeast life cycle. In the past few years, we have witnessed a profilic genetic and molecular characterization of some key aspects of cell wall polymer synthesis and hydrolysis in the budding yeast. Furthermore, this organism has been the target of numerous recent studies on the topic of morphogenesis, which have had an enormous impact on our understanding of the intracellular events that participate in directed cell wall synthesis. A number of components that direct polarized secretion, including those involved in assembly and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, secretory pathways, and a series of novel signal transduction systems and regulatory components have been identified. Analysis of these different components has suggested pathways by which polarized secretion is directed and controlled. Our aim is to offer an overall view of the current understanding of cell wall dynamics and of the complex network that controls polarized growth at particular stages of the budding yeast cell cycle and life cycle. PMID:7565410

  10. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MAT?. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Y?, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HML? or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HML? and MAT? using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MAT? cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  11. Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Calahan, Dean; Dunham, Maitreya; DeSevo, Chris; Koshland, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance, the ability to survive nearly total dehydration, is a rare strategy for survival and reproduction observed in all taxa. However, the mechanism and regulation of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Correlations between desiccation tolerance and potential effectors have been reported in many species, but their physiological significance has not been established in vivo. Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits extreme desiccation tolerance, its usefulness has been hampered by an inability to reduce tolerance more than a few fold by physiological or genetic perturbations. Here we report that fewer than one in a million yeast cells from low-density logarithmic cultures survive desiccation, while 20–40% of cells from saturated cultures survive. Using this greatly expanded metric, we show that mutants defective in trehalose biosynthesis, hydrophilins, responses to hyperosmolarity, and hypersalinity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and DNA damage repair nevertheless retain wild-type levels of desiccation tolerance, suggesting that this trait involves a unique constellation of stress factors. A genome-wide screen for mutants that render stationary cells as sensitive as log phase cells identifies only mutations that block respiration. Respiration as a prerequisite for acquiring desiccation tolerance is corroborated by respiration inhibition and by growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. Suppressors bypassing the respiration requirement for desiccation tolerance reveal at least two pathways, one of which, involving the Mediator transcription complex, is associated with the shift from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. Further study of these regulators and their targets should provide important clues to the sensors and effectors of desiccation tolerance. PMID:21840858

  12. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  13. Membrane stress caused by octanoic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Chernyshov, Andriy; Najdi, Tarek; Fu, Yao; Dickerson, Julie; Sandmeyer, Suzanne; Jarboe, Laura

    2013-04-01

    In order to compete with petroleum-based fuel and chemicals, engineering a robust biocatalyst that can convert renewable feedstocks into biorenewable chemicals, such as carboxylic acids, is increasingly important. However, product toxicity is often problematic. In this study, the toxicity of the carboxylic acids hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acid on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated, with a focus on octanoic acid. These compounds are completely inhibitory at concentrations of magnitude 1 mM, and the toxicity increases as chain length increases and as media pH decreases. Transciptome analysis, reconstruction of gene regulatory network, and network component analysis suggested decreased membrane integrity during challenge with octanoic acid. This was confirmed by quantification of dose-dependent and chain length-dependent induction of membrane leakage, though membrane fluidity was not affected. This induction of membrane leakage could be significantly decreased by a period of pre-adaptation, and this pre-adaptation was accompanied by increased oleic acid content in the membrane, significantly increased production of saturated lipids relative to unsaturated lipids, and a significant increase in the average lipid chain length in the membrane. However, during adaptation cell surface hydrophobicity was not altered. The supplementation of oleic acid to the medium not only elevated the tolerance of yeast cells to octanoic acid but also attenuated the membrane leakiness. However, while attempts to mimic the oleic acid supplementation effects through expression of the Trichoplusia ni acyl-CoA ?9 desaturase OLE1(TniNPVE desaturase) were able to increase the oleic acid content, the magnitude of the increase was not sufficient to reproduce the supplementation effect and increase octanoic acid tolerance. Similarly, introduction of cyclopropanated fatty acids through expression of the Escherichia coli cfa gene was not helpful for tolerance. Thus, we have provided quantitative evidence that carboxylic acids damage the yeast membrane and that manipulation of the lipid content of the membrane can increase tolerance, and possibly production, of these valuable products. PMID:23435986

  14. Mutagenic effect of freezing on nuclear DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todorova, T; Pesheva, M; Stamenova, R; Dimitrov, M; Venkov, P

    2012-05-01

    Although fragmentation of DNA has been observed in cells undergoing freezing procedures, a mutagenic effect of sub-zero temperature treatment has not been proved by induction and isolation of mutants in nuclear DNA (nDNA). In this communication we supply evidence for mutagenicity of freezing on nDNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In the absence of cryoprotectors, cooling for 2 h at +4°C and freezing for 1 h at -10°C and 16 h at -20°C, with a cooling rate of 3°C/min, resulted in induction of frame-shift and reverse mutations in microsatellite and coding regions of nDNA. The sub-zero temperature exposure also has a strong recombinogenic effect, evidenced by induction of gene-conversion and crossing-over events. Freezing induces mutations and enhances recombination with a frequency equal to or higher than that of methylmethanesulphonate at comparable survival rates. The signals for the appearance of nDNA lesions induced by freezing are detected and transduced by the DNA damage pathway. Extracellular cryoprotectors did not prevent the mutagenic effect of freezing, while accumulation of trehalose inside cells reduced nDNA cryodamage. Freezing of cells is accompanied by generation of high ROS levels, and the oxidative stress raised during the freeze-thaw process is the most likely reason for the DNA damaging effect. Experiments with mitochondrial rho? mutants or scavengers of ROS indicated that mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of sub-zero temperatures can be decreased but not eliminated by reduction of ROS level. The complete protection against cryodamage in nDNA required simultaneous usage of intracellular cryoprotector and ROS scavenger during the freeze-thaw process. PMID:22576810

  15. Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Irfan; Bialka, Katherine L; Demirci, Ali; Karhan, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method. The obtained extract was utilized for production of ethanol by using suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The effect of various fermentation parameters such as pH, media content and inoculum size were evaluated for ethanol fermentation in carob extract. Also, in order to determine economically appropriate nitrogen sources, four different nitrogen sources were evaluated. The optimum extraction condition for carob extract was determined to be 80 degrees C, 2h in 1:4 dilution rate (fruit: water ratio) according to the result of response surface analysis (115.3g/L). When the fermentation with pH at 5.5 was applied, the final ethanol concentration and production rates were 42.6g/L and 3.37 g/L/h, respectively, which were higher than using an uncontrolled pH. Among inoculum sizes of 1%, 3%, and 5%, 3% was determined as the best inoculum size. The maximum production rate and final ethanol concentration were 3.48 g/L/h and 44.51%, respectively, with an alternative nitrogen source of meat-bone meal. Overall, this study suggested that carob extract can be utilized for production of ethanol in order to meet the demands of renewable energy. PMID:20189805

  16. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  17. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    PubMed

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  18. NDT80, a meiosis-specific gene required for exit from pachytene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liuzhong; Ajimura, M.; Padmore, R.; Klein, C.; Kleckner, N. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the identification of a new meiosis-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae called NDT80. DNA cloning and molecular analysis revealed that the NDT80 gene maps on the right arm of chromosome 8 and is transcribed during middle meiotic prophase. 82 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Desferrioxamine-mediated Iron Uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae EVIDENCE FOR TWO PATHWAYS OF IRON UPTAKE*

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    Medical Institute, Stanford, California 94305-5428 In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, uptake of iron. Deletion of ARN3 did not prevent yeast from using ferrioxamine B as an iron source; however, deletion microbes to man have developed mechanisms for obtain- ing iron from the environment. The budding yeast

  20. Analysis of the morphologic changes of Monascus sp. J101 cells cocultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Hae Suh; Chul Soo Shin

    2000-01-01

    Changes in cell life cycle and intracellular structure of Monascus sp. J101 by coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Cocultured Monascus cells showed accelerated cell growth and reproduction. Production of asexual and sexual spores was used as an efficient method of cell proliferation. Formation of meiotic (sexual) spores was more frequently observed in the cocultured Monascus cells. The interior structure

  1. Growth-rate regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitte Regenberg; Thomas Grotkjær; Ole Winther; Anders Fausbøll; Mats Åkesson; Christoffer Bro; Lars Kai Hansen; Søren Brunak; Jens Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation times varying between 2 and 35 hours. RESULTS: A total of 5930 transcripts were identified

  2. In silico aided metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoffer Bro; Birgitte Regenberg; Jochen Förster; Jens Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    In silico genome-scale cell models are promising tools for accelerating the design of cells with improved and desired properties. We demonstrated this by using a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to score a number of strategies for metabolic engineering of the redox metabolism that will lead to decreased glycerol and increased ethanol yields on glucose under anaerobic conditions.

  3. Biochemistry, cell biology and molecular biology of lipids ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunther Daum; Norman D. Lees; Martin Bard; Robert Dickson

    1998-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful experimental system to study biochemical, cell biological and molecular biological aspects of lipid synthesis. Most but not all genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid, phospholipid, sterol or sphingolipid biosynthesis of this unicellular eukaryote have been cloned, and many gene products have been functionally characterized. Less information is available about genes and gene

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae– Oenococcus oeni interactions in wine: current knowledge and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Alexandre; Peter J. Costello; Fabienne Remize; Jean Guzzo; Michéle Guilloux-Benatier

    2004-01-01

    Winemaking can be summarized as the biotransformation of must into wine, which is performed principally by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the primary or alcoholic fermentation. A secondary fermentation, the so-called malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a biodeacidification that is often encouraged, since it improves wine stability and quality. Malolactic fermentation usually occurs either spontaneously or after inoculation with selected bacteria after

  5. The YEASTRACT database: a tool for the analysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel C. Teixeira; Pedro T. Monteiro; Pooja Jain; Sandra Tenreiro; Alexandra R. Fernandes; Nuno P. Mira; Marta Alenquer; Ana T. Freitas; Arlindo L. Oliveira; Isabel Sá-correia

    2006-01-01

    We present the YEAst Search for Transcriptional Regulators And Consensus Tracking (YEASTRACT; www.yeastract.com) database, a tool for the ana- lysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This database is a repos- itory of 12 346 regulatory associations between tran- scription factors and target genes, based on experimental evidence which was spread throughout 861 bibliographic references. It also includes 257

  6. Replication and transcription of human papillomavirus type 58 genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Xiao Wang; Juan Liu; Hong Wang; Xiao-Li Zhang; Wei Tang; Yun-Dong Sun; Xin Wang; Xiu-Ping Yu; Wei-Ming Zhao

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To establish a convenient system for the study of human papillomavirus (HPV), we inserted a Saccharomyces cerevisiae selectable marker, Ura, into HPV58 genome and transformed it into yeast. RESULTS: HPV58 genome could replicate extrachromosomally in yeast, with transcription of its early and late genes. However, with mutation of the viral E2 gene, HPV58 genome lost its mitotic stability, and

  7. Variability of the response ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae strains to lignocellulose hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Modig; João R. M. Almeida; Marie F. Gorwa-Grauslund; Gunnar Lidén

    2008-01-01

    The development of tolerant microorganisms is needed for the efficient fermentation of inhibitory ligno- cellulose hydrolysates. In the current work, the fermenta- tion performance of six selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in dilute-acid spruce hydrolysate was compared using two different modes of fermentation; either single pulse addition of hydrolysate to exponentially growing cells or continuous feeding of the same amount

  8. Kinetics studies on ethanol production from banana peel waste using mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Manikandan; V Saravanan; T Viruthagiri

    Five different mutant strains were developed from the wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC No.287) using UV irradiation technique by varying the exposure timings. All the mutant cultures were used for ethanol production using banana peel as a substrate in a batch fermenter. The effect of temperature, pH and initial substrate concentration on ethanol production were studied and optimized. The

  9. Transmission and recombination of mitochondrial genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after protoplast fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Marfiz; Július Šubík

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae of opposite and identical mating types carrying different mitochondrial drug-resistance markers, with both homosexual and heterosexual mitochondrial backgrounds, were induced to fuse by polyethylene glycol. After selective regeneration of prototrophic fusion products, the transmission and recombination frequencies of mitochondrial genes in populations of cells were determined and compared with those obtained in mating

  10. Metabolic engineering of a xylose-isomerase-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for rapid anaerobic xylose fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Kuyper; Miranda M. P. Hartog; Maurice J. Toirkens; Marinka J. H. Almering; Aaron A. Winkler; Johannes P. van Dijken; Jack T. Pronk

    2005-01-01

    After an extensive selection procedure, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express the xylose isomerase gene from the fungus Piromyces sp. E2 can grow anaerobically on xylose with a ?max of 0.03 h?1. In order to investigate whether reactions downstream of the isomerase control the rate of xylose consumption, we overexpressed structural genes for all enzymes involved in the conversion of xylulose

  11. Optimization of Ethanol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Metabolic Engineering of the Ammonium Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben L. Nissen; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jens Nielsen; John Villadsen

    2000-01-01

    Ethanol is still one of the most important products originating from the biotechnological industry with respect to both value and amount. In addition to ethanol, a number of byproducts are formed during an anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the most important of these compounds, glycerol, is produced by yeast to reoxidize NADH, formed in synthesis of biomass and

  12. A mathematical model of the mating signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ivan Milac

    1998-09-14

    Outline of two major goals in my proposal for this fellowship. First goal having no previous training in biology, was to become knowledgeable of the paradigms, experimental techniques, and current research interests of molecular biology. Second goal was to construct a mathematical model of the mating signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  13. The wheat LEA protein Em functions as an osmoprotective molecule in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ginger A. Swire-Clark; William R. Marcotte

    1999-01-01

    The biased amino acid composition and aperiodic (random coil) configuration of Group 1 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins imply that these proteins are capable of binding large amounts of water. While Group 1 LEAs have been predicted to contribute to osmotic stress protection in both embryonic and vegetative tissues, biochemical support has been lacking. We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a

  14. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing in starch and biomass conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of starch or biomass to biofuel is a two-stage process involving enzymatic treatment, followed by yeast fermentation. An alternative route would be to consolidate the process by engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of both saccharification and fermentation. An approach was d...

  15. Reconstruction and logical modeling of glucose repression signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias S Christensen; Ana Paula Oliveira; Jens Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the presence of high levels of glucose leads to an array of down-regulatory effects known as glucose repression. This process is complex due to the presence of feedback loops and crosstalk between different pathways, complicating the use of intuitive approaches to analyze the system. RESULTS: We established a logical model of yeast glucose repression,

  16. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 20. Evolution of gene redundancy compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Llorente; Pascal Durrens; Alain Malpertuy; Michel Aigle; François Artiguenave; Gaëlle Blandin; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Philippe Brottier; Serge Casaregola; Bernard Dujon; Jacky de Montigny; Andrée Lépingle; Cécile Neuvéglise; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Serge Potier; William Saurin; Fredj Tekaia; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Patrick Wincker; Jean Weissenbach; Jean-Luc Souciet; Claude Gaillardin

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the degree of gene redundancy in the nuclear genomes of 13 hemiascomycetous yeast species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae singletons and gene families appear generally conserved in these species as singletons and families of similar size, respectively. Variations of the number of homologues with respect to that expected affect from 7 to less than 24% of each genome. Since S.

  17. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 4. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaëlle Blandin; Pascal Durrens; Fredj Tekaia; Michel Aigle; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Serge Casarégola; Jacky de Montigny; Claude Gaillardin; Andrée Lépingle; Bertrand Llorente; Alain Malpertuy; Cécile Neuvéglise; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Arnaud Perrin; Serge Potier; Jean-Luc Souciet; Emmanuel Talla; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Christian Marck; Bernard Dujon

    2000-01-01

    Since its completion more than 4 years ago, the sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used and studied. The original sequence has received a few corrections, and the identification of genes has been completed, thanks in particular to transcriptome analyses and to specialized studies on introns, tRNA genes, transposons or multigene families. In order to undertake the extensive comparative

  18. Heat Shock Protein Genes and Newly Integrated Glucose Metabolic Pathways Promote Ethanol Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion provides a promising alternative means for production of sustainable and cleaner transportation fuels. Development of stress tolerant ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for low-cost biobased economy. Tolerance to high levels of ethanol has been...

  19. Polluted water concentrates: Induction of genetic alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moretton; P. Baró; A. Zelazny; M. D'Aquino

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors showed that samples of raw water obtained from the Riachuelo (a heavily polluted watercourse) induced genetic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In those tests the raw water samples were assayed within 24 hr and only the mutagenic activity of the non-volatile, water soluble constituents could be detected. The detection and quantitation of genetic

  20. Thiamin biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Origin of carbon-2 of the thiazole moiety.

    PubMed Central

    White, R L; Spenser, I D

    1979-01-01

    Radioactivity from [2-14C]glycine enters C-2 of the thiazole moiety of thiamin and no other site, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strains A.T.C.C. 24903 and 39916, H.J. Bunker). Radioactivity from L-[Me-14C]methionine or from DL-[2-14C]tyrosine does not enter thiamin. PMID:384994

  1. Aminopeptidase I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is localized to the vacuole independent of the secretory pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Klionsky; Rosario Cueva; Debbie S. Yaver

    1992-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae APE1 gene product, aminopeptidase I (API), is a soluble hydro- lase that has been shown to be localized to the vac- uole. API lacks a standard signal sequence and con- tains an unusual amino-terminal propeptide. We have examined the biosynthesis of API in order to elucidate the mechanism of its delivery to the vacuole. API is synthesized

  2. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  3. Effects of immobilization on growth, fermentation properties, and macromolecular composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae attached to gelatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline M. Doran; James E. Bailey

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on crosslinked gelatin were found to be substantially different from those of the suspended yeast. Batch fermentation experiments conducted in a gradientless reaction system allowed comparison of immobilized cell and suspended cell performance. The specific rate of ethanol production by the immobilized cells was 40-50% greater than for the suspended yeast. The immobilized

  4. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Jardine; Julian Gough; Cyrus Chothia; Sarah A. Teichmann

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the small molecule metabolism pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one half and two thirds of the gene products of small molecule metabolism in E. coli and yeast, respectively.

  5. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  6. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14oc-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. n open reading fram of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. hen this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain requires e...

  7. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An open reading frame of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. When this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain req...

  8. Effect of yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on ruminal fermentation during adaptation to high-concentrate feeding

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effect of yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on ruminal fermentation during adaptation in the fermentation pathway, and can accumulate rapidly (Mackie and Gilchrist, 1979, Appl Environ Microbiol, 38, 422 (SC), on the stabilization of ruminal fermentation. The objective of this study was to provide

  9. Nuclear accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm3 is dependent on its nuclear localization sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Young; Katsunori Suzuki; Hong Yan; Susan Gibson; Bik K. Tye

    1997-01-01

    Background: The proteins of the Mcm2-7 family are required for the initiation of DNA replication. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nuclear envelope does not break down during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Large nuclear proteins, such as the Mcm proteins, which accumulate in the nucleus during specific portions of the cell cycle, must have regulated mechanisms to direct their

  10. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  11. Phosphate uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen wild type and phenotypes exposed to space flight irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, D; Volz, P A

    1979-01-01

    Rates of phosphate uptake were approximately twice as great for Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-cell phenotypic isolates exposed to space parameters as for the wild-type ground control. Quantitative determination of 32P was performed by liquid scintillation spectrometry utilizing Cerenkov radiation counting techniques. PMID:395899

  12. Isolation And Evaluation Of Thermotolerant Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae For Aguardiente And Rum Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marcet; W. Olivera; C. Martín; J. Neel

    Thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from the residual yeast resulting from industrial fermentations subjected to thermal stress. The isolated strains were purified and characterised morphologically and biochemically. The thermal tolerance of one of the selected strains was e valuated in laboratory-scale batch fermentations at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C. The high ethanol yield (0.41 g g -1)

  13. AISLAMIENTO Y EVALUACIÓN DE CEPAS TERMOTOLERANTES DE Saccharomyces cerevisiae PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AGUARDIENTES Y RONES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marcet; W. Olivera; C. Martín; TECNOLOGÍA TECNOLOGÍA

    2008-01-01

    Thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from the residual yeast resulting from industrial fermentations subjected to thermal stress. The isolated strains were purified and characterised morphologically and biochemically. The thermal tolerance of one of the selected strains was evaluated in laboratory-scale batch fermentations at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C. The high ethanol yield (0.41 g g -1 )

  14. Effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Culture on Nutrient Digestion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Doreau; J. P. Jouany

    1998-01-01

    The digestive effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture were investigated. Four cows in early lacta- tion that were fitted with ruminal and duodenal can- nulas were used in a crossover design. The diet, which consisted of 60% corn silage and 40% concentrates, was supplemented or not supplemented with a daily dose of 50 g of premix containing 0.5 g of

  15. Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiko Arikawa; Tomoko Kuroyanagi; Makoto Shimosaka; Haruhiro Muratsubaki; Keiichiro Enomoto; Ritsuko Kodaira; Mitsuo Okazaki

    1999-01-01

    Succinate is the main taste component produced by yeasts during sake (Japanese rice wine) fermentation. The pathway leading to accumulation of succinate was examined in liquid culture in the presence of a high concentration (15%) of glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using a series of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which various genes that encode the expression of enzymes required

  16. Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria from Proteolytic

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria into the matrix space of mitochondria by inhibiting a step other than proteolysis of the presequence. The Rieske. The iron-sulfur protein is then post-translationally imported into the mitochondria where it is inserted

  17. Minear, S., et al Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1

    E-print Network

    Stearns, Tim

    Minear, S., et al 1 Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1 through iron chelation2 3 of print on 9 September 2011 #12;Minear, S., et al 2 Abstract (limit 250 words)46 47 Curcumin, a polyphenol of ailments. Interest in curcumin has49 increased recently, with on-going clinical trials exploring curcumin

  18. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  19. Cybernetic model of the growth dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. Jones; Dhinakar S. Kompala

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose in aerobic batch culture follows the well-documented diauxic pattern of completely fermenting glucose to ethanol during the first exponential growth phase, followed by an intermediate lag phase and a second exponential growth phase consuming ethanol. In continuous cultures over a range of intermediate dilution rates, the yeast bioreactor exhibits sustained oscillations in all the

  20. HOCl-mediated cell death and metabolic dysfunction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A King; Diane M Hannum; Jian-Shen Qi; James K Hurst

    2004-01-01

    The nature of oxidative damage to Saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by levels of HOCl that inhibit cell replication was explored with the intent of identifying the loci of lethal lesions. Functions of cytosolic enzymes and organelles that are highly sensitive to inactivation by HOCl, including aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the mitochondrion, were only marginally affected by exposure of the yeast

  1. Functional genomic analysis of a commercial wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under differing nitrogen conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leilah E. Backhus; Joseph DeRisi; Patrick O. Brown; Linda F. Bisson

    2001-01-01

    DNA microarray analysis was used to profile gene expression in a commercial isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a synthetic grape juice medium under conditions mimicking a natural environment for yeast: High-sugar and variable nitrogen conditions. The high nitrogen condition displayed elevated levels of expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of macromolecular precursors across the time course as compared to

  2. Glucose induces rapid changes in the secretome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein secretion is a fundamental process in all living cells. Proteins can either be secreted via the classical or non-classical pathways. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gluconeogenic enzymes are in the extracellular fraction/periplasm when cells are grown in media containing low glucose. Following a transfer of cells to high glucose media, their levels in the extracellular fraction are reduced rapidly. We hypothesized that changes in the secretome were not restricted to gluconeogenic enzymes. The goal of the current study was to use a proteomic approach to identify extracellular proteins whose levels changed when cells were transferred from low to high glucose media. Results We performed two iTRAQ experiments and identified 347 proteins that were present in the extracellular fraction including metabolic enzymes, proteins involved in oxidative stress, protein folding, and proteins with unknown functions. Most of these proteins did not contain typical ER-Golgi signal sequences. Moreover, levels of many of these proteins decreased upon a transfer of cells from media containing low to high glucose media. Using an extraction procedure and Western blotting, we confirmed that the metabolic enzymes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase), proteins involved in oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin), and heat shock proteins (Ssa1p, Hsc82p, and Hsp104p) were in the extracellular fraction during growth in low glucose and that the levels of these extracellular proteins were reduced when cells were transferred to media containing high glucose. These proteins were associated with membranes in vesicle-enriched fraction. We also showed that small vesicles were present in the extracellular fraction in cells grown in low glucose. Following a transfer from low to high glucose media for 30 minutes, 98% of these vesicles disappeared from the extracellular fraction. Conclusions Our data indicate that transferring cells from low to high glucose media induces a rapid decline in levels of a large number of extracellular proteins and the disappearance of small vesicles from the extracellular fraction. Therefore, we conclude that the secretome undergoes dynamic changes during transition from glucose-deficient to glucose-rich media. Most of these extracellular proteins do not contain typical ER signal sequences, suggesting that they are secreted via the non-classical pathway. PMID:24520859

  3. Contribution of Horizontal Gene Transfer to the Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Charles; Brachat, Sophie; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2005-01-01

    The genomes of the hemiascomycetes Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Ashbya gossypii have been completely sequenced, allowing a comparative analysis of these two genomes, which reveals that a small number of genes appear to have entered these genomes as a result of horizontal gene transfer from bacterial sources. One potential case of horizontal gene transfer in A. gossypii and 10 potential cases in S. cerevisiae were identified, of which two were investigated further. One gene, encoding the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD), is potentially a case of horizontal gene transfer, as shown by sequencing of this gene from additional bacterial and fungal species to generate sufficient data to construct a well-supported phylogeny. The DHOD-encoding gene found in S. cerevisiae, URA1 (YKL216W), appears to have entered the Saccharomycetaceae after the divergence of the S. cerevisiae lineage from the Candida albicans lineage and possibly since the divergence from the A. gossypii lineage. This gene appears to have come from the Lactobacillales, and following its acquisition the endogenous eukaryotic DHOD gene was lost. It was also shown that the bacterially derived horizontally transferred DHOD is required for anaerobic synthesis of uracil in S. cerevisiae. The other gene discussed in detail is BDS1, an aryl- and alkyl-sulfatase gene of bacterial origin that we have shown allows utilization of sulfate from several organic sources. Among the eukaryotes, this gene is found in S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and appears to derive from the alpha-proteobacteria. PMID:15947202

  4. Low-Molecular-Weight O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase and Serine Sulfhydrylase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Are the Same Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Shuzo

    1981-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase was purified from a cysteine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was demonstrated to be identical with l-serine sulfhydrylase. Images PMID:7021536

  5. Review: the Cct eukaryotic chaperonin subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, V; Rademacher, F; Kehren, V; Ernst, J F; Pearce, D A; Sherman, F

    1996-05-01

    All eight of the CCT1-CCT8 genes encoding the subunits of the Cct chaperonin complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified, including three that were uncovered by the systematic sequencing of the yeast genome. Although most of the properties of the eukaryotic Cct chaperonin have been elucidated with mammalian systems in vitro, studies with S. cerevisiae conditional mutants revealed that Cct is required for assembly of microtubules and actin in vivo. Cct subunits from the other yeasts, Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also have been identified from partial and complete DNA sequencing of genes. Cct8p from C. albicans, the only other completely sequenced Cct protein from a fungal species other than S. cerevisiae, is 72% and 61% similar to the S. cerevisiae and mouse Cct8 proteins, respectively. PMID:8771707

  6. Separation and characterization of six (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hien, N H; Fleet, G H

    1983-01-01

    Using a system of chromatography through columns of DEAE-Bio-Gel, HTP-Bio-Gel, and CM-Bio-Gel, we isolated and characterized six different (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases from cell wall autolysates and cell extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain 2180B. These enzymes were designated glucanases I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IV, and V. The haploid mating type S. cerevisiae strain 2180A and the diploid strains S. cerevisiae 2180D and S. cerevisiae 595 contained the same complex of glucanases. Glucanases II and IIIA were exoenzymes, and glucanases I, IIIB, IV, and V were endoenzymes. The enzymes exhibited different molecular weights, kinetic properties, and activities on isolated yeast cell walls. The products of substrate (laminarin) hydrolysis were quantified by using high-pressure liquid chromatography and were significantly different for the four endoglucanases. PMID:6358190

  7. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts. PMID:23329062

  8. Damage Recovery Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Revealed by Genomic Phenotyping

    E-print Network

    of mutagen-exposed Saccha- romyces cerevisiae plus computational analysis of the data led to the finding damage proteins, RNA, carbohydrates, lipids, and other cellular molecules. Here we have systematically

  9. Production of extracellular and total invertase by Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts.

    PubMed

    DWORSCHACK, R G; WICKERHAM, L J

    1961-07-01

    Some strains of Candida utilis produce exceptionally large amounts of extracellular and total invertase. Strain Y-900 of C. utilis produces high yields whether the carbon source is sucrose, glucose, maltose, or xylose and still higher yields with lactic acid, glycerol, and ethyl alcohol. Approximately 20 to 30% of the total invertase of C. utilis is extracellular. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis are generally inferior to C. utilis in production of extracellular and total invertase, the difference being accentuated in shaken cultures. The industrial yeasts are generally superior in invertase production to the other yeasts included in the survey. PMID:13725351

  10. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 18. Comparative analysis of chromosome maps and synteny with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Llorente; Alain Malpertuy; Cécile Neuvéglise; Jacky de Montigny; Michel Aigle; François Artiguenave; Gaëlle Blandin; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Philippe Brottier; Serge Casaregola; Pascal Durrens; Claude Gaillardin; Andrée Lépingle; Odile Ozier-Kalogéropoulos; Serge Potier; William Saurin; Fredj Tekaia; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Patrick Wincker; Jean Weissenbach; Jean-Luc Souciet; Bernard Dujon

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of chromosome maps of Hemiascomycetes by comparing gene order and orientation of the 13 yeast species partially sequenced in this program with the genome map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the analysis of nearly 8000 situations in which two distinct genes having homologs in S. cerevisiae could be identified on the sequenced inserts of another yeast

  11. DNA microarray analysis suggests that zinc pyrithione causes iron starvation to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Yasokawa; Satomi Murata; Yumiko Iwahashi; Emiko Kitagawa; Katsuyuki Kishi; Yukihiro Okumura; Hitoshi Iwahashi

    2010-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been used in anti-dandruff shampoos and in anti-fouling paint on ships. However, little is known of its mode of action. We characterized the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. The majority of the strongly upregulated genes are related to iron transport, and many of the strongly downregulated genes are

  12. New Potential Cell Wall Glucanases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Their Involvement in Mating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CORINNA CAPPELLARO; VLADIMIR MRSA; WIDMAR TANNER

    1998-01-01

    Biotinylation of intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with a nonpermeant reagent (Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin) al- lowed the identification of seven cell wall proteins that were released from intact cells by dithiothreitol (DTT). By N-terminal sequencing, three of these proteins were identified as the known proteins b-exoglucanase 1 (Exg1p), b-endoglucanase (Bgl2p), and chitinase (Cts1p). One protein was related to the PIR protein family, whereas

  13. Unwinding RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: DEAD-box proteins and related families.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, J; Kressler, D; Linder, P

    1999-05-01

    Members of the RNA-helicase family are defined by several evolutionary conserved motifs. They are found in all organisms - from bacteria to humans - and many viruses. The minimum number of RNA helicases present within a eukaryotic cell can be predicted from the complete sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Recent progress in the functional analysis of various family members has given new insights into, and confirmed the significance of these proteins for, most cellular RNA metabolic processes. PMID:10322435

  14. Heterologous co-production of Thermobifida fusca Cel9A with other cellulases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niel van Wyk; Riaan den Haan; Willem H. van Zyl

    2010-01-01

    The processive endoglucanase Cel9A of the moderately thermophilic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca was functionally produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant Cel9A displayed activity on both soluble (carboxymethylcellulose) and insoluble (Avicel) cellulose substrates\\u000a confirming its processive endoglucanase activity. High-performance anionic exchange chromatography analyses of soluble sugars\\u000a released from Avicel revealed a cellobiose\\/glucose ratio of 2.5?±?0.1. Growth by the recombinant strain on amorphous cellulose

  15. Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  16. Evidence for Sterilization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae K 7 by an External Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tatsuya; Murayama, Yuzo; Suzuki, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Noboru; Iwano, Kimio; Kudo, Kozo

    1992-06-01

    A new process of sterilization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This process consists of external magnetic flux and ferrite. Consequently, an alteration of yeast cells, caused by treatment with 2000 G magnetic flux and 6 g of ferrite, was detected through observation of the release of materials from yeast cells absorbing at 260 nm and microscopy of disrupted cells, cell debris, ghost cells and intracellular components. The same results were seen at 28°C and 4°C.

  17. Enhanced Iron Uptake of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of a Tadpole Ferritin Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOUNG-MI SHIN; TAE-HO KWON; KYUNG-SUK KIM; KEON-SANG CHAE; DAE-HYUK KIM; JAE-HO KIM; MOON-SIK YANG

    2001-01-01

    We genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, with the major heavy-chain subunit of tadpole ferritin. A 450-kDa ferritin complex can store up to 4,500 iron atoms in its central cavity. We cloned the tadpole ferritin heavy-chain gene (TFH) into the yeast shuttle vector YEp352 under the control of a hybrid alcohol dehydrogenase II and

  18. Construction of a Library of Human Glycosyltransferases Immobilized in the Cell Wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoh-ichi Shimma; Fumie Saito; Fumi Oosawa; Yoshifumi Jigami

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-one human glycosyltransferases were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as immobilized enzymes and were assayed for enzymatic activities. The stem and catalytic regions of sialyl-, fucosyl-, galactosyl-, N-acetylgalactosaminyl-, and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases were fused with yeast cell wall Pir proteins, which anchor glycosyltransferases at the yeast cell wall glucan. More than 75% of expressed recombinant glycosyltransferases retained their enzymatic activities in the yeast

  19. Complex transcriptional circuitry at the G1\\/S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine E. Horak; Nicholas M. Luscombe; Jiang Qian; Paul Bertone; Stacy Piccirrillo; Mark Gerstein; Michael Snyder

    2002-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SBF (Swi4-Swi6 cell cycle box binding factor) and MBF (MluI binding factor) are the major transcription factors regulating the START of the cell cycle, a time just before DNA replication, bud growth initiation, and spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. These two factors bind to the promoters of 235 genes, but bind less than a quarter

  20. Effects of nucleotides and divalent cations on phospholipase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Witt; Peter Hampel; Klaus Böcker; Angelika Mertsching

    1989-01-01

    Divalent cations activate the lysophospholipase and transacylase reactions catalyzed by the same enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The activation was observed at neutral pH, but not at the pH optimum of lysophospholipase\\/transacylase, near 3.5. Adenine nucleotides, especially AMP and ADP, are strong inhibitors of the same group of enzymes. Half maximal inhibition by AMP was found at a concentration

  1. Bioethanol production performance of five recombinant strains of laboratory and industrial xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Matsushika; Hiroyuki Inoue; Katsuji Murakami; Osamu Takimura; Shigeki Sawayama

    2009-01-01

    In this study, five recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were compared for their xylose-fermenting ability. The most efficient xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using the industrial strain MA-R4, in which the genes for xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis along with an endogenous xylulokinase gene were expressed by chromosomal integration of the flocculent yeast strain IR-2. The MA-R4 strain

  2. Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Mi Kim; Seung-Moon Park; Dae-Hyuk Kim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3) from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants

  3. Influence of fatty acids on the growth of wine microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Guilloux-Benatier; Y Le Fur; M Feuillat

    1998-01-01

      The effects of fatty acids, extracted during prefermentation grape skin-contact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni, were studied. The influence of skin-contact on total fatty acid content was evaluated both in Chardonnay must and in synthetic\\u000a medium. Prior to alcoholic fermentation, the skin-contact contributes to a large enrichment of long-chain fatty acids (C16 to C18:3). These results induced a positive

  4. Metabolic heat evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under very-high-gravity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karnnalin Theerarattananoon; Yen-Han Lin; Ding-Yu Peng

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic heat evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions of various combinations of glucose level (low gravity, 10g glucose\\/l; very-high-gravity, 300g glucose\\/l), temperature, and urea concentration was investigated. The measured overall metabolic heat evolution was 0.416 and 0.476J\\/h, respectively, for 10 and 300g glucose\\/l in the presence of urea. As glucose level was increased from low- to very-high-gravity when urea was

  5. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann

    2007-01-01

    The effects of d-limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37°C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process to remove more than 90% of the initial d-limonene present in the peel waste. d-Limonene is known to inhibit yeast

  6. Engineering of Polyploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Secretion of Large Amounts of Fungal Glucoamylase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Ekino; Hiroyuki Hayashi; Masahiro Moriyama; Minoru Matsuda; Masatoshi Goto; Sadazo Yoshino; Kensuke Furukawa

    2002-01-01

    We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that produce large amounts of fungal glucoamylase (GAI) from Aspergillus awamori var. kawachi. To do this, we used the -sequence-mediated integration vector system and the heat-induced endomitotic diploidization method. -Sequence-mediated integration is known to occur mainly in a particular chromosome, and the copy number of the integration is variable. In order to construct transformants carrying

  7. Genetic Identification of Factors That Modulate Ribosomal DNA Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hontz; Rachel O. Niederer; Joseph M. Johnson; Jeffrey S. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Despite being responsible for the majority of transcription in growing cells, Pol I regulation is poorly understood compared to Pol II. To gain new insights into rDNA transcriptional regulation, we developed a genetic assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that detects alterations in transcription from

  8. Cdc50p, a Conserved Endosomal Membrane Protein, Controls Polarized Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenjiro Misu; Konomi Fujimura-Kamada; Takashi Ueda; Akihiko Nakano; Hiroyuki Katoh; Kazuma Tanaka

    2003-01-01

    During the cell cycle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the actin cytoskeleton and the growth of cell surface are polarized, mediating bud emergence, bud growth, and cytokinesis. We identified CDC50 as a multicopy suppressor of the myo3 myo5-360 temperature-sensitive mutant, which is defective in organization of cortical actin patches. The cdc50 null mutant showed cold-sensitive cell cycle arrest with a

  9. Transcriptional Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Plasma Membrane-Perturbing Compound Chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Zakrzewska; Andre Boorsma; Klaas J. Hellingwerf; Frans M. Klis

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan is a plasma membrane-perturbing compound consisting of linear chains of ?-1,4-linked glucosamine residues, which at acidic pHs become positively charged. It is extensively used as an antimicrobial compound, yet its mode of action is still unresolved. Chitosan strongly affected the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and two human-pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and

  10. Farnesol-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a cell cycle mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyotaka Machida; Toshio Tanaka; Yoshihisa Yano; Shuzo Otani; Makoto Taniguchi

    1999-01-01

    The growth of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was inhibited in medium containing 25 pM farnesol (FOH). The FOH-treated cells were still viable, and were characterized by a transition from budded to unbudded phase as well as a significant loss of intracellular diacylglycerol (DAG). FOH-induced growth inhibition could be effectively prevented by the coaddition of a membrane-permeable DAG analogue which can

  11. Culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on hydrolyzed waste cassava starch for production of baking-quality yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony O. Ejiofor; Yusuf Chisti; Murray Moo-Young

    1996-01-01

    A fermentation medium based on waste cassava starch hydrolysate and a four-phase feeding strategy for a fed-batch culture of Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. Cassava starch isolated from the wastewater produced in processing of cassava mash into gari was liquefied with a thermostable 1.4-?-d-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.1) in the presence of 100 ppm Ca2+ at 80°C and pH 6.1–6.3 for

  12. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal pH and microbial fermentation in dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thrune; A. Bach; M. Ruiz-Moreno; M. D. Stern; J. G. Linn

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with eight ruminally-cannulated cows using a crossover design with 2 periods to determine the effects of yeast supplementation on rumen fermentation. Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were either supplemented with 0.5 g\\/hd\\/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an active dry yeast (CNCM-1077, Levucell SC20 (r) SC, Lallemand Animal Nutrition) or not supplemented (control). A basal diet consisting of

  13. Comparative analysis of trehalose production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under saline stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. González-Hernández; M. Jiménez-Estrada; A. Peña

    2005-01-01

    The comparative analysis of growth, intracellular content of Na + and K +, and the production of trehalose in the halophilic Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined under saline stress. The yeast species were studied based on their ability to grow in the absence or presence of 0.6 or 1.0 M NaCl and KCl. D. hansenii strains grew better and

  14. Heterologous Expression of Transaldolase Gene Tal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Fusarium oxysporum for Enhanced Bioethanol Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Xia Fan; Xiao-Xue Yang; Jin-Zhu Song; Xiao-Mei Huang; Zhong-Xiang Cheng; Lin Yao; Olivia S. Juba; Qing Liang; Qian Yang; Margaret Odeph; Yan Sun; Yun Wang

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to ferment xylose-producing ethanol. However, efficiency of xylose utilization and ethanol yield\\u000a was low. In this study, the transaldolase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully expressed in F. oxysporum by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant fungus (cs28pCAM-Sctal4) was 0.195 times higher\\u000a than that

  15. Role of DNA Replication Proteins in Double-Strand Break-Induced Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuan Wang; Grzegorz Ira; JoseAntonio Tercero; Allyson M. Holmes; John F. X. Diffley; James E. Haber

    2004-01-01

    Mitotic double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion involves new DNA synthesis. We have analyzed the requirement of several essential replication components, the Mcm proteins, Cdc45p, and DNA ligase I, in the DNA synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAT switching. In an mcm7-td (temperature-inducible degron) mutant, MAT switching occurred normally when Mcm7p was degraded below the level of detection, suggesting the lack of

  16. Nutrient utilization profile of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from palm wine in tropical fruit fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. U. Ezeronye; Michael Okpara

    2004-01-01

    The nutrient utilization pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from palm wine was studied using tropical fruits as substrate. Starter cultures were prepared by growing 15–18h old stock cultures of the yeast in successively larger bottles containing pasteurized fruit must. Microvinification, substrate utilization and assay of yeast activity were performed. Soluble solute (SS) content of the juices ranged from 10–18 Brix. Pinapple

  17. Preparation of fermentable lingonberry juice through removal of benzoic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arto Visti; Sanna Viljakainen; Simo Laakso

    2003-01-01

    Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a commercially important wild, uncultivated berry in northern regions of the world. It contains high amounts of benzoic acid, which contributes to the acidity of the berry and, as a microbisidic compound, prevents fermentation of lingonberry juice. Therefore a method was developed utilizing the pH-dependent ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove benzoic acid from solutions. By

  18. First characterization of the gene RGD1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Barthe; Geoffroy de Bettignies; Olivier Louvet; Marie-France Peypouquet; Carine Morel; François Doignon; Marc Crouzet

    1998-01-01

    We identified the ORF YBR260c during systematic sequencing of one region of chromosome II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This ORF encodes a putative protein of 666 aa, of which the C-terminal part of the deduced amino acid sequence resembles human and yeast Rho\\/Rac GTPase activating proteins (GAP). An initial study is reported in the paper. This gene was expressed in haploid

  19. Effects of cell entrapment in Ca-alginate on the metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galazzo

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in suspension have been immobilized in calcium-alginate beads. Fermentation rates and intracellular composition have been determined under nongrowing conditions in these Ca-alginate entrapped cells and for identical cells in suspension. Glucose uptake and ethanol and glycerol production are approximately two times faster in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. Intermediate metabolite levels such as fructose-1,6-diphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate

  20. Regulation of aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Martínez-Force; Tahía Benítez

    1993-01-01

    The activity of three enzymes, aspartokinase, homoserine dehydrogenase, and homoserine kinase, has been studied in the industrial strainSaccharomyces cerevisiae IFI256 and in the mutants derived from it that are able to overproduce methionine and\\/or threonine. Most of the mutants showed alteration of the kinetic properties of the enzymes aspartokinase, which was less inhibited by threonine and increased its affinity for

  1. Backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the ribosome assembly factor Nop6 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Jan Philip; Lioutikov, Anatoli; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2014-10-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nop6 protein is involved in the maturation of the small ribosomal subunit. It contains a central RNA binding domain and a predicted C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Here we report the almost complete (>90%) (1)H,(13)C,(15)N backbone and side chain NMR assignment of a 15 kDa Nop6 construct comprising the RNA binding and coiled-coil domains. PMID:23921755

  2. Density, porosity, and structure of dried cell walls isolated from Bacillus megaterium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, R; Berlin, E; Gerhardt

    1977-01-01

    Helium displacement and nitrogen adsorption techniques were used to determine the density and porosity, respectively, of freeze-dried cell walls isolated from Bacillus megaterium KM and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The densities were 1.302 and 1.180 g/cm3, respectively, suggesting noncrystalline solids. The porosities were extremely small, indicating that the cell walls had collapsed and become essentially impervious upon lyophilization. PMID:402351

  3. l-Malic acid production from fumaric acid by a laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SHY2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohai Wang; C. S. Gong; George T. Tsao

    1996-01-01

    l-Malic acid was produced efficiently from fumaric acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SHY2. The amount of l-malic acid produced increased with the increase in initial fumaric acid concentration (from 20 to 120 g\\/L). The average specific and volumetric production rates reached up to 0.708 g\\/g·h and 2.787 g\\/L·h, respectively, in 24 hours. Final l-malic acid concentration of up to 109 g\\/L

  4. The cytosolic pathway of L -malic acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : the role of fumarase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pines; S. Even-Ram; N. Elnathan; E. Battat; O. Aharonov; D. Gibson; I. Goldberg

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates L-malic acid but only minute amounts of fumaric acid. A 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance study following the label from glucose to L-malic acid indicates that the L-malic acid is synthesized from pyruvic acid via oxaloacetic acid. From this, and from previously published studies, we conclude that a cytosolic reductive pathway leading from pyruvic acid via oxaloacetic acid to

  5. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP22 Gene Codes for the Mitochondrial ATPase Subunit 6Specific Translation Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomei Zeng; Audrey Hourset; Alexander Tzagoloff

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP22 gene were previously shown to block assembly of the F0 component of the mitochondrial proton-translocating ATPase. Further inquiries into the function of Atp22p have revealed that it is essential for translation of subunit 6 of the mitochondrial ATPase. The mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by the presence in the same cell of wild-type

  6. Applications of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flp-FRT System in Bacterial Genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert P. Schweizer

    2003-01-01

    The Flp-FRT site-specific recombinationsystem from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful and efficient tool for high-throughput genetic analysis of bacteria in the postgenomic era. This review highlights the features of the Flp-FRT system, describes current bacterial genetic methods incorporating this technology and, finally, suggests potential future uses of this system. In combination with improved allele replacement methods, recyclable FRT mutagenesis cassettes,

  7. Expression of nutritionally well-balanced protein, AmA1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Geum Kim; Ju Kim; Dae-Hyuk Kim; Moon-Sik Yang

    2001-01-01

    Food yeast.Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a safe organism with a long history of use for the production of biomass rich in high quality proteins and vitamins.\\u000a AmA1, a seed storage albumin fromAmaranthus hypochondriacus, has a well-balanced amino acid composition and high levels of essential amino acids and offers the possibility of further\\u000a improving food and animal feed additives. In order to

  8. Data acquisition, analysis, and mining: Integrative tools for discerning metabolic function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Jewett; Michael Hansen; Jens Nielsen

    The well defined genetic architecture and metabolic network of Saccharomyces\\u000a cerevisiae make this organism a cornerstone for metabolomics research. Recent efforts\\u000a have focused on robust sample preparation techniques, analytical tools to quantitatively identify\\u000a hundreds of metabolites at the same time, and elegant approaches for analyzing and interpreting the\\u000a data. While equally important, we focus here on approaches for extracting useful information

  9. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. (Universita de Perugia (Italy))

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  10. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent). PMID:15811411

  11. AZF1 Is a Glucose-Dependent Positive Regulator of CLN3 Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Newcomb; Duane D. Hall; Warren Heideman

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of the CLN3 G1 cyclin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is positively regulated by glucose in a process that involves a set of DNA elements with the sequence AAGAAAAA (A2GA5). To identify proteins that interact with these elements, we used a 1-hybrid approach, which yielded a nuclear zinc finger protein previously iden- tified as Azf1. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments

  12. Degradation of Misfolded Endoplasmic Reticulum Glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Determined by a Specific Oligosaccharide Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude A. Jakob; Patricie Burda; Jürgen Roth; Markus Aebi

    1998-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , transfer of N-linked oligosaccharides is immediately followed by trimming of ER-localized glycosidases. We analyzed the influence of specific oligosaccharide structures for degradation of misfolded carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). By studying the trimming reactions in vivo, we found that removal of the terminal a 1,2 glucose and the first a 1,3 glucose by glucosidase I and glucosidase II

  13. Functional expression of the extraplastidial Arabidopsis thaliana oleate desaturase gene (FAD2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Smithers Covello; Darwin Wilfred Reed

    1996-01-01

    The functional expression in yeast of the Arabidopsis fhaliana FADZ gene, encoding the extraplastidial oleate desaturase (1 -acyl- 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine A1 2-desaturase) is reported. Dienoic fatty acids constituted up to 11 % (w\\/w) of the total fatty acids in transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and were con- firmed to be linoleic acid and Ag,A'2-hexadecadienoic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  14. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Aldiguier; S. Alfenore; X. Cameleyre; G. Goma; J. L. Uribelarrea; S. E. Guillouet; C. Molina-Jouve

    2004-01-01

    The impact of ethanol and temperature on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol biofuel production was studied using an isothermal fed-batch process at five different temperatures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were quantified. The best performances were found at 30 and 33°C around 120 g l -1 ethanol produced in 30 h with a slight benefit for growth at 30°C and for

  15. High-yield production and characterization of biologically active recombinant aprotinin expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Meta; Hiroshi Nakatake; Takayuki Imamura; Chikateru Nozaki; Kazuhisa Sugimura

    2009-01-01

    Aprotinin is a polypeptide composed of 58 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 6512Da. The 58 amino acid residues are arranged in a single polypeptide chain, which is cross-linked by three disulfide bridges and folded to form a pear-shaped molecule. To express recombinant aprotinin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a synthetic gene encoding aprotinin was constructed and fused in

  16. Identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA ligase IV: involvement in DNA double-strand break repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Hwang Teo; Stephen P. Jackson

    1997-01-01

    DNA ligases catalyse the joining of single and double-strand DNA breaks, which is an essential final step in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Mammalian cells have four DNA ligases, termed ligases I–IV. In contrast, other than a DNA ligase I homologue (encoded by CDC9), no other DNA ligases have hitherto been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the identification

  17. Purification and characterization of recombinant human liver prolidase expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Hao Wang; Qing-Wen Zhi; Man-Ji Sun

    2005-01-01

    The recombinant human liver prolidase (rh-prolidase, EC 3.4.13.9) from the lysate supernatant of engineering yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was purified in two steps employing anion-exchange gradient chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose fast flow) and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 high resolution). The purified recombinant protein furnished a single band with a molecular weight of 56 kD. Intensity scanning of the SDS-PAGE gel revealed that the

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of Nucleotide-Level Variation in Commonly Used Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Schacherer; Douglas M. Ruderfer; David Gresham; Kara Dolinski; David Botstein; Leonid Kruglyak

    2007-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-more precisely, the S288c strain-was completely sequenced. However, experimental work in yeast is commonly performed using strains that are of unknown genetic relationship to S288c. Here, we characterized the nucleotide-level similarity between S288c and seven commonly used lab strains (A364A, W303, FL100, CEN.PK, S1278b, SK1 and BY4716) using 25mer oligonucleotide microarrays

  19. Fractionation of phenolic compounds extracted from propolis and their activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  20. Acetaldehyde addition throughout the growth phase alleviates the phenotypic effect of zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoufel Cheraiti; François-Xavier Sauvage; Jean-Michel Salmon

    2008-01-01

    During experiments to determine the effects of exogenously added acetaldehyde on pure cultures of various yeast strains, we\\u000a discovered that an early acetaldehyde perfusion during the growth phase allowed several yeasts to partially overcome the phenotypic\\u000a effects of zinc depletion during alcoholic fermentation. We, therefore, performed genome-wide expression and proteomic analysis\\u000a on an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain (VL1) growing

  1. Effects of acetaldehyde on Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to a range of chemical and environmental stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Barber; Frank Vriesekoop; Neville B. Pamment

    2002-01-01

    The ability of small quantities of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in environmentally-stressed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined over a broad range of stress conditions. Acetaldehyde addition substantially reduced the lag phase of cultures suddenly inoculated into medium containing inhibitory quantities of low M.W. alcohols and higher fatty acids. For ethanol-stressed cultures, acetaldehyde was effective whether added initially or

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae insights into industrial continuous and batch fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Sheng Cheng; Bin Qiao; Ying-Jin Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain has been widely applied in continuous and batch\\/fed-batch industrial fermentation. However, little is known about\\u000a the molecular basis of fermentative behavior of this strain in the two realistic fermentation processes. In this paper, we\\u000a presented comparative proteomic profiling of the industrial yeast in the industrial fermentation processes. The expression\\u000a levels of most identified protein were

  3. Acetaldehyde stimulates ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae , grown on various carbon sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hucker; F. Vriesekoop

    2008-01-01

    The ability of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae while grown on non-fermentable substrates (ethanol, glycerol) is reported. The addition of acetaldehyde to ethanol-stressed\\u000a yeast grown on either ethanol or glycerol led to a significant decrease in lag time of 67 and 45 %, respectively (p = 0.000) and an increase in the specific growth rate (0.008–0.038\\/h

  4. A general suppressor of RNA polymerase I, II and III mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Stettler; Nuchanard Chiannilkulchai; Sylvie Hermann-Le Denmat; Dominique Lalo; François Lacroute; André Sentenac; Pierre Thuriaux

    1993-01-01

    A multicopy genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain FL100) was screened for its ability to suppress conditionally defective mutations altering the 31 kDa subunit (rpc31–236) or the 53 kDa subunit (rpc53-254\\/424) of RNA polymerase III. In addition to allele-specific suppressors, we identified seven suppressor clones that acted on both mutations and also suppressed several other conditional mutations defective in RNA

  5. The novel nuclear gene DSS1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Dmochowska; Pawel Golik; Piotr P. Stepien

    1995-01-01

    A previously unknown nuclear gene DSS-1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned and sequenced. The gene was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a disruption of the SUV-3 gene coding for a DEAD\\/H box protein involved in processing and turnover of mitochondrial transcripts. The DSS-1 gene codes for a 970 amino-acid protein of molecular weight 111 kDa and is necessary for

  6. The use of monochloroacetic acid for improved ethanol production by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Arasaratnam; K. Balasubramaniam

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae adsorbed on acid-treated glass beads produced 5.4 g l ?1 ethanol at 96 h in batch process. Precoating the acid-treated glass beads with gelatin (25 g l ?1 ) before immobilization of the cells increased ethanol production to 26.3 g l ?1 at 72 h. Cell leakage into the medium was decreased when the immobilized cells were crosslinked

  7. Synthesis of Novel Lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of an Unspecific Bacterial Acyltransferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Kalscheuer; Heinrich Luftmann; Alexander Steinbuchel

    2004-01-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase\\/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS\\/DGAT) is the key enzyme in storage lipid accumulation in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1, medi- ating wax ester, and to a lesser extent, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids. Four genes encoding a DGAT (Dga1p), a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Lro1p) and two acyl-coenzyme A:sterol acyltransferases

  8. Cell wall mannoproteins during the population growth phases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Valentín; E. Herrero; H. Rico; F. Miragall; R. Sentandreu

    1987-01-01

    Mannoproteins from cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesized at successive stages of the population growth cycle have been solubilized with Zymolyase and subsequently analyzed. The major change along the population cycle concerned a large size mannoprotein material; the size of the newly-synthesized molecules varied from 120,000–500,000 (mean of about 200,000) at early exponential phase to 250,000–350,000 (mean of about 300,000)

  9. Functional and physical interactions of Faf1p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleolar protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwona Karkusiewicz; Bo?enna Rempola; Robert Gromadka; Marcin Grynberg; Joanna Rytka

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery and characterisation of a novel nucleolar protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified this protein encoded by ORF YIL019w, designated in SGD base as Faf1p, in a two hybrid interaction screen using the known nucleolar protein Krr1 as bait. The presented data indicate that depletion of the Faf1 protein has an impact on the 40S ribosomal subunit

  10. Induction of the cytoplasmic petite mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the antibacterial antibiotics erythromycin and chloramphenicol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Williamson; N. G. Maroudas; D. Wilkie

    1971-01-01

    Low concentrations of erythromycin and chloramphenicol (=0.3 mg\\/ml) specifically affect intra-mitochondrial protein synthesis in most strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thereby preventing growth on non-fermentable substrates. This effect is reversible, the genetic capacity for respiration in the absence of the drug being unaffected. However, we now show that exposure of growing cells to high concentrations (1.3–3.0 mg\\/ml) of either antibiotic generates

  11. Evaluation of the mutagenicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics in Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Koeda, T; Hirano, F

    1979-06-01

    The mutagenicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (KM, AKM, DKB, RSM, AMK, GM, TOB) has been studied in cells of the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bacterial strains (Ames') monitor reverse mutation (point mutation) and the yeast strain D5 monitors mitotic crossing-over, mitotic gene conversion and point mutation. None of these antibiotics demonstrated any mutagenic activities in either the bacteria or the yeast. PMID:381273

  12. Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Kruglyak, Leonid

    studies in yeast. We also examined the population structure of S. cerevisiae, provid-density Affymetrix Yeast Tiling Microarray (YTM) and identified positions likely to differ from the reference sequence with the software package SNPscanner8 . We detected a total of 1,896,131 single nucleotide poly

  13. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serine O-acetyltransferase in cysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kenji; Awano, Naoki; Nakamori, Shigeru; Ono, Bun ichiro

    2003-01-28

    Some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have detectable activities of L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SATase) and O-acetyl-L-serine/O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH-SHLase), but synthesize L-cysteine exclusively via cystathionine by cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. To untangle this peculiar feature in sulfur metabolism, we introduced Escherichia coli genes encoding SATase and OAS-SHLase into S. cerevisiae L-cysteine auxotrophs. While the cells expressing SATase grew on medium lacking L-cysteine, those expressing OAS-SHLase did not grow at all. The cells expressing both enzymes grew very well without L-cysteine. These results indicate that S. cerevisiae SATase cannot support L-cysteine biosynthesis and that S. cerevisiae OAS/OAH-SHLase produces L-cysteine if enough OAS is provided by E. coli SATase. It appears as if S. cerevisiae SATase does not possess a metabolic role in vivo either because of very low activity or localization. For example, S. cerevisiae SATase may be localized in the nucleus, thus controlling the level of OAS required for regulation of sulfate assimilation, but playing no role in the direct synthesis of L-cysteine. PMID:12586406

  14. Comparative analysis of trehalose production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under saline stress.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, J C; Jiménez-Estrada, M; Peña, A

    2005-02-01

    The comparative analysis of growth, intracellular content of Na+ and K+, and the production of trehalose in the halophilic Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined under saline stress. The yeast species were studied based on their ability to grow in the absence or presence of 0.6 or 1.0 M NaCl and KCl. D. hansenii strains grew better and accumulated more Na+ than S. cerevisiae under saline stress (0.6 and 1.0 M of NaCl), compared to S. cerevisiae strains under similar conditions. By two methods, we found that D. hansenii showed a higher production of trehalose, compared to S. cerevisiae; S. cerevisiae active dry yeast contained more trehalose than a regular commercial strain (S. cerevisiae La Azteca) under all conditions, except when the cells were grown in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl. In our experiments, it was found that D. hansenii accumulates more glycerol than trehalose under saline stress (2.0 and 3.0 M salts). However, under moderate NaCl stress, the cells accumulated more trehalose than glycerol. We suggest that the elevated production of trehalose in D. hansenii plays a role as reserve carbohydrate, as reported for other microorganisms. PMID:15338455

  15. Functional analysis of chimerical plasma membrane H+-ATPases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Morsomme, P; Sempoux-Thinès, D; Supply, P; Goffeau, A; Ghislain, M

    1997-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not support growth of H+-ATPase-depleted cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even after deletion of the enzyme's carboxy terminus. Functional chimerical H+-ATPase proteins in which appropriate regions of the S. pombe enzyme were replaced with their S. cerevisiae counterparts were generated by in vivo gene recombination. Site-directed mutagenesis of the H+-ATPase chimeras showed that a single amino acid replacement, tyrosine residue 596 by alanine, resulted in functional expression of the S. pombe H+-ATPase. The reverse Ala-598-->Tyr substitution was introduced into the S. cerevisiae enzyme to better understand the role of this alanine residue. However, no obvious effect on ATPase activity could be detected. The S. cerevisiae cells expressing the S. pombe H+-ATPase substituted with alanine were enlarged and grew more slowly than wild-type cells. ATPase activity showed a more alkaline pH optimum, lower K(m) values for MgATP and decreased Vmax compared with wild-type S. cerevisiae activity. None of these kinetic parameters was found to be modified in glucose-starved cells, indicating that the S. pombe H+-ATPase remained fully active. Interestingly, regulation of ATPase activity by glucose was restored to a chimera in which the S. cerevisiae sequence spans most of the catalytic site. PMID:9282738

  16. Characterization of the PNT1 pentamidine resistance gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, G; Staben, C

    1994-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PNT1 gene was isolated and characterized. When present in high copy number in S. cerevisiae, PNT1 confers resistance to the anti-Pneumocystis carinii drug pentamidine. The PNT1 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized polypeptide of 409 amino acids. The predicted gene product is a very basic (pI 9.9) polypeptide with one potential membrane-associated region. PNT1 is located on chromosome XVR of S. cerevisiae. It is transcribed at a very low level. Overexpression of the gene increases resistance to the cytostatic and mitochondrial DNA-damaging effects of pentamidine and related cationic compounds. Disruption of the gene leads to slightly increased levels of susceptibility to pentamidine and some related compounds. Images PMID:7695273

  17. Two programmed replicative lifespans of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinan; Yuan, Ruoshi; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Minjuan; Ao, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Cellular replicative capacity is a therapeutic target for regenerative medicine as well as cancer treatment. The mechanism of replicative senescence and cell immortality is still unclear. We investigated the diauxic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that the replicative capacity revealed by the yeast growth curve can be understood by using the dynamical property of the molecular-cellular network regulating S. cerevisiae. The endogenous network we proposed has a limit cycle when pheromone signaling is disabled, consistent with the exponential growth phase with an infinite replicative capacity. In the post-diauxic phase, the cooperative effect of the pheromone activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway with the cell cycle leads to a fixed point attractor instead of the limit cycle. The cells stop dividing after several generations counting from the beginning of the post-diauxic growth. By tuning the MAPK pathway, S. cerevisiae therefore programs the number of offsprings it replicates. PMID:24447585

  18. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lignocellulosic hydrolysate from Chrysanthemum waste degradation.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Hidalgo, Balkys; Monsalve-Marín, Felipe; Narváez-Rincón, Paulo César; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario Enrique

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol production derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of a hydrolysate from floriculture waste degradation was studied. The hydrolysate was produced from Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) waste degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus and characterized to determine the presence of compounds that may inhibit fermentation. The products of hydrolysis confirmed by HPLC were cellobiose, glucose, xylose and mannose. The hydrolysate was fermented by S. cerevisiae, and concentrations of biomass, ethanol, and glucose were determined as a function of time. Results were compared to YGC modified medium (yeast extract, glucose and chloramphenicol) fermentation. Ethanol yield was 0.45 g g(-1), 88 % of the maximal theoretical value. Crysanthemum waste hydrolysate was suitable for ethanol production, containing glucose and mannose with adequate nutrients for S. cerevisiae fermentation and low fermentation inhibitor levels. PMID:23117675

  19. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  3. Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-12-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. PMID:24187129

  4. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Efficient Anaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation of l-Arabinose?

    PubMed Central

    Wisselink, H. Wouter; Toirkens, Maurice J.; del Rosario Franco Berriel, M.; Winkler, Aaron A.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2007-01-01

    For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as l-arabinose, is required. Wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the organism used in industrial ethanol production, cannot ferment xylose and arabinose. Although metabolic and evolutionary engineering has enabled the efficient alcoholic fermentation of xylose under anaerobic conditions, the conversion of l-arabinose into ethanol by engineered S. cerevisiae strains has previously been demonstrated only under oxygen-limited conditions. This study reports the first case of fast and efficient anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of l-arabinose by an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. This fermentation was achieved by combining the expression of the structural genes for the l-arabinose utilization pathway of Lactobacillus plantarum, the overexpression of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the enzymes of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and extensive evolutionary engineering. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h?1 g [dry weight]?1) and ethanol production (0.29 g h?1 g [dry weight]?1) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g?1) during anaerobic growth on l-arabinose as the sole carbon source. In addition, efficient ethanol production from sugar mixtures containing glucose and arabinose, which is crucial for application in industrial ethanol production, was achieved. PMID:17545317

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Population Divergence and Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Clinical, Domesticated and Wild Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Diezmann, Stephanie; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been associated with human life for millennia in the brewery and bakery. Recently it has been recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen. To study the evolutionary history of S. cerevisiae, the origin of clinical isolates and the importance of a virulence-associated trait, population genetics and phenotypic assays have been applied to an ecologically diverse set of 103 strains isolated from clinics, breweries, vineyards, fruits, soil, commercial supplements and insect guts. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequence data from five nuclear DNA loci were analyzed for population structure and haplotype distribution. Additionally, all strains were tested for survival of oxidative stress, a trait associated with microbial pathogenicity. DNA sequence analyses identified three genetic subgroups within the recombining S. cerevisiae strains that are associated with ecology, geography and virulence. Shared alleles suggest that the clinical isolates contain genetic contribution from the fruit isolates. Clinical and fruit isolates exhibit high levels of recombination, unlike the genetically homogenous soil isolates in which no recombination was detected. However, clinical and soil isolates were more resistant to oxidative stress than any other population, suggesting a correlation between survival in oxidative stress and yeast pathogenicity. Conclusions/Significance Population genetic analyses of S. cerevisiae delineated three distinct groups, comprising primarily the (i) human-associated brewery and vineyard strains, (ii) clinical and fruit isolates (iii) and wild soil isolates from eastern U.S. The interactions between S. cerevisiae and humans potentiate yeast evolution and the development of genetically, ecologically and geographically divergent groups. PMID:19390633

  6. Protective effect of antioxidants against para-nonylphenol-induced inhibition of cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okai, Y; Higashi-Okai, K; Machida, K; Nakamura, H; Nakayama, K; Fujita, K; Tanaka, T; Otani, S; Taniguchi, M

    2000-04-01

    The cell growth-modulating activity of an endocrine disruptor, p-nonylphenol (NP), was estimated using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a simple model of eukaryotic cells. NP caused a dose-dependent suppressive effect on cell growth of S. cerevisiae at 10, 25 and 50 microM. The NP-induced cell growth inhibition was restored when concomitantly lipophilic antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were supplied, but not the hydrophilic antioxidants ascorbic acid or (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The cellular oxygen consumption of S. cerevisiae was also inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by the extracellular addition of NP, and pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene suppressed NP-induced inhibition of cellular oxygen consumption, but ascorbic acid and EGCG were not effective. Furthermore, NP caused a marked generation of radical oxygen species (ROS) in S. cerevisiae, which was suppressed by treatment with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, but not with ascorbic acid and EGCG. However, NP did not show a significant inhibitory effect on cell growth and survival of mitochondria-deficient petite mutant cells and they showed a relatively weak ROS-generating activity compared with parent yeast cells. These results suggest that NP-induced inhibition of cell growth and oxygen consumption in S. cerevisiae might be possibly associated with ROS generation in yeast mitochondria. The significance of this finding is discussed from the viewpoint of NP-induced oxidative stress against eukaryotic cells. PMID:10731608

  7. SPME-GC method as a tool to differentiate VOC profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, Giacomo; Capece, Angela; D'Auria, Maurizio; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Romano, Patrizia

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability of 36 Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strains isolated from different grape varieties and from two very distant zones, located in Northern and Southern Italy. The strains were differentiated on the basis of parameters of technological interest, such as resistance to antimicrobial compounds frequently present in wine, and the production of volatile aromatic compounds (VOC), determined by SPME procedure in the experimental wines obtained by inoculated fermentations. The VOC profile allowed to differentiate the yeasts in function of isolation area: S. cerevisiae isolated from Southern Italy grapes were able to produce more volatile compounds than those from Northern Italy. The compounds synthesized by all the yeasts, besides the ethanol, were 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethyl acetate. The production of acids during the alcoholic fermentation was a characteristic of Southern yeast strains. The screening of S. cerevisiae strains for technological parameters, such as sulphur dioxide, copper and ethanol resistance or hydrogen sulphide production, revealed similar behaviour for sulphur dioxide resistance among Northern and Southern S. cerevisiae strains. Copper resistance and sulphur dioxide production were correlated to isolation area: S. cerevisiae "Northern" strains showed higher copper resistance and lowest hydrogen sulphide production than that exhibited from "Southern" strains. PMID:19269564

  8. Genetic approaches for identifying kinetochore components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Doheny, K.F.; Puziss, J.; Spencer, F.; Hieter, P. [John Hopkins Univ. Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A fundamental aspect of the cell division cycle is the chromosome cycle in which each of the chromosomal DNA molecules undergoes a series of morphological changes and complex movements to ensure faithful distribution at mitosis. The gene products responsible for execution of the chromosome cycle include structural components, such as those that assemble into the mitotic spindle apparatus, and regulatory components, such as those that coordinate the ordered series of events leading to chromosome segregation within the cell cycle. We have been taking several genetic approaches to identify genes encoding determinants critical to the chromosome cycle in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae.

  9. The unusual UBZ domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae polymerase ?

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Rachel V.; Bomar, Martha G.; D’Souza, Sanjay; Zhou, Pei; Walker, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed the presence of ubiquitin-binding domains in the Y family polymerases. The ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain of human polymerase ? is vital for its regulation, localization, and function. Here, we elucidate structural and functional features of the non-canonical UBZ motif of S. cerevisiae pol ?. Characterization of pol ? mutants confirms the importance of the UBZ motif and implies that its function is independent of zinc binding. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that zinc does bind to and affect the structure of the purified UBZ domain, but is not required for its ubiquitin-binding activity. Our finding that this unusual zinc finger is able to interact with ubiquitin even in its apo form adds support to the model that ubiquitin binding is the primary and functionally important activity of the UBZ domain in S. cerevisiae polymerase ?. Putative ubiquitin-binding domains, primarily UBZs, are identified in the majority of known pol ? homologs. We discuss the implications of our observations for zinc finger structure and pol ? regulation. PMID:20837403

  10. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine. PMID:25345561

  11. Formation of AAV Single Stranded DNA Genome from a Circular Plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  12. Candida albicans SSD1 can suppress multiple mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Rosamond, J

    1998-11-01

    The SSD1 gene of Saccharomyces encodes a 160 kDa cytoplasmic protein that can suppress mutations in a number of other genes. A functional homologue of SSD1 from the human pathogen Candida albicans was isolated on the basis of its ability to restore viability at the restrictive temperature in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae swi4 ssd1-d strain. The C. albicans gene, designated CaSSD1, encodes a 1262 aa protein which has 47% identity overall to S. cerevisiae SSD1 as well as significant identity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 and sts5 products. It is shown that CaSSD1 expression is constitutive through the mitotic cell cycle, which is consistent with a role for the protein in cell growth. CaSSD1 rescues the swi4ts defect in an ssd1-d background when expressed from its own promoter on a single-copy plasmid and under the same conditions can rescue mutations in genes encoding protein phosphatase type 2A catalytic subunits. These data suggest that CaSSD1, like its S. cerevisiae homologue, can limit the effect of mutations on a variety of cellular processes. PMID:9846729

  13. Mutator Activity of Petite Strains of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Flury, Fred; von Borstel, R. C.; Williamson, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Petite strains in Saccharomyces exhibit enhanced spontaneous mutation rates of nuclear genes regardless of whether they are cytoplasmically or nuclearly inherited, or whether or not the cytoplasmic petite strains have mitochondrial DNA. In petite strains, the mutation rate for the nonsense allele lys1-1 is enhanced by a factor of 3-6 and for the missense allele his1-7 by a factor of 2 as compared with their grande counterparts. The reversion of a third allele, the putative frameshift mutation, hom3-10 , is not enhanced in a petite background. The results indicate that the spontaneous mutation rate of an organism can be altered by indirect intracellular influences. PMID:786779

  14. Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid is a commercially important component of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and industrial materials, yet the current methods of production are unsustainable and ecologically destructive. Results In this study, the fumarate biosynthetic pathway involving reductive reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was exogenously introduced in S. cerevisiae by a series of simple genetic modifications. First, the Rhizopus oryzae genes for malate dehydrogenase (RoMDH) and fumarase (RoFUM1) were heterologously expressed. Then, expression of the endogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2) was up-regulated. The resultant yeast strain, FMME-001 ?PYC2 + ?RoMDH, was capable of producing significantly higher yields of fumarate in the glucose medium (3.18 ± 0.15 g liter-1) than the control strain FMME-001 empty vector. Conclusions The results presented here provide a novel strategy for fumarate biosynthesis, which represents an important advancement in producing high yields of fumarate in a sustainable and ecologically-friendly manner. PMID:22335940

  15. Multiple Pathways of Recombination Induced by Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pâques, Frédéric; Haber, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the principal organism used in experiments to examine genetic recombination in eukaryotes. Studies over the past decade have shown that meiotic recombination and probably most mitotic recombination arise from the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). There are multiple pathways by which such DSBs can be repaired, including several homologous recombination pathways and still other nonhomologous mechanisms. Our understanding has also been greatly enriched by the characterization of many proteins involved in recombination and by insights that link aspects of DNA repair to chromosome replication. New molecular models of DSB-induced gene conversion are presented. This review encompasses these different aspects of DSB-induced recombination in Saccharomyces and attempts to relate genetic, molecular biological, and biochemical studies of the processes of DNA repair and recombination. PMID:10357855

  16. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately. PMID:25561061

  17. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  18. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is necessary for proper function of VDAC in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Karachitos, Andonis; Galganska, Hanna; Wojtkowska, Malgorzata; Budzinska, Malgorzata; Stobienia, Olgierd; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Kmita, Hanna

    2009-01-22

    Available data suggest that a copper-and zinc-containing dismutase (CuZnSOD) plays a significant role in protecting eukaryotic cells against oxidative modifications which may contribute to cell aging. Here we demonstrated that depletion of CuZnSOD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (Deltasod1 cells) affected distinctly channel activity of VDAC (voltage dependent anion selective channel) and resulted in a moderate reduction in VDAC levels as well as in levels of protein crucial for VDAC import into mitochondria, namely Tob55/Sam50 and Tom40. The observed alterations may result in mitochondriopathy and subsequently in the shortening of the replicative life span observed for S. cerevisiaeDeltasod1 cells. PMID:19116152

  19. [Relationship between rhodamine 6G accumulation and fluconazole resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c].

    PubMed

    Stella, C A; Burgos, H I; Costanzo, R

    2000-01-01

    Severe mycotic infections are a source of concern in immunocompromised patients or in those who receive chemotherapy for hematological malignant diseases. One of the causes is referred to the appearance of antimycotic resistant microorganisms. Fluconazole is one of the antimycotic used for invasive mycoses treatment. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the factors that originate this resistance. In the present report the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c was used as a model system. In resistant strains the accumulation of the lipophilic cation Rhodamine 6G, L-leucine uptake and growth inhibition by crystal violet dye were determined. The results presented herein demonstrate the correlation between the membrane potential and the resistance to fluconazole presented by S. cerevisiae strain S288c. PMID:11008709

  20. Reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-03-20

    Functionally reversing the ?-oxidation cycle represents an efficient and versatile strategy for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, due to the compartmentalization of cellular metabolisms, reversing the ?-oxidation cycle in eukaryotic systems remains elusive. Here, we report the first successful reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an important cell factory for large-scale production of fuels and chemicals. After extensive gene cloning and enzyme activity assays, a reversed ?-oxidation pathway was functionally constructed in the yeast cytosol, which led to the synthesis of n-butanol, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters (MCFAEEs). The resultant recombinant strain provides a new broadly applicable platform for synthesis of fuels and chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24959659

  1. Microcalorimetric monitoring of growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: osmotolerance in relation to physiological state.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, A; Larsson, C; Gustafsson, L

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the physiological state of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for tolerance to sudden osmotic dehydration was studied, and it was investigated whether specific osmotolerance factors were demonstrable. The microcalorimeter was used to monitor growth, and different physiological states of the culture were selected and their osmotolerance was tested. In addition to cells in the stationary phase, cells from the transition phase between respirofermentative and respiratory catabolism were osmotolerant. S. cerevisiae exhibited ever-changing metabolism during batch growth on either glucose or ethanol as the carbon source. Instantaneous heat production per biomass formation (dQ/dX) and specific activity of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) (EC 1.1.1.8) were shown to differ for different physiological states. Neither high respiratory activity nor low total cellular activity, nor factors involved in osmoregulation, i.e., intracellular glycerol or activity of GPDH, correlated with the osmotolerant phenotype. PMID:3049540

  2. In vivo analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HO nuclease recognition site by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, J A; Singer, J D; Heffron, F

    1990-01-01

    HO nuclease introduces a specific double-strand break in the mating-type locus (MAT) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, initiating mating-type interconversion. To define the sequence recognized by HO nuclease, random mutations were produced in a 30-base-pair region homologous to either MAT alpha or MATa by a chemical synthesis procedure. The mutant sites were introduced into S. cerevisiae on a shuttle vector and tested for the ability to stimulate recombination in an assay that mimics mating-type interconversion. The results suggest that a core of 8 noncontiguous bases near the Y-Z junction of MAT is essential for HO nuclease to bind and cleave its recognition site. Other contacts must be required because substrates that contain several mutations outside an intact core reduce or eliminate cleavage in vivo. The results show that HO site recognition is a complex phenomenon, similar to promoter-polymerase interactions. Images PMID:2406563

  3. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  4. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol strains PE-2 and CAT-1 for efficient lignocellulosic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romaní, Aloia; Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Björn; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-03-01

    In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains PE-2 and CAT-1, commonly used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, were engineered for xylose fermentation, where the first fermented xylose faster than the latter, but also produced considerable amounts of xylitol. An engineered PE-2 strain (MEC1121) efficiently consumed xylose in presence of inhibitors both in synthetic and corn-cob hydrolysates. Interestingly, the S. cerevisiae MEC1121 consumed xylose and glucose simultaneously, while a CEN.PK based strain consumed glucose and xylose sequentially. Deletion of the aldose reductase GRE3 lowered xylitol production to undetectable levels and increased xylose consumption rate which led to higher final ethanol concentrations. Fermentation of corn-cob hydrolysate using this strain, MEC1133, resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.47 g/g of total sugars which is 92% of the theoretical yield. PMID:25536512

  5. Co-inoculation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and influence on volatile composition of wines.

    PubMed

    Barrajón, N; Capece, A; Arévalo-Villena, M; Briones, A; Romano, P

    2011-08-01

    Wine is the result of the performance of different yeast strains throughout the fermentation in both spontaneous and inoculated processes. 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were characterized by microsatellite fingerprinting, selecting 6 of them to formulate S. cerevisiae mixed cultures. The aim of this study was to ascertain a potential benefit to use mixed cultures to improve wine quality. For this purpose yeasts behavior was studied during co-inoculated fermentations. Aromatic composition of the wines obtained was analyzed, and despite the fact that only one strain dominated at the end of the process, co-cultures released different concentrations of major volatile compounds than single strains, especially higher alcohols and acetaldehydes. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the type and quantity of the amino acids assimilated. This study demonstrates that the final wine composition may be modulated and enhanced by using suitable combinations of yeast strains. PMID:21569955

  6. Acetaldehyde stimulates ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown on various carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Hucker, B; Vriesekoop, F

    2008-01-01

    The ability of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae while grown on non-fermentable substrates (ethanol, glycerol) is reported. The addition of acetaldehyde to ethanol-stressed yeast grown on either ethanol or glycerol led to a significant decrease in lag time of 67 and 45 %, respectively (p = 0.000) and an increase in the specific growth rate (0.008-0.038/h and 0.060-0.074/h, respectively). The stimulatory effect of acetaldehyde could be mimicked by the addition of propionaldehyde. Results, following metabolic tracing of the added stimulants, question the previously held notion that the acetaldehyde effect in S. cerevisiae is fully redox related. PMID:19381475

  7. Effect of acetaldehyde on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis subjected to environmental shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, G.A.; Hobley, T.J.; Pamment, N.B. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-01-05

    The lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a step increase in temperature or ethanol concentration was reduced by as much as 60% when acetaldehyde was added to the medium at concentrations less than 0.1 g/L. Maximum specific growth rates were also substantially increased. Even greater proportional reductions in lag time due to acetaldehyde addition were observed for ethanol-shocked cultures of Zymomonas mobilis. Acetaldehyde had no effect on S. cerevisiae cultures started from stationary phase inocula in the absence of environmental shock and its lag-reducing effects were greater in complex medium than in a defined synthetic medium. Acetaldehyde reacted strongly with the ingredients of complex culture media. It is proposed that the effect of added acetaldehyde may be to compensate for the inability of cells to maintain transmembrane acetaldehyde gradients following an environmental shock.

  8. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found. PMID:24491750

  9. Effects of aeration on formation and localization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Jahnke, L.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that two different forms of the enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) are present, depending on the conditions under which the cells are grown. The paper evaluates the usefulness of a method designed to assay both synthetases simultaneously in yeast homogenates. The data presented confirm the possibility of simultaneous detection and estimation of the amount of both ACSs of S. cerevisiae in crude homogenates of this strain, making possible the study of physiological factors involved in the formation of these isoenzymes. One important factor for specifying which of the two enzymes is found in these yeast cells is the presence or absence of oxygen in their environment. Aeration not only affects the ratio of the two ACSs but also appears to affect the cellular distribution of these enzymes. Most of the data presented suggest the possibility that the nonaerobic ACS may serve as a precursor to the aerobic form.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 cooperates with MRX-Sae2 in promoting DNA-end resection

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marina; Bonetti, Diego; Villa, Matteo; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Diverse roles in DNA metabolism have been envisaged for budding yeast and mammalian Rif1. In particular, yeast Rif1 is involved in telomere homeostasis, while its mammalian counterpart participates in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 supports cell survival to DNA lesions in the absence of MRX or Sae2. Furthermore, it contributes to the nucleolytic processing (resection) of DSBs. This Rif1-dependent control of DSB resection becomes important for DSB repair by homologous recombination when resection activities are suboptimal. PMID:24692507

  11. Newly identified protein Imi1 affects mitochondrial integrity and glutathione homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kowalec, Piotr; Grynberg, Marcin; Paj?k, Beata; Socha, Anna; Winiarska, Katarzyna; Fronk, Jan; Kurlandzka, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Glutathione homeostasis is crucial for cell functioning. We describe a novel Imi1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting mitochondrial integrity and involved in controlling glutathione level. Imi1 is cytoplasmic and, except for its N-terminal Flo11 domain, has a distinct solenoid structure. A lack of Imi1 leads to mitochondrial lesions comprising aberrant morphology of cristae and multifarious mtDNA rearrangements and impaired respiration. The mitochondrial malfunctioning is coupled to significantly decrease the level of intracellular reduced glutathione without affecting oxidized glutathione, which decreases the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. These defects are accompanied by decreased cadmium sensitivity and increased phytochelatin-2 level. PMID:26091838

  12. Role of hydrosulfide ions (HS-) in methylmercury resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Ishii, N; Fujino, S; Aoyama, I

    1991-11-01

    Methylmercury-resistant mutants were obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They were divided into two complementation groups, met2 (homoserine O-acetyltransferase deficiency) and met15 (enzyme deficiency unknown), as reported previously. It was found that met15 was allelic to met17 (O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase deficiency). Methylmercury toxicity was counteracted by exogenously added HS-, and both met2 and met17 (met15) mutants overproduced H2S. On the basis of these results, we conclude that met2 and met17 (met15) cause accumulation of hydrosulfide ions in the cell and that the increased level of hydrosulfide is responsible for detoxification of methylmercury. PMID:1781681

  13. Mitochondrial Lon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a ring-shaped protease with seven flexible subunits

    PubMed Central

    Stahlberg, Henning; Kutejová, Eva; Suda, Kitaru; Wolpensinger, Bettina; Lustig, Ariel; Schatz, Gottfried; Engel, Andreas; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    1999-01-01

    Lon (or La) is a soluble, homooligomeric ATP-dependent protease. Mass determination and cryoelectron microscopy of pure mitochondrial Lon from Saccharomyces cerevisiae identify Lon as a flexible ring-shaped heptamer. In the presence of ATP or 5?-adenylylimidodiphosphate, most of the rings are symmetric and resemble other ATP-driven machines that mediate folding and degradation of proteins. In the absence of nucleotides, most of the rings are distorted, with two adjacent subunits forming leg-like protrusions. These results suggest that asymmetric conformational changes serve to power processive unfolding and translocation of substrates to the active site of the Lon protease. PMID:10359790

  14. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production.

    PubMed

    Aldiguier, A S; Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Goma, G; Uribelarrea, J L; Guillouet, S E; Molina-Jouve, C

    2004-07-01

    The impact of ethanol and temperature on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol biofuel production was studied using an isothermal fed-batch process at five different temperatures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were quantified. The best performances were found at 30 and 33 degrees C around 120 g l(-1) ethanol produced in 30 h with a slight benefit for growth at 30 degrees C and for ethanol production at 33 degrees C. Glycerol formation, enhanced with increasing temperatures, was coupled with growth for all fermentations; whereas, a decoupling phenomenon occurred at 36 and 39 degrees C pointing out a possible role of glycerol in yeast thermal protection. PMID:15098119

  15. The essential helicase gene RAD3 suppresses short-sequence recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bailis, A M; Maines, S; Negritto, M T

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated an allele of the essential DNA repair and transcription gene RAD3 that relaxes the restriction against recombination between short DNA sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Double-strand break repair and gene replacement events requiring recombination between short identical or mismatched sequences were stimulated in the rad3-G595R mutant cells. We also observed an increase in the physical stability of double-strand breaks in the rad3-G595R mutant cells. These results suggest that the RAD3 gene suppresses recombination involving short homologous sequences by promoting the degradation of the ends of broken DNA molecules. PMID:7623796

  16. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Cuprous-Thiolate Clusters in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Pickering, I.J.; Winge, D.R.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    Copper (Cu) metallothioneins are cuprous-thiolate proteins that contain multimetallic clusters, and are thought to have dual functions of Cu storage and Cu detoxification. We have used a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density-functional theory (DFT) to investigate the nature of Cu binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae metallothionein. We found that the XAS of metallothionein prepared, containing a full complement of Cu, was quantitatively consistent with the crystal structure, and that reconstitution of the apo-metallothionein with stoichiometric Cu results in the formation of a tetracopper cluster, indicating cooperative binding of the Cu ions by the metallothionein.

  17. Production of Soluble and Active Transferrin Receptor-Targeting Single-Chain Antibody using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Hackel; Dagang Huang; Jennifer C. Bubolz; Xin X. Wang; Eric V. Shusta

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  This study describes the soluble production, purification, and functional testing of an anti-transferrin receptor single-chain\\u000a antibody (OX26 scFv) using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The yeast secretion apparatus was optimized by modulating expression temperature, the folding environment of the endoplasmic\\u000a reticulum, and gene dosage. Secreted scFv was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and tested for binding\\u000a and internalization into the

  18. Transport-limited fermentation and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its competitive inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1967-01-01

    The anaerobic glucose uptake (at 20°, pH 3.5) by resting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae followed unidirectional Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-sorbose; Km and Ki were respectively 5.6×10-4m and 1.8×10-1m; Vmax was 6.5×10-8 moles mg-1 min-1. The aerobic uptake of glucose by resting yeast was also inhibited by l-sorbose but did not follow unidirectional Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Glucose-limited growth

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of ?-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Leiro, Rafael; Pereira-Rodríguez, Ángel; Cerdán, M. Esperanza; Becerra, Manuel; Sanz-Aparicio, Juliana

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-galactosidase is a highly glycosylated extracellular protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ?-galactosidic linkages in various glucids. Its enzymatic activity is of interest in many food-related industries and has biotechnological applications. Glycosylated and in vitro deglycosylated protein samples were both assayed for crystallization, but only the latter gave good-quality crystals that were suitable for X-ray crystallography. The crystals belonged to space group P4212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.24, c = 111.52?Å. A complete diffraction data set was collected to 1.95?Å resolution using a synchrotron source. PMID:20057068

  20. Transcriptional control of the sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, I; Fukui, S

    1985-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucoamylase activity appears specifically in sporulating cells heterozygous for the mating-type locus (MAT). We identified a sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene (SGA) and show that expression of SGA is positively regulated by the mating-type genes, both MATa1 and MAT alpha 2. Northern blot analysis revealed that control of SGA is exerted at the level of RNA production. Expression of SGA or the consequent degradation of glycogen to glucose in cells is not required for meiosis or sporulation, since MATa/MAT alpha diploid cells homozygous for an insertion mutation at SGA still formed four viable ascospores. Images PMID:3939312

  1. Oxygen requirements for formation and activity of the squalene expoxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on squalene epoxidase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. In cells grown in standing cultures, the epoxidase was localized mainly in the 'mitochondrial' fraction. Upon aeration, enzyme activity increased and the newly formed enzyme was associated with the 'microsomal' fraction. At 0.03 percent (vol/vol) oxygen, epoxidase levels doubled, whereas the ergosterol level was only slightly increased. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in epoxidase under these conditions. An apparent K sub m for oxygen of 0.38 percent (vol/vol) was determined from a crude particulate preparation for the epoxidase.

  2. Sol-gel immobilisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances viability in organic media.

    PubMed

    Desimone, Martín F; Degrossi, José; D'Aquino, Miguel; Diaz, Luis E

    2003-05-01

    The polyhydroxylated silane network of a sol-gel protected immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the effects of five organic solvents. The viability of immobilised yeast directly correlated with the logarithm of the partition coefficient of the solvent in an octanol/water two phase system increasing the decimal reduction time (D) and reaching the maximum with octanol, the most hydrophobic solvent assayed. The D value increased from 0.16 min for free yeast to 1.9 and to 22 min for immobilised yeast exposed to ethanol and 1-octanol respectively. PMID:12882164

  3. Engineering of carbon catabolite repression in recombinant xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Roca, C; Haack, M B; Olsson, L

    2004-02-01

    Two xylose-fermenting glucose-derepressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed in order to investigate the influence of carbon catabolite repression on xylose metabolism. S. cerevisiae CPB.CR2 (Delta mig1, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) and CPB.MBH2 (Delta mig1, Delta mig2, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) were analysed for changes in xylose consumption rate and ethanol production rate during anaerobic batch and chemostat cultivations on a mixture of 20 g l(-1) glucose and 50 g l(-1) xylose, and their characteristics were compared to the parental strain S. cerevisiae TMB3001 ( XYL1, XYL2, XKS1). Improvement of xylose utilisation was limited during batch cultivations for the constructed strains compared to the parental strain. However, a 25% and 12% increased xylose consumption rate during chemostat cultivation was achieved for CPB.CR2 and CPB.MBH2, respectively. Furthermore, during chemostat cultivations of CPB.CR2, where the cells are assumed to grow under non-repressive conditions as they sense almost no glucose, invertase activity was lower during growth on xylose and glucose than on glucose only. The 3-fold reduction in invertase activity could only be attributed to the presence of xylose, suggesting that xylose is a repressive sugar for S. cerevisiae. PMID:12925863

  4. Xylan catabolism is improved by blending bioprospecting and metabolic pathway engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2015-04-01

    Complete utilization of all available carbon sources in lignocellulosic biomass still remains a challenge in engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even with efficient heterologous xylose catabolic pathways, S. cerevisiae is unable to utilize xylose in lignocellulosic biomass unless xylan is depolymerized to xylose. Here we demonstrate that a blended bioprospecting approach along with pathway engineering and evolutionary engineering can be used to improve xylan catabolism in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, we perform whole genome sequencing-based bioprospecting of a strain with remarkable pentose catabolic potential that we isolated and named Ustilago bevomyces. The heterologous expression of xylan catabolic genes enabled S. cerevisiae to grow on xylan as a single carbon source in minimal medium. A combination of bioprospecting and metabolic pathway evolution demonstrated that the xylan catabolic pathway could be further improved. Ultimately, engineering efforts were able to achieve xylan conversion into ethanol of up to 0.22 g/L on minimal medium compositions with xylan. This pathway provides a novel starting point for improving lignocellulosic conversion by yeast. PMID:25651533

  5. Cloning and characterization of the CYS3 (CYI1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Tanaka, K; Naito, K; Heike, C; Shinoda, S; Yamamoto, S; Ohmori, S; Oshima, T; Toh-e, A

    1992-01-01

    A DNA fragment containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYS3 (CYI1) gene was cloned. The clone had a single open reading frame of 1,182 bp (394 amino acid residues). By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cystathionine gamma-lyase, CYS3 (CYI1) was concluded to be the structural gene for this enzyme. In addition, the deduced sequence showed homology with the following enzymes: rat cystathionine gamma-lyase (41%), Escherichia coli cystathionine gamma-synthase (36%), and cystathionine beta-lyase (25%). The N-terminal half of it was homologous (39%) with the N-terminal half of S. cerevisiae O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The cloned CYS3 (CYI1) gene marginally complemented the E. coli metB mutation (cystathionine gamma-synthase deficiency) and conferred cystathionine gamma-synthase activity as well as cystathionine gamma-lyase activity to E. coli; cystathionine gamma-synthase activity was detected when O-succinylhomoserine but not O-acetylhomoserine was used as substrate. We therefore conclude that S. cerevisiae cystathionine gamma-lyase and E. coli cystathionine gamma-synthase are homologous in both structure and in vitro function and propose that their different in vivo functions are due to the unavailability of O-succinylhomoserine in S. cerevisiae and the scarceness of cystathionine in E. coli. Images PMID:1577698

  6. Cloning and characterization of the CYS3 (CYI1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Tanaka, K; Naito, K; Heike, C; Shinoda, S; Yamamoto, S; Ohmori, S; Oshima, T; Toh-e, A

    1992-05-01

    A DNA fragment containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYS3 (CYI1) gene was cloned. The clone had a single open reading frame of 1,182 bp (394 amino acid residues). By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cystathionine gamma-lyase, CYS3 (CYI1) was concluded to be the structural gene for this enzyme. In addition, the deduced sequence showed homology with the following enzymes: rat cystathionine gamma-lyase (41%), Escherichia coli cystathionine gamma-synthase (36%), and cystathionine beta-lyase (25%). The N-terminal half of it was homologous (39%) with the N-terminal half of S. cerevisiae O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The cloned CYS3 (CYI1) gene marginally complemented the E. coli metB mutation (cystathionine gamma-synthase deficiency) and conferred cystathionine gamma-synthase activity as well as cystathionine gamma-lyase activity to E. coli; cystathionine gamma-synthase activity was detected when O-succinylhomoserine but not O-acetylhomoserine was used as substrate. We therefore conclude that S. cerevisiae cystathionine gamma-lyase and E. coli cystathionine gamma-synthase are homologous in both structure and in vitro function and propose that their different in vivo functions are due to the unavailability of O-succinylhomoserine in S. cerevisiae and the scarceness of cystathionine in E. coli. PMID:1577698

  7. Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response.

    PubMed

    Verwaal, René; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Daran, Jean-Marc; Sandmann, Gerhard; van den Berg, Johan A; van Ooyen, Albert J J

    2010-12-01

    To obtain insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptome of two different S. cerevisiae strains overexpressing carotenogenic genes from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous grown in carbon-limited chemostat cultures was analysed. The strains exhibited different absolute carotenoid levels as well as different intermediate profiles. These discrepancies were further sustained by the difference of the transcriptional response exhibited by the two strains. Transcriptome analysis of the strain producing high carotenoid levels resulted in specific induction of genes involved in pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). These genes encode ABC-type and major facilitator transporters which are reported to be involved in secretion of toxic compounds out of cells. ?-Carotene was found to be secreted when sunflower oil was added to the medium of S. cerevisiae cells producing high levels of carotenoids, which was not observed when added to X. dendrorhous cells. Deletion of pdr10, one of the induced ABC transporters, decreased the transformation efficiency of a plasmid containing carotenogenic genes. The few transformants that were obtained had decreased growth rates and lower carotenoid production levels compared to a pdr5 deletion and a reference strain transformed with the same genes. Our results suggest that production of high amounts of carotenoids in S. cerevisiae leads to membrane stress, in which Pdr10 might play an important role, and a cellular response to secrete carotenoids out of the cell. PMID:20632327

  8. High-yield production and characterization of biologically active recombinant aprotinin expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Meta, Akihiro; Nakatake, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takayuki; Nozaki, Chikateru; Sugimura, Kazuhisa

    2009-07-01

    Aprotinin is a polypeptide composed of 58 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 6512Da. The 58 amino acid residues are arranged in a single polypeptide chain, which is cross-linked by three disulfide bridges and folded to form a pear-shaped molecule. To express recombinant aprotinin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a synthetic gene encoding aprotinin was constructed and fused in frame with the pre-sequence of the S. cerevisiae MATalpha1 gene at the cleavage site of signal peptidase. The expression of aprotinin in S. cerevisiae was carried out using the PRB1 promoter. Aprotinin was secreted as a biologically active protein at a concentration of 426 mg/L into high cell density fermentation medium of 70.9 g/L cell dry weight. The purification process consisted of only three major steps and provided consistent yields of recombinant aprotinin using gel filtration high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) with a purity level higher than 99% and was free of non-aprotinin-related impurities. The recombinant aprotinin had the same characteristics as bovine aprotinin in a number of analytical methods, including alpha2-plasmin inhibition assay, amino acid composition, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, and mass spectrum analysis. With further optimization of the purification process and culture conditions for high-yield production by S. cerevisiae, this source of recombinant aprotinin may be a promising approach for the commercial manufacture of aprotinin for pharmaceutical use instead of bovine aprotinin. PMID:19233283

  9. Probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as biotherapeutic tools: is there room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Palma, Mariana L; Zamith-Miranda, Daniel; Martins, Flaviano S; Bozza, Fernando A; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Montero-Lomeli, Mônica; Marques, Ernesto T A; Douradinha, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var boulardii is widely used as a low cost and efficient adjuvant against gastrointestinal tract disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and treatment of several types of diarrhea, both in humans and animals. S. boulardii exerts its protective mechanisms by binding and neutralizing enteric pathogens or their toxins, by reducing inflammation and by inducing the secretion of sIgA. Although several S. cerevisiae strains have proven probiotic potential in both humans and animals, only S. boulardii is currently licensed for use in humans. Recently, some researchers started using S. boulardii as heterologous protein expression systems. Combined with their probiotic activity, the use of these strains as prophylactic and therapeutic proteins carriers might result in a positive combined effort to fight specific diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the current use of S. cerevisiae strains as probiotics and their mechanisms of action. We also discuss their potential to produce molecules with biotherapeutic application and the advantages and hurdles of this approach. Finally, we suggest future directions and alternatives for which the combined effort of specific immunomodulatory effects of probiotic S. cerevisiae strains and ability to express desired foreign genes would find a practical application. PMID:26142388

  10. Biosynthesis of isoprenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavonoids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Joseph A; Yan, Yajun; Koffas, Mattheos AG

    2006-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology employs the controlled use of microorganisms for the production of synthetic chemicals or simple biomass that can further be used in a diverse array of applications that span the pharmaceutical, chemical and nutraceutical industries. Recent advances in metagenomics and in the incorporation of entire biosynthetic pathways into Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly expanded both the fitness and the repertoire of biochemicals that can be synthesized from this popular microorganism. Further, the availability of the S. cerevisiae entire genome sequence allows the application of systems biology approaches for improving its enormous biosynthetic potential. In this review, we will describe some of the efforts on using S. cerevisiae as a cell factory for the biosynthesis of high-value natural products that belong to the families of isoprenoids, flavonoids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. As natural products are increasingly becoming the center of attention of the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries, the use of S. cerevisiae for their production is only expected to expand in the future, further allowing the biosynthesis of novel molecular structures with unique properties. PMID:16719921

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ukibe, Ken; Hashida, Keisuke; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product) and bifunctional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB product) resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae (the BTS1 gene product) increased the intracellular beta-carotene levels due to the accelerated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to GGPP. Introduction of the X. dendrorhous crtS gene, encoding astaxanthin synthase, assumed to be the cytochrome P450 enzyme, did not lead to astaxanthin production. However, coexpression of CrtS with X. dendrorhous CrtR, a cytochrome P450 reductase, resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of astaxanthin. In addition, the beta-carotene-producing yeast cells transformed by the bacterial genes crtW and crtZ, encoding beta-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, respectively, also accumulated astaxanthin and its intermediates, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Interestingly, we found that these ketocarotenoids conferred oxidative stress tolerance on S. cerevisiae cells. This metabolic engineering has potential for overproduction of astaxanthin and breeding of novel oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19801484

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes can be predicted by using constraint-based analysis of a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iman Famili; Jochen Förster; Jens Nielsen; Bernhard O. Palsson

    2003-01-01

    Full genome sequences of prokaryotic organisms have led to reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks and in silico computation of their integrated functions. The first genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for a eukaryotic cell, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, consisting of 1,175 metabolic reactions and 733 metabolites, has appeared. A constraint-based in silico analysis procedure was used to compute properties of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network.

  13. Screening of optimal cellulases from symbiotic protists of termites through expression in the secretory pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Nemuri; Nakamura, Risa; Moriya, Sigeharu; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Haruo; Ishida, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    For direct and efficient ethanol production from cellulosic materials, we screened optimal cellulases from symbiotic protists of termites through heterologous expression with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 11 cellulases, belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 5, 7, and 45 endoglucanases (EGs), were confirmed to produce with S. cerevisiae for the first time. A recombinant yeast expressing SM2042B24 EG I was more efficient at degrading carboxylmethyl cellulose than was Trichoderma reesei EG I, a major EG with high cellulolytic activity. PMID:22056456

  14. Secretory expression and purification of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in PMR1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyun Ko; Moon Sun Hahm; Hyun Ah Kang; Soo Wan Nam; Bong Hyun Chung

    2002-01-01

    The gene encoding glucose oxidase (GOD) from Aspergillus niger was expressed as a secretory product in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six consecutive histidine residues were fused to the C-terminus of GOD to facilitate purification. The recombinant GOD-His6 secreted by S. cerevisiae migrated as a broad diffuse band on SDS–PAGE, with an apparent molecular weight higher than that in natural A.

  15. Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a liver transplant patient: case report and review of infection in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Popiel, K Y; Wong, P; Lee, M J; Langelier, M; Sheppard, D C; Vinh, D C

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ascosporogenous yeast commonly used in the production of food, is an emerging infection in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 60-year-old man whose orthotopic liver transplant was complicated by S. cerevisiae fungemia and peritoneal abscess, successfully treated with caspofungin and drainage. We also review the literature of invasive saccharomycoses in recipients of hematologic and solid organ transplants. PMID:25827213

  16. Chromosomal rearrangements as a major mechanism in the onset of reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Friedrich, Anne; de Montigny, Jacky; Schacherer, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding the molecular basis of how reproductive isolation evolves between individuals from the same species offers valuable insight into patterns of genetic differentiation as well as the onset of speciation [1, 2]. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutes an ideal model partly due to its vast ecological range, high level of genetic diversity [3–6] and laboratory amendable sexual reproduction. Between S. cerevisiae and its sibling species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex, reproductive isolation acts post-zygotically and could be attributed to chromosomal rearrangements [7], cyto-nuclear incompatibility [8, 9] and anti-recombination [10, 11]; although the implication of these mechanisms at the incipient stage of speciation remains unclear due to further divergence in the nascent species. Recently, several studies assessed the onset of intraspecific reproductive isolation in S. cerevisiae by evaluating the effect of the mismatch repair system [12–14] or by fostering incipient speciation using the same initial genetic background [15–18]. Nevertheless, the overall genetic diversity within this species was largely overlooked and no systematic evaluation has been performed. Here, we carried out the first species-wide survey for post-zygotic reproductive isolation in S. cerevisiae. We crossed 60 natural isolates sampled from diverse niches with the reference strain S288c, and identified 16 cases of reproductive isolation with reduced offspring viabilities ranging from 44% to 86%. Using different mapping strategies, we identified reciprocal translocations in a large fraction of all isolates surveyed, indicating that large-scale chromosomal rearrangements might play a major role to the onset of reproductive isolation in this species. PMID:24814147

  17. Impact of acute metal stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hosiner, Dagmar; Gerber, Susanne; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Glaser, Walter; Schüller, Christoph; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Although considered as essential cofactors for a variety of enzymatic reactions and for important structural and functional roles in cell metabolism, metals at high concentrations are potent toxic pollutants and pose complex biochemical problems for cells. We report results of single dose acute toxicity testing in the model organism S. cerevisiae. The effects of moderate toxic concentrations of 10 different human health relevant metals, Ag(+), Al(3+), As(3+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), V(3+), and Zn(2+), following short-term exposure were analyzed by transcription profiling to provide the identification of early-on target genes or pathways. In contrast to common acute toxicity tests where defined endpoints are monitored we focused on the entire genomic response. We provide evidence that the induction of central elements of the oxidative stress response by the majority of investigated metals is the basic detoxification process against short-term metal exposure. General detoxification mechanisms also comprised the induction of genes coding for chaperones and those for chelation of metal ions via siderophores and amino acids. Hierarchical clustering, transcription factor analyses, and gene ontology data further revealed activation of genes involved in metal-specific protein catabolism along with repression of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis. Metal ion group specific differences in the expression responses with shared transcriptional regulators for both, up-regulation and repression were also observed. Additionally, some processes unique for individual metals were evident as well. In view of current concerns regarding environmental pollution our results may support ongoing attempts to develop methods to monitor potentially hazardous areas or liquids and to establish standardized tests using suitable eukaryotic a model organism. PMID:24416162

  18. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in repeated-batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on corncob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pattana Laopaiboon

    Ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice containing 240 g\\/l of total sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5048 and S. cerevisiae NP 01 immobilized on low-cost support materials, corncob pieces, was investigated. In batch fermentation, S. cerevisiae TISTR 5048 immobilized on 6 × 6 × 6 mm3 corncobs gave higher ethanol production than those immobilized on 12 × 12 × 12 mm3 corncobs in terms of ethanol concentration (P), yield (Y\\u000a \\u000a p\\/s

  19. The peroxisomal lumen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is alkaline.

    PubMed

    van Roermund, Carlo W T; de Jong, Mark; IJlst, Lodewijk; van Marle, Jan; Dansen, Tobias B; Wanders, Ronald J A; Waterham, Hans R

    2004-08-15

    Peroxisomes have a central function in lipid metabolism, including the beta-oxidation of various fatty acids. The products and substrates involved in the beta-oxidation have to cross the peroxisomal membrane, which previously has been demonstrated to constitute a closed barrier, implying the existence of specific transport mechanisms. Fatty acid transport across the yeast peroxisomal membrane may follow two routes: one for activated fatty acids, dependent on the peroxisomal ABC half transporter proteins Pxa1p and Pxa2p, and one for free fatty acids, which depends on the peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase Faa2p and the ATP transporter Ant1p. A proton gradient across the peroxisomal membrane as part of a proton motive force has been proposed to be required for proper peroxisomal function, but the nature of the peroxisomal pH has remained inconclusive and little is known about its generation. To determine the pH of Sacharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomes in vivo, we have used two different pH-sensitive yellow fluorescent proteins targeted to the peroxisome by virtue of a C-terminal SKL and found the peroxisomal matrix in wild-type cells to be alkaline (pH(per) 8.2), while the cytosolic pH was neutral (pH(cyt) 7.0). No Delta pH was present in ant1 Delta cells, indicating that the peroxisomal pH is regulated in an ATP-dependent way and suggesting that Ant1p activity is directly involved in maintenance of the peroxisomal pH. Moreover, we found a high peroxisomal pH of >8.6 in faa2 Delta cells, while the peroxisomal pH remained 8.1+/-0.2 in pxa2 Delta cells. Our combined results suggest that the proton gradient across the peroxisomal membrane is dependent on Ant1p activity and required for the beta-oxidation of medium chain fatty acids. PMID:15316083

  20. Transcriptome response to alkane biofuels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of efflux pumps involved in alkane tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrocarbon alkanes have been recently considered as important next-generation biofuels because microbial production of alkane biofuels was demonstrated. However, the toxicity of alkanes to microbial hosts can possibly be a bottleneck for high productivity of alkane biofuels. To tackle this toxicity issue, it is essential to understand molecular mechanisms of interactions between alkanes and microbial hosts, and to harness these mechanisms to develop microbial host strains with improved tolerance against alkanes. In this study, we aimed to improve the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic host of industrial significance, to alkane biofuels by exploiting cellular mechanisms underlying alkane response. Results To this end, we first confirmed that nonane (C9), decane (C10), and undecane (C11) were significantly toxic and accumulated in S. cerevisiae. Transcriptome analyses suggested that C9 and C10 induced a range of cellular mechanisms such as efflux pumps, membrane modification, radical detoxification, and energy supply. Since efflux pumps could possibly aid in alkane secretion, thereby reducing the cytotoxicity, we formed the hypothesis that those induced efflux pumps could contribute to alkane export and tolerance. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated the roles of the efflux pumps Snq2p and Pdr5p in reducing intracellular levels of C10 and C11, as well as enhancing tolerance levels against C10 and C11. This result provided the evidence that Snq2p and Pdr5p were associated with alkane export and tolerance in S. cerevisiae. Conclusions Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae response to alkane biofuels at a systems level through transcriptome analyses. Based on these mechanisms, we identified efflux pumps involved in alkane export and tolerance in S. cerevisiae. We believe that the results here provide valuable insights into designing microbial engineering strategies to improve cellular tolerance for highly efficient alkane biofuel production. PMID:23826995

  1. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional ?-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. PMID:24318365

  2. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  3. Feasibility of brewing makgeolli using Pichia anomala Y197-13, a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Ahn, ByungHak

    2012-12-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional rice wine favored by the general public in Korea. This study investigated the fermentation and sensory characteristics of using wild yeast strains for brewing makgeolli. A non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was isolated from nuruk and termed Y197-13. It showed 98% similarity to Pichia anomala and had an optimal growth temperature of 25 degrees C. Makgeolli was manufactured using koji, jinju nuruk, and improved nuruk as fermentation agents. Y197-13 makgeolli brewed with koji had alcohol and solids contents of 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Sweet sensory characteristics were attributed to residual sugars in makgeolli with 6% alcohol. The makgeolli had a fresh sour taste and carbonated taste. Volatile component analysis showed the isoamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, and fatty acid, including ethyl oleate and ethyl linoleate, relative peak area was higher in Y197-13 makgeolli than in makgeolli with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest the wild yeast, Y197-13, as a candidate for brewing makgeolli. PMID:23221539

  4. Insights into the Role of Histone H3 and Histone H4 Core Modifiable Residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edel M. Hyland; Michael S. Cosgrove; Henrik Molina; Dongxia Wang; Akhilesh Pandey; Robert J. Cottee; Jef D. Boeke

    2005-01-01

    The biological significance of recently described modifiable residues in the globular core of the bovine nucleosome remains elusive. We have mapped these modification sites onto the Saccharomyces cerevisiae histones and used a genetic approach to probe their potential roles both in heterochromatic regions of the genome and in the DNA repair response. By mutating these residues to mimic their modified

  5. Isolation and characterization of DNA sequences from Triticum aestivum which function as origins of replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    André, D; Jacquemin, J M; Masson, P

    1983-08-01

    Recombinant YIp5 plasmids with the DNA from Triticum aestivum are capable of autonomous replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The URA transformants are unstable without selection pressure, and transformation of yeast cells with these plasmids occurs at high frequency. The cloned sequences were characterized and analyzed to state their belonging to Triticum tribe. PMID:24258044

  6. Nuclear oscillations and nuclear filament formation accompany single-strand annealing repair of a dicentric chromosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Thrower; Jennifer Stemple; Elaine Yeh; Kerry Bloom

    2003-01-01

    Dicentric chromosomes undergo breakage during mitosis as a result of the attachment of two centromeres on one sister chromatid to opposite spindle poles. Studies utilizing a conditional dicentric chromosome III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that dicentric chromosome repair occurs primarily by deletion of one centromere via a RAD52-dependent recombination pathway. We report that dicentric chromosome resolution requires RAD1, a

  7. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  8. Antifungal effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and its components on Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hammer; C. F. Carson; T. V. Riley; Microbiology Discipline

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of tea tree oil and its com- ponents against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods: Yeast cells were treated with tea tree oil or components, at one or more concentrations, for up to 6 h. During this time, alterations in permeability were assessed by measuring

  9. Isolation of intact RNA from cytometrically sorted Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the analysis of intrapopulation diversity of gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette Achilles; Frank Stahl; Hauke Harms; Susann Müller

    2007-01-01

    Characterizing and understanding the functional heterogeneity in a given population on the cellular and molecular level is a great challenge in microbiology. Each microorganism contributes differently to the overall performance of the community and responds differently to changing microenvironmental conditions. Here, we present a method for isolation of intact RNA out of small subpopulations of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for

  10. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for improved xylose utilization with a three-plasmid SUMO yeast expression system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-plasmid yeast expression system utilizing the portable small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) vector set combined with the efficient endogenous yeast protease Ulp1 was developed for production of large amounts of soluble functional protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each vector has a differ...

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Esc2p Interacts with Sir2p through a Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-binding

    E-print Network

    Bi, Xin

    at telomeric, rDNA, and HM loci. Specifically, ESC2 is required for efficient telomeric silencing and Sir2p at rDNA. On the other hand, ESC2 negatively regulates silencing at HML and HMR and destabilizes HML silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at telomeric, rDNA, HML (homothallic mating locus left

  12. Direct observation of oxidative stress on the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo de Souza Pereira; John Geibel

    1999-01-01

    We imaged pores on the surface of the cell wall of three different industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using atomic force microscopy. The pores could be enlarged using 10 mM diamide, an SH residue oxidant that attacks surface proteins. We found that two strains showed signs of oxidative damage via changes in density and diameter of the surface pores. We

  13. Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay in situ with Blue Tetrazolium Salt in Crabtree-Positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Kregiel; Joanna Berlowska; Wojciech Ambroziak

    Summary A spectrophotometric method for determining succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) acti- vity assay in azide-sensitive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed. The perme- abilization of yeast cells by 0.05 % digitonin permitted to study yeast enzymatic activity in situ. The reduction of blue tetrazolium salt (BT) to blue tetrazolium formazan (BTf) was conducted in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as

  14. Expression of a lipid-inducible, self-regulating form of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase LIP2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 gene (YlLIP2) was cloned into galactose- and fatty acid-inducible Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression vectors and used to generate yeast strains that secrete active LIP2 enzyme activity, as evidenced by results from gene expression analysis and tributyrin turbidity c...

  15. Deletion of New Covalently Linked Cell Wall Glycoproteins Alters the Electrophoretic Mobility of Phosphorylated Wall Components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VLADIMIR MRSA; MARGIT ECKER; SABINE STRAHL-BOLSINGER; MANFRED NIMTZ; LUDWIG LEHLE; WIDMAR TANNER

    The incorporation of radioactive orthophosphate into the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. 33 P-labeled cell walls were extensively extracted with hot sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Of the remaining insoluble radioactivity more than 90% could be released by laminarinase. This radioactive material stayed in the stacking gel during SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but entered the separating gel upon treatment with

  16. Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing Zhao a,b,c,n a Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-utilization Metabolic engineering Pyruvate decarboxylase a b s t r a c t 2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical

  17. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. his was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. dentit...

  18. Comparative Roles of the Cell Wall and Cell Membrane in Limiting Uptake of Xenobiotic Molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Aouida, Mustapha; Tounekti, Omar; Belhadj, Omrane; Mir, Lluis M.

    2003-01-01

    Using reversible electropermeabilization of cells and spheroplasts, we show that the cell wall and plasma membrane partly account for bleomycin resistance by acting as two independent barriers. We also report on the presence of a membrane protein that may be responsible for bleomycin internalization and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:12760888

  19. GMAX-L Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strains for Profitable Sustainable Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production Concurrently using Engineered Workcell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stable GMAX-L strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being constructed using pSUMO expression cassettes that are extremely high expression level plasmids designed for use on automated workcell. This strain expresses xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, XIB1, and XIG1 for anaerobic cellulosic ethanol pr...

  20. Respiratory capacities of mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 and Candida utilis CBS 621 grown under glucose limitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik van Urk; Peter M. Bruinenberg; Marten Veenhuis; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. van Dijken

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the in vitro respiratory capacity of mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. An electron-microscopic analysis of whole cells revealed that the volume density of mitochondria was the same in both yeasts. Mitochondria from both organisms exhibited respiratory control with NADH, pyruvate + malate, 2-oxoglutarate + acetate or

  1. Investigating the Qn Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Mutants Resistant to Ilicicolin

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    Investigating the Qn Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Mutants The cytochrome bc1 complex resides in the inner membrane of mitochondria and transfers electrons from ubiquinol site), respectively. Both are located on cytochrome b, a transmembrane protein of the bc1 complex

  2. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONANZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-Cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase. esistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  3. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONAZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  4. Effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing: (1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g fermen...

  5. Effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two sows (Camborough-22, PIC) were used to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XPC) in gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary tr...

  6. Ethanol-induced alterations in lipid composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of exogenous fatty acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Mizoguchi; Shodo Hara

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol-induced alterations in the lipid composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of exogenous fatty acids were studied. The addition of both palmitic acid and ethanol (4–8%) to the basal medium resulted in a striking increase in the palmitic acid content and decreases in the content of myristoleic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids in the phospholipid fatty acid composition, compared

  7. Molecular characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFR1).

    PubMed Central

    Lagosky, P A; Taylor, G R; Haynes, R H

    1987-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 1957 bp DNA fragment containing the dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFR1) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Within this region a single open reading frame of 633 base pairs was found which is capable of encoding a 211 amino acid residue protein with a calculated Mr of 24,233. The amino acid sequence derived from the yeast DFR1 gene shows limited homology with sequences from both eukaryotic and non-eukaryotic DHFR enzymes. Northern blot hybridization reveals that the mRNA from this gene is a 900 base polyadenylated transcript. Yeast strains containing the cloned DFR1 gene on multicopy number shuttle vector plasmids show dramatically enhanced methotrexate resistance. Consensus DNA sequences responsible for RNA polymerase II interaction and general amino acid control in S. cerevisiae are located within the 5'-noncoding region with respect to the open reading frame. The DNA fragment containing these sequences has been shown to be necessary for DFR1 gene expression in both S. cerevisiae and E. coli. Images PMID:2827121

  8. Hxt-carrier-mediated glucose efflux upon exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to excess maltose.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Mickel L A; De Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T

    2002-09-01

    When wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains pregrown in maltose-limited chemostat cultures were exposed to excess maltose, release of glucose into the external medium was observed. Control experiments confirmed that glucose release was not caused by cell lysis or extracellular maltose hydrolysis. To test the hypothesis that glucose efflux involved plasma membrane glucose transporters, experiments were performed with an S. cerevisiae strain in which all members of the hexose transporter (HXT) gene family had been eliminated and with an isogenic reference strain. Glucose efflux was virtually eliminated in the hexose-transport-deficient strain. This constitutes experimental proof that Hxt transporters facilitate export of glucose from S. cerevisiae cells. After exposure of the hexose-transport-deficient strain to excess maltose, an increase in the intracellular glucose level was observed, while the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and ATP remained relatively low. These results demonstrate that glucose efflux can occur as a result of uncoordinated expression of the initial steps of maltose metabolism and the subsequent reactions in glucose dissimilation. This is a relevant phenomenon for selection of maltose-constitutive strains for baking and brewing. PMID:12200274

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A novel and efficient biological control agent for Colletotrichum acutatum during pre-harvest.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marcos Roberto; Klein, Mariana Nadjara; Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of six isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in controlling Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of postbloom fruit drop that occur in pre-harvest citrus. We analyzed the mechanisms of action involved in biological control such as: production of antifungal compounds, nutrient competition, detection of killer activity, and production of hydrolytic enzymes of the isolates of S. cerevisiae on C. acutatum and their efficiency in controlling postbloom fruit drop on detached citrus flowers. Our results showed that all six S. cerevisiae isolates produced antifungal compounds, competed for nutrients, inhibited pathogen germination, and produced killer activity and hydrolytic enzymes when in contact with the fungus wall. The isolates were able to control the disease when detached flowers were artificially inoculated, both preventively and curatively. In this work we identified a novel potential biological control agent for C. acutatum during pre-harvest. This is the first report of yeast efficiency for the biocontrol of postbloom fruit drop, which represents an important contribution to the field of biocontrol of diseases affecting citrus populations worldwide. PMID:25960430

  10. Cysteine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: mutation that confers cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Shirahige, Y; Nanjoh, A; Andou, N; Ohue, H; Ishino-Arao, Y

    1988-01-01

    The cys2-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was originally thought to confer cysteine dependence through a serine O-acetyltransferase deficiency. In this study, we show that cys2-1 strains lack not only serine O-acetyltransferase but also cystathionine beta-synthase. However, a prototrophic strain was found to be serine O-acetyltransferase deficient because of a mutation allelic to cys2-1. Moreover, revertants obtained from cys2-1 strains had serine O-acetyltransferase but not cystathionine beta-synthase, whereas transformants obtained by treating a cys2-1 strain with an S. cerevisiae genomic library had cystathionine beta-synthase but not serine O-acetyltransferase. From these observations, we conclude that cys2-1 (serine O-acetyltransferase deficiency) accompanies a very closely linked mutation that causes cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency and that these mutations together confer cysteine dependence. This newly identified mutation is named cys4-1. These results not only support our previous hypothesis that S. cerevisiae has two functional cysteine biosynthetic pathways but also reveal an interesting gene arrangement of the cysteine biosynthetic system. PMID:3056921

  11. Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yanming; Wilson, David B.; Lei, Xin gen

    1999-01-01

    Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase’s activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an active, extracellular phytase. The yield of total extracellular phytase activity was affected by the signal peptide and the medium composition. The expressed phytase had two pH optima (2 to 2.5 and 5 to 5.5) and a temperature optimum between 55 and 60°C, and it cross-reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the wild-type enzyme. Due to the heavy glycosylation, the expressed phytase had a molecular size of approximately 120 kDa and appeared to be more thermostable than the commercial enzyme. Deglycosylation of the phytase resulted in losses of 9% of its activity and 40% of its thermostability. The recombinant phytase was effective in hydrolyzing phytate phosphorus from corn or soybean meal in vitro. In conclusion, the phyA gene was expressed as an active, extracellular phytase in S. cerevisiae, and its thermostability was affected by glycosylation. PMID:10223979

  12. Physiological and genomic characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids with improved fermentation performance and mannoprotein release capacity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; González, Ramón; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting wine against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating lactic-acid bacteria growth. The selection of a yeast strain that simultaneously overproduces mannoproteins and presents good fermentative characteristics is a difficult task. In this work, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae×S. cerevisiae hybrid bearing the two oenologically relevant features was constructed. According to the genomic characterisation of the hybrids, different copy numbers of some genes probably related with these physiological features were detected. The hybrid shared not only a similar copy number of genes SPR1, SWP1, MNN10 and YPS7 related to cell wall integrity with parental Sc1, but also a similar copy number of some glycolytic genes with parental Sc2, such as GPM1 and HXK1, as well as the genes involved in hexose transport, such as HXT9, HXT11 and HXT12. This work demonstrates that hybridisation and stabilisation under winemaking conditions constitute an effective approach to obtain yeast strains with desirable physiological features, like mannoprotein overproducing capacity and improved fermentation performance, which genetically depend of the expression of numerous genes (multigenic characters). PMID:25879876

  13. Molecular Cloning and Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Laccase Gene from the Ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces

    PubMed Central

    Kiiskinen, Laura-Leena; Saloheimo, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The lac1 gene encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Melanocarpus albomyces. This gene has five introns, and it encodes a protein consisting of 623 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the laccase was shown to have high homology with laccases from other ascomycetes. In addition to removal of a putative 22-amino-acid signal sequence and a 28-residue propeptide, maturation of the translation product of lac1 was shown to involve cleavage of a C-terminal 14-amino-acid extension. M. albomyces lac1 cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the inducible GAL1 promoter. Extremely low production was obtained with the expression construct containing laccase cDNA with its own signal and propeptide sequences. The activity levels were significantly improved by replacing these sequences with the prepro sequence of the S. cerevisiae ?-factor gene. The role of the C-terminal extension in laccase production in S. cerevisiae was also studied. Laccase production was increased sixfold with the modified cDNA that had a stop codon after the native processing site at the C terminus. PMID:14711635

  14. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; Duong, Giang-Huong; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2? reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h?1 in anaerobic batch cultures containing lactic acid but only 0.16 h?1 in identical aerobic cultures. Measurements of aerobic cultures of S. cerevisiae showed that the addition of lactic acid to the growth medium resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reduce the accumulation of lactic acid-induced ROS, cytosolic catalase (CTT1) was overexpressed by replacing the native promoter with the strong constitutive TPI1 promoter. Increased activity of catalase was confirmed and later correlated with decreased levels of ROS and increased specific growth rates in the presence of high lactic acid concentrations. The increased fitness of this genetically modified strain demonstrates the successful attenuation of additional stress that is derived from aerobic metabolism and may provide the basis for enhanced (micro)aerobic production of organic acids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19251894

  15. Hxt-Carrier-Mediated Glucose Efflux upon Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Excess Maltose

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Mickel L. A.; De Winde, Johannes H.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2002-01-01

    When wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains pregrown in maltose-limited chemostat cultures were exposed to excess maltose, release of glucose into the external medium was observed. Control experiments confirmed that glucose release was not caused by cell lysis or extracellular maltose hydrolysis. To test the hypothesis that glucose efflux involved plasma membrane glucose transporters, experiments were performed with an S. cerevisiae strain in which all members of the hexose transporter (HXT) gene family had been eliminated and with an isogenic reference strain. Glucose efflux was virtually eliminated in the hexose-transport-deficient strain. This constitutes experimental proof that Hxt transporters facilitate export of glucose from S. cerevisiae cells. After exposure of the hexose-transport-deficient strain to excess maltose, an increase in the intracellular glucose level was observed, while the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and ATP remained relatively low. These results demonstrate that glucose efflux can occur as a result of uncoordinated expression of the initial steps of maltose metabolism and the subsequent reactions in glucose dissimilation. This is a relevant phenomenon for selection of maltose-constitutive strains for baking and brewing. PMID:12200274

  16. Optimization of pretreatment and saccharification for the production of bioethanol from water hyacinth by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Deuk Joo; Kim, Se Kyung; Yun, Hyun Shik

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline-oxidative (A/O) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were optimized for bioethanol fermentation from water hyacinth by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Water hyacinth was subjected to A/O pretreatment at various NaOH and H(2)O(2) concentrations and reaction temperatures for the optimization of bioethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The most effective condition for A/O pretreatment was 7% (w/v) NaOH at 100 °C and 2% (w/v) H(2)O(2). The carbohydrate content was analyzed after reaction at various enzyme concentrations and enzyme ratios using Celluclast 1.5 L and Viscozyme L to determine the effective conditions for enzymatic saccharification. After ethanol fermentation using S. cerevisiae KCTC 7928, the concentration of glucose, ethanol and glycerol was analyzed by HPLC using a RI detector. The yield of ethanol in batch fermentation was 0.35 g ethanol/g biomass. Continuous fermentation was carried out at a dilution rate of 0.11 (per h) and the ethanol productivity was 0.77 [g/(l h)]. PMID:21909939

  17. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals. PMID:23899824

  18. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  19. Functional expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Na+/H+ antiporter gene, sod2, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hahnenberger, K M; Jia, Z; Young, P G

    1996-01-01

    In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, tolerance to high sodium and lithium concentrations requires the functioning of the sod2, Na+/H+ antiporter. We have directly measured the activity of this antiporter and demonstrated reconstitution of the activity in gene deletion strains. In addition, we have shown that it can be transferred to, and its antiporter activity detected in, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it also confers sodium and lithium tolerance. Proton flux through the S. pombe Na+/H+ antiporter was directly measured using microphysiometry. The direction of transmembrane proton flux mediated by this antiporter was reversible, with protons being imported or exported in response to the external concentration of sodium. This bidirectional activity was also detected in S. cerevisiae strains expressing sod2 and expression of this gene complemented the sodium and lithium sensitivity resulting from inactivation of the ENA1/PMR2 encoded Na+-exporting ATPases. This suggests that antiporters or sodium pumps can be utilized interchangeably by S. cerevisiae to regulate internal sodium concentration. Potent inhibitors of mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers were found to have no effect on sod2 activity. The proton flux mediated by sod2 was also found to be unaffected by perturbation of membrane potential or the plasma membrane proton gradient. PMID:8643524

  20. Identification of a gene, FMP21, whose expression levels are involved in thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature tolerance in yeasts is important for the molecular breeding of high temperature-tolerant yeasts that can be used in bioethanol production. We identified genes whose expression is correlated with the degree of thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA microarray analysis. Gene expression profiles of three S. cerevisiae strains showing different levels of thermotolerance were compared, and we chose three of them as candidate genes. Among these genes, FMP21 was investigated as a thermotolerance-related gene in S. cerevisiae by comparing the growth at high temperature with the gene expression in eight strains. The expression ratio of FMP21 at 37°C was correlated with the doubling time ratio at a coefficient of determination of 0.787. The potential involvement of the Fmp21 in the thermotolerance of yeasts was evaluated. The FMP21 deletion variant showed a decreased respiratory growth rate and increased thermosensitivity. Furthermore, the overexpression of FMP21 improved thermotolerance in yeasts. In conclusion, the function of Fmp21 is important for thermotolerance in yeasts. PMID:25177541

  1. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes regulated by vanillin.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2015-01-28

    During pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, a variety of fermentation inhibitors, including acetic acid and vanillin, are released. Using DNA microarray analysis, this study explored genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that respond to vanillin-induced stress. The expression of 273 genes was upregulated and that of 205 genes was downregulated under vanillin stress. Significantly induced genes included MCH2, SNG1, GPH1, and TMA10, whereas NOP2, UTP18, FUR1, and SPR1 were down regulated. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of upregulated genes suggested that vanillin might regulate gene expression in a stress response element (STRE)-dependent manner, in addition to a pathway that involved the transcription factor Yap1p. Retardation in the cell growth of mutant strains indicated that MCH2, SNG1, and GPH1 are intimately involved in vanillin stress response. Deletion of the genes whose expression levels were decreased under vanillin stress did not result in a notable change in S. cerevisiae growth under vanillin stress. This study will provide the basis for a better understanding of the stress response of the yeast S. cerevisiae to fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25269814

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

  3. (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a reduced Crabtree effect.

    PubMed

    Kajihata, Shuichi; Matsuda, Fumio; Yoshimi, Mika; Hayakawa, Kenshi; Furusawa, Chikara; Kanda, Akihisa; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows a Crabtree effect that produces ethanol in a high glucose concentration even under fully aerobic condition. For efficient production of cake yeast or compressed yeast for baking, ethanol by-production is not desired since glucose limited chemostat or fed-batch cultivations are performed to suppress the Crabtree effect. In this study, the (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) was performed for the S288C derived S. cerevisiae strain to characterize a metabolic state under the reduced Crabtree effect. S. cerevisiae cells were cultured at a low dilution rate (0.1 h(-1)) under the glucose-limited chemostat condition. The estimated metabolic flux distribution showed that the acetyl-CoA in mitochondria was mainly produced from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) reaction and that the level of the metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was much higher than that of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, which contributes to high biomass yield at low dilution rate by supplying NADPH required for cell growth. PMID:25634548

  4. Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Malate Permease by Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Camarasa, Carole; Bidard, Frédérique; Bony, Muriel; Barre, Pierre; Dequin, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, l-malic acid transport is not carrier mediated and is limited to slow, simple diffusion of the undissociated acid. Expression in S. cerevisiae of the MAE1 gene, encoding Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease, markedly increased l-malic acid uptake in this yeast. In this strain, at pH 3.5 (encountered in industrial processes), l-malic acid uptake involves Mae1p-mediated transport of the monoanionic form of the acid (apparent kinetic parameters: Vmax = 8.7 nmol/mg/min; Km = 1.6 mM) and some simple diffusion of the undissociated l-malic acid (Kd = 0.057 min?1). As total l-malic acid transport involved only low levels of diffusion, the Mae1p permease was further characterized in the recombinant strain. l-Malic acid transport was reversible and accumulative and depended on both the transmembrane gradient of the monoanionic acid form and the ?pH component of the proton motive force. Dicarboxylic acids with stearic occupation closely related to l-malic acid, such as maleic, oxaloacetic, malonic, succinic and fumaric acids, inhibited l-malic acid uptake, suggesting that these compounds use the same carrier. We found that increasing external pH directly inhibited malate uptake, resulting in a lower initial rate of uptake and a lower level of substrate accumulation. In S. pombe, proton movements, as shown by internal acidification, accompanied malate uptake, consistent with the proton/dicarboxylate mechanism previously proposed. Surprisingly, no proton fluxes were observed during Mae1p-mediated l-malic acid import in S. cerevisiae, and intracellular pH remained constant. This suggests that, in S. cerevisiae, either there is a proton counterflow or the Mae1p permease functions differently from a proton/dicarboxylate symport. PMID:11526017

  5. AGAPE (Automated Genome Analysis PipelinE) for Pan-Genome Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Song, Giltae; Dickins, Benjamin J. A.; Demeter, Janos; Engel, Stacia; Dunn, Barbara; Cherry, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The characterization and public release of genome sequences from thousands of organisms is expanding the scope for genetic variation studies. However, understanding the phenotypic consequences of genetic variation remains a challenge in eukaryotes due to the complexity of the genotype-phenotype map. One approach to this is the intensive study of model systems for which diverse sources of information can be accumulated and integrated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an extensively studied model organism, with well-known protein functions and thoroughly curated phenotype data. To develop and expand the available resources linking genomic variation with function in yeast, we aim to model the pan-genome of S. cerevisiae. To initiate the yeast pan-genome, we newly sequenced or re-sequenced the genomes of 25 strains that are commonly used in the yeast research community using advanced sequencing technology at high quality. We also developed a pipeline for automated pan-genome analysis, which integrates the steps of assembly, annotation, and variation calling. To assign strain-specific functional annotations, we identified genes that were not present in the reference genome. We classified these according to their presence or absence across strains and characterized each group of genes with known functional and phenotypic features. The functional roles of novel genes not found in the reference genome and associated with strains or groups of strains appear to be consistent with anticipated adaptations in specific lineages. As more S. cerevisiae strain genomes are released, our analysis can be used to collate genome data and relate it to lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution. Our new tool set will enhance our understanding of genomic and functional evolution in S. cerevisiae, and will be available to the yeast genetics and molecular biology community. PMID:25781462

  6. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1?, are2?, dga1? and lro1?) and ?-oxidation (pox1?) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  7. Synthesis of Novel Lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of an Unspecific Bacterial Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) is the key enzyme in storage lipid accumulation in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1, mediating wax ester, and to a lesser extent, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids. Four genes encoding a DGAT (Dga1p), a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Lro1p) and two acyl-coenzyme A:sterol acyltransferases (ASATs) (Are1p and Are2p) are involved in the final esterification steps in TAG and steryl ester biosynthesis in this yeast. In the quadruple mutant strain S. cerevisiae H1246, the disruption of DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2 leads to an inability to synthesize storage lipids. Heterologous expression of WS/DGAT from A. calcoaceticus ADP1 in S. cerevisiae H1246 restored TAG but not steryl ester biosynthesis, although high levels of ASAT activity could be demonstrated for WS/DGAT expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue in radiometric in vitro assays with cholesterol and ergosterol as substrates. In addition to TAG synthesis, heterologous expression of WS/DGAT in S. cerevisiae H1246 resulted also in the accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters as well as fatty acid isoamyl esters. In vitro studies confirmed that WS/DGAT is capable of utilizing a broad range of alcohols as substrates comprising long-chain fatty alcohols like hexadecanol as well as short-chain alcohols like ethanol or isoamyl alcohol. This study demonstrated the highly unspecific acyltransferase activity of WS/DGAT from A. calcoaceticus ADP1, indicating the broad biocatalytic potential of this enzyme for biotechnological production of a large variety of lipids in vivo in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic expression hosts. PMID:15574908

  8. Glycolic acid production in the engineered yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycolic acid is a C2 hydroxy acid that is a widely used chemical compound. It can be polymerised to produce biodegradable polymers with excellent gas barrier properties. Currently, glycolic acid is produced in a chemical process using fossil resources and toxic chemicals. Biotechnological production of glycolic acid using renewable resources is a desirable alternative. Results The yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis are suitable organisms for glycolic acid production since they are acid tolerant and can grow in the presence of up to 50 g l-1 glycolic acid. We engineered S. cerevisiae and K. lactis for glycolic acid production using the reactions of the glyoxylate cycle to produce glyoxylic acid and then reducing it to glycolic acid. The expression of a high affinity glyoxylate reductase alone already led to glycolic acid production. The production was further improved by deleting genes encoding malate synthase and the cytosolic form of isocitrate dehydrogenase. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced up to about 1 g l-1 of glycolic acid in a medium containing d-xylose and ethanol. Similar modifications in K. lactis resulted in a much higher glycolic acid titer. In a bioreactor cultivation with d-xylose and ethanol up to 15 g l-1 of glycolic acid was obtained. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of engineering yeast to produce glycolic acid. Prior to this work glycolic acid production through the glyoxylate cycle has only been reported in bacteria. The benefit of a yeast host is the possibility for glycolic acid production also at low pH, which was demonstrated in flask cultivations. Production of glycolic acid was first shown in S. cerevisiae. To test whether a Crabtree negative yeast would be better suited for glycolic acid production we engineered K. lactis in the same way and demonstrated it to be a better host for glycolic acid production. PMID:24053654

  9. Transporter engineering for improved tolerance against alkane biofuels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrocarbon alkanes, components of major fossil fuels, are considered as next-generation biofuels because their biological production has recently been shown to be possible. However, high-yield alkane production requires robust host cells that are tolerant against alkanes, which exhibit cytotoxicity. In this study, we aimed to improve alkane tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key industrial microbial host, by harnessing heterologous transporters that potentially pump out alkanes. Results To this end, we attempted to exploit ABC transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica based on the observation that it utilizes alkanes as a carbon source. We confirmed the increased transcription of ABC2 and ABC3 transporters upon exposure to a range of alkanes in Y. lipolytica. We then showed that the heterologous expression of ABC2 and ABC3 transporters significantly increased tolerance against decane and undecane in S. cerevisiae through maintaining lower intracellular alkane level. In particular, ABC2 transporter increased the tolerance limit of S. cerevisiae about 80-fold against decane. Furthermore, through site-directed mutagenesis for glutamate (E988 for ABC2, and E989 for ABC3) and histidine (H1020 for ABC2, and H1021 for ABC3), we provided the evidence that glutamate was essential for the activity of ABC2 and ABC3 transporters, with ATP most likely to be hydrolyzed by a catalytic carboxylate mechanism. Conclusions Here, we demonstrated that transporter engineering through expression of heterologous efflux pumps led to significantly improved tolerance against alkane biofuels in S. cerevisiae. We believe that our results laid the groundwork for developing robust alkane-producing yeast cells through transporter engineering, which will greatly aid in next-generation alkane biofuel production and recovery. PMID:23402697

  10. Investigation of the dominance behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Benedetta; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2013-07-15

    During wine fermentation, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae compete in the same fermenting must and dominance takes place when one strain overcomes all the others. The purpose of this study was to investigate this phenomenon by identifying S. cerevisiae strains endowed with this feature and to test them in laboratory fermentations. First, autochthonous S. cerevisiae from Nebbiolo fermentations were isolated, molecularly identified and characterized. Genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains were subsequently subjected to physiological characterization and to micro-scale fermentation, the weight loss kinetics was measured and HPLC analysis was performed at the end of the fermentation. Then, the strains that presented good fermentation characteristics were chosen for further analysis and to determine the dominance feature. For this purpose, couples of strains were co-inoculated in Nebbiolo must and the fermentations were monitored by microbiological and chemical analysis. Two different inoculation approaches were used: co-fermentations in flasks with mixed cells and reactor co-fermentations, in which the cells from the two different strains were kept separate by means of a 0.45 ?m filter membrane, which allowed the fermenting must to move freely between the two compartments. During the flask co-fermentations, a minisatellite PCR protocol was applied, in order to differentiate the two strains and determine which one was able to dominate. The protocol included a culture-dependent approach and an independent one. In the first case, DNA extraction was performed on all the colonies scraped off the plates after sampling. In the second case, DNA extraction was performed directly on the fermenting must. The strains that were able to dominate were tested against several S. cerevisiae in order to confirm this dominance behavior. Dominance was observed in the early stages of fermentation, as early as 3days. Combinations of dominant and not-dominant strains were subjected to further tests in a co-fermentation reactor system, in order to perform single-strain analysis so as to obtain a better understanding of the dominance behavior. Surprisingly, the results obtained in the flask co-fermentations were not confirmed. In fact, the two strains, one which was hypothesized to be dominant and the other not-dominant, coexisted throughout the fermentation period. The results of this study suggest that the dominant behavior of S. cerevisiae is only expressed when they sense other yeasts in the same environment. PMID:23728432

  11. Regulation of initiation of division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of the role of DCR2, GID8, and KEM1 in completion of START 

    E-print Network

    Pathak, Ritu

    2007-04-25

    The decision to initiate division is very important, as once cells have initiated division they are committed to complete it. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commitment to a new round of cell division occurs at a regulatory ...

  12. The G1 cyclin Cln3p regulates vacuole homeostasis through phosphorylation of a scaffold protein, Bem1p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    E-print Network

    Han, Bong Kwan

    2007-04-25

    How proliferating cells maintain the copy number and overall size of their organelles is not clear. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the G1 cyclins Cln1,2,3p control initiation of cell division by regulating ...

  13. Permeabilization of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls using nanosecond high power electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirke, A.; Zimkus, A.; Balevicius, S.; Stankevic, V.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Ramanavicius, A.; Zurauskiene, N.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical field-induced changes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells permeabilization to tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) ions were studied using square-shaped, nanosecond duration high power electrical pulses. It was obtained that pulses having durations ranging from 10 ns to 60 ns, and generating electric field strengths up to 190 kV/cm significantly (up to 65 times) increase the absorption rate of TPP+ ions without any detectible influence on the yeast cell viability. The modelling of the TPP+ absorption process using a second order rate equation demonstrates that depending on the duration of the pulses, yeast cell clusters of different sizes are homogeniously permeabilized. It was concluded, that nanosecond pulse-induced permeabilization can be applied to increase the operational speed of whole cell biosensors.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  15. Evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of mutations increasing fitness in laboratory populations.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Victoria M; Adams, Julian

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the complete sequence of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of comprehensive investigations have been initiated to gain insight into cellular function. The focus of these studies has been to identify genes essential for survival in specific environments or those that when mutated cause gross phenotypic defects in growth. Here we describe Ty1-based mutational approaches designed to identify genes, which when mutated generate evolutionarily significant phenotypes causing small but positive increments on fitness. As expected, Ty1 mutations with a positive fitness effect were in the minority. However, mutations in two loci, one inactivating FAR3 and one upstream of CYR1, identified in evolving populations, were shown to have small but significantly positive fitness effects. PMID:14668358

  16. The fluxes through glycolytic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predominantly regulated at posttranscriptional levels

    PubMed Central

    Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Rossell, Sergio; van Gulik, Walter M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; de Groot, Marco J. L.; Slijper, Monique; Heck, Albert J. R.; Daran, Jean-Marc; de Winde, Johannes H.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Pronk, Jack T.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes may be regulated “hierarchically,” e.g., by changes of gene expression that adjust enzyme capacities (Vmax) and/or “metabolically” by interactions of enzymes with substrates, products, or allosteric effectors. In the present study, a method is developed to dissect the hierarchical regulation into contributions by transcription, translation, protein degradation, and posttranslational modification. The method was applied to the regulation of fluxes through individual glycolytic enzymes when the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was confronted with the absence of oxygen and the presence of benzoic acid depleting its ATP. Metabolic regulation largely contributed to the ?10-fold change in flux through the glycolytic enzymes. This contribution varied from 50 to 80%, depending on the glycolytic step and the cultivation condition tested. Within the 50–20% hierarchical regulation of fluxes, transcription played a minor role, whereas regulation of protein synthesis or degradation was the most important. These also contributed to 75–100% of the regulation of protein levels. PMID:17898166

  17. Micromolar HgCl2 concentrations transitorily duplicate the ATP level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Silles, Eduardo; Osorio, Hugo; Maia, Rita; Günther Sillero, María A; Sillero, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    Low concentrations of HgCl2 elicited, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a transitory increase in the ATP level followed by a decrease of its concentration, until almost disappearance. At 1 microM HgCl2, the increase in ATP lasted for about 30 min, while at 10 microM the increase was only observed in the first 5 min of treatment. The initial burst of ATP was accompanied by a decrease in the level of hexose phosphates, whereas during the decrease of ATP an increase in the inosine and hexose phosphates levels took place. The treatment with HgCl2 inhibited the plasma membrane proton ATPase but not the activities of hexokinase or 6-phosphofructokinase. PMID:16023109

  18. Role of hydrosulfide ions (HS-) in methylmercury resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Ishii, N; Fujino, S; Aoyama, I

    1991-01-01

    Methylmercury-resistant mutants were obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They were divided into two complementation groups, met2 (homoserine O-acetyltransferase deficiency) and met15 (enzyme deficiency unknown), as reported previously. It was found that met15 was allelic to met17 (O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase deficiency). Methylmercury toxicity was counteracted by exogenously added HS-, and both met2 and met17 (met15) mutants overproduced H2S. On the basis of these results, we conclude that met2 and met17 (met15) cause accumulation of hydrosulfide ions in the cell and that the increased level of hydrosulfide is responsible for detoxification of methylmercury. Images PMID:1781681

  19. Occurrence of low molecular weight O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S

    1980-11-01

    Studies with crude preparations obtained from a cysteine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase could be separated from O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. On the basis of sedimentation distance, the molecular weights of these enzymes were calculated to be about 99,000 and 182,000, respectively. The former did not react with the amino acid substrate of the latter, and vice versa. The wild-type strain was also demonstrated to possess O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (molecular weight: about 96,000), in addition to a large amount of O-acetylserine-O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (Yamagata et al. (1974) J. Biochem. 75, 1221). PMID:7007360

  20. Expression in Escherichia coli of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCT gene encoding cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Y; Nikawa, J; Hosaka, K; Yamashita, S

    1991-01-01

    The coding region of the CCT gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned into the pUC18 expression vector. The plasmid directed the synthesis of an active cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase in Escherichia coli, confirming that CCT is the structural gene for this enzyme. The enzyme produced in E. coli efficiently utilized cholinephosphate and N,N-dimethylethanolaminephosphate, but N-methylethanolamine-phosphate and ethanolaminephosphate were poor substrates. Consistently, disruption of the CCT locus in the wild-type yeast cells resulted in a drastic decrease in activities with respect to the former two substrates. When activity was expressed in E. coli, over 90% was recovered in the cytosol, whereas most of the activity of yeast cells was associated with membranes, suggesting that yeast cells possess a mechanism that promotes membrane association of cytidylyltransferase. Images PMID:1848222

  1. Role of NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1990-01-01

    We cloned GDH2, the gene that encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by purifying the enzyme, making polyclonal antibodies to it, and using the antibodies to screen a lambda gt11 yeast genomic library. A yeast strain with a deletion-disruption allele of GDH2 which replaced the wild-type gene grew very poorly with glutamate as a nitrogen source, but growth improved significantly when the strain was also provided with adenine or other nitrogenous compounds whose biosynthesis requires glutamine. Our results indicate that the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the major, but not sole, pathway for generation of ammonia from glutamate. We also isolated yeast mutants that lacked glutamate synthase activity and present evidence which shows that normally NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase is not involved in glutamate biosynthesis, but that if the enzyme is overexpressed, it may function reversibly in intact cells. PMID:1975578

  2. Novel physiological roles for glutathione in sequestering acetaldehyde to confer acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsufuji, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kohei; Yamauchi, Kosei; Mitsunaga, Tohru; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we identified novel physiological functions of glutathione in acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains deleted in the genes encoding the enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis and reduction, GSH1, GSH2 and GLR1, exhibited severe growth defects compared to wild-type under acetaldehyde stress, although strains deleted in the genes encoding glutathione peroxidases or glutathione transferases did not show any growth defects. On the other hand, intracellular levels of reduced glutathione decreased in the presence of acetaldehyde in response to acetaldehyde concentration. Moreover, we show that glutathione can trap a maximum of four acetaldehyde molecules within its molecule in a non-enzymatic manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that glutathione has an important role in acetaldehyde tolerance, as a direct scavenger of acetaldehyde in the cell. PMID:22615054

  3. Synthetic interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, F P; Novick, P

    2000-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, synthetic lethality has been extensively used both to characterize interactions between genes previously identified as likely to be involved in similar processes as well as to uncover new interactions. We have performed a large study of the synthetic lethal interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations. Included in this study are the interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations with each other, with mutations affecting earlier stages of the secretory pathway, with selected mutations affecting the actin cytoskeleton, and with selected cell division cycle (cdc) mutations affecting processes thought to be important for or involving secretion, such as polarity establishment and cytokinesis. Synthetic negative interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations appear (as predicted) to be largely stage specific, although there are some notable exceptions. The significance of these results is discussed in the context of both secretory pathway function and the utility of synthetic lethality studies and their interpretation. PMID:11063675

  4. Inactivation of expression of two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the external guide sequence methodology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xudong; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    The artificial inhibition of expression of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not a widespread, useful phenomenon. The external guide sequence (EGS) technology, which is well-proven in bacteria and mammalian cells in tissue culture and in mice, can also be utilized in yeast. The TOP2 and SRG1 genes can be inhibited by ?30% with EGSs in vivo. Results in vitro also show convenient cleavage of the relevant transcripts by RNase P and appropriate EGSs. The feasible constructs shown to date have an EGS covalently linked to M1 RNA, the RNA subunit of RNase P from Escherichia coli. Greater efficiency in cleavage of transcripts can be fashioned using more than one EGS targeted to different sites in a transcript and stronger promoters controlling the EGS constructs. PMID:21233222

  5. Physical Map of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genome at 110-Kilobase Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Link, A. J.; Olson, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    A physical map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome is presented. It was derived by mapping the sites for two restriction endonucleases, SfiI and NotI, each of which recognizes an 8-bp sequence. DNA-DNA hybridization probes for genetically mapped genes and probes that span particular SfiI and NotI sites were used to construct a map that contains 131 physical landmarks--32 chromosome ends, 61 SfiI sites and 38 NotI sites. These landmarks are distributed throughout the non-rDNA component of the yeast genome, which comprises 12.5 Mbp of DNA. The physical map suggests that those genes that can be detected and mapped by standard genetic methods are distributed rather uniformly over the full physical extent of the yeast genome. The map has immediate applications to the mapping of genes for which single-copy DNA-DNA hybridization probes are available. PMID:2029969

  6. Localization of dolichyl phosphate- and pyrophosphate-dependent glycosyl transfer reactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, M; Tanner, W

    1979-01-01

    Membranes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae protoplasts were fractionated on a continuous sucrose gradient. Six bands were obtained, which contained altogether about 15% of the total cell protein. From their densitites, their behavior in the presence and absence of Mg2+ ions, and the distribution of marker enzymes, it was possible to identify fractions enriched in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria. All glycosyl transfer reactions investigated where dolichyl phosphates served as glycosyl acceptors or where dolichyl phosphate- and pyrophosphate-activated sugars served as glycosyl donors showed the highest specific activity and up to 75% of the total activity in the endoplasmic reticulum. This was the case for the reactions involved in the formation of O-glycosidic as well as N-glycosidic linkages in yeast glycoprotein biosynthesis. Membrane fractions enriched in plasmalemma contained less than 3% of the corresponding activities. PMID:222737

  7. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cell Wall Components as Tools for Ochratoxin A Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata; Masek, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall preparations in the adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA). The study involved the use of a brewer’s yeast cell wall devoid of protein substances, glucans obtained by water and alkaline extraction, a glucan commercially available as a dietary supplement for animals and, additionally, dried brewer’s yeast for comparison. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis of the obtained preparations showed bands characteristic for glucans in the resulting spectra. The yeast cell wall preparation, water-extracted glucan and the commercial glucan bound the highest amount of ochratoxin A, above 55% of the initial concentration, and the alkaline-extracted glucan adsorbed the lowest amount of this toxin. It has been shown that adsorption is most effective at a close-to-neutral pH, while being considerably limited in alkaline conditions. PMID:25848694

  8. Chromosomal attachments set length and microtubule number in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    Nannas, Natalie J.; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Winey, Mark; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    The length of the mitotic spindle varies among different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to micro­tubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that spindle length scales with kinetochore number, increasing when kinetochores are inactivated and shortening on addition of synthetic or natural kinetochores, showing that kinetochore–microtubule interactions generate an inward force to balance forces that elongate the spindle. Electron microscopy shows that manipulating kinetochore number alters the number of spindle microtubules: adding extra kinetochores increases the number of spindle microtubules, suggesting kinetochore-based regulation of microtubule number. PMID:25318669

  9. Characterization and expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Piwu; Su, Jing; Wu, Xiangkun; Liang, Rongrong

    2014-10-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168 GIVING maximum activity of 96 U ml(-1) for the enzyme in the culture medium. By SDS-PAGE, the enzyme, a glycosylated protein, had an apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa. The enzyme was purified by gel exclusion chromatography to near homogeneity, with a 90 % yield and its properties were characterized. Optimal activities were at pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively, at which the highest specific activity was 6.8 U mg protein (-1). The enzyme was stable from pH 4.5 to 5.5 and from 45 to 60 °C. The Km and Vmax of the GlcN-6-P synthase towards D-fructose 6-phosphate were 2.8 mM and 6.9 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. PMID:24930098

  10. Very early acetaldehyde production by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: a new intrinsic character.

    PubMed

    Cheraiti, Naoufel; Guezenec, Stéphane; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2010-03-01

    During a general survey of the acetaldehyde-producing properties of commercially available wine yeast strains, we discovered that, although final acetaldehyde production cannot be used as a discriminating factor between yeast strains, initial specific acetaldehyde production rates were of highly interest for classifying yeast strains. This parameter is very closely related to the growth- and fermentation-lag phase durations. We also found that this acetaldehyde early production occurs with very different extent between commercial active dry yeast strains during the rehydration phase and could partially explain the known variable resistance of yeast strains to sulfites. Acetaldehyde production appeared, therefore, as very precocious, strain-dependent, and biomass-independent character. These various findings suggest that this new intrinsic characteristic of industrial fermenting yeast may be likely considered as an early marker of the general fermenting activity of industrial fermenting yeasts. This phenomenon could be particularly important for understanding the ecology of colonization of complex fermentation media by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19921176

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall components as tools for ochratoxin a decontamination.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata; Masek, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall preparations in the adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA). The study involved the use of a brewer's yeast cell wall devoid of protein substances, glucans obtained by water and alkaline extraction, a glucan commercially available as a dietary supplement for animals and, additionally, dried brewer's yeast for comparison. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis of the obtained preparations showed bands characteristic for glucans in the resulting spectra. The yeast cell wall preparation, water-extracted glucan and the commercial glucan bound the highest amount of ochratoxin A, above 55% of the initial concentration, and the alkaline-extracted glucan adsorbed the lowest amount of this toxin. It has been shown that adsorption is most effective at a close-to-neutral pH, while being considerably limited in alkaline conditions. PMID:25848694

  12. Infrequent Co-conversion of Markers Flanking a Meiotic Recombination Initiation Site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Lea; Allers, Thorsten; Lichten, Michael

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanism of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we examined recombination in an interval where the majority of events are initiated at a single hotspot for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), with little or no expected contribution by outside initiation events. This interval contained infrequently corrected palindromic markers 300 bp to the left and 600 bp to the right of the DSB hotspot. Conversion of single markers occurred frequently, while conversion of both markers occurred rarely, and many of the tetrads in which both markers converted were the products of multiple events. These data indicate that most meiotic recombination intermediates are asymmetrically positioned around the initiating DSB, with a short (<300 bp) tract of heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) to one side and hDNA on the other side frequently extending 600 bp or more. One consequence of this asymmetry is the preferential concentration of crossovers in the vicinity of the initiating DSB. PMID:15654098

  13. Toward sub-second correlative light and electron microscopy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buser, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism widely used to study cell biological processes because of its easy genomic manipulation and its close relatedness to higher eukaryotes. For electron microscopy, the good freezing properties and the small size of yeast cells make it a nearly ideal specimen for the development of cryopreparation techniques. Here we report on the development of a method to correlate yeast cells by live-fluorescence and electron microscopy with the potential to achieve sub-second correlation times. This is possible by plunge-freezing of an optically transparent sample sandwich, so that the temporal resolution is only determined by the transfer speed from the fluorescence microscope to the freezing device. While direct correlation was not yet achieved, the system already offers the possibility to verify the state of the identical population of cells by fluorescence microscopy immediately before freezing and processing for transmission electron microscopy. PMID:20869525

  14. Spermidine or spermine is essential for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, D; Tabor, C W; Tabor, H

    1991-01-01

    A null mutation in the SPE2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, results in cells with no detectable S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, spermidine, and spermine. This mutant has an absolute requirement for spermidine or spermine for growth; this requirement is not satisfied by putrescine. Polyamine-depleted cells show a number of microscopic abnormalities that are similar to those reported for several cell division cycle (cdc) and actin mutants. These include a striking increase in cell size, a marked decrease in budding, accumulation of vesicle-like bodies, absence of specific localization of chitin-like material, and abnormal distribution of actin-like material. The absolute requirement for polyamines for growth and the microscopic abnormalities are not seen if the cultures are grown under anaerobic conditions. Images PMID:2062864

  15. Iron sensing and regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Ironing out the mechanistic details.

    PubMed

    Outten, Caryn E; Albetel, Angela-Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Regulation of iron metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is achieved at the transcriptional level by low (Aft1 and Aft2) and high iron-sensing (Yap5) transcription factors, and at the post-transcriptional level by mRNA-binding proteins (Cth1 and Cth2). In this review we highlight recent studies unveiling the critical role that iron-sulfur clusters play in control of Aft1/2 and Yap5 activity, as well as the complex relationship between iron homeostasis and thiol redox metabolism. In addition, new insights into the localization and regulation of Cth1/Cth2 have added another layer of complexity to the cell's adaptation to iron deficiency. Finally, biophysical studies on subcellular iron speciation changes in response to environmental and genetic factors have further illuminated the elaborate control mechanisms required to manage iron bioavailability in the cell. PMID:23962819

  16. Iron Sensing and Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Ironing Out the Mechanistic Details

    PubMed Central

    Outten, Caryn E.; Albetel, Angela-Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of iron metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is achieved at the transcriptional level by low (Aft1 and Aft2) and high iron-sensing (Yap5) transcription factors, and at the post-transcriptional level by mRNA-binding proteins (Cth1 and Cth2). In this review we highlight recent studies unveiling the critical role that iron-sulfur clusters play in control of Aft1/2 and Yap5 activity, as well as the complex relationship between iron homeostasis and thiol redox metabolism. In addition, new insights into the localization and regulation of Cth1/Cth2 have added another layer of complexity to the cell’s adaptation to iron deficiency. Finally, biophysical studies on subcellular iron speciation changes in response to environmental and genetic factors have further illuminated the elaborate control mechanisms required to manage iron bioavailability in the cell. PMID:23962819

  17. Cell-surface display of enzymes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-09-19

    In yeast cell-surface displays, functional proteins, such as cellulases, are genetically fused to an anchor protein and expressed on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is often utilized as a cell factory for the production of fuels, chemicals, and proteins, is the most commonly used yeast for cell-surface display. To construct yeast cells with a desired function, such as the ability to utilize cellulose as a substrate for bioethanol production, cell-surface display techniques for the efficient expression of enzymes on the cell membrane need to be combined with metabolic engineering approaches for manipulating target pathways within cells. In this Minireview, we summarize the recent progress of biorefinery fields in the development and application of yeast cell-surface displays from a synthetic biology perspective and discuss approaches for further enhancing cell-surface display efficiency. PMID:25243459

  18. Fatty Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin J; Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable, and cost-effective energy resources. Environment-friendly processes involving microbes can be used to synthesize advanced biofuels. These fuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels in supporting high-power demanding machinery such as aircrafts and trucks. From an engineering perspective, the pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive route for the production of advanced fuels such as fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and alkanes. The robustness and excellent accessibility to molecular genetics make the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a suitable host for the purpose of bio-manufacturing. Recent advances in metabolic engineering, as well as systems and synthetic biology, have now provided the opportunity to engineer yeast metabolism for the production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals. PMID:25225637

  19. Evaluation of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as the chassis cell for second-generation bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxing; Wu, Meiling; Xu, Lili; Hou, Jin; Guo, Ting; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To develop a suitable Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strain as a chassis cell for ethanol production using lignocellulosic materials, 32 wild-type strains were evaluated for their glucose fermenting ability, their tolerance to the stresses they might encounter in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation and their genetic background for pentose metabolism. The strain BSIF, isolated from tropical fruit in Thailand, was selected out of the distinctly different strains studied for its promising characteristics. The maximal specific growth rate of BSIF was as high as 0.65?h?1 in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium, and the ethanol yield was 0.45?g?g?1 consumed glucose. Furthermore, compared with other strains, this strain exhibited superior tolerance to high temperature, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress; better growth performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysate; and better xylose utilization capacity when an initial xylose metabolic pathway was introduced. All of these results indicate that this strain is an excellent chassis strain for lignocellulosic ethanol production. PMID:25616171

  20. Activation of cycasin to a mutagen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae by rat intestinal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, V W; Goin, C J

    1983-01-01

    Genetic test systems involving microorganisms and liver enzyme preparations may be insufficient to detect compounds that require breakdown by enzymes provided by the microbial flora of the intestinal tract. A method is described for providing such activation and for simultaneously testing the potential genetic activity of breakdown products in an indicator organism. Parabiotic chambers containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae genetic test organisms in one chamber were separated by a membrane filter from rat cecal organisms and test chemical contained in the other chamber. The genetic activities of cycasin breakdown products for mutation, gene conversion, and mitotic crossing-over in samples incubated aerobically are reported. Samples containing cycasin alone had a small but clearly increased frequency of genetic damage. Samples containing rat cecal organisms without cycasin showed no increase in genetic activity. Anaerobic incubation resulted in no increase in genetic activity in any of the samples. PMID:6338830

  1. Specific interactions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins with a promoter region of eukaryotic tRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Klemenz, R; Stillman, D J; Geiduschek, E P

    1982-01-01

    The specific binding of one or several Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins to a segment of genes that code for different yeast tRNAs has been demonstrated with the use of the DNase I-protection "footprint" assay of Galas and Schmitz. The analyzed binding occurs near the 3' ends of the genes and is centered on an 11-base-pair DNA sequence that has been well conserved among eukaryotic tRNA genes. Others have shown the involvement of this sequence in initiating the transcription of tRNA genes by RNA polymerase III. The adenovirus gene that codes for VAI RNA also contains this conserved sequence element, and we detect binding of yeast protein(s) to this gene. Competition experiments show that a common set of proteins binds to different tRNA genes. The DNA-protein complex is quite stable at 20 degrees C and low ionic strength. Images PMID:6755466

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed culture of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) juice: synergism in the aroma compounds production.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200?rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  3. Engineering of glycerol utilization pathway for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Kim, Seung Wook; Han, Sung Ok

    2010-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was metabolically engineered to improve ethanol production from glycerol. High rates of glycerol utilization were achieved by simultaneous overexpression of glycerol dehydrogenase (Gcy) and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dak), which are the enzymes responsible for the conversion of glycerol to glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate. As a result, ethanol production in YPH499 (pGcyaDak) was about 2.4-fold higher than wild strain. We have also successfully expressed a glycerol uptake protein (Gup1). The overall ethanol production in strain YPH499 (pGcyaDak, pGupCas) was 3.4-fold more than in wild strain, with about 2.4gL(-1) ethanol produced. These experimental results confirmed our metabolic pathway strategies which improve the production of ethanol. PMID:20149645

  4. Calcium signaling mediates the response to cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Ruta, Lavinia L; Popa, Valentina C; Nicolau, Ioana; Danet, Andrei F; Iordache, Virgil; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-08-25

    The involvement of Ca(2+) in the response to high Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+) was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast cells responded through a sharp increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) when exposed to Cd(2+), and to a lesser extent to Cu(2+), but not to Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), or Hg(2+). The response to high Cd(2+) depended mainly on external Ca(2+) (transported through the Cch1p/Mid1p channel) but also on vacuolar Ca(2+) (released into the cytosol through the Yvc1p channel). The adaptation to high Cd(2+) was influenced by perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Thus, the tolerance to Cd(2+) often correlated with sharp Cd(2+)-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) pulses, while the Cd(2+) sensitivity was accompanied by the incapacity to rapidly restore the low cytosolic Ca(2+). PMID:25017440

  5. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. PMID:24444969

  6. Surveying the floodgates: estimating protein flux into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Michael; Whidden, Mark; Schnell, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins, along with all proteins traveling through the secretory pathway must enter endoplasmic reticulum lumen through membrane-embedded translocons. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the heterotrimeric endoplasmic reticulum translocon is composed of the Sec61p, Sss1p, and Sbh1p core subunits. While the involvement of various molecules associated with the Sec61 complex has been thoroughly characterized, little attention has been given to the overall flux through these channels. In this work we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the average and absolute flux of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. We estimate an average of 460 proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum every second, with an absolute minimum and maximum flux of 78 and 3700 molecules per second, respectively. With current technologies limiting the ability to obtain accurate measurements of these events, our estimates shed light on the flow of protein entering the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. PMID:25431559

  7. Ctk1 Function Is Necessary for Full Translation Initiation Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Coordes, Britta; Brünger, Katharina M.; Burger, Kaspar; Soufi, Boumediene; Horenk, Juliane; Eick, Dirk; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2014-01-01

    Translation is a fundamental and highly regulated cellular process. Previously, we reported that the kinase and transcription elongation factor Ctk1 increases fidelity during translation elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that loss of Ctk1 function also affects the initiation step of translation. Translation active extracts from Ctk1-depleted cells show impaired translation activity of capped mRNA, but not mRNA reporters containing the cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Furthermore, the formation of 80S initiation complexes is decreased, which is probably due to reduced subunit joining. In addition, we determined the changes in the phosphorylation pattern of a ribosome enriched fraction after depletion of Ctk1. Thus, we provide a catalogue of phosphoproteomic changes dependent on Ctk1. Taken together, our data suggest a stimulatory function of Ctk1 in 80S formation during translation initiation. PMID:25416238

  8. The novel nuclear gene DSS-1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dmochowska, A; Golik, P; Stepien, P P

    1995-07-01

    A previously unknown nuclear gene DSS-1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned and sequenced. The gene was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a disruption of the SUV-3 gene coding for a DEAD/H box protein involved in processing and turnover of mitochondrial transcripts. The DSS-1 gene codes for a 970 amino-acid protein of molecular weight 111 kDa and is necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis. Amino-acid sequence analysis indicates the presence of motifs characteristic for Escherichia coli RNase II, the dis3 protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the cyt4 protein participating in RNA processing and turnover in Neurospora crassa mitochondria, and the vacB protein from Shigella flexneri. We suggest that the DSS-1 protein may be a component of the mitochondrial 3'-5' exoribonuclease complex. PMID:8590460

  9. The role of centromere alignment in meiosis I segregation of homologous chromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, C E; Kaback, D B

    1999-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and then segregate from each other at the first meiotic division. Homologous centromeres appear to be aligned when chromosomes are paired. The role of centromere alignment in meiotic chromosome segregation was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploids that contained one intact copy of chromosome I and one copy bisected into two functional centromere-containing fragments. The centromere on one fragment was aligned with the centromere on the intact chromosome while the centromere on the other fragment was either aligned or misaligned. Fragments containing aligned centromeres segregated efficiently from the intact chromosome, while fragments containing misaligned centromeres segregated much less efficiently from the intact chromosome. Less efficient segregation was correlated with crossing over in the region between the misaligned centromeres. Models that suggest that these crossovers impede proper segregation by preventing either a segregation-promoting chromosome alignment on the meiotic spindle or some physical interaction between homologous centromeres are proposed. PMID:10581265

  10. The respirative breakdown of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an assessment of a physiological state.

    PubMed

    Käppeli, O; Arreguin, M; Rieger, M

    1985-06-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibiting respirative glucose metabolism in continuous culture were able to use ethanol as a co-substrate. The ethanol uptake rate was dependent on the residual respirative capacity of the cells. The activities of gluconeogenic enzymes and of malate dehydrogenase were higher in cells degrading glucose respiratively than in cells metabolizing glucose respiro-fermentatively, but were lower than in cells growing on ethanol only. The pattern of distribution of the mitochondrial cytochromes was similar but the differences were less distinct. In synchronously growing cells, the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes and of malate dehydrogenase oscillated, with activities increasing during the budding phase. The increase was preceded by the appearance of ethanol in the culture medium. PMID:2995544

  11. Identification of novel genes responsible for salt tolerance by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Yang, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains tolerant to salt stress are important for the production of single-cell protein using kimchi waste brine. In this study, two strains (TN-1 and TN-2) tolerant of up to 10 % (w/v) NaCl were isolated by screening a transposon-mediated mutant library. The determination of transposon insertion sites and Northern blot analysis identified two genes, MDJ1 and VPS74, and revealed disruptions of the open reading frame of both genes, indicating that salt tolerance can be conferred. Such tolerant phenotypes reverted to sensitive phenotypes on the autologous or overexpression of each gene. The two transposon mutants grew faster than the control strain when cultured at 30 °C in rich medium containing 5, 7.5 or 10 % NaCl. The genes identified in this study may provide a basis for application in developing industrial yeast strains. PMID:25613285

  12. Mutants of H-ras that interfere with RAS effector function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Michaeli, T; Field, J; Ballester, R; O'Neill, K; Wigler, M

    1989-01-01

    We report a class of interfering mutants of the human H-ras gene capable of inhibiting phenotypes arising from the expression of the activated RAS2 gene, RAS2val19, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All these mutants encode unprocessed H-ras proteins that remain in the cytoplasm. One of the mutants, H-rasarg186, was examined in detail. H-rasarg186 protein is a competitive inhibitor of RAS2val19 protein. It does not interfere with processing and membrane localization of RAS2val19, nor does it appear to compete with RAS protein for its proposed regulator, the CDC25 protein. By several criteria the RAS2val19 adenylate cyclase interaction is unaffected by H-rasarg186. We infer from our results that H-rasarg186 protein interferes with an alternative function of RAS2val19. Images PMID:2684634

  13. Identification of novel GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and involved in wine microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Branco, Patrícia; Francisco, Diana; Chambon, Christophe; Hébraud, Michel; Arneborg, Nils; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Caldeira, Jorge; Albergaria, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a primordial role in alcoholic fermentation and has a vast worldwide application in the production of fuel-ethanol, food and beverages. The dominance of S. cerevisiae over other microbial species during alcoholic fermentations has been traditionally ascribed to its higher ethanol tolerance. However, recent studies suggested that other phenomena, such as microbial interactions mediated by killer-like toxins, might play an important role. Here we show that S. cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) during alcoholic fermentation that are active against a wide variety of wine-related yeasts (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) and bacteria (e.g. Oenococcus oeni). Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that these AMPs correspond to fragments of the S. cerevisiae glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein. The involvement of GAPDH-derived peptides in wine microbial interactions was further sustained by results obtained in mixed cultures performed with S. cerevisiae single mutants deleted in each of the GAPDH codifying genes (TDH1-3) and also with a S. cerevisiae mutant deleted in the YCA1 gene, which codifies the apoptosis-involved enzyme metacaspase. These findings are discussed in the context of wine microbial interactions, biopreservation potential and the role of GAPDH in the defence system of S. cerevisiae. PMID:24292082

  14. Flor yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae--their ecology, genetics and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Hervé

    2013-10-15

    The aging of certain white wines is dependent on the presence of yeast strains that develop a biofilm on the wine surface after the alcoholic fermentation. These strains belong to the genus Saccharomyces and are called flor yeasts. These strains possess distinctive characteristics compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting strain. The most important one is their capacity to form a biofilm on the air-liquid interface of the wine. The major gene involved in this phenotype is FLO11, however other genes are also involved in velum formation by these yeast and will be detailed. Other striking features presented in this review are their aneuploidy, and their mitochondrial DNA polymorphism which seems to reflect adaptive evolution of the yeast to a stressful environment where acetaldehyde and ethanol are present at elevated concentration. The biofilm assures access to oxygen and therefore permits continued growth on non-fermentable ethanol. This specific metabolism explains the peculiar organoleptic profile of these wines, especially their content in acetaldehyde and sotolon. This review deals with these different specificities of flor yeasts and will also underline the existing gaps regarding these astonishing yeasts. PMID:24141073

  15. Impact of Photocatalysis on Fungal Cells: Depiction of Cellular and Molecular Effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Sana; Simonet, France; Lemaire, Marc; Guillard, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the antimicrobial effects of photocatalysis on the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To accurately study the antimicrobial mechanisms of the photocatalytic process, we focused our investigations on two questions: the entry of the nanoparticles in treated cells and the fate of the intracellular environment. Transmission electronic microscopy did not reveal any entry of nanoparticles within the cells, even for long exposure times, despite degradation of the cell wall space and deconstruction of cellular compartments. In contrast to proteins located at the periphery of the cells, intracellular proteins did not disappear uniformly. Disappearance or persistence of proteins from the pool of oxidized intracellular isoforms was not correlated to their functions. Altogether, our data suggested that photocatalysis induces the establishment of an intracellular oxidative environment. This hypothesis was sustained by the detection of an increased level of superoxide ions (O2°?) in treated cells and by greater cell cultivability for cells expressing oxidant stress response genes during photocatalytic exposure. The increase in intracellular ROS, which was not connected to the entry of nanoparticles within the cells or to a direct contact with the plasma membrane, could be the result of an imbalance in redox status amplified by chain reactions. Moreover, we expanded our study to other yeast and filamentous fungi and pointed out that, in contrast to the laboratory model S. cerevisiae, some environmental strains are very resistant to photocatalysis. This could be related to the cell wall composition and structure. PMID:25261515

  16. Xylose and some non-sugar carbon sources cause catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Belinchón, Mónica M; Gancedo, Juana M

    2003-10-01

    Glucose and other sugars, such as galactose or maltose, are able to cause carbon catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although glycolytic intermediates have been suggested as signal for repression, no evidence for such a control mechanism is available. The establishment of a correlation between levels of intracellular metabolites and the extent of catabolite repression may facilitate the identification of potential signal molecules in the process. To set a framework for such a study, the repression produced by xylose, glycerol and dihydroxyacetone upon genes belonging to different repressible circuits was tested, using an engineered strain of S. cerevisiae able to metabolize xylose. Xylose decreased the derepression of various enzymes in the presence of ethanol by at least 10-fold; the corresponding mRNAs were not detected in these conditions. Xylose also impaired the derepression of galactokinase and invertase. Glycerol and dihydroxyacetone decreased 2- to 3-fold the derepression observed in ethanol or galactose but did not affect invertase derepression. For yeast cells grown in media with different carbon sources, no correlation was found between repression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and intracellular levels of glucose 6-phosphate or fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. PMID:12955310

  17. Spatial Reorganization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enolase To Alter Carbon Metabolism under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Natsuko; Shinohara, Masahiro; Tatsukami, Yohei; Sato, Yasuhiko; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia has critical effects on the physiology of organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycolytic enzymes, including enolase (Eno2p), formed cellular foci under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the regulation and biological functions of these foci. Focus formation by Eno2p was inhibited temperature independently by the addition of cycloheximide or rapamycin or by the single substitution of alanine for the Val22 residue. Using mitochondrial inhibitors and an antioxidant, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was shown to participate in focus formation. Focus formation was also inhibited temperature dependently by an SNF1 knockout mutation. Interestingly, the foci were observed in the cell even after reoxygenation. The metabolic turnover analysis revealed that [U-13C]glucose conversion to pyruvate and oxaloacetate was accelerated in focus-forming cells. These results suggest that under hypoxia, S. cerevisiae cells sense mitochondrial ROS and, by the involvement of SNF1/AMPK, spatially reorganize metabolic enzymes in the cytosol via de novo protein synthesis, which subsequently increases carbon metabolism. The mechanism may be important for yeast cells under hypoxia, to quickly provide both energy and substrates for the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins independently of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also to fit changing environments. PMID:23748432

  18. Towards the systematic mapping and engineering of the protein prenylation machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Stein, Viktor; Kubala, Marta H; Steen, Jason; Grimmond, Sean M; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Protein prenylation is a widespread and highly conserved eukaryotic post-translational modification that endows proteins with the ability to reversibly attach to intracellular membranes. The dynamic interaction of prenylated proteins with intracellular membranes is essential for their signalling functions and is frequently deregulated in disease processes such as cancer. As a result, protein prenylation has been pharmacologically targeted by numerous drug discovery programs, albeit with limited success. To a large extent, this can be attributed to an insufficient understanding of the interplay of different protein prenyltransferases and the combinatorial diversity of the prenylatable sequence space. Here, we report a high-throughput, growth-based genetic selection assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on the Ras Recruitment System which, for the first time, has allowed us to create a comprehensive map of prenylatable protein sequences in S. cerevisiae. We demonstrate that potential prenylatable space is sparsely (6.2%) occupied leaving room for creation of synthetic orthogonal prenylatable sequences. To experimentally demonstrate that, we used the developed platform to engineer mutant farnesyltransferases that efficiently prenylate substrate motives that are not recognised by endogenous protein prenyltransferases. These uncoupled mutants can now be used as starting points for the systematic engineering of the eukaryotic protein prenylation machinery. PMID:25768003

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of triacetic acid lactone.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Javier; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2014-09-01

    Biobased chemicals have become attractive replacements for their fossil-fuel counterparts. Recent studies have shown triacetic acid lactone (TAL) to be a promising candidate, capable of undergoing chemical conversion to sorbic acid and other valuable intermediates. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered for the high-level production of TAL by overexpression of the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS) and systematic engineering of the yeast metabolic pathways. Pathway analysis and a computational approach were employed to target increases in cofactor and precursor pools to improve TAL synthesis. The pathways engineered include those for energy storage and generation, pentose biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, lipid biosynthesis and regulation, cofactor transport, and fermentative capacity. Seventeen genes were selected for disruption and independently screened for their effect on TAL production; combinations of knockouts were then evaluated. A combination of the pathway engineering and optimal culture parameters led to a 37-fold increase in titer to 2.2g/L and a 50-fold increase in yield to 0.13 (g/g glucose). These values are the highest reported in the literature, and provide a 3-fold improvement in yield over previous reports using S. cerevisiae. Identification of these metabolic bottlenecks provides a strategy for overproduction of other acetyl-CoA-dependent products in yeast. PMID:25084369

  20. Requirement of copper for 1st-log growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Como, S.A.; Valerio, V.; Nickless, S.; Connelly, J.L.

    1986-05-01

    Routine evaluation of the role of copper (Cu) in the growth of various mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae disclosed an unexpected effect of Cu on the fermentative first-log growth. The authors subsequent studies are attempting to ascertain the nature and significance of this observation. Cells are grown on glucose in a supplemented minimal media at 29/sup 0/C for 48-72 hrs. using New Brunswick incubator shaking at 200 rpm. Cu concentration was varied by addition of Cu salts or bathocuproine disulfonate (BC), a highly specific Cu chelator. Samples were removed periodically from flasks and dry weights were determined. Growth curve plots of normal yeasts grown in the presence of 1mM to 38mM Cu showed little variation in the expected 1st log; diauxi; 2nd log; stationary phase picture. However, in the presence of BC growth rate in the 1st log was significantly slowed and as expected 2nd log growth was essentially stopped. The low 1st log growth rate could be titrated to normal (+Cu) levels by increments of added Cu but not by added iron. The effect was not seen when Rho-minus strains were used nor when growth was followed under anaerobic conditions. Results to date implicate a mitochondrial protein, oxygen and copper in the 1st log growth of S Cerevisiae. The character of the protein agent and the possible contribution of cytochrome oxidase activity to the lst log growth are being evaluated.

  1. Extreme calorie restriction and energy source starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent distinct physiological states.

    PubMed

    Boender, Léonie G M; Almering, Marinka J H; Dijk, Madelon; van Maris, Antonius J A; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    Cultivation methods used to investigate microbial calorie restriction often result in carbon and energy starvation. This study aims to dissect cellular responses to calorie restriction and starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using retentostat cultivation. In retentostats, cells are continuously supplied with a small, constant carbon and energy supply, sufficient for maintenance of cellular viability and integrity but insufficient for growth. When glucose-limited retentostats cultivated under extreme calorie restriction were subjected to glucose starvation, calorie-restricted and glucose-starved cells were found to share characteristics such as increased heat-shock tolerance and expression of quiescence-related genes. However, they also displayed strikingly different features. While calorie-restricted yeast cultures remained metabolically active and viable for prolonged periods of time, glucose starvation resulted in rapid consumption of reserve carbohydrates, population heterogeneity due to appearance of senescent cells and, ultimately, loss of viability. Moreover, during starvation, calculated rates of ATP synthesis from reserve carbohydrates were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than steady-state ATP-turnover rates calculated under extreme calorie restriction in retentostats. Stringent reduction of ATP turnover during glucose starvation was accompanied by a strong down-regulation of genes involved in protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that extreme calorie restriction and carbon starvation represent different physiological states in S. cerevisiae. PMID:21803078

  2. Self-surface assembly of cellulosomes with two miniscaffoldins on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-Hai; Zhang, Zi-Jian; Yu, Xiao-Yu; Xue, Ya-Xu; Tan, Tian-Wei

    2012-08-14

    Yeast to directly convert cellulose and, especially, the microcrystalline cellulose into bioethanol, was engineered through display of minicellulosomes on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The construction and cell surface attachment of cellulosomes were accomplished with two individual miniscaffoldins to increase the display level. All of the cellulases including a celCCA (endoglucanase), a celCCE (cellobiohydrolase), and a Ccel_2454 (?-glucosidase) were cloned from Clostridium cellulolyticum, ensuring the thermal compatibility between cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. Cellulases and one of miniscaffoldins were secreted by ?-factor; thus, the assembly and attachment to anchoring miniscaffoldin were accomplished extracellularly. Immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometric analysis (FACS), and cellulosic ethanol fermentation confirmed the successful display of such complex on the yeast surface. Enzyme-enzyme synergy, enzyme-proximity synergy, and cellulose-enzyme-cell synergy were analyzed, and the length of anchoring miniscaffoldin was optimized. The engineered S. cerevisiae was applied in fermentation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC), or Avicel. It showed a significant hydrolytic activity toward microcrystalline cellulose, with an ethanol titer of 1,412 mg/L. This indicates that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of crystalline cellulose to ethanol can be accomplished by the yeast, engineered with minicellulosome. PMID:22853950

  3. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Frankie J.; Downard, Alison J.; Baronian, Keith H.

    2014-01-01

    Redox mediators can interact with eukaryote cells at a number of different cell locations. While cell membrane redox centres are easily accessible, the redox centres of catabolism are situated within the cytoplasm and mitochondria and can be difficult to access. We have systematically investigated the interaction of thirteen commonly used lipophilic and hydrophilic mediators with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A double mediator system is used in which ferricyanide is the final electron acceptor (the reporter mediator). After incubation of cells with mediators, steady state voltammetry of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple allows quantitation of the amount of mediator reduced by the cells. The plateau current at 425?mV vs Ag/AgCl gives the analytical signal. The results show that five of the mediators interact with at least three different trans Plasma Membrane Electron Transport systems (tPMETs), and that four mediators cross the plasma membrane to interact with cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox molecules. Four of the mediators inhibit electron transfer from S. cerevisiae. Catabolic inhibitors were used to locate the cellular source of electrons for three of the mediators. PMID:24910017

  4. Cystathionine gamma-lyase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: structural gene and cystathionine gamma-synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Ishii, N; Naito, K; Miyoshi, S; Shinoda, S; Yamamoto, S; Ohmori, S

    1993-04-01

    Purification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cystathionine gamma-lyase (gamma-CTLase) was hampered by the presence of a protein migrating very close to it in various types of column chromatography. The enzyme and the contaminant were nevertheless separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated that they are coded for by CYS3 (CYI1) and MET17 (MET25), respectively, leading to the conclusion that CYS3 is the structural gene for gamma-CTLase and that the contaminant is O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase). Based on these findings, we purified gamma-CTLase by the following strategy: (1) extraction of OAS/OAH SHLase from a CYS3-disrupted strain; (2) preparation of antiserum against it; (3) identification of a strain devoid of the OAS/OAH SHLase protein using this antiserum; and (4) extraction of gamma-CTLase from this strain. Purified gamma-CTLase had cystathionine gamma-synthase (gamma-CTSase) activity if O-succinylhomoserine, but not O-acetylhomoserine, was used as substrate. From this notion we discuss the evolutional relationship between S. cerevisiae gamma-CTLase and Escherichia coli gamma-CTSase. PMID:8511969

  5. Interaction of Lactobacillus vini with the ethanol-producing yeasts Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Tiukova, Ievgeniia; Eberhard, Thomas; Passoth, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus vini was recently described as a contaminant in industrial ethanol fermentations and its co-occurrence with Dekkera bruxellensis was noted. We investigated the growth characteristics of L. vini in cocultivation together with either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or D. bruxellensis. Lower cell numbers of both the yeasts and L. vini as well as a decrease in ethanol and lactate formation in mixed batch cultures compared with pure cultures were noted. L. vini formed cell aggregates (flocs) in all cultivation media with different shapes in Man–Rogosa–Sharpe and yeast extract–peptone–dextrose media. Flocs’ size and proportion of cells bound to flocs increased with increasing ethanol concentration. In coculture, formation of lactic acid bacteria–yeast cell aggregates consisting of a bacterial core with an outer layer of yeast cells was observed. L. vini–D. bruxellensis flocs had a bigger surface, due to cells protruding from the pseudomycelium. The involvement of mannose residues in the flocculation between L. vini and yeasts was tested. The presence of mannose induced deflocculation in a concentration-dependent manner. Less mannose was required for the deflocculation of D. bruxellensis as compared with S. cerevisiae. PMID:23772864

  6. Interaction of Lactobacillus vini with the ethanol-producing yeasts Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tiukova, Ievgeniia; Eberhard, Thomas; Passoth, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus vini was recently described as a contaminant in industrial ethanol fermentations and its co-occurrence with Dekkera bruxellensis was noted. We investigated the growth characteristics of L. vini in cocultivation together with either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or D. bruxellensis. Lower cell numbers of both the yeasts and L. vini as well as a decrease in ethanol and lactate formation in mixed batch cultures compared with pure cultures were noted. L. vini formed cell aggregates (flocs) in all cultivation media with different shapes in Man-Rogosa-Sharpe and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose media. Flocs' size and proportion of cells bound to flocs increased with increasing ethanol concentration. In coculture, formation of lactic acid bacteria-yeast cell aggregates consisting of a bacterial core with an outer layer of yeast cells was observed. L. vini-D. bruxellensis flocs had a bigger surface, due to cells protruding from the pseudomycelium. The involvement of mannose residues in the flocculation between L. vini and yeasts was tested. The presence of mannose induced deflocculation in a concentration-dependent manner. Less mannose was required for the deflocculation of D. bruxellensis as compared with S. cerevisiae. PMID:23772864

  7. Regulation of cation transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the salt tolerance gene HAL3.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, A; Kron, S J; Rios, G; Fink, G R; Serrano, R

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of ion transport is essential for homeostasis as cells confront changes in their environment. The gene HAL3 encodes a novel component of this regulatory circuit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of HAL3 improves growth of wild-type cells exposed to toxic concentrations of sodium and lithium and suppresses the salt sensitivity conferred by mutation of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. Null mutants of HAL3 display salt sensitivity. The sequence of HAL3 gives little clue to its function. However, alterations in intracellular cation concentrations associated with changes in HAL3 expression suggest that HAL3 activity may directly increase cytoplasmic K+ and decrease Na+ and Li+. Cation efflux in S. cerevisiae is mediated by the P-type ATPase encoded by the ENA1/PMR24 gene, a putative plasma membrane Na+ pump whose expression is salt induced. Acting in concert with calcineurin, HAL3 is necessary for full activation of ENA1 expression. This functional complementarity is also reflected in the participation of both proteins in recovery from alpha-factor-induced growth arrest. Recently, HAL3 was isolated as a gene (named SIS2) which when overexpressed partially relieves loss of transcription of G1 cyclins in mutants lacking the protein phosphatase Sit4p. Therefore, HAL3 influences cell cycle control and ion homeostasis, acting in parallel to the protein phosphatases Sit4p and calcineurin. PMID:7565698

  8. Surface display of malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyan; Hou, Xiaoyan; Liang, Fang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    In order to display malolactic enzyme (MLE) on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast cell surface display plasmid pADH1-AGG was constructed by fusing the ?-factor signal encoding sequence (267 bp) and the C-terminal half of ?-agglutinin encoding sequence (1,645 bp) into the plasmid pADH1. The pADH1-AGG could successfully express and anchor the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) onto the yeast cell surface when the EGFP was used to verify its function. Then the pADH1-MLE was constructed by inserting the MLE encoding sequence (1,600 bp) into the pADH1-AGG and introduced into S. cerevisiae cells. The positive strain carrying pADH1-MLE was confirmed by use of the 6× His monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. All results indicated that the MLE was displayed successfully on the cell surface of positive transformant. The MLE activity of genetically engineered yeast strain could turn 21.11 % L-malate into lactic acid after 12 h reaction with L-malate. The constructed yeast strain might be used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine to solve the important issues of sluggish MLF, microbial spoilage, and adverse metabolic substances produced by the lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23446978

  9. Enhancing fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through metabolic engineering and medium optimization.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R Adam; Trinh, Cong T

    2014-11-01

    Biodiesels in the form of fatty acyl ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a promising next generation biofuel due to their chemical properties and compatibility with existing infrastructure. It has recently been shown that expression of a bacterial acyl-transferase in the established industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to production of FAEEs by condensation of fatty acyl-CoAs and ethanol. In contrast to recent strategies to produce FAEEs in S. cerevisiae through manipulation of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis or a series of arduous genetic manipulations, we introduced a novel genetic background, which is comparable in titer to previous reports with a fraction of the genetic disruption by aiming at increasing the fatty acyl-CoA pools. In addition, we combined metabolic engineering with modification of culture conditions to produce a maximum titer of over 25?mg/L FAEEs, a 40% improvement over previous reports and a 17-fold improvement over our initial characterizations. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2200-2208. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24895195

  10. Calorie restriction does not elicit a robust extension of replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Huberts, Daphne H E W; González, Javier; Lee, Sung Sik; Litsios, Athanasios; Hubmann, Georg; Wit, Ernst C; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-08-12

    Calorie restriction (CR) is often described as the most robust manner to extend lifespan in a large variety of organisms. Hence, considerable research effort is directed toward understanding the mechanisms underlying CR, especially in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the effect of CR on lifespan has never been systematically reviewed in this organism. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of replicative lifespan (RLS) data published in more than 40 different papers. Our analysis revealed that there is significant variation in the reported RLS data, which appears to be mainly due to the low number of cells analyzed per experiment. Furthermore, we found that the RLS measured at 2% (wt/vol) glucose in CR experiments is partly biased toward shorter lifespans compared with identical lifespan measurements from other studies. Excluding the 2% (wt/vol) glucose experiments from CR experiments, we determined that the average RLS of the yeast strains BY4741 and BY4742 is 25.9 buds at 2% (wt/vol) glucose and 30.2 buds under CR conditions. RLS measurements with a microfluidic dissection platform produced identical RLS data at 2% (wt/vol) glucose. However, CR conditions did not induce lifespan extension. As we excluded obvious methodological differences, such as temperature and medium, as causes, we conclude that subtle method-specific factors are crucial to induce lifespan extension under CR conditions in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25071164

  11. Characterization of pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein gene (msg) promoter activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Geetha; Shroff, Robert; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2013-10-01

    Major surface glycoprotein (Msg), the most abundant cell surface protein of Pneumocystis, plays an important role in the interaction of this opportunistic pathogen with host cells, and its potential for antigenic variation may facilitate evasion of host immune responses. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the promoter region of msg in 3 species of Pneumocystis: P. carinii, P. jirovecii, and P. murina. Because Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, promoter activity was measured in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a related fungus, using a yeast vector modified to utilize the gene coding for Renilla luciferase as a reporter gene. The 5'-flanking sequences of msg from all three Pneumocystis species showed considerable promoter activity, with increases in luciferase activity up to 15- to 44-fold above baseline. Progressive deletions helped define an ?13-bp sequence in each Pneumocystis species that appears to be critical for promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis using P. carinii-specific msg promoter sequences demonstrated binding of nuclear proteins of S. cerevisiae. The 144-bp 5'-flanking region of P. murina msg showed 72% identity to that of P. carinii. The 5'-flanking region of P. jirovecii msg showed 58 and 61% identity to those of P. murina and P. carinii, respectively. The msg promoter is a good candidate for inclusion in a construct designed for genetic manipulation of Pneumocystis species. PMID:23893080

  12. Characterization of Pneumocystis Major Surface Glycoprotein Gene (msg) Promoter Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Geetha; Shroff, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Major surface glycoprotein (Msg), the most abundant cell surface protein of Pneumocystis, plays an important role in the interaction of this opportunistic pathogen with host cells, and its potential for antigenic variation may facilitate evasion of host immune responses. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the promoter region of msg in 3 species of Pneumocystis: P. carinii, P. jirovecii, and P. murina. Because Pneumocystis cannot be cultured, promoter activity was measured in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a related fungus, using a yeast vector modified to utilize the gene coding for Renilla luciferase as a reporter gene. The 5?-flanking sequences of msg from all three Pneumocystis species showed considerable promoter activity, with increases in luciferase activity up to 15- to 44-fold above baseline. Progressive deletions helped define an ?13-bp sequence in each Pneumocystis species that appears to be critical for promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis using P. carinii-specific msg promoter sequences demonstrated binding of nuclear proteins of S. cerevisiae. The 144-bp 5?-flanking region of P. murina msg showed 72% identity to that of P. carinii. The 5?-flanking region of P. jirovecii msg showed 58 and 61% identity to those of P. murina and P. carinii, respectively. The msg promoter is a good candidate for inclusion in a construct designed for genetic manipulation of Pneumocystis species. PMID:23893080

  13. Solution structure of the orphan PABC domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae poly(A)-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Coillet-Matillon, Stephane; Trempe, Jean-François; Ekiel, Irena; Sprules, Tara; Gehring, Kalle

    2002-06-21

    We have determined the solution structure of the PABC domain from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pab1p and mapped its peptide-binding site. PABC domains are peptide binding domains found in poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP) and are a subset of HECT-family E3 ubiquitin ligases (also known as hyperplastic discs proteins (HYDs)). In mammals, the PABC domain of PABP functions to recruit several different translation factors to the mRNA poly(A) tail. PABC domains are highly conserved, with high specificity for peptide sequences of roughly 12 residues with conserved alanine, phenylalanine, and proline residues at positions 7, 10, and 12. Compared with human PABP, the yeast PABC domain is missing the first alpha helix, contains two extra amino acids between helices 2 and 3, and has a strongly bent C-terminal helix. These give rise to unique peptide binding specificity wherein yeast PABC binds peptides from Paip2 and RF3 but not Paip1. Mapping of the peptide-binding site reveals that the bend in the C-terminal helix disrupts binding interactions with the N terminus of peptide ligands and leads to greatly reduced binding affinity for the peptides tested. No high affinity or natural binding partners from S. cerevisiae could be identified by sequence analysis of known PABC ligands. Comparison of the three known PABC structures shows that the features responsible for peptide binding are highly conserved and responsible for the distinct but overlapping binding specificities. PMID:11940585

  14. The early stages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast suspensions damage in moderate pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    El Zakhem, H; Lanoisellé, J-L; Lebovka, N I; Nonus, M; Vorobiev, E

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) application to colloidal suspension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The electrical conductivity measurements during the PEF-treatment of S. cerevisiae suspensions were used to monitor the extent of cell damages in the intervals of electric field strength E = 3-15 kV/cm and time of PEF treatment t(PEF) = 10(-4) to 1s. At relatively small fields (E < 7.5 kV/cm) the early stages of yeast cells damages were observed. At such treatment conditions, the damage was incomplete and developed at long time of PEF treatment, below the value of E = 7.5 kV/cm which is commonly referred in literature as a threshold for this culture. Data obtained for the disintegration in conductivity experiments were found in good correlation with direct counting of yeast lethality using light microscopy. The PEF-induced lethality of the yeast cells and size flocs increased with the mixing of suspensions and the increase of temperature. PMID:16427256

  15. Two-stage transcriptional reprogramming in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing ethanol production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Cao, Limin; Tang, Xingliang; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Tian, Xuelei; Wang, Jingyu; Xiong, Mingyong; Xiao, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic material to ethanol is a major challenge in second generation bio-fuel production by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This report describes a novel strategy named "two-stage transcriptional reprogramming (TSTR)" in which key gene expression at both glucose and xylose fermentation phases is optimized in engineered S. cerevisiae. Through a combined genome-wide screening of stage-specific promoters and the balancing of the metabolic flux, ethanol yields and productivity from mixed sugars were significantly improved. In a medium containing 50g/L glucose and 50g/L xylose, the top-performing strain WXY12 rapidly consumed glucose within 12h and within 84h it consistently achieved an ethanol yield of 0.48g/g total sugar, which was 94% of the theoretical yield. WXY12 utilizes a KGD1 inducible promoter to drive xylose metabolism, resulting in much higher ethanol yield than a reference strain using a strong constitutive PGK1 promoter. These promising results validate the TSTR strategy by synthetically regulating the xylose assimilation pathway towards efficient xylose fermentation. PMID:24858789

  16. GIT1, a gene encoding a novel transporter for glycerophosphoinositol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Patton-Vogt, J L; Henry, S A

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells cultured in media containing inositol results in the release of glycerophosphoinositol (GroPIns) into the medium. As the extracellular concentration of inositol decreases with growth, the released GroPIns is transported back into the cell. Exploiting the ability of the inositol auxotroph, ino1, to use exogenous GroPIns as an inositol source, we have isolated mutants (Git-) defective in the uptake and metabolism of GroPIns. One mutant was found to be affected in the gene encoding the transcription factor, SPT7. Mutants of the positive regulatory gene INO2, but not of its partner, INO4, also have the Git- phenotype. Another mutant was complemented by a single open reading frame (ORF) termed GIT1 (glycerophosphoinositol). This ORF consists of 1556 bp predicted to encode a polypeptide of 518 amino acids and 57.3 kD. The predicted Git1p has similarity to a variety of S. cerevisiae transporters, including a phosphate transporter (Pho84p), and both inositol transporters (Itr1p and Itr2p). Furthermore, Git1p contains a sugar transport motif and 12 potential membrane-spanning domains. Transport assays performed on a git1 mutant together with the above evidence indicate that the GIT1 gene encodes a permease involved in the uptake of GroPIns. PMID:9691030

  17. Reconstruction and Evaluation of the Synthetic Bacterial MEP Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Partow, Siavash; Siewers, Verena; Daviet, Laurent; Schalk, Michel; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Isoprenoids, which are a large group of natural and chemical compounds with a variety of applications as e.g. fragrances, pharmaceuticals and potential biofuels, are produced via two different metabolic pathways, the mevalonate (MVA) pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we attempted to replace the endogenous MVA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a synthetic bacterial MEP pathway integrated into the genome to benefit from its superior properties in terms of energy consumption and productivity at defined growth conditions. It was shown that the growth of a MVA pathway deficient S. cerevisiae strain could not be restored by the heterologous MEP pathway even when accompanied by the co-expression of genes erpA, hISCA1 and CpIscA involved in the Fe-S trafficking routes leading to maturation of IspG and IspH and E. coli genes fldA and fpr encoding flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase believed to be responsible for electron transfer to IspG and IspH. PMID:23285068

  18. Construction of novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for bioethanol active dry yeast (ADY) production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes. PMID:24376860

  19. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. PMID:25082441

  20. L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10–30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. PMID:22984600

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Critical Role of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Perrone, Benedetta; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Hube, Bernhard; Querol, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of human infection cases produced by the food related species Saccharomyces cerevisiae has increased. Whereas many strains of this species are considered safe, other ‘opportunistic’ strains show a high degree of potential virulence attributes and can cause infections in immunocompromised patients. Here we studied the genetic characteristics of selected opportunistic strains isolated from dietary supplements and also from patients by array comparative genomic hybridization. Our results show increased copy numbers of IMD genes in opportunistic strains, which are implicated in the de novo biosynthesis of the purine nucleotides pathway. The importance of this pathway for virulence of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by infections in immunodeficient murine models using a GUA1 mutant, a key gene of this pathway. We show that exogenous guanine, an end product of this pathway in its triphosphorylated form, increases the survival of yeast strains in ex vivo blood infections. Finally, we show the importance of the DNA damage response that activates dNTP biosynthesis in yeast cells during ex vivo blood infections. We conclude that opportunistic yeasts may use an enhanced de novo biosynthesis of the purine nucleotides pathway to increase survival and favor infections in the host. PMID:25816288

  2. Ndd1 Turnover by SCFGrr1 Is Inhibited by the DNA Damage Checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Toczyski, David P.

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ndd1 is the dedicated transcriptional activator of the mitotic gene cluster, which includes thirty-three genes that encode key mitotic regulators, making Ndd1 a hub for the control of mitosis. Previous work has shown that multiple kinases, including cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), phosphorylate Ndd1 to regulate its activity during the cell cycle. Previously, we showed that Ndd1 was inhibited by phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Here, we show that Ndd1 is also subject to regulation by protein turnover during the mitotic cell cycle: Ndd1 is unstable during an unperturbed cell cycle, but is strongly stabilized in response to DNA damage. We find that Ndd1 turnover in metaphase requires Cdk1 activity and the ubiquitin ligase SCFGrr1. In response to DNA damage, Ndd1 stabilization requires the checkpoint kinases Mec1/Tel1 and Swe1, the S. cerevisiae homolog of the Wee1 kinase. In both humans and yeast, the checkpoint promotes Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 following exposure to DNA damage. While this is critical for checkpoint-induced arrest in most organisms, this is not true in budding yeast, where the function of damage-induced inhibitory phosphorylation is less well understood. We propose that the DNA damage checkpoint stabilizes Ndd1 by inhibiting Cdk1, which we show is required for targeting Ndd1 for destruction. PMID:25894965

  3. CK2 activity is modulated by growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Tripodi, Farida; Cirulli, Claudia; Reghellin, Veronica [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy); Marin, Oriano [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Padova, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Padova, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova (Italy); Brambilla, Luca [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy); Schiappelli, Maria Patrizia [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Padova, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Padova, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35121 Padova (Italy); Porro, Danilo; Vanoni, Marco; Alberghina, Lilia [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy); Coccetti, Paola, E-mail: paola.coccetti@unimib.it [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Bioscienze, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} CK2 subunits are nuclear both in glucose and in ethanol growing yeast cells. {yields} CK2 activity is modulated in S. cerevisiae. {yields} CK2 activity is higher in conditions supporting higher growth rates. {yields} V{sub max} is higher in faster growing cells, while K{sub m} is not affected. -- Abstract: CK2 is a highly conserved protein kinase controlling different cellular processes. It shows a higher activity in proliferating mammalian cells, in various types of cancer cell lines and tumors. The findings presented herein provide the first evidence of an in vivo modulation of CK2 activity, dependent on growth rate, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In fact, CK2 activity, assayed on nuclear extracts, is shown to increase in exponential growing batch cultures at faster growth rate, while localization of catalytic and regulatory subunits is not nutritionally modulated. Differences in intracellular CK2 activity of glucose- and ethanol-grown cells appear to depend on both increase in molecule number and k{sub cat}. Also in chemostat cultures nuclear CK2 activity is higher in faster growing cells providing the first unequivocal demonstration that growth rate itself can affect CK2 activity in a eukaryotic organism.

  4. Synthesis of 1,3-?-Glucanases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae During the Mitotic Cycle, Mating, and Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    del Rey, Francisco; Santos, Tomás; García-Acha, Isabel; Nombela, César

    1979-01-01

    Upon fractionating Saccharomyces cerevisiae asynchronous cultures by sucrose density gradient centrifugation in a zonal rotor and examining the exo-1,3-?-glucanase and deoxyribonucleic acid content of the cells, a periodic step increase in the activity of this enzyme was observed, indicating a discontinuous pattern of synthesis or activation of exo-1,3-?-glucanase during the mitotic cycle at the transition from the S to the G2 phase. Similar results were obtained for endo-1,3-?-glucanase by assaying activity against oxidized laminarin in permeabilized cells, suggesting that the synthesis of endo-1,3-?-glucanase is controlled in the same way. When a and ? strains were mated, the specific activity of cell extracts against laminarin, oxidized laminarin, and pustulan remained constant while zygote formation was taking place. However, when growth resumed, active synthesis of 1,3-?-glucanases took place as shown by the occurrence of a significant increase in the specific activity against the three substrates. Specific changes in the level of glucan degradative enzymes, not observed in a haploid parental strain, occurred when the diploid S. cerevisiae AP-1 was induced to sporulate. The sporulation process triggered the activation of first the pustulan degradative capacity and then the capacity to hydrolyze oxidized laminarin. The specific activity against this substrate was 10 times higher than that against pustulan. Images PMID:113390

  5. A genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals Pathways affected By Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue; Arita, Adriana; Ellen, Thomas P.; Liu, Xin; Bai, Jingxiang; Rooney, John P.; Kurtz, Adrienne D.; Klein, Catherine B.; Dai, Wei; Begley, Thomas J.; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify toxicologically important proteins and pathways involved in arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in humans. We performed a systemic screen of the complete set of 4,733 haploid S. cerevisiae single gene deletion mutants to identify those that have decreased or increased growth, relative to wild-type, after exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). IC50 values for all mutants were determined to further validate our results. Ultimately we identified 248 mutants sensitive to arsenite and 5 mutants resistant to arsenite exposure. We analyzed the proteins corresponding to arsenite-sensitive mutants and determined that they belonged to functional categories that include protein binding, phosphate metabolism, vacuolar/lysosomal transport, protein targeting, sorting, and translocation, cell growth/morphogenesis, cell polarity and filament formation. Furthermore, these data were mapped onto a protein interactome to identify arsenite toxicity-modulating networks. These networks are associated with the cytoskeleton, ubiquitination, histone acetylation and the MAPK signaling pathway. Our studies have potential implications for understanding toxicity and carcinogenesis in arsenic-induced human conditions, such as cancer and aging. PMID:19631266

  6. Construction of Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Bioethanol Active Dry Yeast (ADY) Production

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes. PMID:24376860

  7. Genotyping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by interdelta sequence typing using automated microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Mendes, Inês; Gomes, Ana Catarina; Santos, Manuel A S; de Sousa, Bruno; Schuller, Dorit

    2011-06-01

    Amplification of genomic sequences flanked by delta elements of retrotransposons TY1 and TY2 is a reliable method for characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of microfluidic electrophoresis (Caliper LabChip) to assess the factors that affect interlaboratory reproducibility of interdelta sequence typing for S. cerevisiae strain delimitation. We carried out experiments in two laboratories, using varying combinations of Taq DNA polymerases and thermal cyclers. The reproducibility of the technique is evaluated using non-parametric statistical tests and we show that the source of Taq DNA polymerase and technical differences between laboratories have the highest impact on reproducibility, whereas thermal cyclers have little impact. We also show that the comparative analysis of interdelta patterns is more reliable when fragment sizes are compared than when absolute and relative DNA concentrations of each band are considered. Interdelta analysis based on a smaller fraction of bands with intermediate sizes between 100 and 1000 bp yields the highest reproducibility. PMID:21630290

  8. Engineering of acetyl-CoA metabolism for the improved production of polyhydroxybutyrate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Through metabolic engineering microorganisms can be engineered to produce new products and further produce these with higher yield and productivities. Here, we expressed the bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and we further evaluated the effect of engineering the formation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), an intermediate of the central carbon metabolism and precursor of the PHB pathway, on heterologous PHB production by yeast. We engineered the acetyl-CoA metabolism by co-transformation of a plasmid containing genes for native S. cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ERG10) and a Salmonella enterica acetyl-CoA synthetase variant (acsL641P), resulting in acetoacetyl-CoA overproduction, together with a plasmid containing the PHB pathway genes coding for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (phaA), NADPH-linked acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) polymerase (phaC) from Ralstonia eutropha H16. Introduction of the acetyl-CoA plasmid together with the PHB plasmid, improved the productivity of PHB more than 16 times compared to the reference strain used in this study, as well as it reduced the specific product formation of side products. PMID:23009357

  9. High-cell-density fermentation of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glycerol.

    PubMed

    Eugene Raj, A; Sathish Kumar, H S; Umesh Kumar, S; Misra, M C; Ghildyal, N P; Karanth, N G

    2002-01-01

    To obtain a high cell density of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (INVSc 1 strain bearing a 2 microm plasmid, pYES2 containing a GAL1 promoter for expression of the beta-galactosidase gene), the yeast was grown with glycerol as the substrate by fed-batch fermentation. The feeding strategy was based on an on-line response of the medium pH to the consumption of glycerol. The approach was to feed excess carbon into the medium to create a benign environment for rapid biomass buildup. During cell growth in the presence of glycerol, the release of protons in the medium caused a decrease in pH and the consumption rate of ammonium phosphate served as an on-line indicator for the metabolic rate of the organism. The extent of glycerol feeding in a fed-batch mode with pH control at 5.0 +/- 0.1 was ascertained from the automatic addition of ammonium phosphate to the medium. The glycerol feeding to ammonium phosphate addition ratio was found to be 2.5-3.0. On the basis of the experiments, a maximum dry cell biomass of 140 g per liter and a productivity of 5.5 g DCW/L/h were achieved. The high cell density of S. cerevisiae obtained with good plasmid stability suggested a simple and efficient fermentation protocol for recombinant protein production. PMID:12363368

  10. Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate?

    PubMed Central

    Baerends, Richard J. S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on glucose. Subsequent transcriptome analyses of chemostat cultures of the engineered strain, grown on glucose-formaldehyde mixtures, indicated that the presence of formaldehyde in the feed caused biotin limitations. Further transcriptome analysis demonstrated that this biotin inactivation was prevented by using separate formaldehyde and vitamin feeds. Using this approach, steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures were obtained that coutilized glucose and formaldehyde. Coutilization of formaldehyde under these conditions resulted in an enhanced biomass yield of the glucose-limited cultures. The biomass yield was quantitatively consistent with the use of formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate that generates NADH and subsequently, via oxidative phosphorylation, ATP. On an electron pair basis, the biomass yield increase observed with formaldehyde was larger than that observed previously for formate, which is tentatively explained by different modes of formate and formaldehyde transport in S. cerevisiae. PMID:18378663

  11. Calorie restriction does not elicit a robust extension of replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Huberts, Daphne H. E. W.; González, Javier; Lee, Sung Sik; Litsios, Athanasios; Hubmann, Georg; Wit, Ernst C.; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is often described as the most robust manner to extend lifespan in a large variety of organisms. Hence, considerable research effort is directed toward understanding the mechanisms underlying CR, especially in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the effect of CR on lifespan has never been systematically reviewed in this organism. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of replicative lifespan (RLS) data published in more than 40 different papers. Our analysis revealed that there is significant variation in the reported RLS data, which appears to be mainly due to the low number of cells analyzed per experiment. Furthermore, we found that the RLS measured at 2% (wt/vol) glucose in CR experiments is partly biased toward shorter lifespans compared with identical lifespan measurements from other studies. Excluding the 2% (wt/vol) glucose experiments from CR experiments, we determined that the average RLS of the yeast strains BY4741 and BY4742 is 25.9 buds at 2% (wt/vol) glucose and 30.2 buds under CR conditions. RLS measurements with a microfluidic dissection platform produced identical RLS data at 2% (wt/vol) glucose. However, CR conditions did not induce lifespan extension. As we excluded obvious methodological differences, such as temperature and medium, as causes, we conclude that subtle method-specific factors are crucial to induce lifespan extension under CR conditions in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25071164

  12. Production of fructanase by a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tequila agave fructan.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, R I; Pelayo-Ortiz, C; Jacques, G; Guatemala, G; Arriola, E; Arias, J A; Toriz, G

    2015-01-01

    A new wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CF3) isolated from tequila must was evaluated for production of fructanase on Agave tequilana Weber fructan (FT). Fructanase activity (F) was assessed by a 3(3) factorial design (substrate, temperature and pH). High enzymatic activity (31.1 U/ml) was found at 30 °C, pH 5, using FT (10 g/l) as substrate. The effect of initial substrate concentration on F (FT0, 5.7-66 g/l) was studied and it was found that F was highest (44.8 U/ml) at FT0 25 g/l. A 2(2) factorial experimental design with five central points was utilized to study the effect of stirring and aeration on fructanase activity; stirring exhibited a stronger effect on F. The ratio fructanase to invertase (F/S) was 0.57, which confirms that the enzymes are fructanase. Crude fructanase reached high substrate hydrolysis (48 wt%) in 10 h. It is shown that S. cerevisiae CF3 was able to produce large amounts of fructanase by growing it on fructan from A. tequilana. PMID:25432071

  13. Secretory expression and characterization of a novel peroxiredoxin for zearalenone detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuqian; Xiao, Junmei; Chen, Yi; Yu, Yigang; Xiao, Xinglong; Yu, Yuanshan; Wu, Hui

    2013-01-15

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a Fusarium mycotoxin, which is considered to be an oestrogenic endocrine disruptor found to cause severe morphological and functional disorders of reproductive organs in livestock. Increasing attention has been paid to the development of an effective strategy for ZEN decontamination. ZEN is oxidized into smaller estrogenic metabolites by a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx) isolated from Acinetobacter sp. SM04. The Prx coding gene was cloned in a secretory vector pYES2-alpha (pY?) with an alpha (?) signal peptide gene inserted into the multiple cloning site of pYES2. The recombinant Prx was secreted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1 after inducing with 2% (w/v) galactose for 72 h, and was found to be nearly 20 kDa through 12% SDS-PAGE. The expressed amount of recombinant Prx was 0.24 mg/mL in the extracellular supernatant. Recombinant Prx showed a gradient increase at the beginning of ZEN degradation. The final ZEN degradation amount was 0.43 ?g by one unit recombinant Prx after 12 h. Furthermore, the temperature, H(2)O(2) concentration, and pH for highest peroxidase activity of recombinant Prx were 80°C, 20 mM and 9.0, respectively. When compared with other peroxidases, the thermal stability and alkali resistance of recombinant Prx were much better. The results suggest that recombinant Prx is successfully expressed in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23036477

  14. Ethanol production from xylo-oligosaccharides by xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing ?-xylosidase.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Yu, Guoce; Matsushika, Akinori; Kurita, Asami; Yano, Shinichi; Murakami, Katsuji; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Construction of xylose- and xylo-oligosaccharide-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is important, because hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic biomass contain significant amounts of these sugars. We have obtained recombinant S. cerevisiae strain MA-D4 (D-XKXDHXR), expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase. In the present study, we generated recombinant strain D-XSD/XKXDHXR by transforming MA-D4 with a ?-xylosidase gene cloned from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The intracellular ?-xylosidase-specific activity of D-XSD/XKXDHXR was high, while that of the control strain was under the limit of detection. D-XSD/XKXDHXR produced ethanol, and xylose accumulated in the culture supernatant under fermentation in a medium containing xylo-oligosaccharides as sole carbon source. ?-Xylosidase-specific activity in D-XSD/XKXDHXR declined due to xylose both in vivo and in vitro. D-XSD/XKXDHXR converted xylo-oligosaccharides in an enzymatic hydrolysate of eucalyptus to ethanol. These results indicate that D-XSD/XKXDHXR efficiently converted xylo-oligosaccharides to xylose and subsequently to ethanol. PMID:21670522

  15. Extracellular glutathione fermentation using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a novel glutathione exporter.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Kentaro; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-11-01

    A novel extracellular glutathione fermentation method using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed by following three steps. First, a platform host strain lacking the glutathione degradation protein and glutathione uptake protein was constructed. This strain improved the extracellular glutathione productivity by up to 3.2-fold compared to the parental strain. Second, the ATP-dependent permease Adp1 was identified as a novel glutathione export ABC protein (Gxa1) in S. cerevisiae based on the homology of the protein sequence with that of the known human glutathione export ABC protein (ABCG2). Overexpression of this GXA1 gene improved the extracellular glutathione production by up to 2.3-fold compared to the platform host strain. Finally, combinatorial overexpression of the GXA1 gene and the genes involved in glutathione synthesis in the platform host strain increased the extracellular glutathione production by up to 17.1-fold compared to the parental strain. Overall, the metabolic engineering of the glutathione synthesis, degradation, and transport increased the total (extracellular + intracellular) glutathione production. The extracellular glutathione fermentation method developed in this study has the potential to overcome the limitations of the present intracellular glutathione fermentation process in yeast. PMID:22526809

  16. Inhibition of malolactic fermentation by a peptide produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, James P; Edwards, Charles G

    2007-08-15

    The ability of Saccharomyces to inhibit Oenococcus oeni during the alcoholic fermentation by mechanisms other than SO(2) production was investigated. During fermentation in synthetic grape juice, S. cerevisiae strain RUBY.ferm inhibited the malolactic fermentation by O. oeni while strain EC1118 did not despite both strains producing similar amounts of SO(2). The bacterial inhibition exerted by RUBY.ferm was diminished when the wine was treated with proteases but not through the addition of nutrients. Wine fermented by RUBY.ferm was fractionated based on molecular weight and each fraction tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of O. oeni. The fraction containing compounds larger than 3 kDa was the sole inhibitory fraction. The inhibitory fraction was analyzed by SDS PAGE and showed a 5.9 kDa protein band present in wine fermented by RUBY.ferm that was not present in wine fermented by a non-antagonistic yeast, S. cerevisiae strain Saint Georges S101. The ability of the peptide to inhibit O. oeni seemed to be dependent on the presence of SO(2). PMID:17610976

  17. Intron mutations affect splicing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP53 precursor tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, M C; Abelson, J

    1986-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amber suppressor tRNA gene SUP53 (a tRNALeu3 allele) was used to investigate the role of intron structure and sequence on precursor tRNA splicing in vivo and in vitro. This gene encodes a pre-tRNA which contains a 32-base intervening sequence. Two types of SUP53 intron mutants were constructed: ones with an internal deletion of the natural SUP53 intron and ones with a novel intron. These mutant genes were transcribed in vitro, and the end-processed transcripts were analyzed for their ability to serve as substrates for the partially purified S. cerevisiae tRNA endonuclease and ligase. The in vitro phenotype of these mutant RNAs was correlated with the in vivo suppressor tRNA function of these SUP53 alleles after integration of the genes into the yeast genome. Analysis of these mutant pre-tRNAs, which exhibited no perturbation of the mature domain, clearly showed that intron structure and sequence can have profound effects on pre-tRNA splicing. All of the mutant RNAs, which were inefficiently spliced or unspliced, evidenced cleavage only at the 5' splice junction. Base changes in the intron proximal to the 3' splice junction could partially rescue the splicing defect. The implications of these data for tRNA endonuclease-substrate interactions are discussed. Images PMID:3537725

  18. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient conversion of red algal biosugars to bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Soo-Jung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the evolutionary engineering to construct a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ7-14 resistant on 2-deoxy-d-glucose and with an enhanced ability of bioethanol production from galactose, a mono-sugar in red algae. In batch and repeated-batch fermentations, HJ7-14 metabolized 5-fold more galactose and produced ethanol 2.1-fold faster than the parental D452-2 strain. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in the galactose metabolism revealed that moderate relief from the glucose-mediated repression of the transcription of the GAL genes might enable HJ7-14 to metabolize galactose rapidly. HJ7-14 produced 7.4g/L ethanol from hydrolysates of the red alga Gelidium amansii within 12h, which was 1.5-times faster than that observed with D452-2. We demonstrate conclusively that evolutionary engineering is a promising tool to manipulate the complex galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae to produce bioethanol from red alga. PMID:25804535

  19. ADP ribosylation factor is an essential protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is encoded by two genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stearns, T; Kahn, R A; Botstein, D; Hoyt, M A

    1990-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) is a ubiquitous 21-kDa GTP-binding protein in eucaryotes. ARF was first identified in animal cells as the protein factor required for the efficient ADP-ribosylation of the mammalian G protein Gs by cholera toxin in vitro. A gene (ARF1) encoding a protein homologous to mammalian ARF was recently cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sewell and Kahn, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85:4620-4624, 1988). We have found a second gene encoding ARF in S. cerevisiae, ARF2. The two ARF genes are within 28 centimorgans of each other on chromosome IV, and the proteins encoded by them are 96% identical. Disruption of ARF1 causes slow growth, cold sensitivity, and sensitivity to normally sublethal concentrations of fluoride ion in the medium. Disruption of ARF2 causes no detectable phenotype. Disruption of both genes is lethal; thus, ARF is essential for mitotic growth. The ARF1 and ARF2 proteins are functionally homologous, and the phenotypic differences between mutations in the two genes can be accounted for by the level of expression; ARF1 produces approximately 90% of total ARF. Among revertants of the fluoride sensitivity of an arf1 null mutation were ARF1-ARF2 fusion genes created by a gene conversion event in which the deleted ARF1 sequences were repaired by recombination with ARF2. Images PMID:2123295

  20. Multi-Capillary Column-Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Volatile Metabolites Emitted by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Halbfeld, Christoph; Ebert, Birgitta E.; Blank, Lars M.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during microbial fermentations determine the flavor of fermented food and are of interest for the production of fragrances or food additives. However, the microbial synthesis of these compounds from simple carbon sources has not been well investigated so far. Here, we analyzed the headspace over glucose minimal salt medium cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using multi-capillary column-ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS). The high sensitivity and fast data acquisition of the MCC-IMS enabled online analysis of the fermentation off-gas and 19 specific signals were determined. To four of these volatile compounds, we could assign the metabolites ethanol, 2-pentanone, isobutyric acid, and 2,3-hexanedione by MCC-IMS measurements of pure standards and cross validation with thermal desorption–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements. Despite the huge biochemical knowledge of the biochemistry of the model organism S. cerevisiae, only the biosynthetic pathways for ethanol and isobutyric acid are fully understood, demonstrating the considerable lack of research of volatile metabolites. As monitoring of VOCs produced during microbial fermentations can give valuable insight into the metabolic state of the organism, fast and non-invasive MCC-IMS analyses provide valuable data for process control. PMID:25197771