Science.gov

Sample records for saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit

  1. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. PMID:24444969

  2. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test system is an in...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test system is an in...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test system is an in...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification...Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody (ASCA) test system is an in...

  6. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  7. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the...Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food...

  13. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  14. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  15. Local Regulatory Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Kruglyak, Leonid

    Local Regulatory Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae James Ronald1,2 , Rachel B. Brem2 individuals within a species. We and others have previously shown that such regulatory variation can occur both at the same locus as the gene whose expression it affects (local regulatory variation

  16. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) antibody (ASCA) test systems. 866.5785 Section 866.5785 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system...

  1. Progress in Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Nevoigt, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The traditional use of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation has, over time, resulted in substantial accumulated knowledge concerning genetics, physiology, and biochemistry as well as genetic engineering and fermentation technologies. S. cerevisiae has become a platform organism for developing metabolic engineering strategies, methods, and tools. The current review discusses the relevance of several engineering strategies, such as rational and inverse metabolic engineering, evolutionary engineering, and global transcription machinery engineering, in yeast strain improvement. It also summarizes existing tools for fine-tuning and regulating enzyme activities and thus metabolic pathways. Recent examples of yeast metabolic engineering for food, beverage, and industrial biotechnology (bioethanol and bulk and fine chemicals) follow. S. cerevisiae currently enjoys increasing popularity as a production organism in industrial (“white”) biotechnology due to its inherent tolerance of low pH values and high ethanol and inhibitor concentrations and its ability to grow anaerobically. Attention is paid to utilizing lignocellulosic biomass as a potential substrate. PMID:18772282

  2. The Predominant Protein-arginine Methyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Steven

    The Predominant Protein-arginine Methyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae* (Received-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of arginine residues (EC 2.1.1.23) in pro- teins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The RMT1 (protein-arginine methyltransferase), formerly ODP1, gene product encodes a 348-residue polypeptide of 39

  3. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody...

  4. 2? plasmid in Saccharomyces species and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Strope, Pooja K; Kozmin, Stanislav G; Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H

    2015-12-01

    We determined that extrachromosomal 2? plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2?, we identified three distinct classes of 2?. We identified 2? presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2?. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2? sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2? integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2?. We identified extrachromosomal 2? in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2? in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2? in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2?, consistent with interspecific transfer. PMID:26463005

  5. The mitochondrial unselective channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore mediates the increase in the unselective permeability to ions and small molecules across the inner mitochondrial membrane. MPT results from the opening of channels of unknown identity in mitochondria from plants, animals and yeast. However, the effectors and conditions required for MPT to occur in different species are remarkably disparate. Here we critically review previous and recent findings concerning the mitochondrial unselective channel of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine if it can be considered a counterpart of the mammalian MPT pore. PMID:25889953

  6. Gene duplication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hansche, P E; Beres, V; Lange, P

    1978-04-01

    Five independent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  7. Gene Duplication in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Hansche, P. E.; Beres, V.; Lange, P.

    1978-01-01

    Five indepdendent duplications of the acid-phosphatase (aphtase) structural gene (acp1) were recovered from chemostat populations of S. cerevisiae that were subject to selection for in vivo hyper-aphtase activity. Two of the duplications arose spontaneously. Three of them were induced by UV. All five of the duplication events involved the transpositioning of the aphtase structural gene, acp1, and all known genes distal to acp1 on the right arm of chromosome II, to the terminus of an arm of other unknown chromosomes. One of the five duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II was found to be transmitted mitotically and meiotically with very high fidelity. The other four duplicated regions of the right arm of chromosome II were found to be unstable, being lost at a rate of about 2% per mitosis. However, selection for increased fidelity of mitotic transmission was effective in one of these strains. No tandem duplications of the aphtase structural gene were found. PMID:348562

  8. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J J

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  9. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  10. Human acylphosphatase cannot replace phosphoglycerate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Hoek, P; Modesti, A; Ramponi, G; Kötter, P; van Dijken, J P; Pron, J T

    2001-10-01

    Human acylphosphatase (h-AP, EC 3.6.1.7) has been reported to catalyse the hydrolysis of the 1-phosphate group of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. In vivo operation of this reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would bypass phosphoglycerate kinase and thus reduce the ATP yield from glycolysis. To investigate whether h-AP can indeed replace the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase, a multi-copy plasmid carrying the h-AP gene under control of the yeast TDH3 promoter was introduced into a pgk1 delta mutant of S. cerevisiae. A strain carrying the expression vector without the h-AP cassette was used as a reference. For both strains, steady-state carbon- and energy-limited chemostat cultures were obtained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h(-1) on a medium containing a mixture of glucose and ethanol (15% and 85% on a carbon basis, respectively). Although the h-AP strain exhibited a high acylphosphatase activity in cell extracts, switching to glucose as sole carbon and energy source resulted in a complete arrest of glucose consumption and growth. The lack of a functional glycolytic pathway was further evident from the absence of ethanol formation in the presence of excess glucose in the culture. As h-AP cannot replace yeast phosphoglycerate kinase in vivo, the enzyme is not a useful tool to modify the ATP yield of glycolysis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11761363

  11. Mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias; Lu, Kaihui; Reichert, Andreas S

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria fulfill central cellular functions including energy metabolism, iron-sulfur biogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and calcium homeostasis. Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria is observed in ageing and many human diseases such as cancer and various neurodegenerative disorders. Appropriate quality control of mitochondria is important for cell survival in most eukaryotic cells. One important pathway in this respect is mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy which removes excess and dysfunctional mitochondria. In the past decades a series of essential factors for mitophagy have been identified and characterized. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating mitophagy. The role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitophagy is controversially discussed. Here we will review recent advances in this context promoting our understanding on the molecular regulation of mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial quality control. PMID:25753536

  12. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle. PMID:26519319

  13. Lipid phosphate phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Carman, George M; Wu, Wen-I

    2007-01-01

    DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded lipid phosphate phosphatases are integral membrane proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They catalyze the Mg(2+)-independent dephosphorylation of bioactive lipid phosphate molecules such as diacylglycerol pyrophosphate and phosphatidate. These enzymes possess a three-domain lipid phosphatase motif that is localized to the hydrophilic surface of the membrane. The lipid phosphate phosphatase activities of DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded enzymes are measured by following the release of water-soluble radioactive inorganic phosphate from chloroform-soluble radioactive lipid phosphate substrate following a chloroform/methanol/water phase partition. The DPP1-encoded enzyme, commonly referred to as diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase, is purified from wild-type S. cerevisiae membranes by detergent solubilization with Triton X-100 followed by chromatography with DEAE-cellulose (DE53), Affi-Gel blue, hydroxylapatite, and Mono Q. The purification scheme yields an essentially homogeneous enzyme preparation that is stable for several years upon storage at -80 degrees . The properties of the DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded lipid phosphate phosphatase enzymes are summarized. PMID:17954255

  14. Killer systems of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterova, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The killer systems of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are an unusual class of cytoplasmic symbionts of primitive eukaryotes. The genetic material of these symbionts is double-stranded RNA. They are characterized by the linearity of the genome, its fragmentation into a major and a minor fraction, which replicate separately, and their ability to control the synthesis of secretory mycocin proteins possessing a toxic action on closely related strains. The secretion of mycocins at the same time ensures acquiring of resistance to them. Strains containing killer symbionts are toxigenic and resistant to the action of their own toxin, but strains that are free of killer double-stranded RNAs are sensitive to the action of mycocins. The killer systems of S. cerevisiae have retained features relating them to viruses and are apparently the result of evolution of infectious viruses. The occurrences of such systems among monocellular eukaryotic organisms is an example of complication of the genome by means of its assembly from virus-like components. We discuss the unusual features of replication and the expression of killer systems and their utilization in the construction of vector molecules.

  15. Molecular and enological characterization of a natural Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrid.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; González, Sara Susana; Combina, Mariana; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a main role in the winemaking process, although other species, like Saccharomyces uvarum or Saccharomyces paradoxus, have been associated with must fermentations. It has been reported in recent years, that yeast hybrids of different Saccharomyces species might be responsible for wine productions. Although S. cerevisiae×Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids have been well studied, very little attention has been paid to S. cerevisiae×S. uvarum hybrids. In this work we characterized the genomic composition of S6U, a widely used commercial S. cerevisiae×S. uvarum yeast hybrid isolated in wine fermentations containing one copy of the genome of each parental species, which suggests a relatively recent hybridization event. We also studied its performance under diverse enological conditions. The results show enhanced performance under low temperature enological conditions, increased glycerol production, lower acetic acid production and increased production of interesting aroma compounds. We also examined the transcriptomic response of the S6U hybrid strain compared with the reference species under enological conditions. The results show that although the hybrid strain transcriptome is more similar to S. uvarum than to S. cerevisiae, it presents specifically regulated genes involved in stress response, lipids and amino acid metabolism. The enological performance and aroma profile of this S. cerevisiae×S. uvarum hybrid makes it a good candidate for participating in winemaking, especially at low temperatures. PMID:25867085

  16. The flavoproteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Gudipati, Venugopal; Koch, Karin; Lienhart, Wolf-Dieter; Macheroux, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified 68 genes encoding flavin-dependent proteins (1.1% of protein encoding genes) to which 47 distinct biochemical functions were assigned. The majority of flavoproteins operate in mitochondria where they participate in redox processes revolving around the transfer of electrons to the electron transport chain. In addition, we found that flavoenzymes play a central role in various aspects of iron metabolism, such as iron uptake, the biogenesis of iron–sulfur clusters and insertion of the heme cofactor into apocytochromes. Another important group of flavoenzymes is directly (Dus1-4p and Mto1p) or indirectly (Tyw1p) involved in reactions leading to tRNA-modifications. Despite the wealth of genetic information available for S. cerevisiae, we were surprised that many flavoproteins are poorly characterized biochemically. For example, the role of the yeast flavodoxins Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p with regard to their electron donor and acceptor is presently unknown. Similarly, the function of the heterodimeric Aim45p/Cir1p, which is homologous to the electron-transferring flavoproteins of higher eukaryotes, in electron transfer processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix remains to be elucidated. This lack of information extends to the five membrane proteins involved in riboflavin or FAD transport as well as FMN and FAD homeostasis within the yeast cell. Nevertheless, several yeast flavoproteins, were identified as convenient model systems both in terms of their mechanism of action as well as structurally to improve our understanding of diseases caused by dysfunctional human flavoprotein orthologs. PMID:24373875

  17. Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, June; Han, Gil Soo; Carman, George M

    2003-11-30

    Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a Mg(2+)-independent and N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive 34-kDa vacuolar membrane-associated enzyme. It catalyzes the dephosphorylation of DGPP to form phosphatidate (PA) and then removes the phosphate from PA to form diacylglycerol (DAG). The enzyme is a member of the lipid phosphate phosphatase superfamily that contains a three-domain lipid phosphatase motif required for catalytic activity. Expression of the DPP1 gene, which encodes DGPP phosphatase, is induced by zinc depletion, by inositol supplementation, and when cells enter the stationary phase. Induction by zinc depletion is mediated by the transcription factor Zap1p, which binds to a zinc-responsive element in the DPP1 promoter. Repression of DPP1 expression is mediated by the transcription factor Gis1p, which binds to three post-diauxic shift elements in the promoter. Regulation of DPP1 correlates with the expression of DGPP phosphatase activity and the cellular levels of DGPP and PA. PMID:14642771

  18. Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Stéphane; Ferret, Eric; Gervais, Patrick

    2005-11-20

    We studied the mechanisms involved in heat gradient-induced thermotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeasts were slowly heated in a nutrient medium from 25 to 50 degrees C at 0.5 degrees C/min or immediately heat shocked at 50 degrees C, and both sets of cultures were maintained at this temperature for 1 h. Cells that had been slowly heated showed a 50-fold higher survival rate than the rapidly heated cells. Such thermotolerance was found not to be related to protein synthesis. Indeed Hsp104 a known protein involved in yeast thermal resistance induced by a preconditioning mild heat treatment, was not synthesized and cycloheximide addition, a protein synthesis inhibitor, did not affect the thermoprotective effect. Moreover, a rapid cooling from 50 to 25 degrees C applied immediately after the heat slope treatment inhibited the mechanisms involved in thermotolerance. Such observations lead us to conclude that heat gradient-induced thermal resistance is not directly linked to mechanisms involving intracellular molecules synthesis or activity such as proteins (Hsps, enzymes) or osmolytes (trehalose). Other factors such as plasma membrane phospholipid denaturation could be involved in this phenomenon. PMID:16028292

  19. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition. PMID:26721273

  20. Screening of Non- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Tolerance to Formic Acid in Bioethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Oshoma, Cyprian E.; Greetham, Darren; Louis, Edward J.; Smart, Katherine A.; Phister, Trevor G.; Powell, Chris; Du, Chenyu

    2015-01-01

    Formic acid is one of the major inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysates derived from lignocellulosic materials, the presence of which can significantly hamper the efficiency of converting available sugars into bioethanol. This study investigated the potential for screening formic acid tolerance in non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which could be used for the development of advanced generation bioethanol processes. Spot plate and phenotypic microarray methods were used to screen the formic acid tolerance of 7 non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. S. kudriavzeii IFO1802 and S. arboricolus 2.3319 displayed a higher formic acid tolerance when compared to other strains in the study. Strain S. arboricolus 2.3319 was selected for further investigation due to its genetic variability among the Saccharomyces species as related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and availability of two sibling strains: S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 in the lab. The tolerance of S. arboricolus strains (2.3317, 2.3318 and 2.3319) to formic acid was further investigated by lab-scale fermentation analysis, and compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC2592. S. arboricolus 2.3319 demonstrated improved formic acid tolerance and a similar bioethanol synthesis capacity to S. cerevisiae NCYC2592, while S. arboricolus 2.3317 and 2.3318 exhibited an overall inferior performance. Metabolite analysis indicated that S. arboricolus strain 2.3319 accumulated comparatively high concentrations of glycerol and glycogen, which may have contributed to its ability to tolerate high levels of formic acid. PMID:26284784

  1. Local Nanomechanical Motion of the Cell Wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelling, Andrew E.; Sehati, Sadaf; Gralla, Edith B.; Valentine, Joan S.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2004-08-01

    We demonstrate that the cell wall of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) exhibits local temperature-dependent nanomechanical motion at characteristic frequencies. The periodic motions in the range of 0.8 to 1.6 kHz with amplitudes of ~3 nm were measured using the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Exposure of the cells to a metabolic inhibitor causes the periodic motion to cease. From the strong frequency dependence on temperature, we derive an activation energy of 58 kJ/mol, which is consistent with the cell's metabolism involving molecular motors such as kinesin, dynein, and myosin. The magnitude of the forces observed (~10 nN) suggests concerted nanomechanical activity is operative in the cell.

  2. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  3. Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, I; Yim, B; Stavarache, C E; Furuta, M; Hashiba, K; Maeda, Y

    2004-04-01

    We have investigated the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast cells) by ultrasonic irradiation. The amplitude on the vibration face contacting the sample solution was used as an indication of the ultrasonic power intensity. The effects of the amplitude on the vibration face and the initial cell numbers on the sonolytic inactivation of yeast cells have been investigated using a horn-type sonicator (27.5 kHz). The inactivation of the yeast cells by ultrasonic irradiation shows pseudo first-order behavior. The inactivation rate constant varied from 0.0007 to 0.145 s(-1) when the amplitude on the vibration face was in the range of 1-7 microm(p-p). The change in the inactivation rate constant as a function of the amplitude on the vibration face was similar to that of the OH radical formation rate under the same conditions. The threshold of this sonicator was 3 microm(p-p) with the amplitude on the vibration face. The initial cell numbers (from 10(2) to 10(5) mL(-1)) had an influence on the inactivation of the yeast cells by ultrasonic irradiation. The inactivation rate constants varied from 0.023 to 6.4 x 10(-3) s(-1), and the inactivation by ultrasonic irradiation was fastest at the lowest initial cell numbers. In a squeeze-film-type sonicator (26.6 kHz), 90% inactivation of the yeast cells was achieved by ultrasonic irradiation for 60 min. PMID:15030781

  4. Correlation between ethanol stress and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non-Saccharomyces in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae by multivariate techniques.

    PubMed

    Archana, K M; Ravi, R; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2015-10-01

    Wine production is a complex process both from biochemical and microbiological point of view in which yeast plays a central role. The use of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for wine fermentations is of increasing interest to enhance the quality of wine.The most common stress, yeast cells encounter during wine fermentation is the increase in ethanol concentration.To enhance ethanol tolerance, alteration in the cellular lipid composition is one of its defence mechanism. Ethanol tolerance and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non Saccharomyces forms were compared with enological strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for the study, tolerated 15 % of ethanol and the non Saccharomyces strains such as, Issatchenkia occidentalis and Issatchenkia orientalis tolerated 10 % of ethanol. On exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol stress, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease in saturated fatty acids. Decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids, exhibited by non-Saccharomyces yeasts when exposed to ethanol stress, could be one of the reasons for their inability to withstand more than 10 % of alcohol. Multivariate techniques of data analysis - principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed in order to establish differentiation criteria as function of yeast strains, alcohol stress and their fatty acid profile. Based on the data, Chemometrics, such as principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, can be successfully applied to fatty acid data to categorize the yeast. PMID:26396428

  5. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  6. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-01

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. PMID:25956738

  7. Coordinated Concentration Changes of Transcripts and Metabolites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    -characterized transcriptional regulatory circuits such as the lac and trp operons in E. coli and the galactose utilization of Transcripts and Metabolites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Comput Biol 5(1): e1000270. doi:10.1371/journal exist. * E-mail: joshr@genomics.princeton.edu (JDR); ogt@genomics.princeton.edu (OGT) ¤ Current address

  8. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  9. Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

  10. Amino Acid Homeostasis and Chronological Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    Chapter 8 Amino Acid Homeostasis and Chronological Longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae John P is amino acid homeostasis. Amino acid homeostasis requires three principal functions: amino acid uptake, de organelles. Regulation of amino acid homeostasis and autophagy is accomplished by a complex web of pathways

  11. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32, the protein itself causes a feedback inhibition of the splicing of the transcript of its own gene. The synthesis of ribosomes involves a massive transfer of material across the nuclear envelope in both directions. Nuclear localization signals have been identified for at least three ribosomal proteins; they are similar but not identical to those identified for the simian virus 40 T antigen. There is no information about how ribosomal subunits are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2666845

  12. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  13. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Stimulation of Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lulu; Li, Ye; Jiang, Linghuo; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide, known as endotoxin, can stimulate potent host immune responses through the complex of Toll-like-receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation protein 2; but its influence on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model organism for studying eukaryotes, is not clear. In this study, we found that lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells could be stained by methylene blue, but did not die. Transcriptional profiling of the lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells showed that 5745 genes were modulated: 2491 genes up-regulated and 3254 genes down-regulated. Significantly regulated genes (460 up-regulated genes and 135 down-regulated genes) in lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells were analyzed on Gene Ontology, and used to establish physical protein-protein interaction network and protein phosphorylation network. Based on these analyses, most of the regulated genes in lipopolysaccharide-treated S. cerevisiae cells were related to cell wall, membrane, peroxisome and mitochondrion. Further experiments demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide stimulation caused the exposure of phosphatidylserine and the increase of mitochondrial membrane potential in S. cerevisiae cells, but levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and metacaspase activation were not increased. This study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide stimulation causes significant changes in S. cerevisiae cells, and the results would contribute to understand the response of eukaryotic cells to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. PMID:25105496

  14. The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

    2014-03-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  16. Statistics-based model for prediction of chemical biosynthesis yield from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Yi

    Background: The robustness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in facilitating industrial-scale production of ethanol extends its utilization as a platform to synthesize other metabolites. Metabolic engineering strategies, typically ...

  17. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhubo; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xianan; Shi, Mingyu; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Dong; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Xueli

    2013-11-01

    Ginsenosides are the primary bioactive components of ginseng, which is a popular medicinal herb and exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. Protopanaxadiol is the aglycon of several dammarane-type ginsenosides, which also has anticancer activity. For microbial production of protopanaxadiol, dammarenediol-II synthase and protopanaxadiol synthase genes of Panax ginseng, together with a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in production of 0.05 mg/g DCW protopanaxadiol. Increasing squalene and 2,3-oxidosqualene supplies through overexpressing truncated 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene synthase genes, together with increasing protopanaxadiol synthase activity through codon optimization, led to 262-fold increase of protopanaxadiol production. Finally, using two-phase extractive fermentation resulted in production of 8.40 mg/g DCW protopanaxadiol (1189 mg/L), together with 10.94 mg/g DCW dammarenediol-II (1548 mg/L). The yeast strains engineered in this work can serve as the basis for creating an alternative way for production of ginsenosides in place of extraction from plant sources. PMID:24126082

  18. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  19. Symmetric cell division in pseudohyphae of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kron, S J; Styles, C A; Fink, G R

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are dimorphic; in response to nitrogen starvation they switch from a yeast form (YF) to a filamentous pseudohyphal (PH) form. Time-lapse video microscopy of dividing cells reveals that YF and PH cells differ in their cell cycles and budding polarity. The YF cell cycle is controlled at the G1/S transition by the cell-size checkpoint Start. YF cells divide asymmetrically, producing small daughters from full-sized mothers. As a result, mothers and daughters bud asynchronously. Mothers bud immediately but daughters grow in G1 until they achieve a critical cell size. By contrast, PH cells divide symmetrically, restricting mitosis until the bud grows to the size of the mother. Thus, mother and daughter bud synchronously in the next cycle, without a G1 delay before Start. YF and PH cells also exhibit distinct bud-site selection patterns. YF cells are bipolar, producing their second and subsequent buds at either pole. PH cells are unipolar, producing their second and subsequent buds only from the end opposite the junction with their mother. We propose that in PH cells a G2 cell-size checkpoint delays mitosis until bud size reaches that of the mother cell. We conclude that yeast and PH forms are distinct cell types each with a unique cell cycle, budding pattern, and cell shape. Images PMID:7841518

  20. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  1. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Roy D.; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  2. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g., a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty two-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  3. Chromosome mobility during meiotic prophase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Scherthan, Harry; Wang, Hailin; Adelfalk, Caroline; White, Eric J.; Cowan, Carrie; Cande, W. Zacheus; Kaback, David B.

    2007-01-01

    In many organisms, a synaptonemal complex (SC) intimately connects each pair of homologous chromosomes during much of the first meiotic prophase and is thought to play a role in regulating recombination. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the central element of each SC contains Zip1, a protein orthologous to mammalian SYCP1. To study the dynamics of SCs in living meiotic cells, a functional ZIP1::GFP fusion was introduced into yeast and analyzed by fluorescence video microscopy. During pachytene, SCs exhibited dramatic and continuous movement throughout the nucleus, traversing relatively large distances while twisting, folding, and unfolding. Chromosomal movements were accompanied by changes in the shape of the nucleus, and all movements were reversibly inhibited by the actin antagonist Latrunculin B. Normal movement required the NDJ1 gene, which encodes a meiosis-specific telomere protein needed for the attachment of telomeres to the nuclear periphery and for normal kinetics of recombination and meiosis. These results show that SC movements involve telomere attachment to the nuclear periphery and are actin-dependent and suggest these movements could facilitate completion of meiotic recombination. PMID:17939997

  4. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offsmore »between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.« less

  5. Oligoadenylate is present in the mitochondrial RNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yuckenberg, P.D.; Phillips, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    The authors examined Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA for polyadenylate. Using hybridization to (/sup 3/H)polyuridylate as the assay for adenylate sequences, they found adenylate-rich oligonucleotides approximately 8 residues long. Longer polyadenylate was not detected. Most of the adenylate-rich sequence is associated with the large mitochondrial rRNA. The remainder is associated with the 10-12S group of transcripts.

  6. Membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, M A; Carman, G M

    1983-01-01

    Membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol kinase (ATP:phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.67) was partially purified 93-fold from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activity was dependent on magnesium ions (10 mM) and the optimum pH was 8.5. The apparent Km values for ATP and phosphatidylinositol were 0.21 mM and 71 microM, respectively. Activity was stimulated by sodium cholate and inhibited by sodium, potassium, lithium, and fluoride ions. PMID:6311802

  7. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lactose/whey fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Pedro MR; Oliveira, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Lactose is an interesting carbon source for the production of several bio-products by fermentation, primarily because it is the major component of cheese whey, the main by-product of dairy activities. However, the microorganism more widely used in industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, does not have a lactose metabolization system. Therefore, several metabolic engineering approaches have been used to construct lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae strains, particularly involving the expression of the lactose genes of the phylogenetically related yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also the lactose genes from Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, as reviewed here. Due to the existing large amounts of whey, the production of bio-ethanol from lactose by engineered S. cerevisiae has been considered as a possible route for whey surplus. Emphasis is given in the present review on strain improvement for lactose-to-ethanol bioprocesses, namely flocculent yeast strains for continuous high-cell-density systems with enhanced ethanol productivity. PMID:21326922

  8. Alternative Splicing in Next Generation Sequencing Data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Konrad; Csaba, Gergely; Haslbeck, Martin; Zimmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    mRNA splicing is required in about 4% of protein coding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene structure of those genes is simple, generally comprising two exons and one intron. In order to characterize the impact of alternative splicing on the S. cerevisiae transcriptome, we perform a systematic analysis of mRNA sequencing data. We find evidence of a pervasive use of alternative splice sites and detect several novel introns both within and outside protein coding regions. We also find a predominance of alternative splicing on the 3’ side of introns, a finding which is consistent with existing knowledge on conservation of exon-intron boundaries in S. cerevisiae. Some of the alternatively spliced transcripts allow for a translation into different protein products. PMID:26469855

  9. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based bioassay for assessing pesticide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Estève, Karine; Poupot, C; Dabert, P; Mietton-Peuchot, M; Milisic, V

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the toxic effect of three pesticides (Azoxystrobin, Cymoxanil, and Diuron) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the development of a new bioassay based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae metabolic activity at the level of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, as compared with two different toxicity tests based on inhibition of Daphnia magna mobility (NF EN ISO 6341) and inhibition of Vibrio fisheri activity (NF EN ISO 11348). The S. cerevisiae bioassay is cheaper and 96 times faster than the D. magna toxicity bioassay, but has lower sensitivity. It is as fast as the V. fisheri bioassay and more sensitive. Thus, this new toxicity test can be proposed for rapid detection of pesticide residues in environmental samples as a complement to the more expensive and time-consuming D. magna toxicity test. PMID:19856193

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    PubMed Central

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a nomadic yeast with no niche?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Matthew R.; Greig, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Different species are usually thought to have specific adaptations, which allow them to occupy different ecological niches. But recent neutral ecology theory suggests that species diversity can simply be the result of random sampling, due to finite population sizes and limited dispersal. Neutral models predict that species are not necessarily adapted to specific niches, but are functionally equivalent across a range of habitats. Here, we evaluate the ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most important microbial species in human history. The artificial collection, concentration and fermentation of large volumes of fruit for alcohol production produce an environment in which S. cerevisiae thrives, and therefore it is assumed that fruit is the ecological niche that S. cerevisiae inhabits and has adapted to. We find very little direct evidence that S. cerevisiae is adapted to fruit, or indeed to any other specific niche. We propose instead a neutral nomad model for S. cerevisiae, which we believe should be used as the starting hypothesis in attempting to unravel the ecology of this important microbe. PMID:25725024

  13. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Gough, Julian

    Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one

  14. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    LETTERS Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1, obesity and other diseases1­5 . The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems

  15. Whole-genome expression analysis of snf swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    Whole-genome expression analysis of snf swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Priya Sudarsanam (received for review September 22, 1999) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf Swi complex has been previ- ously mutants deleted for a gene encoding one conserved (Snf2) or one unconserved (Swi1) Snf Swi component

  16. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi. PMID:24752690

  17. Utilization of D-asparagine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, P C; Roon, R J; Even, H L

    1976-03-01

    Yeast strains sigma1278b and Harden and Young, which synthesize only an internal constitutive form of L-asparaginase, do not grow on D-asparagine, as a sole source of nitrogen, and whole cell suspensions of these strains do not hydrolyze D-asparagine. Strains X2180-A2 and D273-10B, which possess an externally active form of asparaginase, are able to grow slowly on D-asparagine, and nitrogen-starved suspensions of these strains exhibit high activity toward the D-isomer. Nitrogen starvation of strain X218O-A2 results in coordinate increase of D- and L-asparaginase activity; the specific activity observed for the D-isomer is approximately 20% greater than that observed for the L-isomer. It was observed, in studies with cell extracts, that hydrolysis of D-asparagine occurred only with extracts from nitrogen-starved cells of strains that synthesize the external form of asparaginase. Furthermore, the activity of the extracts toward the D-isomer was always higher than that observed with the L-isomer. A 400-fold purified preparation of external asparaginase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae X218U-A2 hydrolyzed D-asparagine with an apparent Km of 0.23 mM and a Vmax of 38.7 mumol/min per mg of protein. D-Asparagine was a competitive inhibitor of L-asparagine hydrolysis and the Ki determined for this inhibition was approximately equal to its Km. These data suggest that D-asparagine is a good substrate for the external yeast asparaginase but is a poor substrate for the internal enzyme. PMID:767332

  18. Gains and Losses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    PubMed

    Schaefke, Bernhard; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Wang, Chuen-Yi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-08-01

    Gene expression evolution occurs through changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. Interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites (TFBSs) constitute one of the most important points where these two regulatory components intersect. In this study, we investigated the evolution of TFBSs in the promoter regions of different Saccharomyces strains and species. We divided the promoter of a gene into the proximal region and the distal region, which are defined, respectively, as the 200-bp region upstream of the transcription starting site and as the 200-bp region upstream of the proximal region. We found that the predicted TFBSs in the proximal promoter regions tend to be evolutionarily more conserved than those in the distal promoter regions. Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks have experienced more TFBS losses than gains compared with strains from other environments (wild strains, laboratory strains, and clinical strains). We also showed that differences in TFBSs correlate with the cis component of gene expression evolution between species (comparing S. cerevisiae and its sister species Saccharomyces paradoxus) and within species (comparing two closely related S. cerevisiae strains). PMID:26220934

  19. Gains and Losses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus

    PubMed Central

    Schaefke, Bernhard; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Wang, Chuen-Yi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression evolution occurs through changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. Interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites (TFBSs) constitute one of the most important points where these two regulatory components intersect. In this study, we investigated the evolution of TFBSs in the promoter regions of different Saccharomyces strains and species. We divided the promoter of a gene into the proximal region and the distal region, which are defined, respectively, as the 200-bp region upstream of the transcription starting site and as the 200-bp region upstream of the proximal region. We found that the predicted TFBSs in the proximal promoter regions tend to be evolutionarily more conserved than those in the distal promoter regions. Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks have experienced more TFBS losses than gains compared with strains from other environments (wild strains, laboratory strains, and clinical strains). We also showed that differences in TFBSs correlate with the cis component of gene expression evolution between species (comparing S. cerevisiae and its sister species Saccharomyces paradoxus) and within species (comparing two closely related S. cerevisiae strains). PMID:26220934

  20. Direct evidence for a xylose metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, C.A.; Carvallo, S.; Easson, D.D.; Akedo, M.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Xylose transport, xylose reductase, and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes in the xylose catabolic pathway necessary for the conversion of xylose xylulose are present, although S. cerevisiae cannot grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Xylose transport is less efficient than glucose transport, and its rate is dependent upon aeration. Xylose reductase appears to be a xylose inducible enzyme and xylitol dehydrogenase activity is constitutive, although both are repressed by glucose. Both xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are five- to tenfold lower in S. cerevisie as compared to Candida utilis. In vivo conversion of /sup 14/C-xylose in S. cerevisiage is demonstrated and xylitol is detected, although no significant levels of any other /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites (e.g., ethanol) are observed. 22 references.

  1. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  2. Homeostatic and Adaptive Responses to Zinc Deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Eide, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient and serves as a structural or catalytic cofactor for many proteins. Thus, cells need mechanisms to maintain zinc homeostasis when available zinc supplies decrease. In addition, cells require other mechanisms to adapt intracellular processes to suboptimal levels of zinc. By exploring the transcriptional responses to zinc deficiency, studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed both homeostatic and adaptive responses to low zinc. The Zap1 zinc-responsive transcription factor regulates several genes in yeast, and the identity of these genes has led to new insights regarding how cells respond to the stress of zinc deficiency. PMID:19363031

  3. Meiotic recombination between repeated transposable elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kupiec, M; Petes, T D

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the frequency of meiotic recombination between marked Ty elements in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. These recombination events were usually nonreciprocal (gene conversions) and sometimes involved nonhomologous chromosomes. The frequency of ectopic gene conversion among Ty elements appeared lower than expected on the basis of previous studies of recombination between artificially constructed repeats. The conversion events involved either a subset of the total Ty elements in the genome or the conversion tract was restricted to a small region of the Ty element. In addition, the observed conversion events were very infrequently associated with reciprocal exchange. PMID:2841590

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Population Divergence and Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Clinical, Domesticated and Wild Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Diezmann, Stephanie; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been associated with human life for millennia in the brewery and bakery. Recently it has been recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen. To study the evolutionary history of S. cerevisiae, the origin of clinical isolates and the importance of a virulence-associated trait, population genetics and phenotypic assays have been applied to an ecologically diverse set of 103 strains isolated from clinics, breweries, vineyards, fruits, soil, commercial supplements and insect guts. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequence data from five nuclear DNA loci were analyzed for population structure and haplotype distribution. Additionally, all strains were tested for survival of oxidative stress, a trait associated with microbial pathogenicity. DNA sequence analyses identified three genetic subgroups within the recombining S. cerevisiae strains that are associated with ecology, geography and virulence. Shared alleles suggest that the clinical isolates contain genetic contribution from the fruit isolates. Clinical and fruit isolates exhibit high levels of recombination, unlike the genetically homogenous soil isolates in which no recombination was detected. However, clinical and soil isolates were more resistant to oxidative stress than any other population, suggesting a correlation between survival in oxidative stress and yeast pathogenicity. Conclusions/Significance Population genetic analyses of S. cerevisiae delineated three distinct groups, comprising primarily the (i) human-associated brewery and vineyard strains, (ii) clinical and fruit isolates (iii) and wild soil isolates from eastern U.S. The interactions between S. cerevisiae and humans potentiate yeast evolution and the development of genetically, ecologically and geographically divergent groups. PMID:19390633

  5. Functional Expression of a Bacterial Xylose Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Brat, Dawid; Boles, Eckhard; Wiedemann, Beate

    2009-01-01

    In industrial fermentation processes, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly used for ethanol production. However, it lacks the ability to ferment pentose sugars like d-xylose and l-arabinose. Heterologous expression of a xylose isomerase (XI) would enable yeast cells to metabolize xylose. However, many attempts to express a prokaryotic XI with high activity in S. cerevisiae have failed so far. We have screened nucleic acid databases for sequences encoding putative XIs and finally were able to clone and successfully express a highly active new kind of XI from the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans in S. cerevisiae. Heterologous expression of this enzyme confers on the yeast cells the ability to metabolize d-xylose and to use it as the sole carbon and energy source. The new enzyme has low sequence similarities to the XIs from Piromyces sp. strain E2 and Thermus thermophilus, which were the only two XIs previously functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. The activity and kinetic parameters of the new enzyme are comparable to those of the Piromyces XI. Importantly, the new enzyme is far less inhibited by xylitol, which accrues as a side product during xylose fermentation. Furthermore, expression of the gene could be improved by adapting its codon usage to that of the highly expressed glycolytic genes of S. cerevisiae. Expression of the bacterial XI in an industrially employed yeast strain enabled it to grow on xylose and to ferment xylose to ethanol. Thus, our findings provide an excellent starting point for further improvement of xylose fermentation in industrial yeast strains. PMID:19218403

  6. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast,” is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere.” Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir,’ have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  7. Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yannai, S.; Berdicevsky, I.; Duek, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans were incubated with 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 {mu}g of Hg (as HgCl{sub 2}) per ml of Nelson's medium in the presence of trace amounts of oxygen at 28{degree}C for 12 days. Two control media were used, one without added Hg and one without yeast inoculum. Yeast cell growth was estimated after 1, 2, 3, and 8 days of incubation. The contents of organomercury in the system and of elemental mercury released from the media and collected in traps were determined at the end of the experiments. The results were as follows: (1) C. albicans was the more mercury-resistant species, but both yeast species failed to grown in the media containing 0.75 {mu}g of Hg per ml.; (2) The amounts of organomercury produced by the two species were proportional to the amount of HgCl{sub 2} added to the medium. In all cases C. albicans produced considerably larger amounts of methylmercury than S. cerevisiae; (3) The amounts of elemental Hg produced were inversely proportional to the HgCl{sub 2} level added in the case of S. cerevisiae but were all similar in the case of C. albicans;and (4) Neither organomercury nor elemental Hg was produced in any of the control media.

  8. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  9. Intracellular analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CLSM after ultrasonic treatments.

    PubMed

    Kon, Takuo; Nakakura, Shinya; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2005-06-01

    The effect of ultrasonic treatments (28, 45, and 100 kHz) as sterilization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated both by colony-forming ability and by a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM), using a fluorescence staining approach with MDY-64 for endoplasmic reticula and Rhodamine B for mitochondria. The ultrasonic treatments, especially at the lower frequency of 28 kHz, were effective for sterilizing S cerevisiae, thus inducing the remarkable decrease in colony counts of S cerevisiae on YPD plate medium, but with some inactive (dead) cells. The CLSM images of fluorescence-stained organelles in the cell showed the intracellular fracture and the increase in fluorescent intensities of MDY-64 for endoplasmic reticula and Rhodamine B for mitochondria without cell membrane collapse by the ultrasonic treatments, especially at 28 kHz. The effect of the conditions (frequency, power, medium, and so on) of the ultrasonic treatments on cell components such as biological membranes would be different, thus inducing the effective and selective sterilization of some types of microorganisms. PMID:17292073

  10. Overall kinetic mechanism of saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengyu; West, Ann H; Cook, Paul F

    2006-10-01

    Kinetic data have been measured for the histidine-tagged saccharopine dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting the ordered addition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) followed by saccharopine in the physiologic reaction direction. In the opposite direction, the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) adds to the enzyme first, while there is no preference for the order of binding of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-Kg) and lysine. In the direction of saccharopine formation, data also suggest that, at high concentrations, lysine inhibits the reaction by binding to free enzyme. In addition, uncompetitive substrate inhibition by alpha-Kg and double inhibition by NAD and alpha-Kg suggest the existence of an abortive E:NAD:alpha-Kg complex. Product inhibition by saccharopine is uncompetitive versus NADH, suggesting a practical irreversibility of the reaction at pH 7.0 in agreement with the overall K(eq). Saccharopine is noncompetitive versus lysine or alpha-Kg, suggesting the existence of both E:NADH:saccharopine and E:NAD:saccharopine complexes. NAD is competitive versus NADH, and noncompetitive versus lysine and alpha-Kg, indicating the combination of the dinucleotides with free enzyme. Dead-end inhibition studies are also consistent with the random addition of alpha-Kg and lysine. Leucine and oxalylglycine serve as lysine and alpha-Kg dead-end analogues, respectively, and are uncompetitive against NADH and noncompetitive against alpha-Kg and lysine, respectively. Oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate, and glutarate behave as dead-end analogues of lysine, which suggests that the lysine-binding site has a higher affinity for keto acid analogues than does the alpha-Kg site or that dicarboxylic acids have more than one binding mode on the enzyme. In addition, OAA and glutarate also bind to free enzyme as does lysine at high concentrations. Glutarate gives S-parabolic noncompetitive inhibition versus NADH, indicating the formation of a E:(glutarate)2 complex as a result of occupying both the lysine- and alpha-Kg-binding sites. Pyruvate, a slow alternative keto acid substrate, exhibits competitive inhibition versus both lysine and alpha-Kg, suggesting the combination to the E:NADH:alpha-Kg and E:NADH:lysine enzyme forms. The equilibrium constant for the reaction has been measured at pH 7.0 as 3.9 x 10(-7) M by monitoring the change in NADH upon the addition of the enzyme. The Haldane relationship is in very good agreement with the directly measured value. PMID:17002315

  11. Acquisition of the Ability To Assimilate Mannitol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through Dysfunction of the General Corepressor Tup1-Cyc8

    PubMed Central

    Chujo, Moeko; Yoshida, Shiori; Ota, Anri; Murata, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally cannot assimilate mannitol, a promising brown macroalgal carbon source for bioethanol production. The molecular basis of this inability remains unknown. We found that cells capable of assimilating mannitol arose spontaneously from wild-type S. cerevisiae during prolonged culture in mannitol-containing medium. Based on microarray data, complementation analysis, and cell growth data, we demonstrated that acquisition of mannitol-assimilating ability was due to spontaneous mutations in the genes encoding Tup1 or Cyc8, which constitute a general corepressor complex that regulates many kinds of genes. We also showed that an S. cerevisiae strain carrying a mutant allele of CYC8 exhibited superior salt tolerance relative to other ethanologenic microorganisms; this characteristic would be highly beneficial for the production of bioethanol from marine biomass. Thus, we succeeded in conferring the ability to assimilate mannitol on S. cerevisiae through dysfunction of Tup1-Cyc8, facilitating production of ethanol from mannitol. PMID:25304510

  12. Dual utilization of NADPH and NADH cofactors enhances xylitol production in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Sun-Young; Lee, Hyeun-Soo; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Xylitol, a natural sweetener, can be produced by hydrogenation of xylose in hemicelluloses. In microbial processes, utilization of only NADPH cofactor limited commercialization of xylitol biosynthesis. To overcome this drawback, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to express two types of xylose reductase (XR) with either NADPH-dependence or NADH-preference. Engineered S. cerevisiae DWM expressing both the XRs exhibited higher xylitol productivity than the yeast strain expressing NADPH-dependent XR only (DWW) in both batch and glucose-limited fed-batch cultures. Furthermore, the coexpression of S. cerevisiae ZWF1 and ACS1 genes in the DWM strain increased intracellular concentrations of NADPH and NADH and improved maximum xylitol productivity by 17%, relative to that for the DWM strain. Finally, the optimized fed-batch fermentation of S. cerevisiae DWM-ZWF1-ACS1 resulted in 196.2 g/L xylitol concentration, 4.27 g/L h productivity and almost the theoretical yield. Expression of the two types of XR utilizing both NADPH and NADH is a promising strategy to meet the industrial demands for microbial xylitol production. PMID:26470683

  13. Enhanced xylitol production through simultaneous co-utilization of cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun Joong; Ha, Suk-Jin; Rin Kim, Soo; Lee, Won-Heong; Galazka, Jonathan M; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-01-01

    As Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot utilize xylose as a carbon source, expression of XYL1 coding for xylose reductase (XR) from Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis enabled production of xylitol from xylose with a high yield. However, insufficient supply of NAD(P)H for XR and inhibition of xylose uptake by glucose are identified as major constraints for achieving high xylitol productivity. To overcome these problems, we engineered S. cerevisiae capable of converting xylose into xylitol through simultaneous utilization of xylose and cellobiose. An engineered S. cerevisiae (D-10-BT) expressing XR, cellodextrin transporter (cdt-1) and intracellular ?-glucosidase (gh1-1) produced xylitol via simultaneous utilization of cellobiose and xylose. The D-10-BT strain exhibited 40% higher volumetric xylitol productivity with co-consumption of cellobiose and xylose compared to sequential utilization of glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the overexpression of S. cerevisiae ALD6, IDP2, or S. stipitis ZWF1 coding for cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent dehydrogenases increased the intracellular NADPH availability of the D-10-BT strain, which resulted in a 37-63% improvement in xylitol productivity when cellobiose and xylose were co-consumed. These results suggest that co-utilization of cellobiose and xylose can lead to improved xylitol production through enhanced xylose uptake and efficient cofactor regeneration. PMID:23103205

  14. Spectroscopic and analytical characterization of the distribution of iron in intact mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    E-print Network

    Hudder, Brandon Neal

    2006-10-30

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and M�¶ssbauer spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of iron in mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These organelles were packed into EPR and M�¶ssbauer cuvettes, ...

  15. RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Complex Phenotype Engineering

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    applications.7 In Escherichia coli, recombination-based genetic engineering (recombineering) enables generationRNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Complex Phenotype Engineering Tong Si, Yunzi Luo, Zehua Bao, and Huimin Zhao*,,,§ Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

  16. Proteasomal regulation of the mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rev1

    E-print Network

    Wiltrout, Mary Ellen

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) functions as a tolerance mechanism for DNA damage at a potentially mutagenic cost. Three TLS polymerases (Pols) function to bypass DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Rev1, Pol ?, a ...

  17. Effect of GAL4 Gene Dosage on the Level of Galactose Catabolic Enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Amar J. S.; Halvorson, Harlyn O.

    1976-01-01

    Lack of GAL4 gene dosage on the level of uridine diphosphogalactose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2) activity suggests the positive regulatory role for this locus on the control of galactose catabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:1107315

  18. Defining the active form of ribonucleotide reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in vitro and in vivo

    E-print Network

    Perlstein, Deborah Leigh

    2005-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNR is a class I RNR composed of a dimeric large subunit (RI), containing the active site and ...

  19. Isolation and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPP1 gene encoding diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Toke, D A; Bennett, W L; Dillon, D A; Wu, W I; Chen, X; Ostrander, D B; Oshiro, J; Cremesti, A; Voelker, D R; Fischl, A S; Carman, G M

    1998-02-01

    Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) is involved in a putative novel lipid signaling pathway. DGPP phosphatase (DGPP phosphohydrolase) is a membrane-associated 34-kDa enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of DGPP to yield phosphatidate (PA) and then catalyzes the dephosphorylation of PA to yield diacylglycerol. Amino acid sequence information derived from DGPP phosphatase was used to identify and isolate the DPP1 (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase) gene encoding the enzyme. Multicopy plasmids containing the DPP1 gene directed a 10-fold overexpression of DGPP phosphatase activity in S. cerevisiae. The heterologous expression of the S. cerevisiae DPP1 gene in Sf-9 insect cells resulted in a 500-fold overexpression of DGPP phosphatase activity over that expressed in wild-type S. cerevisiae. DGPP phosphatase possesses a Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity, and its expression correlated with the overexpression of DGPP phosphatase activity in S. cerevisiae and in insect cells. DGPP phosphatase was predicted to be an integral membrane protein with six transmembrane-spanning domains. The enzyme contains a novel phosphatase sequence motif found in a superfamily of phosphatases. A dpp1Delta mutant was constructed by deletion of the chromosomal copy of the DPP1 gene. The dpp1Delta mutant was viable and did not exhibit any obvious growth defects. The mutant was devoid of DGPP phosphatase activity and accumulated (4-fold) DGPP. Analysis of the mutant showed that the DPP1 gene was not responsible for all of the Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity in S. cerevisiae. PMID:9452443

  20. Evaluation of unconventional protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Miura, Natsuko; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of large-scale analyses such as the secretome analysis has enabled the discovery of a vast number of intracellular proteins that are secreted outside the cell. Often, these proteins do not contain any known signal sequence required for conventional protein secretion. In order to avoid misidentification of such "leaked" proteins as "secreted" proteins, reconstructing the process of protein secretion is essential. Here, we describe methods for the detection of reconstructed unconventional protein secretion and determination of regulatory proteins of secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that conjugating target proteins with a tag-sequence and utilizing various reagents and tools can facilitate quantitative detection of the secretion of target proteins. We expect that these methods will reveal novel unconventional secretion pathways of proteins. PMID:25702108

  1. Production of natural products through metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Many high-value metabolites are produced in nature by organisms that are not ideal for large-scale production. Therefore, interest exists in expressing the biosynthetic pathways of these compounds in organisms that are more suitable for industrial production. Recent years have seen developments in both the discovery of various biosynthetic pathways, as well as development of metabolic engineering tools that allow reconstruction of complex pathways in microorganisms. In the present review we discuss recent advances in reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathways of various high-value products in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a commonly used industrial microorganism. Key achievements in the production of different isoprenoids, aromatics and polyketides are presented and the metabolic engineering strategies underlying these accomplishments are discussed. PMID:25544013

  2. The Influence of Microgravity on Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E.; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy G. E.; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Willaert, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced under microgravity in the ?1278b laboratory strain but not in the CMBSESA1 industrial strain. This was supported by the ?1278b proteome map under microgravity conditions, which revealed upregulation of proteins linked to anaerobic conditions. The ?1278b strain showed a reduced invasive growth in the center of the yeast colony. Bud scar distribution was slightly affected, with a switch toward more random budding. Together, microgravity conditions disturb spatially programmed budding patterns and generate strain-dependent growth differences in yeast colonies on semi-solid medium.

  3. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  4. Ethylene production by metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pirkov, I; Albers, E; Norbeck, J; Larsson, C

    2008-09-01

    The non-ethylene producing yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was transformed into an ethylene producer by introducing the ethylene forming enzyme from the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Cultivation of the metabolically engineered strain was performed in well-controlled bioreactors as aerobic batch cultures with an on-line monitoring of ethylene production. The highest productivity was obtained during the respiro-fermentative growth on glucose but there was also a significant rate of formation during the subsequent phase of ethanol respiration. Furthermore, investigations were performed whether substitution of the original nitrogen source, NH(4)(+), for glutamate could improve productivity and yield of ethylene even more. The rationale being that one of the substrates for the enzyme is 2-oxoglutarate and this compound can be formed from glutamate in a single reaction. Indeed, there was a substantial improvement in the rate of production and the final yield of ethylene was almost three times higher when NH(4)(+) was replaced by glutamate. PMID:18640286

  5. Characterization of Encapsulated Berberine in Yeast Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Roshanak; Rajabi, Omid; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Fathi Najafi, Mohsen; Fazly Bazzaz, BiBi Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Berberine was loaded in yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeas a novel pharmaceutical carrier to improve the treatment ofmany diseases. The yeast-encapsulated active materialsshowedhigh stability and bioavailability due to the enhanced solubility and sustained releasing. In this study, different characteristics of prepared berberine loaded yeast cells (loading capacity, release kinetic order, MIC and stability) were evaluatedby different analytical methods (fluorescence spectroscopy, HPLC and SEM).The loading capacity was about 78% ± 0.6%.Berberine release patterns of microcapsules happened in two different stages and followed by zero and first-order kinetic,respectively. About 99% of all active material released during 34 h. MIC was improved by berberine loaded microcapsules in comparison withberberine powder. The microcapsules were completely stable. Berberine loaded Sac. Cerevisiae could be considered as a favorite sustained release drug delivery system. The yeast would be applied as an efficient carrier to improve various properties of different active materials. PMID:26664393

  6. Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

  7. Cloning of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene conferring cadmium resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yanushka, A.P.; Sasnauskas, K.V.; Yanulaitis, A.A.

    1988-11-01

    A gene conferring resistance to the toxic effect of cadmium ions was cloned out of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene library based on vector pL3. Cadmium resistance was phenotypically expressed only if the CAD1 gene was present in a multicopy plasmid. Intrachromosomal integration of the plasmid or insertion of the centromeric region into the plasmid lowered the number of CAD1-gene copies and, correspondingly, the resistance to cadmium ions. The cloned, Sau3A-cleaved fragment of the yeast chromosome was 3.5 kg in size. Restriction analysis and subcloning of different portions of this DNA stretch determined the minimal fragment responsible for the Cad/sup r/ phenotype: the CAD1 gene was found to be located on an XhoI-Sau3A fragment 1.6 kb long. In Escherichia coli, instability of a yeast-DNA region adjacent to the XhoI-Sau3A fragment was observed.

  8. Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Seishi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-11-23

    The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-{delta}2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.

  9. On the Mechanism of Gene Silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Steakley, David Lee; Rine, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ranging from steric occlusion of DNA binding proteins from their recognition sequences in silenced chromatin to a specific block in the formation of the preinitiation complex to a block in transcriptional elongation. This study provided strong support for the steric occlusion mechanism by the discovery that RNA polymerase of bacteriophage T7 could be substantially blocked from transcribing from its cognate promoter when embedded in silenced chromatin. Moreover, unlike previous suggestions, we found no evidence for stalled RNA polymerase II within silenced chromatin. The effectiveness of the Sir protein–based silencing mechanism to block transcription activated by Gal4 at promoters in the domain of silenced chromatin was marginal, yet it improved when tested against mutant forms of the Gal4 protein, highlighting a role for specific activators in their sensitivity to gene silencing. PMID:26082137

  10. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

  11. Random Segregation of Chromatids at Mitosis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neff, M. W.; Burke, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments suggest that mitotic chromosome segregation in some fungi is a nonrandom process in which chromatids of the same replicative age are destined for cosegregation. We have investigated the pattern of chromatid segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by labeling the DNA of a strain auxotrophic for thymidine with 5-bromodeoxyuridine. The fate of DNA strands was followed qualitatively by immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitatively by microphotometry using an anti-5-bromodeoxyuridine monoclonal antibody. Chromatids of the same replicative age were distributed randomly to daughter cells at mitosis. Quantitative measurements showed that the amount of fluorescence in the daughter nuclei derived from parents with hemilabeled chromosomes diminished in intensity by one half. The concentration of 5-bromodeoxyuridine used in the experiments had little effect on the frequency of either homologous or sister chromatid exchanges. We infer that the 5-bromodeoxyuridine was distributed randomly due to mitotic segregation of chromatids and not via sister chromatid exchanges. PMID:2016049

  12. Modeling growth and telomere dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bertuch, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    A general branching process is proposed to model a population of cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae following loss of telomerase. Previously published experimental data indicate that a population of telomerase-deficient cells regain exponential growth after a period of slowing due to critical telomere shortening. The explanation for this phenomenon is that some cells engage telomerase-independent pathways to maintain telomeres that allow them to become “survivors.” Our model takes into account random variation in individual cell cycle times, telomere length, finite replicative lifespan of mother cells, and survivorship. We identify and estimate crucial parameters such as the probability of an individual cell becoming a survivor, and compare our model predictions to experimental data. PMID:20018194

  13. Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with its full complement of organelles, synthesizes membrane phospholipids by pathways that are generally common to those found in higher eukaryotes. Phospholipid synthesis in yeast is regulated in response to a variety of growth conditions (e.g., inositol supplementation, zinc depletion, and growth stage) by a coordination of genetic (e.g., transcriptional activation and repression) and biochemical (e.g., activity modulation and localization) mechanisms. Phosphatidate (PA), whose cellular levels are controlled by the activities of key phospholipid synthesis enzymes, plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of phospholipid synthesis genes. In addition to the regulation of gene expression, phosphorylation of key phospholipid synthesis catalytic and regulatory proteins controls the metabolism of phospholipid precursors and products. PMID:21275641

  14. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOEpatents

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  15. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling-ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-dong; Zhan, Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  16. Global Mapping of DNA Conformational Flexibility on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Giulia; Bedini, Andrea; Barale, Roberto; Sbrana, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    In this study we provide the first comprehensive map of DNA conformational flexibility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complete genome. Flexibility plays a key role in DNA supercoiling and DNA/protein binding, regulating DNA transcription, replication or repair. Specific interest in flexibility analysis concerns its relationship with human genome instability. Enrichment in flexible sequences has been detected in unstable regions of human genome defined fragile sites, where genes map and carry frequent deletions and rearrangements in cancer. Flexible sequences have been suggested to be the determinants of fragile gene proneness to breakage; however, their actual role and properties remain elusive. Our in silico analysis carried out genome-wide via the StabFlex algorithm, shows the conserved presence of highly flexible regions in budding yeast genome as well as in genomes of other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. Flexibile peaks in S. cerevisiae identify 175 ORFs mapping on their 3’UTR, a region affecting mRNA translation, localization and stability. (TA)n repeats of different extension shape the central structure of peaks and co-localize with polyadenylation efficiency element (EE) signals. ORFs with flexible peaks share common features. Transcripts are characterized by decreased half-life: this is considered peculiar of genes involved in regulatory systems with high turnover; consistently, their function affects biological processes such as cell cycle regulation or stress response. Our findings support the functional importance of flexibility peaks, suggesting that the flexible sequence may be derived by an expansion of canonical TAYRTA polyadenylation efficiency element. The flexible (TA)n repeat amplification could be the outcome of an evolutionary neofunctionalization leading to a differential 3’-end processing and expression regulation in genes with peculiar function. Our study provides a new support to the functional role of flexibility in genomes and a strategy for its characterization inside human fragile sites. PMID:25860149

  17. Fermentation temperature modulates phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol levels in the cell membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Clark M; Zeno, Wade F; Lerno, Larry A; Longo, Marjorie L; Block, David E

    2013-09-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to a host of environmental and physiological stresses. Extremes of fermentation temperature have previously been demonstrated to induce fermentation arrest under growth conditions that would otherwise result in complete sugar utilization at "normal" temperatures and nutrient levels. Fermentations were carried out at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C in a defined high-sugar medium using three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with diverse fermentation characteristics. The lipid composition of these strains was analyzed at two fermentation stages, when ethanol levels were low early in stationary phase and in late stationary phase at high ethanol concentrations. Several lipids exhibited dramatic differences in membrane concentration in a temperature-dependent manner. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used as a tool to elucidate correlations between specific lipid species and fermentation temperature for each yeast strain. Fermentations carried out at 35°C exhibited very high concentrations of several phosphatidylinositol species, whereas at 15°C these yeast strains exhibited higher levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine species with medium-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, membrane concentrations of ergosterol were highest in the yeast strain that experienced stuck fermentations at all three temperatures. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of yeast cell membrane fluidity during fermentation were carried out using the lipophilic fluorophore diphenylhexatriene. These measurements demonstrate that the changes in the lipid composition of these yeast strains across the range of fermentation temperatures used in this study did not significantly affect cell membrane fluidity. However, the results from this study indicate that fermenting S. cerevisiae modulates its membrane lipid composition in a temperature-dependent manner. PMID:23811519

  18. Influence of temperature and nutrient strength on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.; Lee, L.W.; Chang, T.H. )

    1992-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not only a key microorganism in brewing or fermentation processes, it has also been employed for monitoring aquatic pollutants. The major advantage of using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a bioassay system is that this yeast can be easily obtained as dry pellets from commercial sources at low cost. In addition to its economical aspect, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like other microorganisms, is easy to handle, grows rapidly, and provides a large number of homogeneous individuals for utilization in toxicity tests. Although cell growth, cell viability, electron transport and mitochondrial respiration of Saccharomyces cerevisiaes have all been selected as parameters for toxicity assessment, measuring cell growth by absorbance is by farm the most convenient and rapid method when large amounts of water samples are to be tested. Mochida et al. (1988), however, reported that Saccharomyces cerevisiae was five to ten times less sensitive than cell culture systems to cadmium, mercury and nickel, when cell growth of both systems was monitored. This relative insensitivity to heavy metals might handicap the practical use of this yeast strain for bioassays. Since previous studies indicated that the susceptibility of microorganisms to environmental toxicants can be influenced by incubation temperature and nutrient strength, we attempted to examine the effect of incubation temperature and nutrient strength on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heavy metals in order to obtain the optimum bioassay sensitivity. In this study, we used cadmium and mercury as model toxicants. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Structure of the Glycosyltransferase Ktr4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Possner, Dominik D. D.; Claesson, Magnus; Guy, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be ?-1,2-mannosyltransferases or ?-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p) are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-?-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or ?-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution. PMID:26296208

  20. Quantifying separation and similarity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbes are key ecosystem drivers; however, we have little theory and few data elucidating the processes influencing their observed population patterns. Here we provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of population separation and similarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of providing a more detailed account of the population processes occurring in microbes. Over 10?000 individual isolates were collected from native plants, vineyards and spontaneous ferments of fruit from six major regions spanning 1000?km across New Zealand. From these, hundreds of S. cerevisiae genotypes were obtained, and using a suite of analytical methods we provide comprehensive quantitative estimates for both population structure and rates of gene flow or migration. No genetic differentiation was detected within geographic regions, even between populations inhabiting native forests and vineyards. We do, however, reveal a picture of national population structure at scales above ?100?km with distinctive populations in the more remote Nelson and Central Otago regions primarily contributing to this. In addition, differential degrees of connectivity between regional populations are observed and correlate with the movement of fruit by the New Zealand wine industry. This suggests some anthropogenic influence on these observed population patterns. PMID:25062126

  1. Identification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucosidase That Hydrolyzes Flavonoid Glucosides? †

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabine; Rainieri, Sandra; Witte, Simone; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) whole-cell bioconversions of naringenin 7-O-?-glucoside revealed considerable ?-glucosidase activity, which impairs any strategy to generate or modify flavonoid glucosides in yeast transformants. Up to 10 putative glycoside hydrolases annotated in the S. cerevisiae genome database were overexpressed with His tags in yeast cells. Examination of these recombinant, partially purified polypeptides for hydrolytic activity with synthetic chromogenic ?- or ?-glucosides identified three efficient ?-glucosidases (EXG1, SPR1, and YIR007W), which were further assayed with natural flavonoid ?-glucoside substrates and product verification by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Preferential hydrolysis of 7- or 4?-O-glucosides of isoflavones, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones was observed in vitro with all three glucosidases, while anthocyanins were also accepted as substrates. The glucosidase activities of EXG1 and SPR1 were completely abolished by Val168Tyr mutation, which confirmed the relevance of this residue, as reported for other glucosidases. Most importantly, biotransformation experiments with knockout yeast strains revealed that only EXG1 knockout strains lost the capability to hydrolyze flavonoid glucosides. PMID:21216897

  2. Quantifying separation and similarity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic microbes are key ecosystem drivers; however, we have little theory and few data elucidating the processes influencing their observed population patterns. Here we provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of population separation and similarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of providing a more detailed account of the population processes occurring in microbes. Over 10,000 individual isolates were collected from native plants, vineyards and spontaneous ferments of fruit from six major regions spanning 1000?km across New Zealand. From these, hundreds of S. cerevisiae genotypes were obtained, and using a suite of analytical methods we provide comprehensive quantitative estimates for both population structure and rates of gene flow or migration. No genetic differentiation was detected within geographic regions, even between populations inhabiting native forests and vineyards. We do, however, reveal a picture of national population structure at scales above ?100?km with distinctive populations in the more remote Nelson and Central Otago regions primarily contributing to this. In addition, differential degrees of connectivity between regional populations are observed and correlate with the movement of fruit by the New Zealand wine industry. This suggests some anthropogenic influence on these observed population patterns. PMID:25062126

  3. Mead production: selection and characterization assays of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Andrade, João; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Estevinho, Letícia M

    2009-08-01

    Mead is a traditional drink, which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeasts. However, when it is produced in a homemade way, mead producers find several problems, namely, the lack of uniformity in the final product, delayed and arrested fermentations, and the production of "off-flavours" by the yeasts. These problems are usually associated with the inability of yeast strains to respond and adapt to unfavourable and stressful growth conditions. The main objectives of this work were to evaluate the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from honey of the Trás-os-Montes (Northeast Portugal), to produce mead. Five strains from honey, as well as one laboratory strain and one commercial wine strain, were evaluated in terms of their fermentation performance under ethanol, sulphur dioxide and osmotic stress. All the strains showed similar behaviour in these conditions. Two yeasts strains isolated from honey and the commercial wine strain were further tested for mead production, using two different honey (a dark and a light honey), enriched with two supplements (one commercial and one developed by the research team), as fermentation media. The results obtained in this work show that S. cerevisiae strains isolated from honey, are appropriate for mead production. However it is of extreme importance to take into account the characteristics of the honey, and supplements used in the fermentation medium formulation, in order to achieve the best results in mead production. PMID:19481129

  4. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-01

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

  5. Role of social wasps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ecology and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Calabretta, Antonio; Di Paola, Monica; De Filippo, Carlotta; Viola, Roberto; Capretti, Paolo; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important model organisms and has been a valuable asset to human civilization. However, despite its extensive use in the last 9,000 y, the existence of a seasonal cycle outside human-made environments has not yet been described. We demonstrate the role of social wasps as vector and natural reservoir of S. cerevisiae during all seasons. We provide experimental evidence that queens of social wasps overwintering as adults (Vespa crabro and Polistes spp.) can harbor yeast cells from autumn to spring and transmit them to their progeny. This result is mirrored by field surveys of the genetic variability of natural strains of yeast. Microsatellites and sequences of a selected set of loci able to recapitulate the yeast strain’s evolutionary history were used to compare 17 environmental wasp isolates with a collection of strains from grapes from the same region and more than 230 strains representing worldwide yeast variation. The wasp isolates fall into subclusters representing the overall ecological and industrial yeast diversity of their geographic origin. Our findings indicate that wasps are a key environmental niche for the evolution of natural S. cerevisiae populations, the dispersion of yeast cells in the environment, and the maintenance of their diversity. The close relatedness of several wasp isolates with grape and wine isolates reflects the crucial role of human activities on yeast population structure, through clonal expansion and selection of specific strains during the biotransformation of fermented foods, followed by dispersal mediated by insects and other animals. PMID:22847440

  6. Physiological adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for improved butanol tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butanol is a chemical with potential uses as biofuel and solvent, which can be produced by microbial fermentation. However, the end product toxicity is one of the main obstacles for developing the production process irrespective of the choice of production organism. The long-term goal of the present project is to produce 2-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of solvents such as butanol and understanding the mechanisms by which tolerant strains of S. cerevisiae adapt to them would be an important contribution to the development of a bio-based butanol production process. Results A butanol tolerant S. cerevisiae was achieved through a series of sequential batch cultures with gradual increase of 2-butanol concentration. The final mutant (JBA-mut) tolerates all different alcohols tested at higher concentrations compared to the wild type (JBA-wt). Proteomics analysis of the two strains grown under mild butanol-stress revealed 46 proteins changing their expression by more than 1.5-fold in JBA-mut, 34 of which were upregulated. Strikingly, 21 out of the 34 upregulated proteins were predicted constituents of mitochondria. Among the non-mitochondrial up-regulated proteins, the minor isoform of Glycerol-3-phosphatase (Gpp2) was the most notable, since it was the only tested protein whose overexpression was found to confer butanol tolerance. Conclusion The study demonstrates several differences between the butanol tolerant mutant and the wild type. Upregulation of proteins involved in the mitochondrial ATP synthesizing machinery constituents and glycerol biosynthesis seem to be beneficial for a successful adaptation of yeast cells to butanol stress. PMID:23855998

  7. Exploring the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Volatile Metabolome: Indigenous versus Commercial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Zélia; Melo, André; Figueiredo, Ana Raquel; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Gomes, Ana C.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Winemaking is a highly industrialized process and a number of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used around the world, neglecting the diversity of native yeast strains that are responsible for the production of wines peculiar flavours. The aim of this study was to in-depth establish the S. cerevisiae volatile metabolome and to assess inter-strains variability. To fulfill this objective, two indigenous strains (BT2652 and BT2453 isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes collected in Bairrada Appellation, Portugal) and two commercial strains (CSc1 and CSc2) S. cerevisiae were analysed using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS) tandem with multivariate analysis. A total of 257 volatile metabolites were identified, distributed over the chemical families of acetals, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenic compounds, esters, ethers, furan-type compounds, hydrocarbons, pyrans, pyrazines and S-compounds. Some of these families are related with metabolic pathways of amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism as well as mono and sesquiterpenic biosynthesis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used with a dataset comprising all variables (257 volatile components), and a distinction was observed between commercial and indigenous strains, which suggests inter-strains variability. In a second step, a subset containing esters and terpenic compounds (C10 and C15), metabolites of particular relevance to wine aroma, was also analysed using PCA. The terpenic and ester profiles express the strains variability and their potential contribution to the wine aromas, specially the BT2453, which produced the higher terpenic content. This research contributes to understand the metabolic diversity of indigenous wine microflora versus commercial strains and achieved knowledge that may be further exploited to produce wines with peculiar aroma properties. PMID:26600152

  8. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  9. Three Cell Wall Mannoproteins Facilitate the Uptake of Iron in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    associated with the cell wall and periplasmic space. Although iron is an essential nutrient for virtuallyThree Cell Wall Mannoproteins Facilitate the Uptake of Iron in Saccharomyces cerevisiae* Received of iron-regulated gene expression in Saccha- romyces cerevisiae using cDNA microarrays has identi- fied

  10. Structure of the Rad50 Mre11 DNA Repair Complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Electron Microscopy*

    E-print Network

    Erickson, Harold P.

    Structure of the Rad50 Mre11 DNA Repair Complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Electron Microscopy* Received for publication, July 3, 2001 Published, JBC Papers in Press, July 24, 2001, DOI 10- tural analysis of full-length S. cerevisiae Rad50, alone and in a complex with yeast Mre11 by electron

  11. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  12. Utilizing an endogenous pathway for 1-butanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Upon introduction of a single gene deletion adh1, S. cerevisiae was able to accumulate by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Microbial cell factory, which offers sustainable the focus of recent efforts (Peralta-Yahya et al., 2012). Two metabolic routes have been explored to produce

  13. Outcrossing, mitotic recombination, and life-history trade-offs shape genome evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Magwene, Paul M; Kay?kç?, Ömür; Granek, Joshua A; Reininga, Jennifer M; Scholl, Zackary; Murray, Debra

    2011-02-01

    We carried out a population genomic survey of Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid isolates and find that many budding yeast strains have high levels of genomic heterozygosity, much of which is likely due to outcrossing. We demonstrate that variation in heterozygosity among strains is correlated with a life-history trade-off that involves how readily yeast switch from asexual to sexual reproduction under nutrient stress. This trade-off is reflected in a negative relationship between sporulation efficiency and pseudohyphal development and correlates with variation in the expression of RME1, a transcription factor with pleiotropic effects on meiosis and filamentous growth. Selection for alternate life-history strategies in natural versus human-associated environments likely contributes to differential maintenance of genomic heterozygosity through its effect on the frequency that yeast lineages experience sexual cycles and hence the opportunity for inbreeding. In addition to elevated levels of heterozygosity, many strains exhibit large genomic regions of loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH), suggesting that mitotic recombination has a significant impact on genetic variation in this species. This study provides new insights into the roles that both outcrossing and mitotic recombination play in shaping the genome architecture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study also provides a unique case where stark differences in the genomic distribution of genetic variation among individuals of the same species can be largely explained by a life-history trade-off. PMID:21245305

  14. Functional survey for heterologous sugar transport proteins, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host.

    PubMed

    Young, Eric; Poucher, Ashley; Comer, Austin; Bailey, Alexandra; Alper, Hal

    2011-05-01

    Molecular transport is a key process in cellular metabolism. This step is often limiting when using a nonnative carbon source, as exemplified by xylose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a step toward addressing this limitation, this study seeks to characterize monosaccharide transport preference and efficiency. A group of 26 known and putative monosaccharide transport proteins was expressed in a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae host unable to transport several monosaccharides. A growth-based assay was used to detect transport capacity across six different carbon sources (glucose, xylose, galactose, fructose, mannose, and ribose). A mixed glucose-and-xylose cofermentation was performed to determine substrate preference. These experiments identified 10 transporter proteins that function as transporters of one or more of these sugars. Most of these proteins exhibited broad substrate ranges, and glucose was preferred in all cases. The broadest transporters confer the highest growth rates and strongly prefer glucose. This study reports the first molecular characterization of the annotated XUT genes of Scheffersomyces stipitis and open reading frames from the yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Debaryomyces hansenii. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that transporter function clusters into three distinct groups. One particular group comprised of D. hansenii XylHP and S. stipitis XUT1 and XUT3 demonstrated moderate transport efficiency and higher xylose preferences. PMID:21421781

  15. Functional Survey for Heterologous Sugar Transport Proteins, Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Host?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eric; Poucher, Ashley; Comer, Austin; Bailey, Alexandra; Alper, Hal

    2011-01-01

    Molecular transport is a key process in cellular metabolism. This step is often limiting when using a nonnative carbon source, as exemplified by xylose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a step toward addressing this limitation, this study seeks to characterize monosaccharide transport preference and efficiency. A group of 26 known and putative monosaccharide transport proteins was expressed in a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae host unable to transport several monosaccharides. A growth-based assay was used to detect transport capacity across six different carbon sources (glucose, xylose, galactose, fructose, mannose, and ribose). A mixed glucose-and-xylose cofermentation was performed to determine substrate preference. These experiments identified 10 transporter proteins that function as transporters of one or more of these sugars. Most of these proteins exhibited broad substrate ranges, and glucose was preferred in all cases. The broadest transporters confer the highest growth rates and strongly prefer glucose. This study reports the first molecular characterization of the annotated XUT genes of Scheffersomyces stipitis and open reading frames from the yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Debaryomyces hansenii. Finally, a phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that transporter function clusters into three distinct groups. One particular group comprised of D. hansenii XylHP and S. stipitis XUT1 and XUT3 demonstrated moderate transport efficiency and higher xylose preferences. PMID:21421781

  16. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases, the transcription activation function of Met4 is prevented by Met30p, which binds to the Met4 inhibitory region. In addition to the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex, transcriptional regulation involves two zinc finger-containing proteins, Met31p and Met32p. The AdoMet-mediated control of the sulfur amino acid pathway illustrates the molecular strategies used by eucaryotic cells to couple gene expression to metabolic changes. PMID:9409150

  17. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

  18. Regulation of allantoate transport in wild-type and mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, V T; Lea, H Z; Rai, R; Cooper, T G

    1987-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular allantoin and allantoate is mediated by two distinct active transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Allantoin transport (DAL4 gene) is inducible, while allantoate uptake is constitutive (it occurs at full levels in the absence of any allantoate-related compounds from the culture medium). Both systems appear to be sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression, feedback inhibition, and trans-inhibition. Mutants (dal5) that lack allantoate transport have been isolated. These strains also exhibit a 60% loss of allantoin transport capability. Conversely, dal4 mutants previously described are unable to transport allantoin and exhibit a 50% loss of allantoate transport. We interpret the pleiotropic behavior of the dal4 and dal5 mutations as deriving from a functional interaction between elements of the two transport systems. PMID:3549700

  19. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation. PMID:25248867

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the effects of location and number of stress response elements on gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Furusawa, Chikara; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    We analyzed the effects of the location and number of stress response elements (STREs) on gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes containing STRE between 51 and 300 bp upstream from translational start codon tended to be up-regulated and genes with multiple STREs exhibited higher up-regulation under stress conditions. PMID:19111649

  1. Early meiotic transcripts are highly unstable in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Surosky, R T; Esposito, R E

    1992-01-01

    Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the induction of a large number of genes whose mRNAs accumulate at specific times during meiotic development. This study addresses the role of mRNA stability in the regulation of meiosis-specific gene expression. Evidence is provided below demonstrating that the levels of meiotic mRNAs are exquisitely regulated by both transcriptional control and RNA turnover. The data show that (i) early meiotic transcripts are extremely unstable when expressed during either vegetative growth or sporulation, and (ii) transcriptional induction, rather than RNA turnover, is the predominant mechanism responsible for meiosis-specific transcript accumulation. When genes encoding the early meiotic mRNAs are fused to other promoters and expressed during vegetative growth, their mRNA half-lives, of under 3 min, are among the shortest known in S. cerevisiae. Since these mRNAs are only twofold more stable when expressed during sporulation, we conclude that developmental regulation of mRNA turnover can be eliminated as a major contributor to meiosis-specific mRNA accumulation. The rapid degradation of the early mRNAs at all stages of the yeast life cycle, however, suggests that a specific RNA degradation system operates to maintain very low basal levels of these transcripts during vegetative growth and after their transient transcriptional induction in meiosis. Studies to identify specific cis-acting elements required for the rapid degradation of early meiotic transcripts support this idea. A series of deletion derivatives of one early meiosis-specific gene, SPO13, indicate that its mRNA contains determinants, located within the coding region, which contribute to the high instability of this transcript. Translation is another component of the degradation mechanism since frameshift and nonsense mutations within the SPO13 mRNA stabilize the transcript. Images PMID:1508196

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD2 gene: isolation, subcloning, and partial characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Naumovski, L; Friedberg, E C

    1984-01-01

    A plasmid (pNF2000) containing a 9.7-kilobase pair DNA insert that complements the UV sensitivity of rad2-1, rad2-2, and rad2-4 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated from a yeast genomic library. Genetic analysis of strains derived by transformation of rad2 mutants with an integrating plasmid containing a 9.3-kilobase pair fragment from pNF2000 shows that the fragment integrates exclusively at the chromosomal rad2 gene. We therefore conclude that this plasmid contains the RAD2 gene. The 9.3-kilobase pair fragment was partially digested with Sau3A and cloned into a multicopy yeast vector designed for easy retrieval of Sau3A inserts. The smallest subclone that retains the RAD2 gene is 4.5 kilobase pairs. This fragment was partially digested with Sau3A and cloned into an integrating plasmid. These plasmids were isolated and integrated into a heterozygous rad2/RAD2 strain. Plasmids containing internal fragments of the RAD2 gene were identified because they yielded UV-sensitive transformants due to disruption of the RAD2 gene. Sporulation of diploids transformed with integrating plasmids containing internal fragments of RAD2 gave rise to four viable haploids per tetrad, indicating that unlike the RAD3 gene of S. cerevisiae, the RAD2 gene is not essential for the viability of haploid cells under normal growth conditions. Measurements of the RNA transcript by RNA-DNA hybridization with the internal fragment as the probe indicate a size of approximately 3.2 kilobases. Images PMID:6366519

  3. Metabolomic analysis of acid stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Riyanto Heru; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Acid stress has been reported to inhibit cell growth and decrease productivity during bio-production processes. In this study, a metabolomics approach was conducted to understand the effect of lactic acid induced stress on metabolite pools in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were cultured with lactic acid as the acidulant, with or without initial pH control, i.e., at pH 6 or pH 2.5, respectively. Under conditions of low pH, lactic acid led to a decrease in the intracellular pH and specific growth rate; however, these parameters remained unaltered in the cultures with pH control. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry followed by a statistical principal component analysis was used to identify the metabolites and measure the increased concentrations of ATP, glutathione and proline during severe acid stress. Addition of proline to the acidified cultures improved the specific growth rates. We hypothesized that addition of proline protected the cells from acid stress by combating acid-induced oxidative stress. Lactic acid diffusion into the cell resulted in intracellular acidification, which elicited an oxidative stress response and resulted in increased glutathione levels. PMID:25795572

  4. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  5. Continuous ethanol fermentation using immobilized yeast cells. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, M.; Azuma, M.; Noguchi, S.; Inuzuka, K.; Samejima, H.

    1984-01-01

    Growing cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads were employed in fluidized-bed reactors for continuous ethanol fermentation from cane molasses and other sugar sources. Some improvements were made in order to avoid microbial contamination and keep cell viability for stable long run operations. Notably, entrapment of sterol and unsaturated fatty acid into immobilized gel beads enhanced ethanol productivity more than one-half year. Cell concentration in the carrier was estimated over 250 g dry cell/L gel. A pilot plant with a total column volume of 4kL was constructed and has been operated since 1982. As a result, it was confirmed that 8-10% (v/v) ethanol-containing broth was continuously produced from nonsterilized diluted cane molasses for over one-half year. The productivity of ethanol was calculated as 0.6 kL ethanol/kL reactor volume day with a 95% conversion yield versus the maximum theoretical yield for the case of 8.5% (v/v) ethanol broth.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve 1-hexadecanol production.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of a vast array of surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce 1-hexadecanol by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) from barn owl (Tyto alba). In order to improve fatty alcohol production, we have manipulated both the structural genes and the regulatory genes in yeast lipid metabolism. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) was over-expressed, which improved 1-hexadecanol production by 56% (from 45mg/L to 71mg/L). Knocking out the negative regulator of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, RPD3, further enhanced 1-hexadecanol production by 98% (from 71mg/L to 140mg/L). The cytosolic acetyl-CoA supply was next engineered by expressing a heterologous ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which increased the production of 1-hexadecanol by an additional 136% (from 140mg/L to 330mg/L). Through fed-batch fermentation using resting cells, over 1.1g/L 1-hexadecanol can be produced in glucose minimal medium, which represents the highest titer reported in yeast to date. PMID:25466225

  7. Transcriptional regulatory network shapes the genome structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Songling; Heermann, Dieter W

    2013-01-01

    Among cellular processes gene transcription is central. More and more evidence is mounting that transcription is tightly connected with the spatial organization of the chromosomes. Spatial proximity of genes sharing transcriptional machinery is one of the consequences of this organization. Motivated by information on the physical relationship among genes identified via chromosomal conformation capture methods, we complement the spatial organization with the idea that genes under similar transcription factor control, but possible scattered throughout the genome, might be in physically proximity to facilitate the access of their commonly used transcription factors. Unlike the transcription factory model, "interacting" genes in our "Gene Proximity Model" are not necessarily immediate physical neighbors but are in spatial proximity. Considering the stochastic nature of TF-promoter binding, this local condensation mechanism could serve as a tie to recruit co-regulated genes to guarantee the swiftness of biological reactions. We tested this idea with a simple eukaryotic organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Chromosomal interaction patterns and folding behavior generated by our model re-construct those obtained from experiments. We show that the transcriptional regulatory network has a close linkage with the genome organization in budding yeast, which is fundamental and instrumental to later studies on other more complex eukaryotes. PMID:23674068

  8. Vacuolar Cation/H+ Antiporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Cagnac, Olivier; Aranda-Sicilia, Maria Nieves; Leterrier, Marina; Rodriguez-Rosales, Maria-Pilar; Venema, Kees

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae vnx1? mutant strains displayed an almost total loss of Na+ and K+/H+ antiporter activity in a vacuole-enriched fraction. However, using different in vitro transport conditions, we were able to reveal additional K+/H+ antiporter activity. By disrupting genes encoding transporters potentially involved in the vnx1 mutant strain, we determined that Vcx1p is responsible for this activity. This result was further confirmed by complementation of the vnx1?vcx1? nhx1? triple mutant with Vcx1p and its inactivated mutant Vcx1p-H303A. Like the Ca2+/H+ antiporter activity catalyzed by Vcx1p, the K+/H+ antiporter activity was strongly inhibited by Cd2+ and to a lesser extend by Zn2+. Unlike as previously observed for NHX1 or VNX1, VCX1 overexpression only marginally improved the growth of yeast strain AXT3 in the presence of high concentrations of K+ and had no effect on hygromycin sensitivity. Subcellular localization showed that Vcx1p and Vnx1p are targeted to the vacuolar membrane, whereas Nhx1p is targeted to prevacuoles. The relative importance of Nhx1p, Vnx1p, and Vcx1p in the vacuolar accumulation of monovalent cations will be discussed. PMID:20709757

  9. Structural and Functional Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mob1

    SciTech Connect

    Mrkobrada,S.; Boucher, L.; Tyers, D.; Sicheri, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Mob proteins function as activator subunits for the Dbf2/Dbf20 family of protein kinases. Human and Xenopus Mob1 protein structures corresponding to the most conserved C-terminal core, but lacking the variable N-terminal region, have been reported and provide a framework for understanding the mechanism of Dbf2/Dbf20 regulation. Here, we report the 2.0 {angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mob1 containing both the conserved C-terminal core and the variable N-terminal region. Within the N-terminal region, three novel structural elements are observed; namely, an {alpha}-helix denoted H0, a strand-like element denoted S0 and a short {beta} strand denoted S-1. Helix H0 associates in an intermolecular manner with a second Mob1 molecule to form a Mob1 homodimer. Strand S0 binds to the core domain in an intramolecular manner across a putative Dbf2 binding site mapped by Mob1 temperature-sensitive alleles and NMR binding experiments. In vivo functional analysis demonstrates that Mob1 mutants that target helix H0 or its reciprocal binding site are biologically compromised. The N-terminal region of Mob1 thus contains structural elements that are functionally important.

  10. Oxygen requirements of yeasts. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida tropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, W.; Scheffers, W.A.; Batenburg-Van Der Vegte, W.H.; Van Dijken, J.P. )

    1990-12-01

    Type species of 75 yeast genera were examined for their ability to grow anaerobically in complex and mineral media. To define anaerobic conditions, we added a redox indicator, resazurin, to the media to determine low redox potentials. All strains tested were capable of fermenting glucose to ethanol in oxygen-limited shake-flask cultures, even those of species generally regarded as nonfermentative. However, only 23% of the yeast species tested grew under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study with a number of selected strains revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae stands out as a yeast capable of rapid growth at low redox potentials. Other yeasts, such as Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida tropicalis, grew poorly ({mu}{sub max}, 0.03 and 0.05 h{sup {minus}1}, respectively) under anaerobic conditions in mineral medium supplemented with Tween 80 and ergosterol. The latter organisms grew rapidly under oxygen limitation and then displayed a high rate of alcoholic fermentation. It can be concluded that these yeasts have hitherto-unidentified oxygen requirements for growth.

  11. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  12. Systematic Identification of Balanced Transposition Polymorphisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Faddah, Dina A.; Ganko, Eric W.; McCoach, Caroline; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Hanlon, Sean E.; Mann, Frederick G.; Mieczkowska, Joanna O.; Jones, Corbin D.; Lieb, Jason D.; Vision, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput techniques for detecting DNA polymorphisms generally do not identify changes in which the genomic position of a sequence, but not its copy number, varies among individuals. To explore such balanced structural polymorphisms, we used array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) to conduct a genome-wide screen for single-copy genomic segments that occupy different genomic positions in the standard laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S90) and a polymorphic wild isolate (Y101) through analysis of six tetrads from a cross of these two strains. Paired-end high-throughput sequencing of Y101 validated four of the predicted rearrangements. The transposed segments contained one to four annotated genes each, yet crosses between S90 and Y101 yielded mostly viable tetrads. The longest segment comprised 13.5 kb near the telomere of chromosome XV in the S288C reference strain and Southern blotting confirmed its predicted location on chromosome IX in Y101. Interestingly, inter-locus crossover events between copies of this segment occurred at a detectable rate. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences at the junctions of this segment suggests that it may have arisen through ectopic recombination. Our methodology and findings provide a starting point for exploring the origins, phenotypic consequences, and evolutionary fate of this largely unexplored form of genomic polymorphism. PMID:19503594

  13. MAP Kinase Pathways in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, Michael C.; Albertyn, Jacobus; Alexander, Matthew; Davenport, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area. PMID:9841672

  14. Nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1983-05-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, a basic study of the nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation was carried out to provide fundamental and practical bases for design of fermentation media and culture conditions. The requirements for all active medium components need to be determined in order to establish balanced media, which are important to reduce raw materials costs and to minimize inhibition from buildup of excess feed components in recycle processes with selective ethanol removal. Pulse injection of nutrients into continuous cultures was an effective method for screening active nutrients. In a systematic sensitivity analysis the effect of feed concentration of these individual nutrients was then determined and allowed formulation of media optimal with respect to the major fermentation parameters. Biotin, pantothenate, myo-inositol, potassium and phosphates appeared to stimulate growth preferentially to ethanol production. In contrast, thiamine and pyridoxine appeared to enhance specific ethanol productivity. The effect of ammonium sulfate depended on concentration. A conceptual model was proposed to relate the effects of these nutrients to biochemical pathways and functions. With these data and model the minimum cost combination of raw materials to achieve a medium of well defined components can be determined with a linear program. This computer program shows that many growth factors and minerals can be added to media more economically as pure components than as fractions of complex factors. 225 references, 61 figures, 54 tables.

  15. Nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.

    1983-01-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, a basic study of the nutritional and environmental factors in ethanol fermentation was carried out to provide fundamental and practical bases for design of fermentation media and culture conditions. The requirements for all active medium components need to be determined in order to establish balanced media, which are important to reduce raw materials costs and to minimize inhibition from build-up of excess feed components in recycle processes with selective ethanol removal. The effect of feed concentration of individual nutrients was determined and allowed formulation of media optimal with respect to the major fermentation parameters. Biotin, pantothenate, myoinositol, potassium, and phosphates appeared to stimulate growth preferentially to ethanol production. Thiamine and pyridoxine appeared to have the opposite effect. A conceptual model was proposed to relate the effects of these nutrients to biochemical pathways and functions. The minimum cost combination of raw materials to achieve a medium of well defined components can be determined with a linear program. The effect of dissolved oxygen was studied from essentially zero to 346 mm Hg oxygen tension, showing a continuous decline in specific ethanol productivity with increasing oxygen over this range. Long term continuous cultures resulted in decreased media requirements for growth factors and increased tolerance for ethanol inhibition, most probably through adaptation. An ethanol productivity of 5.6 g/l-hr in continuous culture was achieved with a completely synthetic medium with the improved culture.

  16. D-xylulose fermentation to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Gong, C.S.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-08-01

    Commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used to study the conversion of D-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of D-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for D-xylulose fermentation was 35 degrees Celcius, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of D-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of D-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of 4% or more. The slow conversion rate of D-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from D-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield. (Refs. 21).

  17. A quantitative assay for telomere protection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Michelle L; Haimberger, Zara W; McIntosh, Martin W; Gottschling, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    Telomeres are the protective ends of linear chromosomes. Telomeric components have been identified and described by their abilities to bind telomeric DNA, affect telomere repeat length, participate in telomeric DNA replication, or modulate transcriptional silencing of telomere-adjacent genes; however, their roles in chromosome end protection are not as well defined. We have developed a genetic, quantitative assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure whether various telomeric components protect chromosome ends from homologous recombination. This "chromosomal cap" assay has revealed that the telomeric end-binding proteins, Cdc13p and Ku, both protect the chromosome end from homologous recombination, as does the ATM-related kinase, Tel1p. We propose that Cdc13p and Ku structurally inhibit recombination at telomeres and that Tel1p regulates the chromosomal cap, acting through Cdc13p. Analysis with recombination mutants indicated that telomeric homologous recombination events proceeded by different mechanisms, depending on which capping component was compromised. Furthermore, we found that neither telomere repeat length nor telomeric silencing correlated with chromosomal capping efficiency. This capping assay provides a sensitive in vivo approach for identifying the components of chromosome ends and the mechanisms by which they are protected. PMID:12136006

  18. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  19. Nanofiltration concentration of extracellular glutathione produced by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize extracellular glutathione production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain and to concentrate the extracellular glutathione by membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). Synthetic defined (SD) medium containing 20 g L(-1) glucose was fermented for 48 h; the fermentation liquid was passed through an UF membrane to remove macromolecules. Glutathione in this permeate was concentrated for 48 h to 545.1 ± 33.6 mg L(-1) using the NF membrane; this was a significantly higher concentration than that obtained with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium following 96 h NF concentration (217.9 ± 57.4 mg L(-1)). This higher glutathione concentration results from lower cellular growth in SD medium (final OD600 = 6.9 ± 0.1) than in YPD medium (final OD600 = 11.0 ± 0.6) and thus higher production of extracellular glutathione (16.0 ± 1.3 compared to 9.2 ± 2.1 mg L(-1) in YPD medium, respectively). Similar fermentation and membrane processing of sweet sorghum juice containing 20 g L(-1) total sugars provided 240.3 ± 60.6 mg L(-1) glutathione. Increased extracellular production of glutathione by this engineered strain in SD medium and subsequent UF permeation and NF concentration in shortend time may help realize industrial recovery of extracellular glutathione. PMID:26105794

  20. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans. PMID:24970458

  1. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion.

    PubMed

    Carman, George M; Han, Gil-Soo

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis of phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by zinc, an essential mineral required for growth and metabolism. Cells depleted of zinc contain increased levels of phosphatidylinositol and decreased levels of phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition to the major phospholipids, the levels of the minor phospholipids phosphatidate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate decrease in the vacuole membrane of zinc-depleted cells. Alterations in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine can be ascribed to an increase in PIS1-encoded phosphatidylinositol synthase activity and to decreases in the activities of CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes including the CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase, respectively. Alterations in the minor vacuole membrane phospholipids are due to the induction of the DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase. These changes in the activities of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes result from differential regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription. Under zinc-deplete conditions, the positive transcription factor Zap1p stimulates the expression of the DPP1 and PIS1 genes through the cis-acting element UAS(ZRE). In contrast, the negative regulatory protein Opi1p, which is involved in inositol-mediated regulation of phospholipid synthesis, represses the expression of the CHO1 gene through the cis-acting element UAS(INO). Regulation of phospholipid synthesis may provide an important mechanism by which cells cope with the stress of zinc depletion, given the roles that phospholipids play in the structure and function of cellular membranes. PMID:16807089

  2. Reversal of PCNA Ubiquitylation by Ubp10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Sánchez, Alfonso; Andrés, Sonia; Conde, Francisco; San-Segundo, Pedro A.; Bueno, Avelino

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of PCNA ubiquitylation plays a key role in the tolerance to DNA damage in eukaryotes. Although the evolutionary conserved mechanism of PCNA ubiquitylation is well understood, the deubiquitylation of ubPCNA remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that the histone H2BK123 ubiquitin protease Ubp10 also deubiquitylates ubPCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results sustain that Ubp10-dependent deubiquitylation of the sliding clamp PCNA normally takes place during S phase, likely in response to the simple presence of ubPCNA. In agreement with this, we show that Ubp10 forms a complex with PCNA in vivo. Interestingly, we also show that deletion of UBP10 alters in different ways the interaction of PCNA with DNA polymerase ?–associated protein Rev1 and with accessory subunit Rev7. While deletion of UBP10 enhances PCNA–Rev1 interaction, it decreases significantly Rev7 binding to the sliding clamp. Finally, we report that Ubp10 counteracts Rad18 E3-ubiquitin ligase activity on PCNA at lysine 164 in such a manner that deregulation of Ubp10 expression causes tolerance impairment and MMS hypersensitivity. PMID:22829782

  3. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions. PMID:26721276

  4. Electroinduced release of recombinant ?-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ganeva, Valentina; Stefanova, Debora; Angelova, Boyana; Galutzov, Bojidar; Velasco, Isabel; Arévalo-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2015-10-10

    Yeasts are one of the most commonly used systems for recombinant protein production. When the protein is intracelullarly expressed the first step comprises a cell lysis, achieved usually by a mechanical disintegration. This leads to non-selective liberation of the cytoplasmic content, which complicates the following downstream process. Here, we present a new approach suitable for more selective and efficient recovery of large intracellular proteins from yeast, based on the combination of electropermeabilisation and subsequent treatment with lytic enzyme. The experiments were performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing LYTAG-?-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The permeabilzation of plasma membrane was induced by application of rectangular electric pulses, with 1.25ms duration and field intensity of 4.3-5.4kV/cm. In the presence of a reducing agent the cells released approximately 80% of the total protein 4h after electrical treatment. At the same conditions the release of the recombinant protein was very slow, reaching 45% from total activity 20h after pulse application. The great difference in the release kinetics enabled to remove a part of the total protein, without significant loss of ?-galactosidase activity, only by substituting the incubation buffer. The subsequent addition of lyticase (1-2U/ml) led to recovery of approximately 70% from the recombinant enzyme, with a factor of purification 2.6, without provoking a significant cell lysis. The applicability of similar protocol for liberation of large recombinant and native proteins from yeast is discussed. PMID:26142064

  5. Isolation of Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Requiring DNA Topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Sadoff, B. U.; Heath-Pagliuso, S.; Castano, I. B.; Zhu, Y.; Kieff, F. S.; Christman, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    Despite evidence that DNA topoisomerase I is required to relieve torsional stress during DNA replication and transcription, yeast strains with a top1 null mutation are viable and display no gross defects in DNA or RNA synthesis, possibly because other proteins provide overlapping functions. We isolated mutants whose inviability or growth defect is relieved when TOP1 is expressed [trfmutants (topoisomerase one-requiring function)]. The TRF genes define at least four complementation groups. TRF3 is allelic to TOP2. TRF1 is allelic to HPR1, previously shown to be homologous to TOP1 over two short regions. TRF4 encodes a novel 584-amino acid protein with homology to the N-terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae topo I. Like top1 mutants, trf4 mutants have elevated rDNA recombination and fail to shut off RNA polymerase II transcription in stationary phase. trf4 null mutants are cs for viability, display reduced expression of GALI and Cell Cycle Box UAS::LacZ fusions, and are inviable in combination with trfI null mutants, indicating that both proteins may share a common function with DNA topoisomerase I. The existence of multiple TRF complementation groups suggests that not all biological functions of topo I can be carried out by topo II. PMID:8647385

  6. CEP3 encodes a centromere protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have designed a screen to identify mutants specifically affecting kinetochore function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The selection procedure was based on the generation of "synthetic acentric" minichromosomes. "Synthetic acentric" minichromosomes contain a centromere locus, but lack centromere activity due to combination of mutations in centromere DNA and in a chromosomal gene (CEP) encoding a putative centromere protein. Ten conditional lethal cep mutants were isolated, seven were found to be alleles of NDC10 (CEP2) encoding the 110-kD protein of yeast kinetochore. Three mutants defined a novel essential gene CEP3. The CEP3 product (Cep3p) is a 71-kD protein with a potential DNA-binding domain (binuclear Zn-cluster). At nonpermissive temperature the cep3 cells arrest with an undivided nucleus and a short mitotic spindle. At permissive temperature the cep3 cells are unable to support segregation of minichromosomes with mutations in the central part of element III of yeast centromere DNA. These minichromosomes, when isolated from cep3 cultures, fail to bind bovine microtubules in vitro. The sum of genetic, cytological and biochemical data lead us to suggest that the Cep3 protein is a DNA-binding component of yeast centromere. Molecular mass and sequence comparison confirm that Cep3p is the p64 component of centromere DNA binding complex Cbf3 (Lechner, 1994). PMID:7876302

  7. Genetic Analysis of Default Mating Behavior in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, R.; Boone, C.; Kimbrough, T.; Kim, J.; Hartwell, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    Haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells find each other during conjugation by orienting their growth toward each other along pheromone gradients (chemotropism). However, when their receptors are saturated for pheromone binding, yeast cells must select a mate by executing a default pathway in which they choose a mating partner at random. We previously demonstrated that this default pathway requires the SPA2 gene. In this report we show that the default mating pathway also requires the AXL1, FUS1, FUS2, FUS3, PEA2, RVS161, and BNI1 genes. These genes, including SPA2, are also important for efficient cell fusion during chemotropic mating. Cells containing null mutations in these genes display defects in cell fusion that subtly affect mating efficiency. In addition, we found that the defect in default mating caused by mutations in SPA2 is partially suppressed by multiple copies of two genes, FUS2 and MFA2. These findings uncover a molecular relationship between default mating and cell fusion. Moreover, because axl1 mutants secrete reduced levels of a-factor and are defective at both cell fusion and default mating, these results reveal an important role for a-factor in cell fusion and default mating. We suggest that default mating places a more stringent requirement on some aspects of cell fusion than does chemotropic mating. PMID:9135999

  8. Assembly of evolved ligninolytic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, David; Alcalde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The ligninolytic enzymatic consortium produced by white-rot fungi is one of the most efficient oxidative systems found in nature, with many potential applications that range from the production of 2nd generation biofuels to chemicals synthesis. In the current study, two high redox potential oxidoreductase fusion genes (laccase -Lac- and versatile peroxidase -Vp-) that had been evolved in the laboratory were re-assembled in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, cell viability and secretion were assessed after co-transforming the Lac and Vp genes into yeast. Several expression cassettes were inserted in vivo into episomal bi-directional vectors in order to evaluate inducible promoter and/or terminator pairs of different strengths in an individual and combined manner. The synthetic white-rot yeast model harboring Vp(GAL1/CYC1)-Lac(GAL10/ADH1) displayed up to 1000 and 100 Units per L of peroxidase and laccase activity, respectively, representing a suitable point of departure for future synthetic biology studies. PMID:24830983

  9. Isolation and characterization of aminopeptidase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Trumbly, R J; Bradley, G

    1983-01-01

    Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated which have decreased ability to hydrolyze leucine beta-naphthylamide, a chromogenic substrate for amino-peptidases. The mutations were shown by starch gel electrophoresis to affect one of four different aminopeptidases. Mutations affecting a given enzyme belong to a single complementation group. The four genes were symbolized lap1, lap2, lap3, and lap4, and the corresponding enzymes LAPI, LAPII, LAPIII, and LAPIV. Both lap1 and lap4 were mapped to the left arm of chromosome XI, and lap3 was mapped to the left arm of chromosome XIV. Strains which possessed only one of the four leucine aminopeptidases (LAPs) were constructed. Crude extracts from these strains were used to study the properties of the individual enzymes. Dialysis against EDTA greatly reduced the activity of all the LAPs except for LAPIII. Of the cations tested, Co2+ was the most effective in restoring activity. LAPIV was the only LAP reactivated by Zn2+. LAPI was purified 331-fold and LAPII was purified 126-fold from cell homogenates. Both of the purified enzymes had strong activity on dipeptides and tripeptides. The activity levels of the LAPs are strongly dependent on growth stage in batch culture, with the highest levels in early-stationary phase. Strains lacking all four LAPs have slightly lower growth rates than wild-type strains. The ability of leucine auxotrophs to grow on dipeptides and tripeptides containing leucine is not impaired in strains lacking all four LAPs. Images PMID:6352682

  10. Regulation of repressible acid phosphatase gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, J M; Willcocks, T; Halvorson, H O; Bostian, K A

    1985-01-01

    We examined the genetic system responsible for transcriptional regulation of repressible acid phosphatase (APase; orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase [acid optimum, EC 3.1.3.2]) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the molecular level by analysis of previously isolated and genetically well-defined regulatory gene mutants known to affect APase expression. These mutants identify numerous positive- (PHO4, PHO2, PHO81) and negative-acting (PHO80, PHO85) regulatory loci dispersed throughout the yeast genome. We showed that the interplay of these positive and negative regulatory genes occurs before or during APase gene transcription and that their functions are all indispensible for normal regulation of mRNA synthesis. Biochemical evidence suggests that the regulatory gene products they encode are expressed constitutively. More detailed investigation of APase synthesis is a conditional PHO80(Ts) mutant indicated that neither PHO4 nor any other protein factor necessary for APase mRNA synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by PHO80. Moreover, in the absence of PHO80, the corepressor, presumed to be a metabolite of Pi, did not inhibit their function in the transcriptional activation of APase. Images PMID:3915785

  11. MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

  12. Nutrient sensing and signaling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Michaela; Schothorst, Joep; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a favorite organism for pioneering studies on nutrient-sensing and signaling mechanisms. Many specific nutrient responses have been elucidated in great detail. This has led to important new concepts and insight into nutrient-controlled cellular regulation. Major highlights include the central role of the Snf1 protein kinase in the glucose repression pathway, galactose induction, the discovery of a G-protein-coupled receptor system, and role of Ras in glucose-induced cAMP signaling, the role of the protein synthesis initiation machinery in general control of nitrogen metabolism, the cyclin-controlled protein kinase Pho85 in phosphate regulation, nitrogen catabolite repression and the nitrogen-sensing target of rapamycin pathway, and the discovery of transporter-like proteins acting as nutrient sensors. In addition, a number of cellular targets, like carbohydrate stores, stress tolerance, and ribosomal gene expression, are controlled by the presence of multiple nutrients. The protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in this general nutrient response. It has led to the discovery of nutrient transceptors (transporter receptors) as nutrient sensors. Major shortcomings in our knowledge are the relationship between rapid and steady-state nutrient signaling, the role of metabolic intermediates in intracellular nutrient sensing, and the identity of the nutrient sensors controlling cellular growth. PMID:24483210

  13. Protein disorder reduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Vicedo, Esmeralda; Gasik, Zofia; Dong, Yu-An; Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to “ postdict ” the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack. PMID:26673203

  14. Sulfate Assimilation Mediates Tellurite Reduction and Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?†

    PubMed Central

    Ottosson, Lars-Göran; Logg, Katarina; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Sunnerhagen, Per; Käll, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Despite a century of research and increasing environmental and human health concerns, the mechanistic basis of the toxicity of derivatives of the metalloid tellurium, Te, in particular the oxyanion tellurite, Te(IV), remains unsolved. Here, we provide an unbiased view of the mechanisms of tellurium metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring deviations in Te-related traits of a complete collection of gene knockout mutants. Reduction of Te(IV) and intracellular accumulation as metallic tellurium strongly correlated with loss of cellular fitness, suggesting that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity are causally linked. The sulfate assimilation pathway upstream of Met17, in particular, the sulfite reductase and its cofactor siroheme, was shown to be central to tellurite toxicity and its reduction to elemental tellurium. Gene knockout mutants with altered Te(IV) tolerance also showed a similar deviation in tolerance to both selenite and, interestingly, selenomethionine, suggesting that the toxicity of these agents stems from a common mechanism. We also show that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity in yeast is partially mediated via a mitochondrial respiratory mechanism that does not encompass the generation of substantial oxidative stress. The results reported here represent a robust base from which to attack the mechanistic details of Te(IV) toxicity and reduction in a eukaryotic organism. PMID:20675578

  15. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20?opi3? (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1?dpl1?eki1? (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  16. Towards a genome-wide transcriptogram: the Saccharomyces cerevisiae case

    PubMed Central

    Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Castro, Mauro A. A.; Dalmolin, Rodrigo J. S.; Moreira, José C. F.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of genome-wide expression data poses a challenge to extract relevant information. The usual approaches compare cellular expression levels relative to a pre-established control and genes are clustered based on the correlation of their expression levels. This implies that cluster definitions are dependent on the cellular metabolic state, eventually varying from one experiment to another. We present here a computational method that order genes on a line and clusters genes by the probability that their products interact. Protein–protein association information can be obtained from large data bases as STRING. The genome organization obtained this way is independent from specific experiments, and defines functional modules that are associated with gene ontology terms. The starting point is a gene list and a matrix specifying interactions. Considering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, we projected on the ordering gene expression data, producing plots of transcription levels for two different experiments, whose data are available at Gene Expression Omnibus database. These plots discriminate metabolic cellular states, point to additional conclusions, and may be regarded as the first versions of ‘transcriptograms’. This method is useful for extracting information from cell stimuli/responses experiments, and may be applied with diagnostic purposes to different organisms. PMID:21169199

  17. Cell, Vol. 117, 4756, April 2, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer3 Helicase Stimulates

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Cell, Vol. 117, 47­56, April 2, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer3 of genes including ZIP1, ZIP2,tion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MER3 gene is ZIP3, MSH4, MSH5, MLH1, MLH3, EXO1, and MER3known to affect selectively crossover, but not non- are specifically required

  18. Evaluation of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as the chassis cell for second-generation bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxing; Wu, Meiling; Xu, Lili; Hou, Jin; Guo, Ting; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To develop a suitable Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strain as a chassis cell for ethanol production using lignocellulosic materials, 32 wild-type strains were evaluated for their glucose fermenting ability, their tolerance to the stresses they might encounter in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation and their genetic background for pentose metabolism. The strain BSIF, isolated from tropical fruit in Thailand, was selected out of the distinctly different strains studied for its promising characteristics. The maximal specific growth rate of BSIF was as high as 0.65?h(-1) in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium, and the ethanol yield was 0.45?g?g(-1) consumed glucose. Furthermore, compared with other strains, this strain exhibited superior tolerance to high temperature, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress; better growth performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysate; and better xylose utilization capacity when an initial xylose metabolic pathway was introduced. All of these results indicate that this strain is an excellent chassis strain for lignocellulosic ethanol production. PMID:25616171

  19. Asparaginase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: positive selection of two mutations that prevent enzyme synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, K W; Roon, R J

    1984-03-01

    A positive selection method, D-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate resistance, was used to isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking the ability to synthesize asparaginase II. Of 100 such mutant strains, 93 exhibited mutations which were allelic with asp3, a previously characterized mutation. The other seven strains carried a new mutation, asp6. The asp6 mutation segregated 2:2 in asp6 X wild-type crosses and assorted from the asp3 mutation in asp6 X asp3 crosses. All seven asp6 mutant isolates reverted at a relatively high frequency, whereas the asp3 mutant isolates did not revert under the same conditions. Various independent asp3 isolates were mated to give heteroallelic diploids, which when sporulated and spread on D-asparagine medium yielded no recombinant strains. PMID:6365897

  20. Physical, functional and structural characterization of the cell wall fractions from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem; Paquot, Michel; Thonart, Philippe; Blecker, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important source of ?-d-glucan, a glucose homopolymer with many functional, nutritional and human health benefits. In the present study, the yeast cell wall fractionation process involving enzymatic treatments (savinase and lipolase enzymes) affected most of the physical and functional characteristics of extracted fractions. Thus, the fractionation process showed that ?-d-glucan fraction F4 had significantly higher swelling power and fat binding capacity compared to other fractions (F1, F2 and F3). It also exhibited a viscosity of 652.12mPas and a high degree of brightness of extracted ?-d-glucan fraction. Moreover, the fractionation process seemed to have an effect on structural and thermal properties of extracted fractions. Overall, results showed that yeast ?-d-glucan had good potential for use as a prebiotic ingredient in food, as well as medicinal and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26471666

  1. Involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hydrolase Ldh1p in Lipid Homeostasis?

    PubMed Central

    Debelyy, Mykhaylo O.; Thoms, Sven; Connerth, Melanie; Daum, Günther; Erdmann, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report the functional characterization of the newly identified lipid droplet hydrolase Ldh1p. Recombinant Ldh1p exhibits esterase and triacylglycerol lipase activities. Mutation of the serine in the hydrolase/lipase motif GXSXG completely abolished esterase activity. Ldh1p is required for the maintenance of a steady-state level of the nonpolar and polar lipids of lipid droplets. A characteristic feature of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?ldh1 strain is the appearance of giant lipid droplets and an excessive accumulation of nonpolar lipids and phospholipids upon growth on medium containing oleic acid as a sole carbon source. Ldh1p is thought to play a role in maintaining the lipid homeostasis in yeast by regulating both phospholipid and nonpolar lipid levels. PMID:21478434

  2. Evaluation of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as the chassis cell for second-generation bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxing; Wu, Meiling; Xu, Lili; Hou, Jin; Guo, Ting; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To develop a suitable Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strain as a chassis cell for ethanol production using lignocellulosic materials, 32 wild-type strains were evaluated for their glucose fermenting ability, their tolerance to the stresses they might encounter in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation and their genetic background for pentose metabolism. The strain BSIF, isolated from tropical fruit in Thailand, was selected out of the distinctly different strains studied for its promising characteristics. The maximal specific growth rate of BSIF was as high as 0.65?h?1 in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium, and the ethanol yield was 0.45?g?g?1 consumed glucose. Furthermore, compared with other strains, this strain exhibited superior tolerance to high temperature, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress; better growth performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysate; and better xylose utilization capacity when an initial xylose metabolic pathway was introduced. All of these results indicate that this strain is an excellent chassis strain for lignocellulosic ethanol production. PMID:25616171

  3. L-carnosine affects the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a metabolism-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Hipkiss, Alan R

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10-30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. PMID:22984600

  4. Idebenone treatment mediates the effect of menadione oxidative stress damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gamondi, Oliver; Chapela, Sebastián; Nievas, Inés; Burgos, Isabel; Alonso, Manuel; Stella, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the damage caused by oxidative stress using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model biological system. After inducing oxidative stress with menadione, we were able to evaluate the extent of cellular oxidative stress by utilizing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as a marker of the presence of reactive oxygen species. Cells were grown on different carbon sources in order to compare fermentative and oxidative metabolism. Under these conditions we evaluated the effectiveness of idebenone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(10- hydroxydecyl)-1,4-benzoquinone) as a molecule that could relieve menadione-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:22974201

  5. Rapid identification and enumeration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in wine by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Martorell, P; Querol, A; Fernández-Espinar, M T

    2005-11-01

    Despite the beneficial role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the food industry for food and beverage production, it is able to cause spoilage in wines. We have developed a real-time PCR method to directly detect and quantify this yeast species in wine samples to provide winemakers with a rapid and sensitive method to detect and prevent wine spoilage. Specific primers were designed for S. cerevisiae using the sequence information obtained from a cloned random amplified polymorphic DNA band that differentiated S. cerevisiae from its sibling species Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. The specificity of the primers was demonstrated for typical wine spoilage yeast species. The method was useful for estimating the level of S. cerevisiae directly in sweet wines and red wines without preenrichment when yeast is present in concentrations as low as 3.8 and 5 CFU per ml. This detection limit is in the same order as that obtained from glucose-peptone-yeast growth medium (GPY). Moreover, it was possible to quantify S. cerevisiae in artificially contaminated samples accurately. Limits for accurate quantification in wine were established, from 3.8 x 10(5) to 3.8 CFU/ml in sweet wine and from 5 x 10(6) to 50 CFU/ml in red wine. PMID:16269715

  6. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea that wine making strains have been domesticated for wine production. In this study, we demonstrate that humans can distinguish between wines produced using wine strains and wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as its sibling species, Saccharomyces paradoxus. Wine strains produced wine with fruity and floral characteristics, whereas wild strains produced wine with earthy and sulfurous characteristics. The differences that we observe between wine and wild strains provides further evidence that wine strains have evolved phenotypes that are distinct from their wild ancestors and relevant to their use in wine production. PMID:22093681

  7. Effects of cyclohexane, an industrial solvent, on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and on isolated yeast mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, S.; Rangel, P.; Espinola, G.; Aguirre, G. )

    1990-07-01

    Little information on the effects of cyclohexane at the cellular or subcellular level is available. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cyclohexane inhibited respiration and diverse energy-dependent processes. In mitochondria isolated from S. cerevisiae, oxygen uptake and ATP synthesis were inhibited, although ATPase activity was not affected. Cyclohexane effects were similar to those reported for beta-pinene and limonene, suggesting that the cyclohexane ring in these monoterpenes may be a determinant for their biological activities.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vacuole in Zinc Storage and Intracellular Zinc Distribution? ‡

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Claudia; Lahner, Brett; Salt, David; LeFurgey, Ann; Ingram, Peter; Yandell, Brian; Eide, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that the vacuole is a major site of zinc storage in the cell. However, these studies did not address the absolute level of zinc that was stored in the vacuole nor did they examine the abundances of stored zinc in other compartments of the cell. In this report, we describe an analysis of the cellular distribution of zinc by use of both an organellar fractionation method and an electron probe X-ray microanalysis. With these methods, we determined that zinc levels in the vacuole vary with zinc status and can rise to almost 100 mM zinc (i.e., 7 × 108 atoms of vacuolar zinc per cell). Moreover, this zinc can be mobilized effectively to supply the needs of as many as eight generations of progeny cells under zinc starvation conditions. While the Zrc1 and Cot1 zinc transporters are essential for zinc uptake into the vacuole under steady-state growth conditions, additional transporters help mediate zinc uptake into the vacuole during “zinc shock,” when zinc-limited cells are resupplied with zinc. In addition, we found that other compartments of the cell do not provide significant stores of zinc. In particular, zinc accumulation in mitochondria is low and is homeostatically regulated independently of vacuolar zinc storage. Finally, we observed a strong correlation between zinc status and the levels of magnesium and phosphorus accumulated in cells. Our results implicate zinc as a major determinant of the ability of the cell to store these other important nutrients. PMID:17526722

  9. Dihydroxyacetone detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves formaldehyde dissimilation.

    PubMed

    Molin, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders

    2006-05-01

    To investigate Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during growth on the conditionally toxic triose dihydroxyacetone (DHA), protein expression was studied in strains overexpressing either of the two dihydroxyacetone kinase isogenes, DAK1 or DAK2, that grow well utilizing DHA as a carbon and energy source. DHA metabolism was found mostly similar to ethanol utilization, involving a strong component of glucose derepression, but also involved DHA-specific regulatory changes. A specific and strong (10- to 30-fold induction of formaldehyde dehydrogenase, Fdhlp, indicated activation of the formaldehyde dissimilation pathway in DHA medium. The importance of this pathway was further supported by impaired adaptation to DHA growth and DHA survival in a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (SFA1) deletion mutant. Glutathione synthase (GSH1) deletion led to decreased DHA survival in agreement with the glutathione cofactor requirement for the SFA1-encoded activity. DHA toxicity did, however, not solely appear related to formaldehyde accumulation, because SFA1 overexpression only enhanced formaldehyde but not DHA tolerance. In further agreement with a low DHA-to-formaldehyde flux, GSH supplements in the low microM range also fully suppressed the DHA sensitivity of a gsh1Delta strain. Under growth reduction on high (100 mM) DHA medium we report increased levels of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation on total protein. Under these high-DHA conditions expression of several stress-related proteins, e.g. a heat-shock protein (Hsp104p) and the oxidative stress indicator, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (Ahp1p) was also found induced. However, hallmark determinants of oxidative stress tolerance (e.g. YAP1, SKN7, HYR1/GPX3 and SOD2) were redundant for DHA tolerance, thus indicating mechanisms of DHA toxicity largely independent of central oxidative stress defence mechanisms. We conclude that mechanisms for DHA growth and detoxification appear complex and that the evolutionary strive to minimize detrimental effects of this intracellular metabolite links to both formaldehyde and glutathione metabolism. PMID:16677304

  10. Overproduction of geranylgeraniol by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tokuhiro, Kenro; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Kawaguchi, Toshiya; Obata, Shusei; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hirai, Masana; Takahashi, Haruo; Kondo, Akihiko; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-09-01

    (E, E, E)-Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is a valuable starting material for perfumes and pharmaceutical products. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GGOH is synthesized from the end products of the mevalonate pathway through the sequential reactions of farnesyl diphosphate synthetase (encoded by the ERG20 gene), geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (the BTS1 gene), and some endogenous phosphatases. We demonstrated that overexpression of the diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase (DPP1) gene could promote GGOH production. We also found that overexpression of a BTS1-DPP1 fusion gene was more efficient for producing GGOH than coexpression of these genes separately. Overexpression of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG1) gene, which encodes the major rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, resulted in overproduction of squalene (191.9 mg liter(-1)) rather than GGOH (0.2 mg liter(-1)) in test tube cultures. Coexpression of the BTS1-DPP1 fusion gene along with the HMG1 gene partially redirected the metabolic flux from squalene to GGOH. Additional expression of a BTS1-ERG20 fusion gene resulted in an almost complete shift of the flux to GGOH production (228.8 mg liter(-1) GGOH and 6.5 mg liter(-1) squalene). Finally, we constructed a diploid prototrophic strain coexpressing the HMG1, BTS1-DPP1, and BTS1-ERG20 genes from multicopy integration vectors. This strain attained 3.31 g liter(-1) GGOH production in a 10-liter jar fermentor with gradual feeding of a mixed glucose and ethanol solution. The use of bifunctional fusion genes such as the BTS1-DPP1 and ERG20-BTS1 genes that code sequential enzymes in the metabolic pathway was an effective method for metabolic engineering. PMID:19592534

  11. Overproduction of Geranylgeraniol by Metabolically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Kenro; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Ohto, Chikara; Kawaguchi, Toshiya; Obata, Shusei; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hirai, Masana; Takahashi, Haruo; Kondo, Akihiko; Sakuradani, Eiji; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-01-01

    (E, E, E)-Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is a valuable starting material for perfumes and pharmaceutical products. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GGOH is synthesized from the end products of the mevalonate pathway through the sequential reactions of farnesyl diphosphate synthetase (encoded by the ERG20 gene), geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (the BTS1 gene), and some endogenous phosphatases. We demonstrated that overexpression of the diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase (DPP1) gene could promote GGOH production. We also found that overexpression of a BTS1-DPP1 fusion gene was more efficient for producing GGOH than coexpression of these genes separately. Overexpression of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG1) gene, which encodes the major rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, resulted in overproduction of squalene (191.9 mg liter?1) rather than GGOH (0.2 mg liter?1) in test tube cultures. Coexpression of the BTS1-DPP1 fusion gene along with the HMG1 gene partially redirected the metabolic flux from squalene to GGOH. Additional expression of a BTS1-ERG20 fusion gene resulted in an almost complete shift of the flux to GGOH production (228.8 mg liter?1 GGOH and 6.5 mg liter?1 squalene). Finally, we constructed a diploid prototrophic strain coexpressing the HMG1, BTS1-DPP1, and BTS1-ERG20 genes from multicopy integration vectors. This strain attained 3.31 g liter?1 GGOH production in a 10-liter jar fermentor with gradual feeding of a mixed glucose and ethanol solution. The use of bifunctional fusion genes such as the BTS1-DPP1 and ERG20-BTS1 genes that code sequential enzymes in the metabolic pathway was an effective method for metabolic engineering. PMID:19592534

  12. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Clowers, Katie J; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2015-09-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations. PMID:25953281

  13. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MAT?. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Y?, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HML? or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HML? and MAT? using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MAT? cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  14. Ecological and Genetic Barriers Differentiate Natural Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Clowers, Katie J.; Heilberger, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Will, Jessica L.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    How populations that inhabit the same geographical area become genetically differentiated is not clear. To investigate this, we characterized phenotypic and genetic differences between two populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that in some cases inhabit the same environment but show relatively little gene flow. We profiled stress sensitivity in a group of vineyard isolates and a group of oak-soil strains and found several niche-related phenotypes that distinguish the populations. We performed bulk-segregant mapping on two of the distinguishing traits: The vineyard-specific ability to grow in grape juice and oak-specific tolerance to the cell wall damaging drug Congo red. To implicate causal genes, we also performed a chemical genomic screen in the lab-strain deletion collection and identified many important genes that fell under quantitative trait loci peaks. One gene important for growth in grape juice and identified by both the mapping and the screen was SSU1, a sulfite-nitrite pump implicated in wine fermentations. The beneficial allele is generated by a known translocation that we reasoned may also serve as a genetic barrier. We found that the translocation is prevalent in vineyard strains, but absent in oak strains, and presents a postzygotic barrier to spore viability. Furthermore, the translocation was associated with a fitness cost to the rapid growth rate seen in oak-soil strains. Our results reveal the translocation as a dual-function locus that enforces ecological differentiation while producing a genetic barrier to gene flow in these sympatric populations. PMID:25953281

  15. Metabolic engineering of muconic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kathleen A; Leavitt, John M; Karim, Ashty S; Alper, Hal S

    2013-01-01

    The dicarboxylic acid muconic acid has garnered significant interest due to its potential use as a platform chemical for the production of several valuable consumer bio-plastics including nylon-6,6 and polyurethane (via an adipic acid intermediate) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (via a terephthalic acid intermediate). Many process advantages (including lower pH levels) support the production of this molecule in yeast. Here, we present the first heterologous production of muconic acid in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A three-step synthetic, composite pathway comprised of the enzymes dehydroshikimate dehydratase from Podospora anserina, protocatechuic acid decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida albicans was imported into yeast. Further genetic modifications guided by metabolic modeling and feedback inhibition mitigation were introduced to increase precursor availability. Specifically, the knockout of ARO3 and overexpression of a feedback-resistant mutant of aro4 reduced feedback inhibition in the shikimate pathway, and the zwf1 deletion and over-expression of TKL1 increased flux of necessary precursors into the pathway. Further balancing of the heterologous enzyme levels led to a final titer of nearly 141mg/L muconic acid in a shake-flask culture, a value nearly 24-fold higher than the initial strain. Moreover, this strain has the highest titer and second highest yield of any reported shikimate and aromatic amino acid-based molecule in yeast in a simple batch condition. This work collectively demonstrates that yeast has the potential to be a platform for the bioproduction of muconic acid and suggests an area that is ripe for future metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:23164574

  16. Metabolism and Regulation of Glycerolipids in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to its genetic tractability and increasing wealth of accessible data, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model system of choice for the study of the genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology of eukaryotic lipid metabolism. Glycerolipids (e.g., phospholipids and triacylglycerol) and their precursors are synthesized and metabolized by enzymes associated with the cytosol and membranous organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and lipid droplets. Genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed that glycerolipids play important roles in cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and anchoring of membrane proteins in addition to membrane structure. The expression of glycerolipid enzymes is controlled by a variety of conditions including growth stage and nutrient availability. Much of this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level and involves the Ino2–Ino4 activation complex and the Opi1 repressor, which interacts with Ino2 to attenuate transcriptional activation of UASINO-containing glycerolipid biosynthetic genes. Cellular levels of phosphatidic acid, precursor to all membrane phospholipids and the storage lipid triacylglycerol, regulates transcription of UASINO-containing genes by tethering Opi1 to the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane and controlling its translocation into the nucleus, a mechanism largely controlled by inositol availability. The transcriptional activator Zap1 controls the expression of some phospholipid synthesis genes in response to zinc availability. Regulatory mechanisms also include control of catalytic activity of glycerolipid enzymes by water-soluble precursors, products and lipids, and covalent modification of phosphorylation, while in vivo function of some enzymes is governed by their subcellular location. Genome-wide genetic analysis indicates coordinate regulation between glycerolipid metabolism and a broad spectrum of metabolic pathways. PMID:22345606

  17. Complete kinetic mechanism of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Alguindigue, Susan S; Volkman, Jerome; Nicholas, Kenneth M; West, Ann H; Cook, Paul F

    2007-01-23

    The kinetic mechanism of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined using initial velocity studies in the absence and presence of product and dead end inhibitors in both reaction directions. Data suggest a steady state random kinetic mechanism. The dissociation constant of the Mg-homoisocitrate complex (MgHIc) was estimated to be 11 +/- 2 mM as measured using Mg2+ as a shift reagent. Initial velocity data indicate the MgHIc complex is the reactant in the direction of oxidative decarboxylation, while in the reverse reaction direction, the enzyme likely binds uncomplexed Mg2+ and alpha-ketoadipate. Curvature is observed in the double-reciprocal plots for product inhibition by NADH and the dead-end inhibition by 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate when MgHIc is the varied substrate. At low concentrations of MgHIc, the inhibition by both nucleotides is competitive, but as the MgHIc concentration increases, the inhibition changes to uncompetitive, consistent with a steady state random mechanism with preferred binding of MgHIc before NAD. Release of product is preferred and ordered with respect to CO2, alpha-ketoadipate, and NADH. Isocitrate is a slow substrate with a rate (V/E(t)) 216-fold slower than that measured with HIc. In contrast to HIc, the uncomplexed form of isocitrate and Mg2+ bind to the enzyme. The kinetic mechanism in the direction of oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, on the basis of initial velocity studies in the absence and presence of dead-end inhibitors, suggests random addition of NAD and isocitrate with Mg2+ binding before isocitrate in rapid equilibrium, and the mechanism approximates rapid equilibrium random. The Keq for the overall reaction measured directly using the change in NADH as a probe is 0.45 M. PMID:17223711

  18. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 ?m installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  19. Functional Analysis of Free Methionine-R-sulfoxide Reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S?

    PubMed Central

    Le, Dung Tien; Lee, Byung Cheon; Marino, Stefano M.; Zhang, Yan; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Kaya, Alaattin; Hacioglu, Elise; Kwak, Geun-Hee; Koc, Ahmet; Kim, Hwa-Young; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to examine occurrence, evolution, and function of fRMsr. This protein is present in single copies and two mutually exclusive subtypes in about half of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes but is missing in higher plants and animals. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fRMsr homolog was found to reduce free Met-R-SO but not free Met-S-SO or dabsyl-Met-R-SO. fRMsr was responsible for growth of yeast cells on Met-R-SO, and the double fRMsr/MsrA mutant could not grow on a mixture of methionine sulfoxides. However, in the presence of methionine, even the triple fRMsr/MsrA/MsrB mutant was viable. In addition, fRMsr deletion strain showed an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and a decreased life span, whereas overexpression of fRMsr conferred higher resistance to oxidants. Molecular modeling and cysteine residue targeting by thioredoxin pointed to Cys101 as catalytic and Cys125 as resolving residues in yeast fRMsr. These residues as well as a third Cys, resolving Cys91, clustered in the structure, and each was required for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The data show that fRMsr is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of free Met-R-SO in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19049972

  20. Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate?

    PubMed Central

    Baerends, Richard J. S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on glucose. Subsequent transcriptome analyses of chemostat cultures of the engineered strain, grown on glucose-formaldehyde mixtures, indicated that the presence of formaldehyde in the feed caused biotin limitations. Further transcriptome analysis demonstrated that this biotin inactivation was prevented by using separate formaldehyde and vitamin feeds. Using this approach, steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures were obtained that coutilized glucose and formaldehyde. Coutilization of formaldehyde under these conditions resulted in an enhanced biomass yield of the glucose-limited cultures. The biomass yield was quantitatively consistent with the use of formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate that generates NADH and subsequently, via oxidative phosphorylation, ATP. On an electron pair basis, the biomass yield increase observed with formaldehyde was larger than that observed previously for formate, which is tentatively explained by different modes of formate and formaldehyde transport in S. cerevisiae. PMID:18378663

  1. Production of fructanase by a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tequila agave fructan.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, R I; Pelayo-Ortiz, C; Jacques, G; Guatemala, G; Arriola, E; Arias, J A; Toriz, G

    2015-01-01

    A new wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CF3) isolated from tequila must was evaluated for production of fructanase on Agave tequilana Weber fructan (FT). Fructanase activity (F) was assessed by a 3(3) factorial design (substrate, temperature and pH). High enzymatic activity (31.1 U/ml) was found at 30 °C, pH 5, using FT (10 g/l) as substrate. The effect of initial substrate concentration on F (FT0, 5.7-66 g/l) was studied and it was found that F was highest (44.8 U/ml) at FT0 25 g/l. A 2(2) factorial experimental design with five central points was utilized to study the effect of stirring and aeration on fructanase activity; stirring exhibited a stronger effect on F. The ratio fructanase to invertase (F/S) was 0.57, which confirms that the enzymes are fructanase. Crude fructanase reached high substrate hydrolysis (48 wt%) in 10 h. It is shown that S. cerevisiae CF3 was able to produce large amounts of fructanase by growing it on fructan from A. tequilana. PMID:25432071

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Expressing Gp43 Protects Mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Assis-Marques, Mariana Aprigio; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). It is believed that approximately 10 million people are infected with the fungus and approximately 2% will eventually develop the disease. Unlike viral and bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are the ones against which there is no commercially available vaccine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a suitable vehicle for immunization against fungal infections, as they require the stimulation of different arms of the immune response. Here we evaluated the efficacy of immunizing mice against PCM by using S. cerevisiae yeast expressing gp43. When challenged by inoculation of P. brasiliensis yeasts, immunized animals showed a protective profile in three different assays. Their lung parenchyma was significantly preserved, exhibiting fewer granulomas with fewer fungal cells than found in non-immunized mice. Fungal burden was reduced in the lung and spleen of immunized mice, and both organs contained higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-? compared to those of non-vaccinated mice, a finding that suggests the occurrence of Th1 immunity. Taken together, our results indicate that the recombinant yeast vaccine represents a new strategy to confer protection against PCM. PMID:25790460

  3. Genomic Sequence Diversity and Population Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Assessed by RAD-seq

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, Gareth A.; Hyma, Katie E.; Ludlow, Catherine L.; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Gilbert, Teresa L.; May, Patrick; Huang, Angela A.; Dudley, Aimée M.; Fay, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for human food production and as a model organism for biological research. The genetic diversity contained in the global population of yeast strains represents a valuable resource for a number of fields, including genetics, bioengineering, and studies of evolution and population structure. Here, we apply a multiplexed, reduced genome sequencing strategy (restriction site?associated sequencing or RAD-seq) to genotype a large collection of S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a wide range of geographical locations and environmental niches. The method permits the sequencing of the same 1% of all genomes, producing a multiple sequence alignment of 116,880 bases across 262 strains. We find diversity among these strains is principally organized by geography, with European, North American, Asian, and African/S. E. Asian populations defining the major axes of genetic variation. At a finer scale, small groups of strains from cacao, olives, and sake are defined by unique variants not present in other strains. One population, containing strains from a variety of fermentations, exhibits high levels of heterozygosity and a mixture of alleles from European and Asian populations, indicating an admixed origin for this group. We propose a model of geographic differentiation followed by human-associated admixture, primarily between European and Asian populations and more recently between European and North American populations. The large collection of genotyped yeast strains characterized here will provide a useful resource for the broad community of yeast researchers. PMID:24122055

  4. Enzymological properties of the LPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Furneisen, J M; Carman, G M

    2000-02-24

    The product of the LPP1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the Mg(2+)-independent dephosphorylation of phosphatidate (PA), diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), and lysophosphatidate (LPA). The LPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase was overexpressed 681-fold in Sf-9 insect cells and used to examine the enzymological properties of the enzyme using PA, DGPP, and LPA as substrates. The optimum pH values for PA phosphatase, DGPP phosphatase, and LPA phosphatase activities were 7. 5, 7.0, and 7.0, respectively. Divalent cations (Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Ca(2+)), NaF, heavy metals, propranolol, phenylglyoxal, and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the PA phosphatase, DGPP phosphatase, and LPA phosphatase activities of the enzyme. The inhibitory effects of N-ethylmaleimide and phenylglyoxal on the LPP1-encoded enzyme were novel properties when compared with other Mg(2+)-independent lipid phosphate phosphatases from S. cerevisiae and mammalian cells. The LPP1-encoded enzyme exhibited saturation kinetics with respect to the surface concentrations of PA (K(m)=0.05 mol%), DGPP (K(m)=0.07 mol%), and LPA (K(m)=0.08 mol%). Based on specificity constants (V(max)/K(m)LPA (1.3 units/mg/mol%). DGPP (K(i)=0.12 mol%) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to PA, and PA (K(i)=0.12 mol%) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to DGPP. This suggested that the binding sites for these substrates were the same. The enzymological properties of the LPP1-encoded enzyme differed significantly from those of the S. cerevisiae DPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase, a related enzyme that also utilizes PA, DGPP, and LPA as substrates. PMID:10685032

  5. Growth and fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28 isolated from kiwi fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Wan; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2013-09-28

    The influences of glucose concentration, initial medium acidity (pH), and temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28, which was isolated from kiwi fruit, were examined in shake flask cultures. The optimal glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature for ethanol production were 200 g/l, pH 6.0, and 35oC, respectively. Under this growth condition, S. cerevisiae NK28 produced 98.9 ± 5.67 g/l ethanol in 24 h with a volumetric ethanol production rate of 4.12 ± 0.24 g/l·h. S. cerevisiae NK28 was more tolerant to heat and ethanol than laboratory strain S. cerevisiae BY4742, and its tolerance to ethanol and fermentation inhibitors was comparable to that of an ethanologen, S. cerevisiae D5A. PMID:23893096

  6. NDT80, a meiosis-specific gene required for exit from pachytene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liuzhong; Ajimura, M.; Padmore, R.; Klein, C.; Kleckner, N.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the identification of a new meiosis-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae called NDT80. DNA cloning and molecular analysis revealed that the NDT80 gene maps on the right arm of chromosome 8 and is transcribed during middle meiotic prophase. 82 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  8. Parallel competition analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains differing by a single base using

    E-print Network

    Mitra, Rob

    by transforming the strain with a plasmid bearing a copy of this gene. Growth of the organism in glucose minimal of Genetics, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63110, USA and 2 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical a plasmid-borne copy of the gene in a PGK1 deletion strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this system

  9. Null mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: characterization and spontaneous mutation rates.

    PubMed Central

    Gralla, E B; Valentine, J S

    1991-01-01

    Deletion-replacement mutations of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase gene were constructed. They were exquisitely sensitive to redox cycling drugs and showed slight sensitivity to other agents. The aerobic spontaneous mutation rate was three- to fourfold higher in sod1 delta 1 mutants, while the anaerobic rate was similar to that of the wild type. PMID:1885557

  10. Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria from Proteolytic

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria into the matrix space of mitochondria by inhibiting a step other than proteolysis of the presequence. The Rieske. The iron-sulfur protein is then post-translationally imported into the mitochondria where it is inserted

  11. Trans-acting regulatory variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the role of transcription factors

    E-print Network

    Kruglyak, Leonid

    Trans-acting regulatory variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the role of transcription factors expression, but little is known about the polymorphisms that affect gene regulation. We analyzed regulatory, respectively. We also asked whether particular classes of genes were more likely to contain trans-regulatory

  12. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii reduces Escherichia coli endotoxin associated mortality in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/neuroendocrine response and subsequent mortality to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned pigs (26.1 + or - 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment group...

  13. Phosphate uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen wild type and phenotypes exposed to space flight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Berry, D; Volz, P A

    1979-10-01

    Rates of phosphate uptake were approximately twice as great for Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-cell phenotypic isolates exposed to space parameters as for the wild-type ground control. Quantitative determination of 32P was performed by liquid scintillation spectrometry utilizing Cerenkov radiation counting techniques. PMID:395899

  14. Reversal of the Oxidation Cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Production of Fuels and Chemicals

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    to the synthesis of n-butanol, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters (MCFAEEs to produce advanced biofuels, such as n-butanol, long-chain alcohols, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs engineering and synthetic biology studies, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has several advantages for industrial

  15. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing in starch and biomass conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of starch or biomass to biofuel is a two-stage process involving enzymatic treatment, followed by yeast fermentation. An alternative route would be to consolidate the process by engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of both saccharification and fermentation. An approach was d...

  16. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  17. Modeling growth and telomere dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Peter Olofsson a,, Alison A. Bertuch b

    E-print Network

    Olofsson, Peter

    Modeling growth and telomere dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Peter Olofsson a,Ã, Alison A Accepted 2 December 2009 MSC: 60G99 60K99 62P10 92D25 Keywords: Telomere Branching process Yeast Fibonacci of slowing due to critical telomere shortening. The explanation for this phenomenon is that some cells engage

  18. An oxalyl-CoA synthetase is important for oxalate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although oxalic acid is common in nature, our understanding of the mechanism(s) regulating its turnover remains incomplete. In this study we identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-activating enzyme 3 (ScAAE3) as an enzyme capable of catalyzing the conversion of oxalate to oxalyl-CoA. Based on our fi...

  19. PCR on yeast colonies: an improved method for glyco-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae is extensively used in bio-industries. However, its genetic engineering to introduce new metabolism pathways can cause unexpected phenotypic alterations. For example, humanisation of the glycosylation pathways is a high priority pharmaceutical industry goal for production of therapeutic glycoproteins in yeast. Genomic modifications can lead to several described physiological changes: biomass yields decrease, temperature sensitivity or cell wall structure modifications. We have observed that deletion of several N-mannosyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, results in strains that can no longer be analyzed by classical PCR on yeast colonies. Findings In order to validate our glyco-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed a new protocol to carry out PCR directly on genetically modified yeast colonies. A liquid culture phase, combined with the use of a Hot Start DNA polymerase, allows a 3-fold improvement of PCR efficiency. The results obtained are repeatable and independent of the targeted sequence; as such the protocol is well adapted for intensive screening applications. Conclusions The developed protocol enables by-passing of many of the difficulties associated with PCR caused by phenotypic modifications brought about by humanisation of the glycosylation in yeast and allows rapid validation of glyco-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. It has the potential to be extended to other yeast strains presenting cell wall structure modifications. PMID:23688076

  20. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14oc-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. n open reading fram of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. hen this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain requires e...

  1. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An open reading frame of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. When this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain req...

  2. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  3. High vanillin tolerance of an evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain owing to its enhanced vanillin reduction and antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Li, Hongxing; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hou, Jin; Wang, Linfeng; Gao, Nan; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compounds present in hydrolysates pose significant challenges for the sustainable lignocellulosic materials refining industry. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate were obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate mutation and adaptive evolution. Among them, strain EMV-8 exhibits specific tolerance to vanillin, a phenolic compound common in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The EMV-8 maintains a specific growth rate of 0.104 h(-1) in 2 g L(-1) vanillin, whereas the reference strain cannot grow. Physiological studies revealed that the vanillin reduction rate of EMV-8 is 1.92-fold higher than its parent strain, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of EMV-8 is 15 % higher than its parent strain. Transcriptional analysis results confirmed an up-regulated oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity in this strain. Our results suggest that enhancing the antioxidant capacity and oxidoreductase activity could be a strategy to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved vanillin tolerance. PMID:25261986

  4. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. PMID:21531033

  5. Sporulation in soil as an overwinter survival strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sarah J; Goddard, Matthew R

    2016-02-01

    Due to its commercial value and status as a research model there is an extensive body of knowledge concerning Saccharomyces cerevisiae's cell biology and genetics. Investigations into S. cerevisiae's ecology are comparatively lacking, and are mostly focused on the behaviour of this species in high sugar, fruit-based environments; however, fruit is ephemeral, and presumably, S. cerevisiae has evolved a strategy to survive when this niche is not available. Among other places, S. cerevisiae has been isolated from soil which, in contrast to fruit, is a permanent habitat. We hypothesize that S. cerevisiae employs a life history strategy targeted at self-preservation rather than growth outside of the fruit niche, and resides in forest niches, such as soil, in a dormant and resistant sporulated state, returning to fruit via vectors such as insects. One crucial aspect of this hypothesis is that S. cerevisiae must be able to sporulate in the 'forest' environment. Here, we provide the first evidence for a natural environment (soil) where S. cerevisiae sporulates. While there are further aspects of this hypothesis that require experimental verification, this is the first step towards an inclusive understanding of the more cryptic aspects of S. cerevisiae's ecology. PMID:26568201

  6. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene.

    PubMed

    Melo, Sônia C; Santos, Regineide X; Melgaço, Ana C; Pereira, Alanna C F; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2? mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p) in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2? mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE)-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2? mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT) level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae. PMID:26039235

  7. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion.

    PubMed

    Turner, Timothy L; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Kim, Soo Rin; Subramaniam, Vijay; Steffen, David; Skory, Christopher D; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yu, Byung Jo; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-10-01

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite that cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose. Microbial strains capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose into lactic acid are needed for sustainable and economic lactic acid production. In this study, we introduced a lactic acid-producing pathway into an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose. Specifically, ldhA from the fungi Rhizopus oryzae was overexpressed under the control of the PGK1 promoter through integration of the expression cassette in the chromosome. The resulting strain exhibited a high lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced lactic acid from glucose or xylose. Interestingly, we observed that the engineered strain exhibited substrate-dependent product formation. When the engineered yeast was cultured on glucose, the major fermentation product was ethanol while lactic acid was a minor product. In contrast, the engineered yeast produced lactic acid almost exclusively when cultured on xylose under oxygen-limited conditions. The yields of ethanol and lactic acid from glucose were 0.31 g ethanol/g glucose and 0.22 g lactic acid/g glucose, respectively. On xylose, the yields of ethanol and lactic acid were <0.01 g ethanol/g xylose and 0.69 g lactic acid/g xylose, respectively. These results demonstrate that lactic acid can be produced from xylose with a high yield by S. cerevisiae without deleting pyruvate decarboxylase, and the formation patterns of fermentations can be altered by substrates. PMID:26043971

  8. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Sônia C.; Santos, Regineide X.; Melgaço, Ana C.; Pereira, Alanna C. F.; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2? mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p) in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet–C (UVC) radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2? mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE)-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2? mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT) level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae. PMID:26039235

  9. Modeling disease-related proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : insights into alpha-synuclein and TorsinA biology

    E-print Network

    Valastyan, Julie S. (Julie Suzanne)

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long been used to model complex cellular processes. As a eukaryote, much of its fundamental biology is conserved with higher organisms. As a single-celled, genetically tractable ...

  10. The Enigmatic Conservation of a Rap1 Binding Site in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMR-E Silencer

    E-print Network

    Teytelman, Leonid

    Silencing at the HMR and HML loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires recruitment of Sir proteins to the HML and HMR silencers. The silencers are regulatory sites flanking both loci and consisting of binding sites for the ...

  11. Automated Yeast Mating Protocol Using Open Reading Frames from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genome to Improve Yeast Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Engineering the industrial ethanologen Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize pentose sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is critical for commercializing cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Approaches to engineer pentose-fermenting yeasts have required expression of additional genes. We implemented a...

  12. Multiple gene mediated aldehyde reduction is a mechanism of in situ detoxification of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) are representative inhibitors to ethanologenic yeast generated from biomass pretreatment using dilute acid hydrolysis. Few yeast strains tolerant to inhibitors are available. We have developed tolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced bio...

  13. Cytotoxicity of orthodontic materials assessed by survival tests in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Limberger, Karen M; Westphalen, Graziela H; Menezes, Luciane M; Medina-Silva, Renata

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of orthodontic materials (brackets, wires, resin, elastomers and silver solder) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The induction of cytotoxicity was assessed by two different tests using the wild-type S. cerevisiae strain FF18733: (1) direct exposure to orthodontic materials in YPD broth, and (2) exposure to artificial commercial saliva pre-treated with orthodontic materials. Only the silver solder was tested in mutant S. cerevisiae strains to investigate the origin of the observed cytotoxicity. Colony forming units per mL counts were carried out in all experiments and compared to controls to detect significant survival differences. The results showed that only the silver solder induced significant cytotoxicity, which might have occurred via oxidative stress, although this mechanism is not completely understood. Moreover, S. cerevisiae proved to be a reliable and useful model microorganism for evaluating the cytotoxicity of clinical materials. PMID:21376384

  14. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Lin; Wang, Shi-An

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature. PMID:26244846

  15. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan-Lin; Wang, Shi-An

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature. PMID:26244846

  16. Nucleosome alterations caused by mutations at modifiable histone residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongde; Wang, Pingyan; Liu, Lingjie; Min, Zhu; Luo, Kun; Wan, Yakun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosome organization exhibits dynamic properties depending on the cell state and environment. Histone proteins, fundamental components of nucleosomes, are subject to chemical modifications on particular residues. We examined the effect of substituting modifiable residues of four core histones with the non-modifiable residue alanine on nucleosome dynamics. We mapped the genome-wide nucleosomes in 22 histone mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the nucleosome alterations relative to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that different types of histone mutation resulted in different phenotypes and a distinct reorganization of nucleosomes. Nucleosome occupancy was altered at telomeres, but not at centromeres. The first nucleosomes upstream (?1) and downstream (+1) of the transcription start site (TSS) were more dynamic than other nucleosomes. Mutations in histones affected the nucleosome array downstream of the TSS. Highly expressed genes, such as ribosome genes and genes involved in glycolysis, showed increased nucleosome occupancy in many types of histone mutant. In particular, the H3K56A mutant exhibited a high percentage of dynamic genomic regions, decreased nucleosome occupancy at telomeres, increased occupancy at the +1 and ?1 nucleosomes, and a slow growth phenotype under stress conditions. Our findings provide insight into the influence of histone mutations on nucleosome dynamics. PMID:26498326

  17. RSC Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is Important for Mitochondrial Function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuko; Yu, Feifei; Nakamura, Misaki; Chihara, Yuhki; Okane, Kyo; Sato, Masahiro; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hamada, Ryoko; Ueno, Masaru; Yukawa, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    RSC (Remodel the Structure of Chromatin) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex essential for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RSC exists as two distinct isoforms that share core subunits including the ATPase subunit Nps1/Sth1 but contain either Rsc1or Rsc2. Using the synthetic genetic array (SGA) of the non-essential null mutation method, we screened for mutations exhibiting synthetic growth defects in combination with the temperature-sensitive mutant, nps1-105, and found connections between mitochondrial function and RSC. rsc mutants, including rsc1?, rsc2?, and nps1-13, another temperature-sensitive nps1 mutant, exhibited defective respiratory growth; in addition, rsc2? and nps1-13 contained aggregated mitochondria. The rsc2? phenotypes were relieved by RSC1 overexpression, indicating that the isoforms play a redundant role in respiratory growth. Genome-wide expression analysis in nps1-13 under respiratory conditions suggested that RSC regulates the transcription of some target genes of the HAP complex, a transcriptional activator of respiratory gene expression. Nps1 physically interacted with Hap4, the transcriptional activator moiety of the HAP complex, and overexpression of HAP4 alleviated respiratory defects in nps1-13, suggesting that RSC plays pivotal roles in mitochondrial gene expression and shares a set of target genes with the HAP complex. PMID:26086550

  18. An improved map of conserved regulatory sites for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ting

    Background: The regulatory map of a genome consists of the binding sites for proteins that determine the transcription of nearby genes. An initial regulatory map for S. cerevisiae was recently published using six motif ...

  19. “A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer’S Spent Grain”

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Aniseh; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Rezaei, Karamatollah

    2011-01-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer’s spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort). Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions. PMID:24031672

  20. "A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer'S Spent Grain".

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Aniseh; Razavi, Seyyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Rezaei, Karamatollah

    2011-04-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer's spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort). Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions. PMID:24031672

  1. Isolation and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LPP1 gene encoding a Mg2+-independent phosphatidate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Toke, D A; Bennett, W L; Oshiro, J; Wu, W I; Voelker, D R; Carman, G M

    1998-06-01

    The DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase enzyme accounts for half of the Mg2+-independent phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The LPP1 (lipid phosphate phosphatase) gene encodes a protein that contains a novel phosphatase sequence motif found in DGPP phosphatase and in the mouse Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase. A genomic copy of the S. cerevisiae LPP1 gene was isolated and was used to construct lpp1Delta and lpp1Delta dpp1Delta mutants. A multicopy plasmid containing the LPP1 gene directed a 12.9-fold overexpression of Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity in the S. cerevisiae lpp1Delta dpp1Delta double mutant. The heterologous expression of the S. cerevisiae LPP1 gene in Sf-9 insect cells resulted in a 715-fold overexpression of Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity relative to control insect cells. The Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity encoded by the LPP1 gene was associated with the membrane fraction of the cell. The LPP1 gene product also exhibited lyso-PA phosphatase and DGPP phosphatase activities. The order of substrate preference was PA > lyso-PA > DGPP. Like the dpp1Delta mutant, the lpp1Delta mutant and the lpp1Delta dpp1Delta double mutant were viable and did not exhibit obvious growth defects. Biochemical analyses of lpp1Delta, dpp1Delta, and lpp1Delta dpp1Delta mutants showed that the LPP1 and DPP1 gene products encoded nearly all of the Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase and lyso-PA phosphatase activities and all of the DGPP phosphatase activity in S. cerevisiae. Moreover, the analyses of the mutants showed that the LPP1 and DPP1 gene products played a role in the regulation of phospholipid metabolism and the cellular levels of phosphatidylinositol and PA. PMID:9603941

  2. Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, Katie E.; Fay, Justin C.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have had a significant impact on the distribution and abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through its widespread use in beer, bread and wine production. Yet, similar to other Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae has also been isolated from habitats unrelated to fermentations. Strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes, wine must and vineyards worldwide are genetically differentiated from strains isolated from oak-tree bark, exudate and associated soil in North America. However, the causes and consequences of this differentiation have not yet been resolved. Historical differentiation of these two groups may have been influenced by geographic, ecological or human-associated barriers to gene flow. Here, we make use of the relatively recent establishment of vineyards across North America to identify and characterize any active barriers to gene flow between these two groups. We examined S. cerevisiae strains isolated from grapes and oak-trees within three North American vineyards and compared them to those isolated from oak-trees outside of vineyards. Within vineyards we found evidence of migration between grapes and oak-trees and potential gene flow between the divergent oak-tree and vineyard groups. Yet, we found no vineyard genotypes on oak-trees outside of vineyards. In contrast, S. paradoxus isolated from the same sources showed population structure characterized by isolation by distance. The apparent absence of ecological or genetic barriers between sympatric vineyard and oak-tree populations of S. cerevisiae implies that vineyards play an important role in the mixing between these two groups. PMID:23286354

  3. Fumaric Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by In Silico Aided Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoqiang; Zou, Wei; Chen, Xiulai; Xu, Nan; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Fumaric acid (FA) is a promising biomass-derived building-block chemical. Bio-based FA production from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. Here we report on FA production by direct fermentation using metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aid of in silico analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model. First, FUM1 was selected as the target gene on the basis of extensive literature mining. Flux balance analysis (FBA) revealed that FUM1 deletion can lead to FA production and slightly lower growth of S. cerevisiae. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain obtained by deleting FUM1 can produce FA up to a concentration of 610±31 mg L–1 without any apparent change in growth in fed-batch culture. FT-IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra confirmed that FA was synthesized by the engineered S. cerevisiae strain. FBA identified pyruvate carboxylase as one of the factors limiting higher FA production. When the RoPYC gene was introduced, S. cerevisiae produced 1134±48 mg L–1 FA. Furthermore, the final engineered S. cerevisiae strain was able to produce 1675±52 mg L–1 FA in batch culture when the SFC1 gene encoding a succinate–fumarate transporter was introduced. These results demonstrate that the model shows great predictive capability for metabolic engineering. Moreover, FA production in S. cerevisiae can be efficiently developed with the aid of in silico metabolic engineering. PMID:23300594

  4. Mathematical model for the aerobic growth of saccharomyces cerevisiae with a saturated respiratory capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Barford, J.P.; Hall, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    A mathematical model for the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both batch and continuous culture is described. It was based on the experimental observation that the respiratory capacity of this organism may become saturated and exhibit a maximum specific oxygen uptake rate after suitable adaptation. This experimental observation led to the possibility that transport into and out of the mitochondrion was of major importance in the overall metabolism of S. cerevisiae and was subject to long-term adaptation. Consistent with this observation a distributed model was proposed which, as its basis, assumed the control of respiration and fermentation to be the result of saturation of respiration without any specific repression or inhibition of the uptake rates of other substrates. No other regulation of fermentation and respiration was assumed. The model provided a suitable structure allowing precise quantification of the changes in rate and stoichiometry of energy production. The model clearly indicated that growth under the wide range of experimental conditions reported could not be predicted using constant values for the maximum specific respiratory rate or constant values of Yatp (g biomass/mol ATP) and PO ratio of (mol ATP/atom oxygen). The causes of the variation in the respiratory rate were not determined and it was concluded that a more detailed analysis (reported subsequently) was required. The variation of Y atp and PO ratio with specific growth rate implied that the efficiency of ATP generation or ATP utilization decreased with increasing specific growth rate. It was concluded that it was not possible to quantify the individual effect of Yatp and PO ratio until independent means for their reliable estimation is available. (Refs. 84).

  5. Unlocking the steric gate of DNA polymerase ? leads to increased genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Donigan, Katherine A; Cerritelli, Susana M; McDonald, John P; Vaisman, Alexandra; Crouch, Robert J; Woodgate, Roger

    2015-11-01

    DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) is best characterized for its ability to perform accurate and efficient translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) through cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). To ensure accurate bypass the polymerase is not only required to select the correct base, but also discriminate between NTPs and dNTPs. Most DNA polymerases have a conserved "steric gate" residue which functions to prevent incorporation of NMPs during DNA synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that the Phe35 residue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol ? functions as a steric gate to limit the use of ribonucleotides during polymerization both in vitro and in vivo. Unlike the related pol ? enzyme, wild-type pol ? does not readily incorporate NMPs in vitro. In contrast, a pol ? F35A mutant incorporates NMPs on both damaged and undamaged DNA in vitro with a high degree of base selectivity. An S.cerevisiae strain expressing pol ? F35A (rad30-F35A) that is also deficient for nucleotide excision repair (rad1?) and the TLS polymerase, pol ? (rev3?), is extremely sensitive to UV-light. The sensitivity is due, in part, to RNase H2 activity, as an isogenic rnh201? strain is roughly 50-fold more UV-resistant than its RNH201(+) counterpart. Interestingly the rad1? rev3? rad30-F35A rnh201? strain exhibits a significant increase in the extent of spontaneous mutagenesis with a spectrum dominated by 1bp deletions at runs of template Ts. We hypothesize that the increased mutagenesis is due to rA incorporation at these sites and that the short poly rA tract is subsequently repaired in an error-prone manner by a novel repair pathway that is specifically targeted to polyribonucleotide tracks. These data indicate that under certain conditions, pol ? can compete with the cell's replicases and gain access to undamaged genomic DNA. Such observations are consistent with a role for pol ? in replicating common fragile sites (CFS) in human cells. PMID:26340535

  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actin Patch Protein App1p Is a Phosphatidate Phosphatase Enzyme*?

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Minjung; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PAP is encoded by PAH1, DPP1, and LPP1. The presence of PAP activity in the pah1? dpp1? lpp1? triple mutant indicated another gene(s) encoding the enzyme. We purified PAP from the pah1? dpp1? lpp1? triple mutant by salt extraction of mitochondria followed by chromatography with DE52, Affi-Gel Blue, phenyl-Sepharose, MonoQ, and Superdex 200. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of a PAP-enriched sample revealed multiple putative phosphatases. By analysis of PAP activity in mutants lacking each of the proteins, we found that APP1, a gene whose molecular function has been unknown, confers ?30% PAP activity of wild type cells. The overexpression of APP1 in the pah1? dpp1? lpp1? mutant exhibited a 10-fold increase in PAP activity. The PAP activity shown by App1p heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli confirmed that APP1 is the structural gene for the enzyme. Introduction of the app1? mutation into the pah1? dpp1? lpp1? triple mutant resulted in a complete loss of PAP activity, indicating that distinct PAP enzymes in S. cerevisiae are encoded by APP1, PAH1, DPP1, and LPP1. Lipid analysis of cells lacking the PAP genes, singly or in combination, showed that Pah1p is the only PAP involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerol as well as in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis. App1p, which shows interactions with endocytic proteins, may play a role in vesicular trafficking through its PAP activity. PMID:23071111

  7. A genetic analysis of glucoamylase activity in the diastatic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 625.

    PubMed

    Patel, D; Evans, I H; Bevan, E A

    1990-04-01

    The wild diastatic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 625 has been shown to be homozygous for the glucoamylase-specifying gene STA2. spoII-1-mapping has positioned STA2 on chromosome II. Expression of STA2 is suppressed in some but not all diploids capable of sporulation, and is also inhibited by unlinked nuclear suppressor genes (SGL) found in some S. cerevisiae tester strains. EMS-induced glucoamylase-negative mutants often contain STA2-suppressor mutations. Depending on the allelic status of GEP1, a nuclear gene which also appears able to antagonise SGL-mediated suppression, STA2 expression can be blocked in petite mutants. PMID:2111230

  8. Potential extra-ribosomal functions of ribosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yi-Fei; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping

    2015-08-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs), are essential components of the ribosomes, the molecular machines that turn mRNA blueprints into proteins, as they serve to stabilize the structure of the rRNA, thus improving protein biosynthesis. In addition, growing evidence suggests that RPs can function in other cellular roles. In the present review, we summarize several potential extra-ribosomal functions of RPs in ribosomal biogenesis, transcription activity, translation process, DNA repair, replicative life span, adhesive growth, and morphological transformation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the future in-depth studies are needed to identify these novel secondary functions of RPs in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26211963

  9. Bioconversion of lactose/whey to fructose diphosphate with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compagno, C.; Tura, A.; Ranzi, B.M.; Martegani, E. )

    1993-07-01

    Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express Escherichia coli [beta]-galactosidase gene are able to bioconvert lactose or whey into fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). High FDP yields from whey were obtained with an appropriate ratio between cell concentration and inorganic phosphate. The biomass of transformed cells can be obtained from different carbon sources, according to the expression vector bearing the lacZ gene. The authors showed that whey can be used as the carbon source for S. cerevisiae growth and as the substrate for bioconversion to fructose diphosphate.

  10. Finding of thiosulfate pathway for synthesis of organic sulfur compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and improvement of ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Eri; Saiki, Kyohei; Honda, Kurara; Sugiura, Yuki; Kawano, Yusuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Watanabe, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Yukari; Abe, Tetsuya; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes thiosulfate as a sole sulfur source. The energetically-favored thiosulfate rather than sulfate as sulfur sources is also more effective for improving growth and ethanol-production rate in S. cerevisiae due to high levels of intracellular NADPH during thiosulfate utilization. PMID:26188417

  11. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  12. Comparative characterization of endo-polygalacturonase (Pgu1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus under winemaking conditions.

    PubMed

    Eschstruth, Alexis; Divol, Benoit

    2011-08-01

    Wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have no to weak natural pectinase activity, despite their genetic ability to secrete an endo-polygalacturonase. The addition of external pectinase of fungal origin has therefore become a common step of winemaking in order to enhance the extraction of compounds located in the grape berry skins during maceration and to ease wine clarification after maturation. Recently, the strong pectinase activity of a wine strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus has been reported. In this study, the endo-polygalacturonase-encoding gene of S. paradoxus was sequenced and its activity was characterised, compared with that of S. cerevisiae and tested under winemaking conditions through overexpression of both genes individually in S. cerevisiae. A few differences in the amino acids sequences between the two proteins were revealed and the activity of the Pgu1 enzyme of S. paradoxus was shown to be weaker under winemaking conditions. Clear indicators of extracellular activity were observed in the wines made with both recombinant strains (i.e. enzyme activity in cell-free wine, higher methanol concentration and higher free-run wine), but the actual composition of the wines fermented with the mutants was only sparingly altered. Although unexpectedly found in lower concentrations in the latter wines, phenolic compounds were shown to be the most discriminatory components. Overexpressing the PGU1 gene of S. paradoxus or that of S. cerevisiae did not make much difference, showing that the higher activity of S. paradoxus strains under laboratory conditions could be due to a different regulation mechanism rather than to a different sequence of PGU1. PMID:21479715

  13. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of motif N from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, L.; Duong, A; Prasad, A; Duncker, B; Guarne, A

    2009-01-01

    The Cdc7-Dbf4 complex plays an instrumental role in the initiation of DNA replication and is a target of replication-checkpoint responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cdc7 is a conserved serine/threonine kinase whose activity depends on association with its regulatory subunit, Dbf4. A conserved sequence near the N-terminus of Dbf4 (motif N) is necessary for the interaction of Cdc7-Dbf4 with the checkpoint kinase Rad53. To understand the role of the Cdc7-Dbf4 complex in checkpoint responses, a fragment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf4 encompassing motif N was isolated, overproduced and crystallized. A complete native data set was collected at 100 K from crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.75 {angstrom} resolution and structure determination is currently under way.

  14. Functional Validation of Rare Human Genetic Variants Involved in Homologous Recombination Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Mi; Kim, Kyoung-Yeon; Park, Geun-Hee; Kwack, KyuBum; Kim, Keun P.

    2015-01-01

    Systems for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are necessary to maintain genome integrity and normal functionality of cells in all organisms. Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in repairing accidental and programmed DSBs in mitotic and meiotic cells, respectively. Failure to repair these DSBs causes genome instability and can induce tumorigenesis. Rad51 and Rad52 are two key proteins in homologous pairing and strand exchange during DSB-induced HR; both are highly conserved in eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed pathogenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human RAD51 and RAD52 using the Polymorphism Phenotyping (PolyPhen) and Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) algorithms and observed the effect of mutations in highly conserved domains of RAD51 and RAD52 on DNA damage repair in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based system. We identified a number of rad51 and rad52 alleles that exhibited severe DNA repair defects. The functionally inactive SNPs were located near ATPase active site of Rad51 and the DNA binding domain of Rad52. The rad51-F317I, rad52-R52W, and rad52-G107C mutations conferred hypersensitivity to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage and were defective in HR-mediated DSB repair. Our study provides a new approach for detecting functional and loss-of-function genetic polymorphisms and for identifying causal variants in human DNA repair genes that contribute to the initiation or progression of cancer. PMID:25938495

  15. Precursor-Directed Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Cinnamoyl, Dihydrocinnamoyl, and Benzoyl Anthranilates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Eudes, Aymerick; Teixeira Benites, Veronica; Wang, George; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D.; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biochemicals offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis. These alternative methods require the design of metabolic pathways and the identification of enzymes exhibiting adequate activities. Cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates are natural metabolites which possess beneficial activities for human health, and the search is expanding for novel derivatives that might have enhanced biological activity. For example, biosynthesis in Dianthus caryophyllus is catalyzed by hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/ benzoyltransferase (HCBT), which couples hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and benzoyl-CoAs to anthranilate. We recently demonstrated the potential of using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for the biological production of a few cinnamoyl anthranilates by heterologous co-expression of 4-coumaroyl:CoA ligase from Arabidopsis thaliana (4CL5) and HCBT. Here we report that, by exploiting the substrate flexibility of both 4CL5 and HCBT, we achieved rapid biosynthesis of more than 160 cinnamoyl, dihydrocinnamoyl, and benzoyl anthranilates in yeast upon feeding with both natural and non-natural cinnamates, dihydrocinnamates, benzoates, and anthranilates. Our results demonstrate the use of enzyme promiscuity in biological synthesis to achieve high chemical diversity within a defined class of molecules. This work also points to the potential for the combinatorial biosynthesis of diverse and valuable cinnamoylated, dihydrocinnamoylated, and benzoylated products by using the versatile biological enzyme 4CL5 along with characterized cinnamoyl-CoA- and benzoyl-CoA-utilizing transferases. PMID:26430899

  16. Enhancement of Ethanol Fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sake Yeast by Disrupting Mitophagy Function

    PubMed Central

    Shiroma, Shodai; Jayakody, Lahiru Niroshan; Horie, Kenta; Okamoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 has one of the highest fermentation rates among brewery yeasts used worldwide; therefore, it is assumed that it is not possible to enhance its fermentation rate. However, in this study, we found that fermentation by sake yeast can be enhanced by inhibiting mitophagy. We observed mitophagy in wild-type sake yeast during the brewing of Ginjo sake, but not when the mitophagy gene (ATG32) was disrupted. During sake brewing, the maximum rate of CO2 production and final ethanol concentration generated by the atg32? laboratory yeast mutant were 7.50% and 2.12% higher than those of the parent strain, respectively. This mutant exhibited an improved fermentation profile when cultured under limiting nutrient concentrations such as those used during Ginjo sake brewing as well as in minimal synthetic medium. The mutant produced ethanol at a concentration that was 2.76% higher than the parent strain, which has significant implications for industrial bioethanol production. The ethanol yield of the atg32? mutant was increased, and its biomass yield was decreased relative to the parent sake yeast strain, indicating that the atg32? mutant has acquired a high fermentation capability at the cost of decreasing biomass. Because natural biomass resources often lack sufficient nutrient levels for optimal fermentation, mitophagy may serve as an important target for improving the fermentative capacity of brewery yeasts. PMID:24271183

  17. Nuclease Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11 Functions in Targeted Nucleotide Alteration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Usher, Michael; Hu, Yiling; Kmiec, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotides can be used to direct site-specific changes in genomic DNA through a process in which mismatched base pairs in the oligonucleotide and the target DNA are created. The mechanism by which these complexes are developed and resolved is being studied by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Genetic analyses have revealed that in all likelihood the reaction occurs in two phases: DNA pairing and DNA repair. While the former phase involves strand assimilation, the latter phase likely involves an endonucleolytic processing step that leads to joint resolution. In this study, we established the importance of a functioning MRE11 gene in the overall reaction, as yeast strains deficient in MRE11 exhibited severely reduced activity. The activity could be rescued by complementation with wild-type MRE11 genes but not with MRE11 alleles lacking the nuclease function. Taken together, the data suggest that Mre11 provides nuclease activity for targeted nucleotide exchange, a process that could be used to reengineer yeast genes. PMID:14532083

  18. Studies on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. Analysis of continuous rapid ethanol fermentation in immobilized cell reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, R.D.; Ghose, T.K.

    1982-04-01

    Rapid fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol has been studied in batch, continuous (free-cell cell-immobilized systems) by a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at temperature 30/sup 0/C and pH 5.0. The maximum productivity of ethanol obtained in immobilized system was 28.6 g L/sup -1/ h/sup -1/. The cells were immobilized by natural mode on a carrier of natural origin and retention of 0.132 g cells/g carrier was achieved. The immobilized-cell column was operated continuously at steady state over a period of 35 days. Based on the parameter data monitored from the system, mathematical analysis has been made and rate equations proposed, and the values of specific productivity of ehtanol and specific growth rate for immobilized cells computed. It has been established that immobilized cells exhibit higher specific rate of ethanol formation compared to free cells but the specific growth rate appears to be comparatively low. The yield of ethanol in the immobilized-cell system is also higher than in the free-cell system.

  19. Dominant alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 reveal its role in promoting anaphase.

    PubMed

    Schott, E J; Hoyt, M A

    1998-02-01

    We identified an allele of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC20 that exhibits a spindle-assembly checkpoint defect. Previous studies indicated that loss of CDC20 function caused cell cycle arrest prior to the onset of anaphase. In contrast, CDC20-50 caused inappropriate cell cycle progression through M phase in the absence of mitotic spindle function. This effect of CDC20-50 was dominant over wild type and was eliminated by a second mutation causing loss of function, suggesting that it encodes an overactive form of Cdc20p. Overexpression of CDC20 was found to cause a similar checkpoint defect, causing bypass of the preanaphase arrest produced by either microtubule-depolymerizing compounds or MPS1 overexpression. CDC20 overexpression was also able to overcome the anaphase delay caused by high levels of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p, but not a mutant form immune to anaphase-promoting complex- (APC-)mediated proteolysis. CDC20 overexpression was unable to promote anaphase in cells deficient in APC function. These findings suggest that Cdc20p is a limiting factor that promotes anaphase entry by antagonizing Pds1p. Cdc20p may promote the APC-dependent proteolytic degradation of Pds1p and other factors that act to inhibit cell cycle progression through mitosis. PMID:9504909

  20. The Ubp15 deubiquitinase promotes timely entry into S phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ostapenko, Denis; Burton, Janet L.; Solomon, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex in partnership with its activator, Cdh1, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting cell cycle proteins during G1 phase. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdh1 associates with the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp15, but the significance of this interaction is unclear. To better understand the physiological role(s) of Ubp15, we examined cell cycle phenotypes of cells lacking Ubp15. We found that ubp15? cells exhibited delayed progression from G1 into S phase and increased sensitivity to the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea. Both phenotypes of ubp15? cells were rescued by additional copies of the S-phase cyclin gene CLB5. Clb5 is an unstable protein targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation by several pathways. We found that during G1 phase, the APCCdh1-mediated degradation of Clb5 was accelerated in ubp15? cells. Ubp15 interacted with Clb5 independent of Cdh1 and deubiquitinated Clb5 in a reconstituted system. Thus deubiquitination by Ubp15 counteracts APC activity toward cyclin Clb5 to allow Clb5 accumulation and a timely entry into S phase. PMID:25877870

  1. Mutational analysis of centromere DNA from chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hegemann, J.H.; Shero, J.H.; Cottarel, G.; Philippsen, P.; Hieter, P.

    1988-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres have a characteristic 120-base-pair region consisting of three different centromere DNA sequence elements (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII). The authors generated a series of 26 CEN mutations in vitro (including 22 point mutations, 3 insertions and 1 deletion) and tested their effects on mitotic chromosome segregation by using a new vector system. The yeast transformation vector pYCF5 was constructed to introduce wild-type mutant CEN DNAs onto large, linear chromosome fragments which are mitotically stable and nonessential. Six point mutations in CDEI show increased rates of chromosome loss events per cell division of 2- to 10-fold. Twenty mutations in CDEIII exhibit chromosome loss rates that vary from wild type (10/sup -4/) to nonfunctional (>10/sup -1/). These results directly identify nucleotides within CDEI and CDEIII that are required for the specification of a functional centromere and show that the degree of conservation of an individual base does not necessarily reflect its importance to mitotic CEN function.

  2. Investigation of the Highly Active Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Cabelli, D.E.; Barnese, K.; Sheng, Y.; Stich, T.A.; Gralla, E.B.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2010-09-15

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from different species differs in its efficiency in removing high concentrations of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}), due to different levels of product inhibition. Human MnSOD exhibits a substantially higher level of product inhibition than the MnSODs from bacteria. In order to investigate the mechanism of product inhibition and whether it is a feature common to eukaryotic MnSODs, we purified MnSOD from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScMnSOD). It was a tetramer with 0.6 equiv of Mn per monomer. The catalytic activity of ScMnSOD was investigated by pulse radiolysis and compared with human and two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans) MnSODs. To our surprise, ScMnSOD most efficiently facilitates removal of high concentrations of O{sub 2}{sup -} among these MnSODs. The gating value k{sub 2}/k{sub 3} that characterizes the level of product inhibition scales as ScMnSOD > D. radiodurans MnSOD > E. coli MnSOD > human MnSOD. While most MnSODs rest as the oxidized form, ScMnSOD was isolated in the Mn{sup 2+} oxidation state as revealed by its optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. This finding poses the possibility of elucidating the origin of product inhibition by comparing human MnSOD with ScMnSOD.

  3. Alleviation of glucose repression of maltose metabolism by MIG1 disruption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, C J; Olsson, L; Rønnow, B; Mikkelsen, J D; Nielsen, J

    1996-01-01

    The MIG1 gene was disrupted in a haploid laboratory strain (B224) and in an industrial polyploid strain (DGI 342) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The alleviation of glucose repression of the expression of MAL genes and alleviation of glucose control of maltose metabolism were investigated in batch cultivations on glucose-maltose mixtures. In the MIG1-disrupted haploid strain, glucose repression was partly alleviated; i.e., maltose metabolism was initiated at higher glucose concentrations than in the corresponding wild-type strain. In contrast, the polyploid delta mig1 strain exhibited an even more stringent glucose control of maltose metabolism than the corresponding wild-type strain, which could be explained by a more rigid catabolite inactivation of maltose permease, affecting the uptake of maltose. Growth on the glucose-sucrose mixture showed that the polypoid delta mig1 strain was relieved of glucose repression of the SUC genes. The disruption of MIG1 was shown to bring about pleiotropic effects, manifested in changes in the pattern of secreted metabolites and in the specific growth rate. PMID:8953715

  4. Thiol peroxidase deficiency leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V; Gerashchenko, Maxim V; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2014-11-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (?8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ?8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ?8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ?8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ?8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ?8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ?8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. PMID:25173844

  5. Thiol Peroxidase Deficiency Leads to Increased Mutational Load and Decreased Fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (?8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ?8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ?8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ?8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ?8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ?8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ?8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. PMID:25173844

  6. Improvement of xylose fermentation in respiratory-deficient xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bingyin; Shen, Yu; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Xiao; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Effective conversion of xylose in lignocelluloses is expected to reduce the production cost of second-generation biofuels significantly. The factors affecting xylose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that express xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase (XR-XDH) are studied. Although overproduction of non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway significantly increased the aerobic-specific growth rate on xylose and slightly improved conversion of xylose to ethanol under oxygen-limited conditions, the elimination of respiration by deleting cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV gene impeded aerobic growth on xylose. However, the adaptive evolution of the respiratory-deficient strain with an NADP(+)-preferring XDH mutant in xylose media dramatically improved its xylose-fermenting ability. The specific growth rate, ethanol yield, and xylitol yield of the evolved strain on xylose were 0.06h(-1), 0.39gg(-1), and 0.13gg(-1) consumed xylose, respectively. Similar to anaerobic fermentation, the evolved strain exhibited accumulated ethanol rather than recycled it under aerobic conditions. PMID:22178745

  7. Evidence that the antiproliferative effects of auranofin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae arise from inhibition of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Gamberi, Tania; Fiaschi, Tania; Modesti, Alessandra; Massai, Lara; Messori, Luigi; Balzi, Manuela; Magherini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Auranofin is a gold based drug in clinical use since 1985 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Beyond its antinflammatory properties, auranofin exhibits other attractive biological and pharmacological actions such as a potent in vitro cytotoxicity and relevant antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects that make it amenable for new therapeutic indications. For instance, auranofin is currently tested as an anticancer agent in four independent clinical trials; yet, its mode of action is highly controversial. With the present study, we explore the effects of auranofin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its likely mechanism. Notably, auranofin is reported to induce remarkable yeast growth inhibition. Solid evidence is provided that growth inhibition is the consequence of a direct cytotoxic insult occurring at the mitochondrial level; a profound depression of cell respiration is indeed clearly documented as the main cause of cell death while induction of ROS plays only a secondary role. More in detail, the mitochondrial NADH kinase Pos5 is identified as a primary target for auranofin. The implications of these results are discussed in the frame of current mechanistic knowledge on the cellular effects of auranofin and of its role as a prospective anticancer drug. PMID:26024642

  8. Strain-specific nuclear genetic background differentially affects mitochondria-related phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Arianna; Francisci, Silvia; Fazzi D'Orsi, Mario; Bianchi, Michele Maria

    2014-06-01

    In the course of our studies on mitochondrial defects, we have observed important phenotypic variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suggesting that a better characterization of the genetic variability will be essential to define the relationship between the mitochondrial efficiency and the presence of different nuclear backgrounds. In this manuscript, we have extended the study of such relations by comparing phenotypic assays related to mitochondrial functions of three wild-type laboratory strains. In addition to the phenotypic variability among the wild-type strains, important differences have been observed among strains bearing identical mitochondrial tRNA mutations that could be related only to the different nuclear background of the cells. Results showed that strains exhibited an intrinsic variability in the severity of the effects of the mitochondrial mutations and that specific strains might be used preferentially to evaluate the phenotypic effect of mitochondrial mutations on carbon metabolism, stress responses, and mitochondrial DNA stability. In particular, while W303-1B and MCC123 strains should be used to study the effect of severe mitochondrial tRNA mutations, D273-10B/A1 strain is rather suitable for studying the effects of milder mutations. PMID:24700775

  9. Senescence Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with a Defect in Telomere Replication Identify Three Additional Est Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lendvay, T. S.; Morris, D. K.; Sah, J.; Balasubramanian, B.; Lundblad, V.

    1996-01-01

    The primary determinant for telomere replication is the enzyme telomerase, responsible for elongating the G-rich strand of the telomere. The only component of this enzyme that has been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the TLC1 gene, encoding the telomerase RNA subunit. However, a yeast strain defective for the EST1 gene exhibits the same phenotypes (progressively shorter telomeres and a senescence phenotype) as a strain deleted for TLC1, suggesting that EST1 encodes either a component of telomerase or some other factor essential for telomerase function. We designed a multitiered screen that led to the isolation of 22 mutants that display the same phenotypes as est1 and tlc1 mutant strains. These mutations mapped to four complementation groups: the previously identified EST1 gene and three additional genes, called EST2, EST3 and EST4. Cloning of the EST2 gene demonstrated that it encodes a large, extremely basic novel protein with no motifs that provide clues as to function. Epistasis analysis indicated that the four EST genes function in the same pathway for telomere replication as defined by the TLC1 gene, suggesting that the EST genes encode either components of telomerase or factors that positively regulate telomerase activity. PMID:8978029

  10. The a-factor pheromone of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for mating.

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, S; Herskowitz, I

    1988-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone a-factor is produced by a cells and interacts with alpha cells to cause cell cycle arrest and other physiological responses associated with mating. Two a-factor structural genes, MFA1 and MFA2, have been previously cloned with synthetic probes based on the a-factor amino acid sequence (A. Brake, C. Brenner, R. Najarian, P. Laybourn, and J. Merryweather, cited in M.-J. Gething [ed.], Protein transport and secretion, 1985). We have examined the function of these genes in a-factor production and mating by construction and analysis of chromosomal null mutations. mfa1 and mfa2 single mutants each exhibited approximately half the wild-type level of a-factor activity and were proficient in mating, whereas the mfa1 mfa2 double mutant produced no a-factor and was unable to mate. These results demonstrate that both genes are functional, that each gene makes an equivalent contribution to the a-factor activity and mating capacity of a cells, and that a-factor plays an essential role in mating. Strikingly, exogenous a-factor did not alleviate the mating defect of the double mutant, suggesting that an a cell must be producing a-factor to be an effective mating partner. Images PMID:3285180

  11. PXA1, a possible Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of the human adrenoleukodystrophy gene.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, N; Watkins, P A; Valle, D

    1995-01-01

    The adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the human peroxisome membrane. It is defective in X chromosome-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), a neurodegenerative disorder with impaired peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. We report cloning and characterization of PXA1, a yeast gene encoding a protein (Pxa1p) exhibiting high similarity to ALDp. Disruption of PXA1 results in impaired growth on oleic acid and reduced ability to oxidize oleate. Pxa1p is peroxisome associated; however, in the PXA1 mutant yeast, as in ALD cells, peroxisomes are morphologically intact. Disruption of a second yeast gene, YKL741, which encodes a more distantly related ALDp homolog (Yk174p), in either wild-type or PXA1 mutant yeast, results in a growth phenotype identical to that of the PXA1 mutant. This result suggests that Yk1741p and Pxa1p may be subunits of the same transporter. Sequence analysis of Pxa1p, ALDp, and related ABC transporters reveals a possible fatty acid binding domain and a 14-amino acid EAA-like motif, previously described only in prokaryotes. Because of the similarities in sequence and function, we propose that Pxa1p is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of ALDp. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7597071

  12. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The three dimensional organization of microtubules in mitotic spindles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined by computer- aided reconstruction from electron micrographs of serially cross- sectioned spindles. Fifteen spindles ranging in length from 0.6-9.4 microns have been analyzed. Ordered microtubule packing is absent in spindles up to 0.8 micron, but the total number of microtubules is sufficient to allow one microtubule per kinetochore with a few additional microtubules that may form an interpolar spindle. An obvious bundle of about eight interpolar microtubules was found in spindles 1.3- 1.6 microns long, and we suggest that the approximately 32 remaining microtubules act as kinetochore fibers. The relative lengths of the microtubules in these spindles suggest that they may be in an early stage of anaphase, even though these spindles are all situated in the mother cell, not in the isthmus between mother and bud. None of the reconstructed spindles exhibited the uniform populations of kinetochore microtubules characteristic of metaphase. Long spindles (2.7-9.4 microns), presumably in anaphase B, contained short remnants of a few presumed kinetochore microtubules clustered near the poles and a few long microtubules extending from each pole toward the spindle midplane, where they interdigitated with their counterparts from the other pole. Interpretation of these reconstructed spindles offers some insights into the mechanisms of mitosis in this yeast. PMID:7790357

  13. A search in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genes regulated via stress response elements.

    PubMed

    Moskvina, E; Schüller, C; Maurer, C T; Mager, W H; Ruis, H

    1998-08-01

    Stress response elements (STREs, core consensus AG4 or C4T) have been demonstrated previously to occur in the upstream region of a number of genes responsive to induction by a variety of stress signals. This stress response is mediated by the homologous transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p, which bind specifically to STREs. Double mutants (msn2 msn4) deficient in these transcription factors have been shown to be hypersensitive to severe stress conditions. To obtain a more representative overview of the set of yeast genes controlled via this regulon, a computer search of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was carried out for genes, which, similar to most known STRE-controlled genes, exhibit at least two STREs in their upstream region. In addition to the great majority of genes previously known to be controlled via STREs, 69 open reading-frames were detected. Expression patterns of a set of these were examined by grid filter hybridization, and 14 genes were examined by Northern analysis. Comparison of the expression patterns of these genes demonstrates that they are all STRE-controlled although their detailed expression patterns differ considerably. PMID:9730283

  14. Secretion can proceed uncoupled from net plasma membrane expansion in inositol-starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, K D; Ramirez, R M

    1984-01-01

    Secretion of acid phosphatase and invertase was examined in an inositol-requiring ino1 mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Inositol starvation is known to block plasma membrane expansion, presumably due to restricted membrane phospholipid synthesis. If membrane expansion and extracellular protein secretion are accomplished by the same intracellular transport process, one would expect secretion to fail coordinately with cessation of plasma membrane growth in inositol-starved cells. In glucose-grown, inositol-starved cells, plasma membrane expansion and acid phosphatase secretion stopped coordinately, and intracellular acid phosphatase accumulated. In sucrose-grown, inositol-starved cells, plasma membrane growth halted, but secretion of both acid phosphatase and invertase continued until the onset of inositol-less death. Although glucose-grown and sucrose-grown cells differ in their ability to secrete when deprived of inositol, they exhibited the same disturbances in phospholipid synthesis. Phosphatidylinositol synthesis failed, and its precursors phosphatidic acid and CDP-diglyceride accumulated equally in both cultures. Sucrose-grown yeast cells appear to accomplish normal levels of extracellular protein secretion by an inositol-independent mechanism. In glucose-grown yeasts, both plasma membrane expansion and secretion are inositol dependent. PMID:6384202

  15. Cardiolipin and Mitochondrial Phosphatidylethanolamine Have Overlapping Functions in Mitochondrial Fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit S.; Thompson, Morgan N.; Fei, Naomi; Hüttemann, Maik; Greenberg, Miriam L.

    2012-01-01

    The two non-bilayer forming mitochondrial phospholipids cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) play crucial roles in maintaining mitochondrial morphology. We have shown previously that CL and PE have overlapping functions, and the loss of both is synthetically lethal. Because the lack of CL does not lead to defects in the mitochondrial network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we hypothesized that PE may compensate for CL in the maintenance of mitochondrial tubular morphology and fusion. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a conditional mutant crd1?psd1? containing null alleles of CRD1 (CL synthase) and PSD1 (mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase), in which the wild type CRD1 gene is expressed on a plasmid under control of the TETOFF promoter. In the presence of tetracycline, the mutant exhibited highly fragmented mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial DNA, and reduced membrane potential, characteristic of fusion mutants. Deletion of DNM1, required for mitochondrial fission, restored the tubular mitochondrial morphology. Loss of CL and mitochondrial PE led to reduced levels of small and large isoforms of the fusion protein Mgm1p, possibly accounting for the fusion defect. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time in vivo that CL and mitochondrial PE are required to maintain tubular mitochondrial morphology and have overlapping functions in mitochondrial fusion. PMID:22433850

  16. Inositol pyrophosphates regulate RNA polymerase I-mediated rRNA transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thota, Swarna Gowri; Unnikannan, C P; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Manorama, R; Bhandari, Rashna

    2015-02-15

    Ribosome biogenesis is an essential cellular process regulated by the metabolic state of a cell. We examined whether inositol pyrophosphates, energy-rich derivatives of inositol that act as metabolic messengers, play a role in ribosome synthesis in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast strains lacking the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinase Kcs1, which is required for the synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates, display increased sensitivity to translation inhibitors and decreased protein synthesis. These phenotypes are reversed on expression of enzymatically active Kcs1, but not on expression of the inactive form. The kcs1? yeast cells exhibit reduced levels of ribosome subunits, suggesting that they are defective in ribosome biogenesis. The rate of rRNA synthesis, the first step of ribosome biogenesis, is decreased in kcs1? yeast strains, suggesting that RNA polymerase I (Pol I) activity may be reduced in these cells. We determined that the Pol I subunits, A190, A43 and A34.5, can accept a ?-phosphate moiety from inositol pyrophosphates to undergo serine pyrophosphorylation. Although there is impaired rRNA synthesis in kcs1? yeast cells, we did not find any defect in recruitment of Pol I on rDNA, but observed that the rate of transcription elongation was compromised. Taken together, our findings highlight inositol pyrophosphates as novel regulators of rRNA transcription. PMID:25423617

  17. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae quinone oxidoreductase Lot6p: stability, inhibition and cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Megarity, Clare F; Looi, Hong Keat; Timson, David J

    2014-08-01

    Lot6p (EC 1.5.1.39; Ylr011wp) is the sole quinone oxidoreductase in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using hexahistidine tagged, recombinant Lot6p, we determined the steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters with both NADH and NADPH as electron donors; no cooperativity was observed with these substrates. The NQO1 inhibitor curcumin, the NQO2 inhibitor resveratrol, the bacterial nitroreductase inhibitor nicotinamide and the phosphate mimic vanadate all stabilise the enzyme towards thermal denaturation as judged by differential scanning fluorimetry. All except vanadate have no observable effect on the chemical cross-linking of the two subunits of the Lot6p dimer. These compounds all inhibit Lot6p's oxidoreductase activity, and all except nicotinamide exhibit negative cooperativity. Molecular modelling suggests that curcumin, resveratrol and nicotinamide all bind over the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in Lot6p. Resveratrol was predicted to contact an ?-helix that links the two active sites. Mutation of Gly-142 (which forms part of this helix) to serine does not greatly affect the thermal stability of the enzyme. However, this variant shows less cooperativity towards resveratrol than the wild type. This suggests a plausible hypothesis for the transmission of information between the subunits and, thus, the molecular mechanism of negative cooperativity in Lot6p. PMID:24866129

  18. Confirmation of Frm2 as a novel nitroreductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seo Young; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Phil Young; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Pan-Soo; Lee, Do Hee; Myung, Pyung Keun; Park, Byoung Chul; Park, Sung Goo

    2012-07-13

    Nitroreductases comprise a group of FMN- or FAD-dependent enzymes that reduce nitrosubstituted compounds by using NAD(P)H, and are found in bacterial species and yeast. Although there is little information on the biological functions of nitroreductases, some studies suggest their possible involvement in oxidative stress responses. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a putative nitroreductase protein, Frm2, has been identified based on its sequence similarity with known bacterial nitroreductases. Frm2 has been reported to function in the lipid signaling pathway. To study the functions of Frm2, we measured the nitroreductase activity of purified Frm2 on 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) using NADH. LC-MS analysis of the reaction products revealed that Frm2 reduced NQO into 4-aminoquinoline-N-oxide (4-AQO) via 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline (4-HAQO). An Frm2 deletion mutant exhibited growth inhibition in the presence of 4-NQO. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate a novel nitroreductase activity of Frm2 and its involvement in the oxidative stress defense system. PMID:22687599

  19. Functional expression of the extraplastidial Arabidopsis thaliana oleate desaturase gene (FAD2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Covello, P S; Reed, D W

    1996-05-01

    The functional expression in yeast of the Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2 gene, encoding the extraplastidial oleate desaturase (1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase) is reported. Dienoic fatty acids constituted up to 11% (w/w) of the total fatty acids in transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and were confirmed to be linoleic acid and delta 9, delta 12-hexadecadienoic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:8685264

  20. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. ); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. )

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  1. Appearance of a New Species of Ribonucleic Acid During Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Kiyoshi; Halvorson, H. O.

    1971-01-01

    In the course of study on ribonucleic acid (RNA) metabolism during sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a new species of RNA (20S) was observed in sporulating cells by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative content of this RNA to total RNA increased linearly early in sporulation. Labeled adenine was preferentially incorporated into 20S RNA during the early stages of sporulation. The correlation between the physiological and genetic control of sporulation and the synthesis of 20S RNA are discussed. Images PMID:5547990

  2. Mutagenic Inverted Repeats Assisted Genome Engineering (MIRAGE) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: deletion of gal7.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nikhil U; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    MIRAGE is a unique in vivo genome editing technique that exploits the inherent instability of inverted repeats (palindromes) in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome. As a technique able to quickly create deletions as well as precise point mutations, it is valuable in applications that require creation of designer strains of this yeast. In particular, it has various potential applications in metabolic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biology, and molecular genetics. PMID:22144353

  3. Sequence and genetic analysis of a dispensible 189 nucleotide snRNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J R; Zagorski, J; Woolford, J L; Fournier, M J

    1988-01-01

    The structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a small nuclear RNA (snRNA) of 189 nucleotides is described. This gene, designated SNR189, is located 400 base pairs upstream of the CRY1 gene on yeast chromosome III. Gene replacement analysis revealed the SNR189 gene to be dispensable for growth under a variety of culture conditions. The snR189 sequence lacks homology with other sequenced yeast or metazoan snRNAs. Images PMID:3290853

  4. Analysis of Plasmid Deletion Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsevich, E.; Stepanova, A.; Koltovaya, N.; Sprincova, A.

    2007-11-26

    The article is dedicated to the research of plasmid system YCpL2 with help of quantitative analysis of deletion formation. The cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irradiated by {gamma}-ray with the flux of 0.7 Gy/min and energy of 1.3 MeV as well as heavy ion beam {sup 11}B with energy 32 MeV/n. The deletion of plasmid DNA has been analyzed by genetic and restriction analysis.

  5. The effect of millimeter waves at the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during heliogeophysical disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Babaeva, Milena I.

    2013-02-01

    The isolated and combined effect of heliogeophysical factors and low intensive electromagnetic radiation of millimeter diapason at the metachromasia reaction of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. It was established that longterm influence of EMR 65 GHz induced changes in the response of cells towards heliogeomagnetic disturbance. On our opinion millimeter waves may reduce the effect of heliogeophysical factors on living organisms because of destabilization of the intracellular water structure.

  6. Physical evidence for a Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposable element which carries the his4C gene.

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, F; Greer, H

    1981-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae transposable element which carries the his4C structural gene and which is capable of transposition, excision, and mutator activity is described. Physical evidence is presented for transposition of the his4C deoxyribonucleic acid sequences to a new location in the genome and for precise excision of these transposed deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in spontaneous his4C- segregants. Images PMID:6100963

  7. Mutations of the adenylyl cyclase gene that block RAS function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.; Xu, Haopeng; Michaeli, T.; Ballester, R.; Sass, P.; Wigler, M.; Colicelli, J. )

    1990-01-26

    The interaction between RAS proteins and adenylyl cyclase was studied by using dominant interfering mutations of adenylyl cyclase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RAS proteins active adenylyl cyclase in this organism. A plasmid expressing a catalytically inactive adenylyl cyclase was found to interfere dominantly with this activation. The interfering region mapped to the leucine-rich repeat region of adenylyl cyclase, which is homologous to domains present in several other proteins and is thought to participate in protein-protein interactions.

  8. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases: from bread baking to autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Maurizio; Perricone, Roberto; Blank, Miri; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is best known as the baker's and brewer's yeast, but its residual traces are also frequent excipients in some vaccines. Although anti-S. cerevisiae autoantibodies (ASCAs) are considered specific for Crohn's disease, a growing number of studies have detected high levels of ASCAs in patients affected with autoimmune diseases as compared with healthy controls, including antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Commensal microorganisms such as Saccharomyces are required for nutrition, proper development of Peyer's aggregated lymphoid tissue, and tissue healing. However, even the commensal nonclassically pathogenic microbiota can trigger autoimmunity when fine regulation of immune tolerance does not work properly. For our purposes, the protein database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) was consulted, comparing Saccharomyces mannan to several molecules with a pathogenetic role in autoimmune diseases. Thanks to the NCBI bioinformation technology tool, several overlaps in molecular structures (50-100 %) were identified when yeast mannan, and the most common autoantigens were compared. The autoantigen U2 snRNP B? was found to conserve a superfamily protein domain that shares 83 % of the S. cerevisiae mannan sequence. Furthermore, ASCAs may be present years before the diagnosis of some associated autoimmune diseases as they were retrospectively found in the preserved blood samples of soldiers who became affected by Crohn's disease years later. Our results strongly suggest that ASCAs' role in clinical practice should be better addressed in order to evaluate their predictive or prognostic relevance. PMID:23292495

  9. Candida zemplinina Can Reduce Acetic Acid Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sweet Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ?0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response. PMID:22247148

  10. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG A-905 in experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Tiago, F C P; Porto, B A A; Ribeiro, N S; Moreira, L M C; Arantes, R M E; Vieira, A T; Teixeira, M M; Generoso, S V; Nascimento, V N; Martins, F S; Nicoli, J R

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the protective potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG A-905 was evaluated in a murine model of acute ulcerative colitis (UC). Six groups of Balb/c mice were used: not treated with yeast and not challenged with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) (control); treated with S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 (905); treated with the non-probiotic S. cerevisiae W303 (W303); challenged with DSS (DSS); treated with S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 and challenged with DSS (905 + DSS); and treated with S. cerevisiae W303 and challenged with DSS (W303 + DSS). Seven days after induction of UC, mice were euthanised to remove colon for enzymatic, immunological, and histopathological analysis. In vivo intestinal permeability was also evaluated. An improvement of clinical manifestations of experimental UC was observed only in mice of the 905 + DSS group when compared to animals from DSS and W303 + DSS groups. This observation was confirmed by histological and morphometrical data and determination of myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase activities, intestinal permeability and some pro-inflammatory cytokines. S. cerevisiae UFMG A-905 showed to be a potential alternative treatment for UC when used in an experimental animal model of the disease. PMID:26322540

  11. [Development of genetically stable recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains using combinational chromosomal integration].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Qi; Zhao, Xinqing; Liu, Haijun; Hu, Shiyang; Ma, Zhongyi; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-04-01

    Chromosomal integration enables stable phenotype and therefore has become an important strategy for breeding of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. pAUR135 is a plasmid that enables recycling use of antibiotic selection marker, and once attached with designated homologous sequences, integration vector for stable expression can be constructed. Development of S. cerevisiae strains by metabolic engineering normally demands overexpression of multiple genes, and employing pAUR135 plasmid, it is possible to construct S. cerevisiae strains by combinational integration of multiple genes in multiple sites, which results in different ratios of expressions of these genes. Xylose utilization pathway was taken as an example, with three pAUR135-based plasmids carrying three xylose assimilation genes constructed in this study. The three genes were sequentially integrated on the chromosome of S. cerevisiae by combinational integration. Xylose utilization rate was improved 24.4%-35.5% in the combinational integration strain comparing with that of the control strain with all the three genes integrated in one location. Strain improvement achieved by combinational integration is a novel method to manipulate multiple genes for genetic engineering of S. cerevisiae, and the recombinant strains are free of foreign sequences and selection markers. In addition, stable phenotype can be maintained, which is important for breeding of industrial strains. Therefore, combinational integration employing pAUR135 is a novel method for metabolic engineering of industrial S. cerevisiae strains. PMID:25195256

  12. Toxicity detection using lysosomal enzymes, glycoamylase and thioredoxin fused with fluorescent protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Tu; Shin, Hwa-Yoon; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2015-11-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the simplest and a favorite eukaryotic system that contains lysosome and thus, is a suitable organism for monitoring some toxic effects in environmental pollution. In this study, S. cerevisiae was transformed with two recombinant plasmids. Sporulation-specific glycoamylase (SGA1), which was upregulated in response to arsenic, was fused with the blue fluorescent protein (BFP) for the construction of an oxidative stress-causing chemicals sensor. Additionally, thioredoxin (TRX2), a protein overexpressed exclusively under tetracycline's influence, fused with the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to create a detector for this kind of chemical. In summary, we developed two recombinant S. cerevisiae that facilitate the detection of both kinds of toxic chemicals, specifically visualized by different color indicators. PMID:26410455

  13. Parameter Optimization for Enhancement of Ethanol Yield by Atmospheric Pressure DBD-Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yulian; Tang, Qian; Dou, Shaohua; Di, Lanbo; Zhang, Xiuling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was exposed to dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) to improve its ethanol production capacity during fermentation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the discharge-associated parameters of DBD for the purpose of maximizing the ethanol yield achieved by DBD-treated S. cerevisiae. According to single factor experiments, a mathematical model was established using Box-Behnken central composite experiment design, with plasma exposure time, power supply voltage, and exposed-sample volume as impact factors and ethanol yield as the response. This was followed by response surface analysis. Optimal experimental parameters for plasma discharge-induced enhancement in ethanol yield were plasma exposure time of 1 min, power voltage of 26 V, and an exposed sample volume of 9 mL. Under these conditions, the resulting yield of ethanol was 0.48 g/g, representing an increase of 33% over control.

  14. Development of a system for multicopy gene integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-01-01

    In this study we describe construction and evaluation of a vector for multicopy integration in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this vector a modified selective marker and a reporter gene PHO8 (encoding alkaline phosphatase) were flanked with delta sequences of the Ty1 transposon. Modified by error-prone PCR version of selection marker kanMX4 was obtained from Escherichia coli clone with impaired geneticin (G418) resistance. The attenuation of kanMX4 gene provides an opportunity to select for explicitly multicopy integration of the module in S. cerevisiae using moderate (200mgL(-1)) antibiotic concentrations. The developed system provided integration of 3-10 copies of the module in the genome of S. cerevisiae. High copy integration events were confirmed by qRT-PCR, Southern hybridization and reporter enzyme activity measurements. PMID:26529647

  15. Two programmed replicative lifespans of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinan; Yuan, Ruoshi; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Minjuan; Ao, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Cellular replicative capacity is a therapeutic target for regenerative medicine as well as cancer treatment. The mechanism of replicative senescence and cell immortality is still unclear. We investigated the diauxic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that the replicative capacity revealed by the yeast growth curve can be understood by using the dynamical property of the molecular-cellular network regulating S. cerevisiae. The endogenous network we proposed has a limit cycle when pheromone signaling is disabled, consistent with the exponential growth phase with an infinite replicative capacity. In the post-diauxic phase, the cooperative effect of the pheromone activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway with the cell cycle leads to a fixed point attractor instead of the limit cycle. The cells stop dividing after several generations counting from the beginning of the post-diauxic growth. By tuning the MAPK pathway, S. cerevisiae therefore programs the number of offsprings it replicates. PMID:24447585

  16. Resveratrol increases glycolytic flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a SNF1-dependet mechanism.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Nava, Gerardo M; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that AMP protein kinase (AMPK) is the main target of the phytochemical resveratrol (RSV) in mammalian cells. Data also indicates that RSV stimulates glucose metabolism; however, the molecular link between RSV and glucose uptake remains unknown. Herein, we provide evidence indicating that RSV stimulates glycolysis via sucrose non-fermenting 1 gene (SNF1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologous of AMPK). S. cerevisiae cultures treated with 30 ?M RSV showed an increase in extracellular acidification rate compared to untreated cells, indicating an elevated glycolytic flux. Also, RSV treatment increased transcription levels of two key glycolytic genes, hexokinase 2 (HXK2) and phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), as well as production of NADH. Moreover, RSV treatment inhibited mitochondrial respiration when glucose was used as a carbon source. Importantly, the effects of RSV on glycolysis were dependent of SNF1. Taken together, these findings suggest that SNF1 (AMPK in mammalian systems) is the molecular target of RSV in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26091703

  17. Anthranilic acid release in adenosine-inhibited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its inhibition by thiamin.

    PubMed

    Iwashima, A; Kawasaki, Y; Kimura, Y; Hasegawa, T

    1992-10-01

    Adenosine, at 1 mM concentrations or above, was found to have a fungistatic effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A substance with amethyst fluorescence was detected in the medium of adenosine-inhibited cultures of S. cerevisiae. This compound was isolated and physicochemically identified as anthranilic acid. Both the inhibition of growth and release of anthranilic acid induced by adenosine were abrogated by thiamin or by the pyrimidine portion of thiamin, 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hdroxymethyl-pyrimidine (hydroxymethyl-pyrimidine); the latter was found to restore intracellular thiamin content that had been reduced by adenosine. It was demonstrated that effects of thiamin and hydroxymethylpyrimidine on S. cerevisiae cultured with adenosine resulted from their inhibition of adenosine uptake by growing yeast cells. PMID:1426996

  18. A new biological test of water toxicity-yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae conductometric test.

    PubMed

    Dolezalova, Jaroslava; Rumlova, Lubomira

    2014-11-01

    This new biological test of water toxicity is based on monitoring of specific conductivity changes of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension as a result of yeast fermentation activity inhibition in toxic conditions. The test was verified on ten substances with various mechanisms of toxic effect and the results were compared with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhibition (EN ISO 6341) and Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (EN ISO 11348-2) and with the results of the S. cerevisiae lethal test (Rumlova and Dolezalova, 2012). The new biological test - S. cerevisiae conductometric test - is an express method developed primarily for field conditions. It is applicable in case of need of immediate information about water toxicity. Fast completion is an advantage of this test (time necessary for test completion is about 60min), the test is simple and the test organism - dried instant yeast - belongs among its biggest advantages because of its long-term storage life and broad availability. PMID:25461558

  19. A Minimal Set of Glycolytic Genes Reveals Strong Redundancies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Central Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Escalante, Daniel; Kuijpers, Niels G. A.; Barrajon-Simancas, Nuria; van den Broek, Marcel; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    As a result of ancestral whole-genome and small-scale duplication events, the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many eukaryotes still contain a substantial fraction of duplicated genes. In all investigated organisms, metabolic pathways, and more particularly glycolysis, are specifically enriched for functionally redundant paralogs. In ancestors of the Saccharomyces lineage, the duplication of glycolytic genes is purported to have played an important role leading to S. cerevisiae's current lifestyle favoring fermentative metabolism even in the presence of oxygen and characterized by a high glycolytic capacity. In modern S. cerevisiae strains, the 12 glycolytic reactions leading to the biochemical conversion from glucose to ethanol are encoded by 27 paralogs. In order to experimentally explore the physiological role of this genetic redundancy, a yeast strain with a minimal set of 14 paralogs was constructed (the “minimal glycolysis” [MG] strain). Remarkably, a combination of a quantitative systems approach and semiquantitative analysis in a wide array of growth environments revealed the absence of a phenotypic response to the cumulative deletion of 13 glycolytic paralogs. This observation indicates that duplication of glycolytic genes is not a prerequisite for achieving the high glycolytic fluxes and fermentative capacities that are characteristic of S. cerevisiae and essential for many of its industrial applications and argues against gene dosage effects as a means of fixing minor glycolytic paralogs in the yeast genome. The MG strain was carefully designed and constructed to provide a robust prototrophic platform for quantitative studies and has been made available to the scientific community. PMID:26071034

  20. Comparative toxicities of putative phagocyte-generated oxidizing radicals toward a bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

    PubMed

    King, David A; Sheafor, Mark W; Hurst, James K

    2006-09-01

    Toxicities of the radiolytically generated oxidizing radicals HO(*), CO(3)(-)(*), and NO(2)(*) toward suspension cultures of a bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were examined. As demonstrated by the absence of protection from the membrane-impermeable HO(*) scavenger polyethylene glycol (PEG), externally generated HO(*) was not bactericidal under these conditions; however, partial protection by PEG was observed for S. cerevisiae, indicating the presence of a fungicidal pathway involving external HO(*). For both organisms, conversion of external HO(*) to the secondary radical, CO(3)(-)(*), by reaction with HCO(3)(-) increases their susceptibility to radiolytic killing. In contrast, externally generated NO(2)(*) exhibited toxicity comparable to that of CO(3)(-)(*) toward E. coli, but completely blocked the extracellular toxicity of HO(*) toward S. cerevisiae. Cogeneration of equal fluxes of NO(2)(-)(*) and either HO(*) or CO(3)(-)(*) also essentially eliminated the extracellular microbicidal reactions. This behavior is consistent with expectations based upon relative rates of radical-radical self-coupling and cross-coupling reactions. The different patterns of toxicity observed imply fundamentally different microbicidal mechanisms for the two organisms, wherein the bacterium is susceptible to killing by oxidation of highly reactive targets on its cellular envelope but, despite undergoing similar oxidative insult, the fungus is not. PMID:16895797

  1. Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-12-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. PMID:24187129

  2. Transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe with linear plasmids containing 2 micron sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, A M; Ascenzioni, F; Tribioli, C; Donini, P

    1985-01-01

    Linear plasmids were constructed by adding telomeres prepared from Tetrahymena pyriformis rDNA to a circular hybrid Escherichia coli-yeast vector and transforming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The parental vector contained the entire 2 mu yeast circle and the LEU gene from S. cerevisiae. Three transformed clones were shown to contain linear plasmids which were characterized by restriction analysis and shown to be rearranged versions of the desired linear plasmids. The plasmids obtained were imperfect palindromes: part of the parental vector was present in duplicated form, part as unique sequences and part was absent. The sequences that had been lost included a large portion of the 2 mu circle. The telomeres were approximately 450 bp longer than those of T. pyriformis. DNA prepared from transformed S. cerevisiae clones was used to transform Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The transformed S. pombe clones contained linear plasmids identical in structure to their linear parents in S. cerevisiae. No structural re-arrangements or integration into S. pombe was observed. Little or no telomere growth had occurred after transfer from S. cerevisiae to S. pombe. A model is proposed to explain the genesis of the plasmids. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3896773

  3. Effects of sequential mixed cultures of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on apple cider fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mengqi; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong

    2014-09-01

    The fermentation of cider by mixed cultures of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to study their effect on the cider quality. The results showed that growth of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae was affected by each other during co-fermentation process. All the mixed cultures produced statistically the same level of ethanol as S. cerevisiae monoculture. The mixed fermentation could produce more variety and higher amounts of acetate esters, ethyl esters, higher alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that ciders obtained from co-fermentation with W. anomalus gained higher scores than ciders fermented by pure S. cerevisiae, especially the co-fermentation cultures WS3, WS4, WS6, and WS8. Only 3 days of fermentation with W. anomalus in sequential mixtures were enough to improve the quality of cider. Wickerhamomyces anomalus could be used in association with S. cerevisiae to improve the quality of cider. The modulation of inoculation time may provide an effective means of manipulating cider aroma for different characteristics. PMID:24931623

  4. Checkpoints Studies Using the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaorong; Liu, Lili; Huang, Mingxia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Methods are described here to monitor changes in protein level and subcellular localization during the cell cycle progression in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Cell synchronization is achieved by an ?-factor mediated block-and-release protocol. Cells are collected at different time points for the first two cell cycles upon release. Cellular DNA contents are analyzed by flow cytometry. Trichloroacetic acid protein precipitates are prepared for monitoring levels of cell cycle regulated proteins by Western blotting. The dynamic changes in protein subcellular localization patterns are examined by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. PMID:21870284

  5. Coregulation of starch degradation and dimorphism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vivier, M A; Lambrechts, M G; Pretorius, I S

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the exemplar unicellular eukaryote, can only survive and proliferate in its natural habitats through constant adaptation within the constraints of a dynamic ecosystem. In every cell cycle of S. cerevisiae, there is a short period in the G1 phase of the cell cycle where "sensing" transpires; if a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars is available, the cells will initiate another round of vegetative cell division. When fermentable sugars become limiting, the yeast can execute the diauxic shift, where it reprograms its metabolism to utilize nonfermentable carbon sources. S. cerevisiae can also initiate the developmental program of pseudohyphal formation and invasive growth response, when essential nutrients become limiting. S. cerevisiae shares this growth form-switching ability with important pathogens such as the human pathogen, Candida albicans, and the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis. The pseudohyphal growth response of S. cerevisiae has mainly been implicated as a means for the yeast to search for nutrients. An important observation made was that starch-degrading S. cerevisiae strains have the added ability to form pseudohyphae and grow invasively into a starch-containing medium. More significantly, it was also shown that the STA1-3 genes encoding three glucoamylase isozymes responsible for starch hydrolysis in S. cerevisiae are coregulated with a gene, MUC1, essential for pseudohyphal and invasive growth. At least two putative transcriptional activators, Mss10p and Mss11p, are involved in this regulation. The Muc1p is a putative integral membrane-bound protein similar to mammalian mucin-like proteins that have been implicated in the ability of cancer cells to invade other tissues. This provided us with an excellent example of integrative control between nutrient sensing, signaling, and differential development. PMID:9383611

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based system for studying clustered DNA damages

    SciTech Connect

    Moscariello, M.M.; Sutherland, B.

    2010-08-01

    DNA-damaging agents can induce clustered lesions or multiply damaged sites (MDSs) on the same or opposing DNA strands. In the latter, attempts to repair MDS can generate closely opposed single-strand break intermediates that may convert non-lethal or mutagenic base damage into double-strand breaks (DSBs). We constructed a diploid S. cerevisiae yeast strain with a chromosomal context targeted by integrative DNA fragments carrying different damages to determine whether closely opposed base damages are converted to DSBs following the outcomes of the homologous recombination repair pathway. As a model of MDS, we studied clustered uracil DNA damages with a known location and a defined distance separating the lesions. The system we describe might well be extended to assessing the repair of MDSs with different compositions, and to most of the complex DNA lesions induced by physical and chemical agents.

  7. Alteration of complex sphingolipid composition and its physiological significance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking vacuolar ATPase.

    PubMed

    Tani, Motohiro; Toume, Moeko

    2015-12-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complex sphingolipids have three types of polar head group and five types of ceramide; however, the physiological significance of the structural diversity is not fully understood. Here, we report that deletion of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in yeast causes dramatic alteration of the complex sphingolipid composition, which includes decreases in hydroxylation at the C-4 position of long-chain bases and the C-2 position of fatty acids in the ceramide moiety, decreases in inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) levels, and increases in mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) and mannosyldiinositol phosphorylceramide [M(IP)2C] levels. V-ATPase-deleted cells exhibited slow growth at pH?7.2, whereas the increase in MIPC levels was significantly enhanced when V-ATPase-deleted cells were incubated at pH?7.2. The protein expression levels of MIPC and M(IP)2C synthases were significantly increased in V-ATPase-deleted cells incubated at pH?7.2. Loss of MIPC synthesis or an increase in the hydroxylation level of the ceramide moiety of sphingolipids on overexpression of Scs7 and Sur2 sphingolipid hydroxylases enhanced the growth defect of V-ATPase-deleted cells at pH?7.2. On the contrary, the growth rate of V-ATPase-deleted cells was moderately increased on the deletion of SCS7 and SUR2. In addition, supersensitivities to Ca2+, Zn2+ and H2O2, which are typical phenotypes of V-ATPase-deleted cells, were enhanced by the loss of MIPC synthesis. These results indicate the possibility that alteration of the complex sphingolipid composition is an adaptation mechanism for a defect of V-ATPase. PMID:26404656

  8. The Cdc34/SCF ubiquitination complex mediates Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall integrity.

    PubMed

    Varelas, Xaralabos; Stuart, David; Ellison, Michael J; Ptak, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    To identify novel functions for the Cdc34/SCF ubiquitination complex, we analyzed genomewide transcriptional profiles of cdc53-1 and cdc34-2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants. This analysis revealed altered expression for several gene families, including genes involved in the regulation of cell wall organization and biosynthesis. This led us to uncover a role for the Cdc34/SCF complex in the regulation of cell wall integrity. In support of this, cdc53-1 and cdc34-2 mutants exhibit phenotypes characteristic of cell wall integrity mutants, such as SDS sensitivity and temperature-sensitive suppression by osmotic stabilizers. Examination of these mutants revealed defects in their induction of Slt2 phosphorylation, indicating defects in Pkc1-Slt2 MAPK signaling. Consistent with this, synthetic genetic interactions were observed between the genes encoding the Cdc34/SCF complex and key components of the Pck1-Slt2 MAPK pathway. Further analysis revealed that Cdc34/SCF mutants have reduced levels of active Rho1, suggesting that these defects stem from the deregulated activity of the Rho1 GTPase. Altering the activity of Rho1 via manipulation of the Rho1-GAPs LRG1 or SAC7 affected Cdc34/SCF mutant growth. Strikingly, however, deletion of LRG1 rescued the growth defects associated with Cdc34/SCF mutants, whereas deletion of SAC7 enhanced these defects. Given the differential roles that these GAPs play in the regulation of Rho1, these observations indicate the importance of coordinating Cdc34/SCF activity with specific Rho1 functions. PMID:17028344

  9. Characterization of a transport and detoxification pathway for the antitumour drug bleomycin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    BLM (bleomycin) is effective in combination therapy against various cancers including testicular cancer. However, several other cancers such as colon cancer are refractory to BLM treatment. The exact mechanism for this differential response of cancer cells to the drug is not known. In the present study, we created fluorescently labelled BLM-A5, which retained nearly full genotoxic potential, and used this molecule to conduct the first study to understand the transport pathway of the drug in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uptake studies revealed that fluoro-BLM-A5 is transported into the cell in a concentration-dependent manner. Transport of a non-saturating concentration of fluoro-BLM-A5 was modest for the first 90 min, but thereafter it was sharply induced until 300 min. The inducible transport was completely abolished by the addition of cycloheximide, suggesting that BLM-A5 uptake into the cell is dependent on new protein synthesis. Interestingly, transport of fluoro-BLM-A5 was blocked if the cells were preincubated with increasing concentrations of spermine. Moreover, a mutant lacking the Ptk2 kinase, necessary for positively regulating polyamine transport, was defective in fluoro-BLM-A5 uptake and exhibited extreme resistance to the drug. A simple interpretation of these results is that BLM-A5 may enter the cell through the polyamine transport system. We showed further that after the uptake, fluoro-BLM-A5 accumulated into the vacuole of the parent, but localized to the cytoplasm of mutants disrupted for the END3 gene required for an early step of the endocytotic pathway. In general, mutants with a defect in the endocytic pathway to the vacuole were hypersensitive to BLM-A5. We suggest that BLM-A5 is transported across the yeast plasma membrane and sequestered into the vacuole for detoxification. PMID:15248838

  10. Genome structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain widely used in bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Argueso, Juan Lucas; Carazzolle, Marcelo F.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Duarte, Fabiana M.; Netto, Osmar V.C.; Missawa, Silvia K.; Galzerani, Felipe; Costa, Gustavo G.L.; Vidal, Ramon O.; Noronha, Melline F.; Dominska, Margaret; Andrietta, Maria G.S.; Andrietta, Sílvio R.; Cunha, Anderson F.; Gomes, Luiz H.; Tavares, Flavio C.A.; Alcarde, André R.; Dietrich, Fred S.; McCusker, John H.; Petes, Thomas D.; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Bioethanol is a biofuel produced mainly from the fermentation of carbohydrates derived from agricultural feedstocks by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the most widely adopted strains is PE-2, a heterothallic diploid naturally adapted to the sugar cane fermentation process used in Brazil. Here we report the molecular genetic analysis of a PE-2 derived diploid (JAY270), and the complete genome sequence of a haploid derivative (JAY291). The JAY270 genome is highly heterozygous (?2 SNPs/kb) and has several structural polymorphisms between homologous chromosomes. These chromosomal rearrangements are confined to the peripheral regions of the chromosomes, with breakpoints within repetitive DNA sequences. Despite its complex karyotype, this diploid, when sporulated, had a high frequency of viable spores. Hybrid diploids formed by outcrossing with the laboratory strain S288c also displayed good spore viability. Thus, the rearrangements that exist near the ends of chromosomes do not impair meiosis, as they do not span regions that contain essential genes. This observation is consistent with a model in which the peripheral regions of chromosomes represent plastic domains of the genome that are free to recombine ectopically and experiment with alternative structures. We also explored features of the JAY270 and JAY291 genomes that help explain their high adaptation to industrial environments, exhibiting desirable phenotypes such as high ethanol and cell mass production and high temperature and oxidative stress tolerance. The genomic manipulation of such strains could enable the creation of a new generation of industrial organisms, ideally suited for use as delivery vehicles for future bioenergy technologies. PMID:19812109

  11. Similarities and differences in the biochemical and enzymological properties of the four isomaltases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu; Petitjean, Marjorie; Teste, Marie-Ange; Kooli, Wafa; Tranier, Samuel; François, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterization of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the ?-(1,6) disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis-Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyze trisaccharides bearing an ?-(1,6) linkage, but also ?-(1,2), ?-(1,3) and ?-(1,5) disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for ?-(1,6) substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties. PMID:24649402

  12. Cell wall structure suitable for surface display of proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kazuya; Saijo, Aki; Takada, Yuki; Kondo, Akihiko; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Ooshima, Hiroshi; Tachibana, Taro; Azuma, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    A display system for adding new protein functions to the cell surfaces of microorganisms has been developed, and applications of the system to various fields have been proposed. With the aim of constructing a cell surface environment suitable for protein display in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cell surface structures of cell wall mutants were investigated. Four cell wall mutant strains were selected by analyses using a GFP display system via a GPI anchor. ?-Glucosidase and endoglucanase II were displayed on the cell surface in the four mutants, and their activities were evaluated. mnn2 deletion strain exhibited the highest activity for both the enzymes. In particular, endoglucanase II activity using carboxymethylcellulose as a substrate in the mutant strain was 1.9-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In addition, the activity of endoglucanase II released from the mnn2 deletion strain by Zymolyase 20T treatment was higher than that from the wild-type strain. The results of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and endoglucanase displays suggest that the amounts of enzyme displayed on the cell surface were increased by the mnn2 deletion. The enzyme activity of the mnn2 deletion strain was compared with that of the wild-type strain. The relative value (mnn2 deletion mutant/wild-type strain) of endoglucanase II activity using carboxymethylcellulose as a substrate was higher than that of ?-glucosidase activity using p-nitrophenyl-?-glucopyranoside as a substrate, suggesting that the cell surface environment of the mnn2 deletion strain facilitates the binding of high-molecular-weight substrates to the active sites of the displayed enzymes. PMID:24357429

  13. Enhanced hexose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through integration of stoichiometric modeling and genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Josh; Kim, Soo Rin; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-01-20

    In order to determine beneficial gene deletions for ethanol production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed an in silico gene deletion experiment based on a genome-scale metabolic model. Genes coding for two oxidative phosphorylation reactions (cytochrome c oxidase and ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase) were identified by the model-based simulation as potential deletion targets for enhancing ethanol production and maintaining acceptable overall growth rate in oxygen-limited conditions. Since the two target enzymes are composed of multiple subunits, we conducted a genetic screening study to evaluate the in silico results and compare the effect of deleting various portions of the respiratory enzyme complexes. Over two-thirds of the knockout mutants identified by the in silico study did exhibit experimental behavior in qualitative agreement with model predictions, but the exceptions illustrate the limitation of using a purely stoichiometric model-based approach. Furthermore, there was a substantial quantitative variation in phenotype among the various respiration-deficient mutants that were screened in this study, and three genes encoding respiratory enzyme subunits were identified as the best knockout targets for improving hexose fermentation in microaerobic conditions. Specifically, deletion of either COX9 or QCR9 resulted in higher ethanol production rates than the parental strain by 37% and 27%, respectively, with slight growth disadvantages. Also, deletion of QCR6 led to improved ethanol production rate by 24% with no growth disadvantage. The beneficial effects of these gene deletions were consistently demonstrated in different strain backgrounds and with four common hexoses. The combination of stoichiometric modeling and genetic screening using a systematic knockout collection was useful for narrowing a large set of gene targets and identifying targets of interest. PMID:25435378

  14. Genome structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain widely used in bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Argueso, Juan Lucas; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Duarte, Fabiana M; Netto, Osmar V C; Missawa, Silvia K; Galzerani, Felipe; Costa, Gustavo G L; Vidal, Ramon O; Noronha, Melline F; Dominska, Margaret; Andrietta, Maria G S; Andrietta, Sílvio R; Cunha, Anderson F; Gomes, Luiz H; Tavares, Flavio C A; Alcarde, André R; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H; Petes, Thomas D; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2009-12-01

    Bioethanol is a biofuel produced mainly from the fermentation of carbohydrates derived from agricultural feedstocks by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the most widely adopted strains is PE-2, a heterothallic diploid naturally adapted to the sugar cane fermentation process used in Brazil. Here we report the molecular genetic analysis of a PE-2 derived diploid (JAY270), and the complete genome sequence of a haploid derivative (JAY291). The JAY270 genome is highly heterozygous (approximately 2 SNPs/kb) and has several structural polymorphisms between homologous chromosomes. These chromosomal rearrangements are confined to the peripheral regions of the chromosomes, with breakpoints within repetitive DNA sequences. Despite its complex karyotype, this diploid, when sporulated, had a high frequency of viable spores. Hybrid diploids formed by outcrossing with the laboratory strain S288c also displayed good spore viability. Thus, the rearrangements that exist near the ends of chromosomes do not impair meiosis, as they do not span regions that contain essential genes. This observation is consistent with a model in which the peripheral regions of chromosomes represent plastic domains of the genome that are free to recombine ectopically and experiment with alternative structures. We also explored features of the JAY270 and JAY291 genomes that help explain their high adaptation to industrial environments, exhibiting desirable phenotypes such as high ethanol and cell mass production and high temperature and oxidative stress tolerance. The genomic manipulation of such strains could enable the creation of a new generation of industrial organisms, ideally suited for use as delivery vehicles for future bioenergy technologies. PMID:19812109

  15. PKA-chromatin association at stress responsive target genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Baccarini, Leticia; Martínez-Montañés, Fernando; Rossi, Silvia; Proft, Markus; Portela, Paula

    2015-11-01

    Gene expression regulation by intracellular stimulus-activated protein kinases is essential for cell adaptation to environmental changes. There are three PKA catalytic subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Tpk1, Tpk2, and Tpk3 and one regulatory subunit: Bcy1. Previously, it has been demonstrated that Tpk1 and Tpk2 are associated with coding regions and promoters of target genes in a carbon source and oxidative stress dependent manner. Here we studied five genes, ALD6, SED1, HSP42, RPS29B, and RPL1B whose expression is regulated by saline stress. We found that PKA catalytic and regulatory subunits are associated with both coding regions and promoters of the analyzed genes in a stress dependent manner. Tpk1 and Tpk2 recruitment was completely abolished in catalytic inactive mutants. BCY1 deletion changed the binding kinetic to chromatin of each Tpk isoform and this strain displayed a deregulated gene expression in response to osmotic stress. In addition, yeast mutants with high PKA activity exhibit sustained association to target genes of chromatin-remodeling complexes such as Snf2-catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex and Arp8-component of INO80 complex, leading to upregulation of gene expression during osmotic stress. Tpk1 accumulation in the nucleus was stimulated upon osmotic stress, while the nuclear localization of Tpk2 and Bcy1 showed no change. We found that each PKA subunit is transported into the nucleus by a different ?-karyopherin pathway. Moreover, ?-karyopherin mutant strains abolished the chromatin association of Tpk1 or Tpk2, suggesting that nuclear localization of PKA catalytic subunits is required for its association to target genes and properly gene expression. PMID:26403272

  16. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae spindle pole body duplication gene MPS1 is part of a mitotic checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    M-phase checkpoints inhibit cell division when mitotic spindle function is perturbed. Here we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS1 gene product, an essential protein kinase required for spindle pole body (SPB) duplication (Winey et al., 1991; Lauze et al., 1995), is also required for M-phase check-point function. In cdc31-2 and mps2-1 mutants, conditional failure of SPB duplication results in cell cycle arrest with high p34CDC28 kinase activity that depends on the presence of the wild-type MAD1 checkpoint gene, consistent with checkpoint arrest of mitosis. In contrast, mps1 mutant cells fail to duplicate their SPBs and do not arrest division at 37 degrees C, exhibiting a normal cycle of p34CDC28 kinase activity despite the presence of a monopolar spindle. Double mutant cdc31-2, mps1-1 cells also fail to arrest mitosis at 37 degrees C, despite having SPB structures similar to cdc31-2 single mutants as determined by EM analysis. Arrest of mitosis upon microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole is also conditionally absent in mps1 strains. This is observed in mps1 cells synchronized in S phase with hydroxyurea before exposure to nocodazole, indicating that failure of checkpoint function in mps1 cells is independent of SPB duplication failure. In contrast, hydroxyurea arrest and a number of other cdc mutant arrest phenotypes are unaffected by mps1 alleles. We propose that the essential MPS1 protein kinase functions both in SPB duplication and in a mitotic checkpoint monitoring spindle integrity. PMID:8567717

  17. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISA1 and ISA2 in Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Laran T.; Culotta, Valeria Cizewski

    2000-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two homologues of bacterial IscA proteins, designated Isa1p and Isa2p. Bacterial IscA is a product of the isc (iron-sulfur cluster) operon and has been suggested to participate in Fe-S cluster formation or repair. To test the function of yeast Isa1p and Isa2p, single or combinatorial disruptions were introduced in ISA1 and ISA2. The resultant isa? mutants were viable but exhibited a dependency on lysine and glutamate for growth and a respiratory deficiency due to an accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA. As with other yeast genes proposed to function in Fe-S cluster assembly, mitochondrial iron concentration was significantly elevated in the isa mutants, and the activities of the Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase were dramatically reduced. An inspection of Isa-like proteins from bacteria to mammals revealed three invariant cysteine residues, which in the case of Isa1p and Isa2p are essential for function and may be involved in iron binding. As predicted, Isa1p is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. However, Isa2p is present within the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. Our deletion analyses revealed that Isa2p harbors a bipartite N-terminal leader sequence containing a mitochondrial import signal linked to a second sequence that targets Isa2p to the intermembrane space. Both signals are needed for Isa2p function. A model for the nonredundant roles of Isa1p and Isa2p in delivering iron to sites of the Fe-S cluster assembly is discussed. PMID:10805735

  18. Analysis of antibody production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of ER protein quality control disruption.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, Jorg C; Frey, Alexander D

    2015-11-01

    One of the main limitations for heterologous protein production in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the protein-folding capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Accumulation of unfolded proteins triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which resolves the stress by increasing the capacity for protein folding and removal of unfolded proteins by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) system. In order to analyze the influence of ERAD on production of a human IgG, we disrupted ERAD at different stages by deletion of the HTM1, YOS9, HRD1, HRD3, or UBC7 gene, with or without a disruption of the UPR by deletion of the IRE1 gene. All deletion strains were viable and did not exhibit a growth phenotype under normal growth conditions. Deletion of HTM1 resulted in a small increase in antibody production, whereas a small decrease in antibody production was observed in the ?hrd1, ?hrd3, and ?ubc7 yeast strains, and a stronger decrease in the ?yos9 yeast strain. Deletion of the IRE1 gene had contrasting effects in the ERAD mutants, with a strongly decreased production in wild-type cells and partially reversed effects in combination with the ?htm1 or the ?yos9 deletions. In order to study IgG clearance from the ER, an assay was developed using the inhibitory effect of glucose on the GAL1 promoter that is driving IgG expression. The ?yos9?ire1and ?htm1?ire1 strains showed a delayed IgG clearance from the cells, showing that removal of components for the generation and recognition of the glycan signal needed for ERAD-mediated protein degradation might increase the IgG ER residence time. PMID:26184977

  19. Enological characterization of Spanish Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strains, one of the closest relatives to parental strains of winemaking and brewing Saccharomyces cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids.

    PubMed

    Peris, D; Pérez-Través, L; Belloch, C; Querol, A

    2016-02-01

    Wine fermentation and innovation have focused mostly on Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. However, recent studies have shown that other Saccharomyces species can also be involved in wine fermentation or are useful for wine bouquet, such as Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Many interspecies hybrids have also been isolated from wine fermentation, such as S. cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity and fermentation performance of Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains, which we compared to other S. kudriavzevii strains. Fermentations of red and white grape musts were performed, and the phenotypic differences between Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains under different temperature conditions were examined. An ANOVA analysis suggested striking similarity between strains for glycerol and ethanol production, although a high diversity of aromatic profiles among fermentations was found. The sources of these phenotypic differences are not well understood and require further investigation. Although the Spanish S. kudriavzevii strains showed desirable properties, particularly must fermentations, the quality of their wines was no better than those produced with a commercial S. cerevisiae. We suggest hybridization or directed evolution as methods to improve and innovate wine. PMID:26678127

  20. Genome-wide construction of a series of designed segmental aneuploids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Natesuntorn, Waranya; Iwami, Kotaro; Matsubara, Yuki; Sasano, Yu; Sugiyama, Minetaka; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Segmental aneuploidy can play an important role in environmental adaptation. However, study of segmental aneuploids is severely hampered by the difficulty of creating them in a designed fashion. Here, we describe a PCR-mediated chromosome duplication (PCDup) technology that enables the generation of segmental aneuploidy at any desired chromosomal region in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed multiple strains harboring 100?kb to 200?kb segmental duplications covering the whole of the S. cerevisiae genome. Interestingly, some segmental aneuploidies confer stress tolerance, such as to high temperature, ethanol and strong acids, while others induce cell lethality and stress sensitivity, presumably as result of the simultaneous increases in dosages of multiple genes. We suggest that our PCDup technology will accelerate studies into the phenotypic changes resulting from alteration of gene dosage balance of multiple genes and will provide new insights into the adaptive molecular mechanisms in the genome in segmental aneuploidy-derived human diseases. PMID:26224198

  1. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Hsp33 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye-Yun; Teng, Mai-Kun; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2007-02-01

    Heat-shock protein Hsp33 from S. cerevisiae was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The heat-shock protein Hsp33 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A crystal was obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and a data set was collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.43, c = 132.22 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. The asymmetric unit is assumed to contain two subunits of Hsp33, with a V{sub M} value of 2.96 Å{sup 3} Da{sup ?1} and a solvent content of 58.41%.

  3. Effects of aeration on formation and localization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Jahnke, L.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that two different forms of the enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) are present, depending on the conditions under which the cells are grown. The paper evaluates the usefulness of a method designed to assay both synthetases simultaneously in yeast homogenates. The data presented confirm the possibility of simultaneous detection and estimation of the amount of both ACSs of S. cerevisiae in crude homogenates of this strain, making possible the study of physiological factors involved in the formation of these isoenzymes. One important factor for specifying which of the two enzymes is found in these yeast cells is the presence or absence of oxygen in their environment. Aeration not only affects the ratio of the two ACSs but also appears to affect the cellular distribution of these enzymes. Most of the data presented suggest the possibility that the nonaerobic ACS may serve as a precursor to the aerobic form.

  4. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  5. Positive selection of general amino acid permease mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rytka, J

    1975-01-01

    It was found that D-stereoisomers of natural amino acids inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Kinetic and genetic evidence showed that d-amino acids enter the cell by the general amino acid permease. Two classes of S. cerevisiae mutants resistant to d-amino acids were isolated. One class of mutants appeared to be defective in the general amino acid permease specified by the gene gap. In the second class, the activity of general amino acid permease was affected by ammonium ions. Mutants of the second class were isolated in a yeast strain with the general amino acid permease insensitive to the presence of ammonium ions in culture media. The mutation affecting the permease, amc, occurred in a locus unlinked to gap. PMID:1089636

  6. Determination of the intracellular concentration of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dombek, K.M.; Ingram, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists concerning the intracellular concentration of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation. This controversy results from problems in the measurement of the intracellular concentration of compounds like ethanol, which are being produced rapidly by metabolism and potentially diffuse rapidly from the cell. A new method was used for the determination of intracellular ethanol based on the exclusion of (/sup 14/C)sorbitol to estimate the aqueous cell volume. This method avoided many of the technical problems in previous reports. Results indicate that the intracellular concentrations of ethanol in fermenting suspension of S. cerevisiae are less than or equal to those in the extracellular environment and do not increase to the high levels previously reported even during the most active stages of batch fermentation.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Lee, Woo Cheol; Ono, Yusuke; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori; Tanokura, Masaru

    2006-10-01

    CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase from S. cerevisiae has been expressed, purified and crystallized. CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT) is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphoethanolamine to CDP-ethanolamine in the phosphatidylethanolamine-biosynthetic pathway (Kennedy pathway). ECT from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as precipitant. The crystals diffracted X-rays from a synchrotron-radiation source to 1.88 Å resolution. The space group was assigned as primitive tetragonal, P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.3, c = 150.8 Å. The crystals contain one ECT molecule in the asymmetric unit (V{sub M} = 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup ?1}), with a solvent content of 43%.

  8. Assembly of bacteriophage Qbeta virus-like particles in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Freivalds, Janis; Dislers, Andris; Ose, Velta; Skrastina, Dace; Cielens, Indulis; Pumpens, Paul; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Kazaks, Andris

    2006-05-29

    Recombinant bacteriophage Qbeta coat protein (CP), which has been proposed as a promising carrier of foreign epitopes via their incorporation either by gene engineering techniques or by chemical coupling, efficiently self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed in Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate expression and self-assembly of Qbeta CP in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Production reached 3-4 mg/1g of wet cells for S. cerevisiae and 4-6 mg for P. pastoris, which was about 15-20% and 20-30% of the E. coli expression level, respectively. Qbeta VLPs were easily purified by size-exclusion chromatography in both cases and contained nucleic acid, shown by native agarose gel electrophoresis. The obtained particles were highly immunogenic in mice and the resulting sera recognized both E. coli- and yeast-derived Qbeta VLPs equally well. PMID:16406160

  9. Changes and roles of membrane compositions in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Shuxian; Liu, Huaqing; Zhang, Lei; Yi, Chenfeng; Li, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Bioethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often stressed by the accumulation of ethanol. Cell membrane is the first assaulting target of ethanol. Ethanol-adapted S. cerevisiae strains provide opportunity to shed light on membrane functions in the ethanol tolerance. This study aimed at clarifying the roles of cell membrane in the ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae through comparing membrane components between S. cerevisiae parental strain and ethanol-adapted strains. A directed evolutionary engineering was performed to obtain the ethanol-adapted S. cerevisiae strains. The parental, ethanol-adapted M5 and M10 strains were selected to be compared the percentage of viable cells after exposing to ethanol stress and cell membrane compositions (i.e., ergosterol, trehalose, and fatty acids). Compared with the parental strain, M5 or M10 strain had higher survival rate in the presence of 10% v/v ethanol. Compared with that in the parental strain, contents of trehalose, ergosterol, and fatty acids increased about 15.7, 12.1, and 29.3%, respectively, in M5 strain, and about 47.5, 107.8, and 61.5%, respectively, in M10 strain. Moreover, expression differences of genes involved in fatty acids metabolisms among the parental, M5 and M10 strains were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and results demonstrated that M5 or M10 strain had higher expression of ACC1 and OLE1 than the parental strain. These results indicated that although being exposed to step-wise increased ethanol, S. cerevisiae cells might remodel membrane components or structure to adapt to the ethanol stress. PMID:26265555

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae GTPase complex: Gtr1p-Gtr2p regulates cell-proliferation through Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran-binding protein, Yrb2p

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yonggang; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Sekiguchi, Takeshi . E-mail: sekigu@molbiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2005-10-21

    A Gtr1p GTPase, the GDP mutant of which suppresses both temperature-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RanGEF/Prp20p and RanGAP/Rna1p, was presently found to interact with Yrb2p, the S. cerevisiae homologue of mammalian Ran-binding protein 3. Gtr1p bound the Ran-binding domain of Yrb2p. In contrast, Gtr2p, a partner of Gtr1p, did not bind Yrb2p, although it bound Gtr1p. A triple mutant: yrb2{delta} gtr1{delta} gtr2{delta} was lethal, while a double mutant: gtr1{delta} gtr2{delta} survived well, indicating that Yrb2p protected cells from the killing effect of gtr1{delta} gtr2{delta}. Recombinant Gtr1p and Gtr2p were purified as a complex from Escherichia coli. The resulting Gtr1p-Gtr2p complex was comprised of an equal amount of Gtr1p and Gtr2p, which inhibited the Rna1p/Yrb2 dependent RanGAP activity. Thus, the Gtr1p-Gtr2p cycle was suggested to regulate the Ran cycle through Yrb2p.

  11. Oxygen requirements for formation and activity of the squalene expoxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on squalene epoxidase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. In cells grown in standing cultures, the epoxidase was localized mainly in the 'mitochondrial' fraction. Upon aeration, enzyme activity increased and the newly formed enzyme was associated with the 'microsomal' fraction. At 0.03 percent (vol/vol) oxygen, epoxidase levels doubled, whereas the ergosterol level was only slightly increased. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in epoxidase under these conditions. An apparent K sub m for oxygen of 0.38 percent (vol/vol) was determined from a crude particulate preparation for the epoxidase.

  12. Invert sugar formation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells encapsulated in magnetically responsive alginate microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Sabatkova, Zdenka; Safarikova, Mirka

    2009-05-01

    Invert sugar (an equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose prepared by sucrose hydrolysis) is a very important food component. We have prepared magnetically responsive alginate microbeads containing entrapped Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and magnetite microparticles which can be easily separated in an appropriate magnetic separator. The microbeads (typical diameter between 50 and 100 ?m) were prepared using the water-in-oil emulsification process. The prepared microbeads containing yeast cells with invertase activity enabled efficient sucrose conversion. The biocatalyst was quite stable; the same catalytic activity was observed after one month storage at 4 °C and the microbeads could be used at least six times.

  13. Effect of treatment medium on induction of aneuploidy by nocodazole in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Mayer, R.E.; Mayer, V.W.; Goin, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    While studying ways to improve responsiveness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D61.M to agents that induce aneuploidy, the authors noted that nocodazole, which strongly induces aneuploidy when yeast cells are treated in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YEPD) medium, had no effect when a synthetic complete (SC) medium was used. Further study revealed that the presence of peptone was necessary for induction. Other aneuploidy-inducing agents, including ethyl acetate, acetone, and methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate (MBC), were equally active in either medium. Benomyl, which degrades to MBC, was less active in SC than in YEPD medium.

  14. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Cuprous-Thiolate Clusters in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Pickering, I.J.; Winge, D.R.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    Copper (Cu) metallothioneins are cuprous-thiolate proteins that contain multimetallic clusters, and are thought to have dual functions of Cu storage and Cu detoxification. We have used a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density-functional theory (DFT) to investigate the nature of Cu binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae metallothionein. We found that the XAS of metallothionein prepared, containing a full complement of Cu, was quantitatively consistent with the crystal structure, and that reconstitution of the apo-metallothionein with stoichiometric Cu results in the formation of a tetracopper cluster, indicating cooperative binding of the Cu ions by the metallothionein.

  15. Polyphosphatase PPN1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Switching of Exopolyphosphatase and Endopolyphosphatase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Andreeva, Nadezhda; Trilisenko, Ludmila; Eldarov, Mikhail; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The polyphosphatase PPN1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows an exopolyphosphatase activity splitting phosphate from chain end and an endopolyphosphatase activity fragmenting high molecular inorganic polyphosphates into shorter polymers. We revealed the compounds switching these activities of PPN1. Phosphate release and fragmentation of high molecular polyphosphate prevailed in the presence of Co2+ and Mg2+, respectively. Phosphate release and polyphosphate chain shortening in the presence of Co2+ were inhibited by ADP but not affected by ATP and arginin?. The polyphosphate chain shortening in the presence of Mg2+ was activated by ADP and arginine but inhibited by ATP. PMID:25742176

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 cooperates with MRX-Sae2 in promoting DNA-end resection.

    PubMed

    Martina, Marina; Bonetti, Diego; Villa, Matteo; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2014-06-01

    Diverse roles in DNA metabolism have been envisaged for budding yeast and mammalian Rif1. In particular, yeast Rif1 is involved in telomere homeostasis, while its mammalian counterpart participates in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 supports cell survival to DNA lesions in the absence of MRX or Sae2. Furthermore, it contributes to the nucleolytic processing (resection) of DSBs. This Rif1-dependent control of DSB resection becomes important for DSB repair by homologous recombination when resection activities are suboptimal. PMID:24692507

  17. A highly tunable system for the simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoichiro; Yamanishi, Mamoru; Ikeuchi, Akinori; Matsuyama, Takashi

    2015-01-16

    Control of the expression levels of multiple enzymes in transgenic yeasts is essential for the effective production of complex molecules through fermentation. Here, we propose a tunable strategy for the control of expression levels based on the design of terminator regions and other gene-expression control elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our genome-integrated system, which is capable of producing high expression levels over a wide dynamic range, will broadly enable metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. We demonstrated that the activities of multiple cellulases and the production of ethanol were doubled in a transgenic yeast constructed with our system compared with those achieved with a standard expression system. PMID:24927017

  18. The pentafunctional arom enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a mosaic of monofunctional domains.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, K; Edwards, R M; Coggins, J R

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO1 gene which encodes the arom multifunctional enzyme has been determined. The protein sequence deduced for the pentafunctional arom polypeptide is 1588 amino acids in length and has a calculated Mr of 174555. Functional regions within the polypeptide chain have been identified by comparison with the sequences of the five monofunctional Escherichia coli enzymes whose activities correspond with those of the arom multifunctional enzyme. The observed homologies demonstrate that the arom polypeptide is a mosaic of functional domains and are consistent with the hypothesis that the ARO1 gene evolved by the linking of ancestral E. coli-like genes. PMID:2825635

  19. Isolation of Cytokinetic Actomyosin Rings from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junqi; Mishra, Mithilesh; Palani, Saravanan; Chew, Ting Gang; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis is the final stage of cell division, through which cellular constituents of mother cells are partitioned into two daughter cells resulting in the increase in cell number. In animal and fungal cells cytokinesis is mediated by an actomyosin contractile ring, which is attached to the overlying cell membrane. Contraction of this ring after chromosome segregation physically severs the mother cell into two daughters. Here we describe methods for the isolation and partial purification of the actomyosin ring from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can serve as in vitro systems to facilitate biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of cytokinesis in these genetically tractable model systems. PMID:26519310

  20. Mitotic chromosome loss in a radiation-sensitive strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, R K; Contopoulou, R; Schild, D

    1981-01-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutations in the RAD52 gene have previously been shown to be defective in meiotic and mitotic recombination, in sporulation, and in repair of radiation-induced damage to DNA. In this study we show that diploid cells homozygous for rad52 lose chromosomes at high frequencies and that these frequencies of loss can be increased dramatically by exposure of these cells to x-rays. Genetic analyses of survivors of x-ray treatment demonstrate that chromosome loss events result in the conversion of diploid cells to cells with near-haploid chromosome numbers. Images PMID:7029545

  1. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2009-07-15

    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides. PMID:19500622

  2. Genomic reconstruction to improve bioethanol and ergosterol production of industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Kehui; Di, Yanan; Wang, Pinmei; Zhang, Chunfang; Wu, Xuechang; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2015-02-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is the common yeast used in the fields of bread making, brewing, and bioethanol production. Growth rate, stress tolerance, ethanol titer, and byproducts yields are some of the most important agronomic traits of S. cerevisiae for industrial applications. Here, we developed a novel method of constructing S. cerevisiae strains for co-producing bioethanol and ergosterol. The genome of an industrial S. cerevisiae strain, ZTW1, was first reconstructed through treatment with an antimitotic drug followed by sporulation and hybridization. A total of 140 mutants were selected for ethanol fermentation testing, and a significant positive correlation between ergosterol content and ethanol production was observed. The highest performing mutant, ZG27, produced 7.9 % more ethanol and 43.2 % more ergosterol than ZTW1 at the end of fermentation. Chromosomal karyotyping and proteome analysis of ZG27 and ZTW1 suggested that this breeding strategy caused large-scale genome structural variations and global gene expression diversities in the mutants. Genetic manipulation further demonstrated that the altered expression activity of some genes (such as ERG1, ERG9, and ERG11) involved in ergosterol synthesis partly explained the trait improvement in ZG27. PMID:25475753

  3. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  4. Engineering the robustness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing bifunctional glutathione synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhiqi; Deng, Zujun; Tan, Hongming; Zhou, Shining; Cao, Lixiang

    2015-04-01

    Robust, high-yielding Saccharomyces cerevisiae is highly desirable for cost-effective cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, the bifunctional glutathione (GSH) synthetase genes GCSGS at high copy number was integrated into ribosomal DNA of S. cerevisiae by Cre-LoxP system. Threefold higher GSH contents (54.9 ?mol/g dry weight) accumulated in the engineered strain BY-G compared to the reference strain. Tolerance of BY-G to H2O2 (3 mM), temperature (40 °C), furfural (10 mM), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, 10 mM) and 0.5 mM Cd(2+) increased compared to reference strain. Twofold higher ethanol concentration was obtained by BY-G in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn stover compared to the reference strain. The results showed that intracellular GSH content of S. cerevisiae has an influence on robustness. The strategy is used to engineer S. cerevisiae strains adaptive to a combination of tolerance to inhibitors and raised temperature that may occur in high solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstocks. PMID:25561319

  5. Mapping of transcription start sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using 5? SAGE

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihong; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2005-01-01

    A minimally addressed area in Saccharomyces cerevisiae research is the mapping of transcription start sites (TSS). Mapping of TSS in S.cerevisiae has the potential to contribute to our understanding of gene regulation, transcription, mRNA stability and aspects of RNA biology. Here, we use 5? SAGE to map 5? TSS in S.cerevisiae. Tags identifying the first 15–17 bases of the transcripts are created, ligated to form ditags, amplified, concatemerized and ligated into a vector to create a library. Each clone sequenced from this library identifies 10–20 TSS. We have identified 13 746 unique, unambiguous sequence tags from 2231 S.cerevisiae genes. TSS identified in this study are consistent with published results, with primer extension results described here, and are consistent with expectations based on previous work on transcription initiation. We have aligned the sequence flanking 4637 TSS to identify the consensus sequence A(Arich)5NPyA(A/T)NN(Arich)6, which confirms and expands the previous reported PyA(A/T)Pu consensus pattern. The TSS data allowed the identification of a previously unrecognized gene, uncovered errors in previous annotation, and identified potential regulatory RNAs and upstream open reading frames in 5?-untranslated region. PMID:15905473

  6. Phenotypic Landscape of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Wine Fermentation: Evidence for Origin-Dependent Metabolic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Camarasa, Carole; Sanchez, Isabelle; Brial, Pascale; Bigey, Frédéric; Dequin, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The species Saccharomyces cerevisiae includes natural strains, clinical isolates, and a large number of strains used in human activities. The aim of this work was to investigate how the adaptation to a broad range of ecological niches may have selectively shaped the yeast metabolic network to generate specific phenotypes. Using 72 S. cerevisiae strains collected from various sources, we provide, for the first time, a population-scale picture of the fermentative metabolic traits found in the S. cerevisiae species under wine making conditions. Considerable phenotypic variation was found suggesting that this yeast employs diverse metabolic strategies to face environmental constraints. Several groups of strains can be distinguished from the entire population on the basis of specific traits. Strains accustomed to growing in the presence of high sugar concentrations, such as wine yeasts and strains obtained from fruits, were able to achieve fermentation, whereas natural yeasts isolated from “poor-sugar” environments, such as oak trees or plants, were not. Commercial wine yeasts clearly appeared as a subset of vineyard isolates, and were mainly differentiated by their fermentative performances as well as their low acetate production. Overall, the emergence of the origin-dependent properties of the strains provides evidence for a phenotypic evolution driven by environmental constraints and/or human selection within S. cerevisiae. PMID:21949874

  7. D-xylulose fermentation to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Gong, C.S. Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial bakers' yeast (S. cerevisiae) was used to study the conversion of D-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of D-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for D-xylulose fermentation was 35 degrees, and the optimal pH range was 4-6. The fermentation of D-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as by temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of D-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of greater than 4%. The slow conversion rate of C-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from D-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield.

  8. Impact of Acute Metal Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Glaser, Walter; Schüller, Christoph; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Although considered as essential cofactors for a variety of enzymatic reactions and for important structural and functional roles in cell metabolism, metals at high concentrations are potent toxic pollutants and pose complex biochemical problems for cells. We report results of single dose acute toxicity testing in the model organism S. cerevisiae. The effects of moderate toxic concentrations of 10 different human health relevant metals, Ag+, Al3+, As3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, V3+, and Zn2+, following short-term exposure were analyzed by transcription profiling to provide the identification of early-on target genes or pathways. In contrast to common acute toxicity tests where defined endpoints are monitored we focused on the entire genomic response. We provide evidence that the induction of central elements of the oxidative stress response by the majority of investigated metals is the basic detoxification process against short-term metal exposure. General detoxification mechanisms also comprised the induction of genes coding for chaperones and those for chelation of metal ions via siderophores and amino acids. Hierarchical clustering, transcription factor analyses, and gene ontology data further revealed activation of genes involved in metal-specific protein catabolism along with repression of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis. Metal ion group specific differences in the expression responses with shared transcriptional regulators for both, up-regulation and repression were also observed. Additionally, some processes unique for individual metals were evident as well. In view of current concerns regarding environmental pollution our results may support ongoing attempts to develop methods to monitor potentially hazardous areas or liquids and to establish standardized tests using suitable eukaryotic a model organism. PMID:24416162

  9. Changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell membrane components and promotion to ethanol tolerance during the bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi-Jun; Yi, Chen-Feng; Li, Hao

    2015-12-01

    During bioethanol fermentation process, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell membrane might provide main protection to tolerate accumulated ethanol, and S. cerevisiae cells might also remodel their membrane compositions or structure to try to adapt to or tolerate the ethanol stress. However, the exact changes and roles of S. cerevisiae cell membrane components during bioethanol fermentation still remains poorly understood. This study was performed to clarify changes and roles of S. cerevisiae cell membrane components during bioethanol fermentation. Both cell diameter and membrane integrity decreased as fermentation time lasting. Moreover, compared with cells at lag phase, cells at exponential and stationary phases had higher contents of ergosterol and oleic acid (C18:1) but lower levels of hexadecanoic (C16:0) and palmitelaidic (C16:1) acids. Contents of most detected phospholipids presented an increase tendency during fermentation process. Increased contents of oleic acid and phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids might indicate enhanced cell membrane fluidity. Compared with cells at lag phase, cells at exponential and stationary phases had higher expressions of ACC1 and HFA1. However, OLE1 expression underwent an evident increase at exponential phase but a decrease at following stationary phase. These results indicated that during bioethanol fermentation process, yeast cells remodeled membrane and more changeable cell membrane contributed to acquiring higher ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells. These results highlighted our knowledge about relationship between the variation of cell membrane structure and compositions and ethanol tolerance, and would contribute to a better understanding of bioethanol fermentation process and construction of industrial ethanologenic strains with higher ethanol tolerance. PMID:26515124

  10. [Downregulation of lanosterol synthase gene expression by antisense RNA technology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-hua; Gao, Li-li; Liang, Hui-chao; Du, Guo-hua; Gong, Ting; Yang, Jin-ling; Zhu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene is the key branch point of ergosterol and triterpenoid biosynthesis. Downregulation of 2,3-oxidosqualene metabolic flux to ergosterol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae may redirect the metabolic flux toward the triterpenoid synthetic pathway. In our study, primers were designed according to erg7 gene sequence of S. cerevisiae. Three fragments including 5' long fragment, 5' short fragment and erg7 coding region fragment were amplified by PCR. 5' long fragment consists of the promoter and a part of erg7 coding region sequence. 5' short fragment consists of a part of promoter and a part of erg7 coding region sequence. These fragments were inserted reversely into pESC-URA to construct antisense expression plasmids. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into S. cerevisiae INVSc1 and recombinant strains were screened on the nutritional deficient medium SD-URA. The erg7 expression level of recombinant strains, which harbored antisense expression plasmid of erg7 coding region, was similar to that of INVScl by semi-quantitative PCR detection. But erg7 expression level of recombinant strains, which harbored 5' long antisense fragment and 5' short antisense fragment, was significantly lower than that of the control. The results of TLC and HPLC showed that the ergosterol content of recombinant strains, which harbored 5' long antisense fragment, decreased obviously. The ergosterol contents of the others were almost equal to that of INVSc1. Lanosterol synthase gene expression was downregulated by antisense RNA technology in S. cerevisiae, which lays a foundation for reconstructing triterpenoid metabolic pathway in S. cerevisiae by synthetic biology technology. PMID:25924486

  11. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to “resuscitate”. The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the “resuscitation” of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

  12. Engineering cellular redox balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved production of L-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Kang, Chang Duk; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Young Kyoung; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-04-01

    Owing to the growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer, polylactic acid, world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. However, the very high concentrations desired for industrial production of the free lactic acid create toxicity and low pH concerns for manufacturers. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most well characterized eukaryote, a preferred microbial cell factory for the largest industrial biotechnology product (bioethanol), and a robust, commercially compatible workhorse to be exploited for the production of diverse chemicals. S. cerevisiae has also been explored as a host for lactic acid production because of its high acid tolerance. Here, we constructed an L-lactic acid-overproducing S. cerevisiae by redirecting cellular metabolic fluxes to the production of L-lactic acid. To this end, we deleted the S. cerevisiae genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1), L-lactate cytochrome-c oxidoreductase (CYB2), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1), replacing them with a heterologous L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene. Two new target genes encoding isoenzymes of the external NADH dehydrogenase (NDE1 and NDE2), were also deleted from the genome to re-engineer the intracellular redox balance. The resulting strain was found to produce L-lactic acid more efficiently (32.6% increase in final L-lactic acid titer). When tested in a bioreactor in fed-batch mode, this engineered strain produced 117?g/L of L-lactic acid under low pH conditions. This result demonstrates that the redox balance engineering should be coupled with the metabolic engineering in the construction of L-lactic acid-overproducing S. cerevisiae. PMID:25363674

  13. Synthesis of a gene for human serum albumin and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kálmán, M; Cserpán, I; Bajszár, G; Dobi, A; Horváth, E; Pázmán, C; Simoncsits, A

    1990-01-01

    A 1761 base pairs long artificial gene coding for human serum albumin (HSA) has been prepared by a newly developed synthetic approach, resulting in the largest synthetic gene so far described. Oligonucleotides corresponding to only one strand of the HSA gene were prepared by chemical synthesis, while the complementary strand was obtained by a combination of enzymatic and cloning steps. 24 synthetic, 69-85 nucleotides long oligonucleotides covering the major part of the HSA gene (41-1761 nucleotides) were used as building blocks. Generally, four groups of 6-6 such oligonucleotides were successively cloned in pUC19 Escherichia coli vector to obtain about quarters of the gene as large fragments. Joining of these four fragments resulted in a cloned DNA coding for the 13-585 amino acid region of HSA, which was further supplemented with a double-stranded linker sequence coding for the amino terminal 12 amino acids. The completed structural gene composed of frequently used codons in the highly expressed yeast genes was then supplied with yeast regulatory sequences and the HSA expression cassette so obtained was inserted into an Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae shuttle vector. This vector was shown to direct the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of correctly processed, mature HSA which was recognized by antiserum to HSA, and possessed the correct N-terminal amino acid sequence. Images PMID:2235491

  14. Antigenic validation of recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Khulape, S A; Maity, H K; Pathak, D C; Mohan, C Madhan; Dey, S

    2015-09-01

    The outer membrane glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is important for virus infection and subsequent immune response by host, and offers target for development of recombinant antigen-based immunoassays and subunit vaccines. In this study, the expression of HN protein of NDV is attempted in yeast expression system. Yeast offers eukaryotic environment for protein processing and posttranslational modifications like glycosylation, in addition to higher growth rate and easy genetic manipulation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be better expression system for HN protein than Pichia pastoris as determined by codon usage analysis. The complete coding  sequence of HN gene was amplified with the histidine tag, cloned in pESC-URA under GAL10 promotor and transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant HN (rHN) protein was characterized by western blot, showing glycosylation heterogeneity as observed with other eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity column purification. The protein could be further used as subunit vaccine. PMID:26435147

  15. Seroreactivity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in patients with Crohn’s disease and celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Zsolt; Csípõ, István; Szabó, Gábor G.; Szegedi, Gyula

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether there was anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) positivity in our patients with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease. METHODS: A cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (42 patients with Crohn’s disease and 10 patients with ulcerative colitis) and gluten sensitive enteropathy (16 patients) from Debrecen, Hungary were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis was made using the formally accepted criteria. Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), antiendomysium antibodies (EMA), antigliadin antibodies (AGA) and anti human tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that ASCA positivity occurred not only in Crohn’s disease but also in Celiac disease and in these cases both the IgG and IgA type antibodies were proved. CONCLUSION: It is conceivable that ASCA positivity correlates with the (auto-) immune inflammation of small intestines and it is a specific marker of Crohn’s disease. PMID:14562398

  16. New aspects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a novel carrier for berberine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Berberine was encapsulated in yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as novel carriers to be used in different food and drug industries. The microcapsules were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and fluorescence microscopy. The encapsulation factors such as plasmolysis of yeast cells which affects the % encapsulation yield were studied. Results Fluorescence microscopy showed the yeast cells became fluorescent after encapsulation process. DSC diagram was representing of new peak for microcapsule which was not the same as berberine and the empty yeast cells peaks, separately. FTIR spectrums of microcapsules and yeast cells were almost the same. The plasmolysed and non plasmolysed microcapsules were loaded with berberine up to about 40.2?±?0.2% w/w. Conclusion Analytical methods proved that berberine was encapsulated in the yeast cells. Fluorescence microscopy and FTIR results showed the entrance of berberine inside the yeasts. DSC diagram indicated the appearance of new peak which is due to the synthesis of new product. Although plasmolysis caused changes in yeast cell structure and properties, it did not enhance berberine loading in the cells. The results confirmed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae could be an efficient and safe carrier for active materials. PMID:24359687

  17. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  18. Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

  19. Mutational and functional analysis of dominant SPT2 (SIN1) suppressor alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, L; Smith, M

    1993-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT2 gene was identified by genetic screens for mutations which are suppressors of Ty and delta insertional mutations at the HIS4 locus. The ability of spt2 mutations to suppress the transcriptional interference caused by the delta promoter insertion his-4-912 delta correlates with an increase in wild-type HIS4 mRNA levels. The SPT2 gene is identical to SIN1, which codes for a factor genetically defined as a negative regulator of HO transcription. Mutations in SPT2/SIN1 suppress the effects of trans-acting mutations in SWI genes and of partial deletions in the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Nuclear localization and protein sequence similarities suggested that the SPT2/SIN1 protein may be related to the nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG1. To assess the significance of this structural similarity and identify domains of SPT2 functionally important in the regulation of his4-912 delta, we have studied recessive and dominant spt2 mutations created by in vitro mutagenesis. We show here that several alleles carrying C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations in the C-terminal domain of the SPT2 protein exhibit a dominant suppressor phenotype. C-terminal basic residues necessary for wild-type SPT2 protein function which are absent from HMG1 have been identified. The competence of these mutant SPT2 proteins to interfere with the maintenance of the His- (Spt+) phenotype of a his4-912 delta SPT2+ strain is lost by deletion of internal HMG1-like sequences and is sensitive to the wild-type SPT2+ gene dosage. Using cross-reacting antipeptide polyclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the intracellular level of the wild-type SPT2 protein is not affected in presence of dominant mutations and furthermore that the reversion of the dominance by internal deletion of HMG1-like sequences is not mediated by altered production or stability of the mutant polypeptides. Our results suggest that the products of dominant alleles directly compete with the wild-type protein. On the basis of primary sequence similarities, we propose that an HMG-box-like motif is required for SPT2 function in vivo and that this motif also is necessary for the dominant suppressor phenotype exhibited by some mutant SPT2 alleles. Images PMID:8395004

  20. Expression of a lipid-inducible, self-regulating form of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase LIP2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 gene (YlLIP2) was cloned into galactose- and fatty acid-inducible Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression vectors and used to generate yeast strains that secrete active LIP2 enzyme activity, as evidenced by results from gene expression analysis and tributyrin turbidity c...

  1. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONAZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  2. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONANZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-Cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase. esistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  3. Evaluation of engineered xylose-fermenting industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. Hemicellulose can make up to 20-30% of biomass and is primarily composed of xylose. Enzymes from native xylose-assimi...

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Esc2p Interacts with Sir2p through a Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-binding

    E-print Network

    Bi, Xin

    at telomeric, rDNA, and HM loci. Specifically, ESC2 is required for efficient telomeric silencing and Sir2p at rDNA. On the other hand, ESC2 negatively regulates silencing at HML and HMR and destabilizes HML silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at telomeric, rDNA, HML (homothallic mating locus left

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain NCIM3186 Used in the Production of Bioethanol from Sweet Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Sravanthi Goud, Burragoni

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NCIM3186 used in bioethanol production from sweet sorghum. The size of the genome is approximately 11.9 Mb and contains 5,347 protein-coding genes. PMID:26227595

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain NCIM3186 Used in the Production of Bioethanol from Sweet Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Sravanthi Goud, Burragoni; Ulaganathan, Kandasamy

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NCIM3186 used in bioethanol production from sweet sorghum. The size of the genome is approximately 11.9 Mb and contains 5,347 protein-coding genes. PMID:26227595

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mass transformed with FLEXGenes results in strain capable of anaerobic fermentation of pentose and hexose sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced automated high-throughput mass transformation of yeast full-genome libraries into Saccharomyces cerevisiae and screening for growth on xylose produced a yeast strain that is capable of fully utilizing pentose as well as hexose sugars anaerobically. This is the first yeast strain capable of...

  8. Effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two sows (Camborough-22, PIC) were used to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XPC) in gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary tr...

  9. Effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing: (1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g fermen...

  10. GMAX-L Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strains for Profitable Sustainable Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production Concurrently using Engineered Workcell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stable GMAX-L strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being constructed using pSUMO expression cassettes that are extremely high expression level plasmids designed for use on automated workcell. This strain expresses xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, XIB1, and XIG1 for anaerobic cellulosic ethanol pr...

  11. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for improved xylose utilization with a three-plasmid SUMO yeast expression system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-plasmid yeast expression system utilizing the portable small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) vector set combined with the efficient endogenous yeast protease Ulp1 was developed for production of large amounts of soluble functional protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each vector has a differ...

  12. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. his was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. dentit...

  13. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  14. Stereochemistry of Furfural Reduction by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aldehyde Reductase That Contributes to In Situ Furfural Detoxification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ari1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, recently identified as an intermediate subclass short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, contributes in situ to the detoxification of furfural. Furfural inhibits efficient ethanol production by the yeast, particularly when the carbon source is acid-treated lignocell...

  15. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  16. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 ?s/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 ?s/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 ?s/50 Hz, 13-15 ?s/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed prickly pear beverages with convenient shelf-life. PMID:25702901

  17. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome. PMID:15923634

  18. Molecular Characterization of Propolis-Induced Cell Death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?†

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Savoldi, Marcela; Bonatto, Diego; Barros, Mário Henrique; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Berretta, Andresa A.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Propolis, a natural product of plant resins, is used by the bees to seal holes in their honeycombs and protect the hive entrance. However, propolis has also been used in folk medicine for centuries. Here, we apply the power of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism for studies of genetics, cell biology, and genomics to determine how propolis affects fungi at the cellular level. Propolis is able to induce an apoptosis cell death response. However, increased exposure to propolis provides a corresponding increase in the necrosis response. We showed that cytochrome c but not endonuclease G (Nuc1p) is involved in propolis-mediated cell death in S. cerevisiae. We also observed that the metacaspase YCA1 gene is important for propolis-mediated cell death. To elucidate the gene functions that may be required for propolis sensitivity in eukaryotes, the full collection of about 4,800 haploid S. cerevisiae deletion strains was screened for propolis sensitivity. We were able to identify 138 deletion strains that have different degrees of propolis sensitivity compared to the corresponding wild-type strains. Systems biology revealed enrichment for genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, vacuolar acidification, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, regulation of macroautophagy associated with protein targeting to vacuoles, and cellular response to starvation. Validation studies indicated that propolis sensitivity is dependent on the mitochondrial function and that vacuolar acidification and autophagy are important for yeast cell death caused by propolis. PMID:21193549

  19. Secretory pathway engineering enhances secretion of cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma reesei in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lili; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Peng, Bingyin; Tang, Hongting; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Improving the cellulase secretion is beneficial for Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic ethanol. In this study, protein secretory pathway, including protein folding, disulfide bond formation, and protein trafficking and sorting, was modified in S. cerevisiae. The effects of these modifications on the secretion of cellobiohydrolase I (Tr-Cel7A) with its native signal peptide from Trichoderma reesei were investigated. The results showed that overexpression of the protein disulfide isomerase Sc-PDI1 and the plasma membrane targeting soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor Sc-SSO1, and disruption of the sorting receptor Sc-VPS10 and a Ca(2+)/Mn(2+) ATPase Sc-PMR1, improved respectively the extracellular Tr-Cel7A activities. Among them, disruption of Sc-PMR1 showed better improvement of 162% in the extracellular activity and decreased the glycosylation of Tr-Cel7A. Multiple modifications generally resulted in higher activities. The extracellular activities of the quadruple-modified strain (vps10?/pmr1?/SSO1/PDI1/cel7AF) using p-nitrophenyl-?-d-cellobioside (pNPC) and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) as the substrates, respectively, were 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold higher than that of the reference strain cel7AF. The results indicated that engineering of the protein secretory pathway is an effective approach to improve the Tr-Cel7A secretion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23890871

  20. Ergosteryl-?-glucosidase (Egh1) involved in sterylglucoside catabolism and vacuole formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Tani, Motohiro; Ishibashi, Yohei; Endo, Ikumi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Sterylglucosides (SGs) are composed of a glucose and sterol derivatives, and are distributed in fungi, plants and mammals. We recently identified EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 (endoglycoceramidase-related proteins 1 and 2) as a ?-glucocerebrosidase and steryl-?-glucosidase, respectively, in Cryptococcus neoformans. We herein describe an EGCrP2 homologue (Egh1; ORF name, Yir007w) involved in SG catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purified recombinant Egh1 hydrolyzed various ?-glucosides including ergosteryl ?-glucoside (EG), cholesteryl ?-glucoside, sitosteryl ?-glucoside, para-nitrophenyl ?-glucoside, 4-methylumberifellyl ?-glucoside and glucosylceramide. The disruption of EGH1 in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (egh1?) resulted in the accumulation of EG and fragmentation of vacuoles. The expression of EGH1 in egh1? (revertant) reduced the accumulation of EG, and restored the morphology of vacuoles. The accumulation of EG was not detected in EGH1 and UGT51(ATG26) double-disrupted mutants (ugt51?egh1?), indicating that EG was synthesized by Ugt51(Atg26) and degraded by Egh1 in vivo. These results clearly demonstrated that Egh1 is an ergosteryl-?-glucosidase that is functionally involved in the EG catabolic pathway and vacuole formation in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26116408

  1. CTP synthetase and its role in phospholipid synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Fang; Carman, George M.

    2008-01-01

    CTP synthetase is a cytosolic-associated glutamine amidotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to the C-4 position of UTP to form CTP. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the reaction product CTP is an essential precursor of all membrane phospholipids that are synthesized via the Kennedy (CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine branches) and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways. The URA7 and URA8 genes encode CTP synthetase in S. cerevisiae, and the URA7 gene is responsible for the majority of CTP synthesized in vivo. The CTP synthetase enzymes are allosterically regulated by CTP product inhibition. Mutations that alleviate this regulation result in an elevated cellular level of CTP and an increase in phospholipid synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The URA7-encoded enzyme is phosphorylated by protein kinases A and C, and these phosphorylations stimulate CTP synthetase activity and increase cellular CTP levels and the utilization of the Kennedy pathway. The CTPS1 and CTPS2 genes that encode human CTP synthetase enzymes are functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, and rescue the lethal phenotype of the ura7? ura8? double mutant that lacks CTP synthetase activity. The expression in yeast has revealed that the human CTPS1-encoded enzyme is also phosphorylated and regulated by protein kinases A and C. PMID:18439916

  2. The Debaryomyces hansenii carboxylate transporters Jen1 homologues are functional in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soares-Silva, Isabel; Ribas, David; Foskolou, Iosifina P; Barata, Beatriz; Bessa, Daniela; Paiva, Sandra; Queirós, Odília; Casal, Margarida

    2015-12-01

    We have functionally characterized the four Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) Jen1 homologues of Debaryomyces hansenii (Dh) by heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae. Debaryomyces hansenii cells display mediated transport for the uptake of lactate, acetate, succinate and malate. DHJEN genes expression was detected by RT-PCR in all carbon sources assayed, namely lactate, succinate, citrate, glycerol and glucose. The heterologous expression in the S. cerevisiae W303-1A jen1? ady2? strain demonstrated that the D. hansenii JEN genes encode four carboxylate transporters. DH27 gene encodes an acetate transporter (Km 0.94 ± 0.17 mM; Vmax 0.43 ± 0.03 nmol s(-1) mg(-1)), DH17 encodes a malate transporter (Km 0.27 ± 0.04 mM; Vmax 0.11 ± 0.01 nmol s(-1) mg(-1)) and both DH18 and DH24 encode succinate transporters with the following kinetic parameters, respectively, Km 0.31 ± 0.06 mM; Vmax 0.83 ± 0.04 nmol s(-1) mg(-1)and Km 0.16 ± 0.02 mM; Vmax 0.19 ± 0.02 nmol s(-1) mg(-1). Surprisingly, no lactate transporter was found, although D. hansenii presents a mediated transport for this acid. This work advanced the current knowledge on yeast carboxylate transporters by characterizing four new plasma membrane transporters in D. hansenii. PMID:26500234

  3. Increased ethanol production by deletion of HAP4 in recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-12-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAP4 gene encodes a transcription activator that plays a key role in controlling the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and reductive pathways. This work examines the effect of knockout of the HAP4 gene on aerobic ethanol production in a xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain. A hap4-deleted recombinant yeast strain (B42-DHAP4) showed increased maximum concentration, production rate, and yield of ethanol compared with the reference strain MA-B42, irrespective of cultivation medium (glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures). Notably, B42-DHAP4 was capable of producing ethanol from xylose as the sole carbon source under aerobic conditions, whereas no ethanol was produced by MA-B42. Moreover, the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield (0.44 g/g) from the detoxified hydrolysate of wood chips was markedly improved in B42-DHAP4 compared to MA-B42. Thus, the results of this study support the view that deleting HAP4 in xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains represents a useful strategy in ethanol production processes. PMID:26438430

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A novel and efficient biological control agent for Colletotrichum acutatum during pre-harvest.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marcos Roberto; Klein, Mariana Nadjara; Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of six isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in controlling Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of postbloom fruit drop that occur in pre-harvest citrus. We analyzed the mechanisms of action involved in biological control such as: production of antifungal compounds, nutrient competition, detection of killer activity, and production of hydrolytic enzymes of the isolates of S. cerevisiae on C. acutatum and their efficiency in controlling postbloom fruit drop on detached citrus flowers. Our results showed that all six S. cerevisiae isolates produced antifungal compounds, competed for nutrients, inhibited pathogen germination, and produced killer activity and hydrolytic enzymes when in contact with the fungus wall. The isolates were able to control the disease when detached flowers were artificially inoculated, both preventively and curatively. In this work we identified a novel potential biological control agent for C. acutatum during pre-harvest. This is the first report of yeast efficiency for the biocontrol of postbloom fruit drop, which represents an important contribution to the field of biocontrol of diseases affecting citrus populations worldwide. PMID:25960430

  5. Characterization of Cell Wall Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Clinical Isolates Elucidates Hsp150p in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Liu, Chia-Hsun; Chang, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been described as an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen. Fungal cell wall mannoproteins have been demonstrated to be involved in adhesion to inert surfaces and might be engaged in virulence. In this study, we observed four clinical isolates of S. cerevisiae with relatively hydrophobic cell surfaces. Yeast cell wall subproteome was evaluated quantitatively by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We identified totally 25 cell wall proteins (CWPs) from log-phase cells, within which 15 CWPs were quantified. The abundance of Scw10p, Pst1p, and Hsp150p/Pir2p were at least 2 folds higher in the clinical isolates than in S288c lab strain. Hsp150p is one of the members in Pir family conserved in pathogenic fungi Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Overexpression of Hsp150p in lab strain increased cell wall integrity and potentially enhanced the virulence of yeast. Altogether, these results demonstrated that quantitative cell wall subproteome was analyzed in clinical isolates of S. cerevisiae, and several CWPs, especially Hsp150p, were found to be expressed at higher levels which presumably contribute to strain virulence and fungal pathogenicity. PMID:26270963

  6. The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida

    2005-08-01

    In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or for the production of biotechnological products (e.g. enzymes, pharmaceutical products) will continuously grow in the future. Numerous specialised S. cerevisiae wine strains were obtained in recent years, possessing a wide range of optimised or novel oenological properties, capable of satisfying the demanding nature of modern winemaking practise. The unlocking of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome complexities will contribute decisively to the knowledge about the genetic make-up of commercial yeast strains and will influence wine strain improvement via genetic engineering. The most relevant advances regarding the importance and implications of the use of GM yeast strains in the wine industry are discussed in this mini-review. In this work, various aspects are considered including the strategies used for the construction of strains with respect to current legislation requirements, the environmental risk evaluations concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified yeast strains, the methods for detection of recombinant DNA and protein that are currently under evaluation, and the reasons behind the critical public perception towards the application of such strains. PMID:15856224

  7. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: BIOCHEMICAL, STRUCTURAL, AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M; Koonin, Eugene V; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-07-24

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. PMID:26071590

  8. Heterologous expression of Candida albicans Pma1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Keniya, Mikhail V; Cannon, Richard D; Nguy?n, ÂnBình; Tyndall, Joel D A; Monk, Brian C

    2013-05-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of opportunistic and life-threatening systemic fungal infections, especially in the immunocompromised. The plasma membrane proton-pumping ATPase (Pma1p) is an essential enzyme that generates the electrochemical gradient required for cell growth. We expressed C. albicans Pma1p (CaPma1p) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to facilitate screening for inhibitors. Replacement of S. cerevisiae PMA1 with C. albicans PMA1 gave clones expressing CaPma1p that grew slowly at low pH. CaPma1p was expressed at significantly lower levels and had lower specific activity than the native Pma1p. It also conferred pH sensitivity, hygromycin B resistance, and low levels of glucose-dependent proton pumping. Recombination between CaPMA1 and the homologous nonessential ScPMA2 resulted in chimeric suppressor mutants that expressed functional CaPma1p with improved H(+) -ATPase activity and growth rates at low pH. Molecular models of suppressor mutants identified specific amino acids (between 531 and 595 in CaPma1p) that may affect regulation of the activity of Pma1p oligomers in S. cerevisiae. A modified CaPma1p chimeric construct containing only 5 amino acids from ScPma2p enabled the expression of a fully functional enzyme for drug screens and structural resolution. PMID:23374681

  9. Heterologous expression of Candida albicans Pma1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Keniya, Mikhail V.; Cannon, Richard D.; Nguy?n, ?nBình; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Monk, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of opportunistic and life-threatening systemic fungal infections, especially in the immunocompromised. The plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase (Pma1p) is an essential enzyme that generates the electrochemical gradient required for cell growth. We expressed C. albicans Pma1p (CaPma1p) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to facilitate screening for inhibitors. Replacement of S. cerevisiae PMA1 with C. albicans PMA1 gave clones expressing CaPma1p that grew slowly at low pH. CaPma1p was expressed at significantly lower levels and had lower specific activity than the native Pma1p. It also conferred pH sensitivity, hygromycin B resistance and low levels of glucose-dependent proton pumping. Recombination between CaPMA1 and the homologous non-essential ScPMA2 resulted in chimeric suppressor mutants that expressed functional CaPma1p with improved H+-ATPase activity and growth rates at low pH. Molecular models of suppressor mutants identified specific amino acids (between 531-595 in CaPma1p) that may affect regulation of the activity of Pma1p oligomers in S. cerevisiae. A modified CaPma1p chimeric construct containing only 5 amino acids from ScPma2p enabled the expression of a fully functional enzyme for drug screens and structural resolution. PMID:23374681

  10. Physiological and genomic characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids with improved fermentation performance and mannoprotein release capacity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; González, Ramón; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting wine against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating lactic-acid bacteria growth. The selection of a yeast strain that simultaneously overproduces mannoproteins and presents good fermentative characteristics is a difficult task. In this work, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae×S. cerevisiae hybrid bearing the two oenologically relevant features was constructed. According to the genomic characterisation of the hybrids, different copy numbers of some genes probably related with these physiological features were detected. The hybrid shared not only a similar copy number of genes SPR1, SWP1, MNN10 and YPS7 related to cell wall integrity with parental Sc1, but also a similar copy number of some glycolytic genes with parental Sc2, such as GPM1 and HXK1, as well as the genes involved in hexose transport, such as HXT9, HXT11 and HXT12. This work demonstrates that hybridisation and stabilisation under winemaking conditions constitute an effective approach to obtain yeast strains with desirable physiological features, like mannoprotein overproducing capacity and improved fermentation performance, which genetically depend of the expression of numerous genes (multigenic characters). PMID:25879876

  11. Identification of a gene, FMP21, whose expression levels are involved in thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature tolerance in yeasts is important for the molecular breeding of high temperature-tolerant yeasts that can be used in bioethanol production. We identified genes whose expression is correlated with the degree of thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA microarray analysis. Gene expression profiles of three S. cerevisiae strains showing different levels of thermotolerance were compared, and we chose three of them as candidate genes. Among these genes, FMP21 was investigated as a thermotolerance-related gene in S. cerevisiae by comparing the growth at high temperature with the gene expression in eight strains. The expression ratio of FMP21 at 37°C was correlated with the doubling time ratio at a coefficient of determination of 0.787. The potential involvement of the Fmp21 in the thermotolerance of yeasts was evaluated. The FMP21 deletion variant showed a decreased respiratory growth rate and increased thermosensitivity. Furthermore, the overexpression of FMP21 improved thermotolerance in yeasts. In conclusion, the function of Fmp21 is important for thermotolerance in yeasts. PMID:25177541

  12. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  13. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; Duong, Giang-Huong; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2? reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h?1 in anaerobic batch cultures containing lactic acid but only 0.16 h?1 in identical aerobic cultures. Measurements of aerobic cultures of S. cerevisiae showed that the addition of lactic acid to the growth medium resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reduce the accumulation of lactic acid-induced ROS, cytosolic catalase (CTT1) was overexpressed by replacing the native promoter with the strong constitutive TPI1 promoter. Increased activity of catalase was confirmed and later correlated with decreased levels of ROS and increased specific growth rates in the presence of high lactic acid concentrations. The increased fitness of this genetically modified strain demonstrates the successful attenuation of additional stress that is derived from aerobic metabolism and may provide the basis for enhanced (micro)aerobic production of organic acids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19251894

  14. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. PMID:25721585

  15. Genetic immobilization of cellulase on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Ueda, M; Atomi, H; Shibasaki, Y; Kamasawa, N; Osumi, M; Kawaguchi, T; Arai, M; Tanaka, A

    1997-10-01

    We tried genetically to immobilize cellulase protein on the cell surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in its active form. A cDNA encoding FI-carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) of the fungus Aspergillus aculeatus, with its secretion signal peptide, was fused with the gene encoding the C-terminal half (320 amino acid residues from the C terminus) of yeast alpha-agglutinin a protein involved in mating and covalently anchored to the cell wall. The plasmid constructed containing this fusion gene was introduced into S. cerevisiae and expressed under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter from S. cerevisiae. The CMCase activity was detected in the cell pellet fraction. The CMCase protein was solubilized from the cell wall fraction by glucanase treatment but not by sodium dodecyl sulphate treatment, indicating the covalent binding of the fusion protein to the cell wall. The appearance of the fused protein on the cell surface was further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. These results proved that the CMCase was anchored on the cell wall in its active form. PMID:9390459

  16. Gene delivery to dendritic cells by orally administered recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mice.

    PubMed

    Kiflmariam, Meron G; Yang, Hanjiang; Zhang, Zhiying

    2013-02-27

    DNA vaccination has caught the attention of many for triggering humoral as well as cellular immune responses. And delivering DNA into the antigen presenting cells (APCs) in order to induce efficient immunoresponse has become the backbone of this field. It has been confirmed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though non-pathogenic, is being engulfed by the dendritic cells and macrophages and delivers not only proteins, but also DNA materials (already confirmed in vitro). In this research, S. cerevisiae is used to deliver green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene controlled under cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in living organism (mice). The recombinant yeast, transfected with the plasmid containing the GFP gene, was heat killed and orally administered to mice. After 60 h of yeast administration, mice were sacrificed and intestine was separated, washed and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissues were cut at the size of 10 ?m using Cryostat machine, and GFP expression was successfully detected under a fluorescence microscope. After 45 days Western blot was able to detect GFP antibody in the blood of mice. These results imply that S. cerevisiae, being non-pathogenic, cheap, and easy to culture could be a good candidate to deliver DNA materials to the immune cells for vaccination. PMID:23200937

  17. Recombination-stable multimeric green fluorescent protein for characterization of weak promoter outputs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Knuf, Christoph; Förster, Jochen; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-12-01

    Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are widely used for visualization of proteins to track localization and expression dynamics. However, phenotypically important processes can operate at too low expression levels for routine detection, i.e. be overshadowed by autofluorescence noise. While GFP functions well in translational fusions, the use of tandem GFPs to amplify fluorescence signals is currently avoided in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other microorganisms due to the risk of loop-out by direct-repeat recombination. We increased GFP fluorescence by translationally fusing three different GFP variants, yeast-enhanced GFP, GFP+ and superfolder GFP to yield a sequence-diverged triple GFP molecule 3vGFP with 74-84% internal repeat identity. Unlike a single GFP, the brightness of 3vGFP allowed characterization of a weak promoter in S. cerevisiae. Utilizing 3vGFP, we further engineered a less leaky Cu(2+)-inducible promoter based on CUP1. The basal expression level of the new promoter was approximately 61% below the wild-type CUP1 promoter, thus expanding the absolute range of Cu(2+)-based gene control. The stability of 3vGFP towards direct-repeat recombination was assayed in S. cerevisiae cultured for 25 generations under strong and slightly toxic expression after which only limited reduction in fluorescence was detectable. Such non-recombinogenic GFPs can help quantify intracellular responses operating a low copy number in recombination-prone organisms. PMID:26392044

  18. [Regulation of isoprenoid pathway for enhanced production of linalool in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingxue; Liu, Jidong; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Linalool is an important monoterpene, and widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The low concentration in plants and the difficulties in extraction restrict its large scale production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can provide the monoterpene precursor, geranyl diphosphate (GPP) through its endogenous isoprenoid pathway. Therefore, it could be used as the host for monoterpene production. However, the weak metabolic flux through the isoprenoid pathway leads to the insufficient supply of GPP, and results in low monoterpene productivity. In order to increase the metabolic flux, we constructed the integrated expression plasmid pRS305-tHMG1 and free expression plasmid pYLIS-IDI1 to enhance the expression levels of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI1) and a truncated 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene (tHMG1). The two plasmids were separately transformed into S. cerevisiae CEN.PK2-1C, resulting in strains LS01 and LS02. The plasmid pYLIS-IDI1 was further transformed into strain LS01, resulting in strain LS03. GC-MS analysis showed that the linalool concentration was increased by 1.3 times and reached (127.71 +/- 7.68) microg/L. In conclusion, enhancement of the supply of GPP precursors through the regulation of isoprenoid pathway could increase the linalool production in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24063235

  19. Characterization of vacuolar amino acid transporter from Fusarium oxysporum in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lunprom, Siriporn; Pongcharoen, Pongsanat; Sekito, Takayuki; Kawano-Kawada, Miyuki; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Akiyama, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium oxysporum causes wilt disease in many plant families, and many genes are involved in its development or growth in host plants. A recent study revealed that vacuolar amino acid transporters play an important role in spore formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate the role of vacuolar amino acid transporters of this phytopathogenic fungus, the FOXG_11334 (FoAVT3) gene from F. oxysporum was isolated and its function was characterized. Transcription of FoAVT3 was upregulated after rapamycin treatment. A green fluorescent protein fusion of FoAvt3p was localized to vacuolar membranes in both S. cerevisiae and F. oxysporum. Analysis of the amino acid content of the vacuolar fraction and amino acid transport activities using vacuolar membrane vesicles from S. cerevisiae cells heterologously expressing FoAVT3 revealed that FoAvt3p functions as a vacuolar amino acid transporter, exporting neutral amino acids. We conclude that the FoAVT3 gene encodes a vacuolar neutral amino acid transporter. PMID:26083447

  20. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) for winemaking and their aroma-producing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Qin, Yi; Song, Yuyang; Ye, Dongqin; Yuan, Wei; Pei, Yingfang; Xue, Bo; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-11-01

    In order to select potential indigenous Saccharomyces strains, diversity of indigenous Saccharomyces strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) was preliminarily analyzed. Twenty-one genotypes were found through interdelta fingerprinting analysis. According to this result, representatives of each genotype were chosen to test the enological criteria. After tests of fermentation characteristics and growth ability, eight strains were finally selected as starters to further fermentation of Merlot must for aroma analysis and sensory evaluation at the same testing conditions, with one commercial strain F15 as control. Each strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced individual volatiles in different concentrations and combinations which significantly influenced resulting wine flavour. Except of LFP522, all indigenous isolates produced more concentration of esters than F15. Higher concentrations of linalool, ?-damascenone and citral, associated with S. cerevisiae LFE1809, considerably distinguished this strain from the others. Sensory evaluation present the Merlot wine fermented by LFE1225 isolated from Merlot, had the highest sensory score. PMID:26323948

  1. A system based network approach to ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used for bio-ethanol production and development of rational genetic engineering strategies leading both to the improvement of productivity and ethanol tolerance is very important for cost-effective bio-ethanol production. Studies on the identification of the genes that are up- or down-regulated in the presence of ethanol indicated that the genes may be involved to protect the cells against ethanol stress, but not necessarily required for ethanol tolerance. Results In the present study, a novel network based approach was developed to identify candidate genes involved in ethanol tolerance. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network associated with ethanol tolerance (tETN) was reconstructed by integrating PPI data with Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Modular analysis of the constructed networks revealed genes with no previously reported experimental evidence related to ethanol tolerance and resulted in the identification of 17 genes with previously unknown biological functions. We have randomly selected four of these genes and deletion strains of two genes (YDR307W and YHL042W) were found to exhibit improved tolerance to ethanol when compared to wild type strain. The genome-wide transcriptomic response of yeast cells to the deletions of YDR307W and YHL042W in the absence of ethanol revealed that the deletion of YDR307W and YHL042W genes resulted in the transcriptional re-programming of the metabolism resulting from a mis-perception of the nutritional environment. Yeast cells perceived an excess amount of glucose and a deficiency of methionine or sulfur in the absence of YDR307W and YHL042W, respectively, possibly resulting from a defect in the nutritional sensing and signaling or transport mechanisms. Mutations leading to an increase in ribosome biogenesis were found to be important for the improvement of ethanol tolerance. Modulations of chronological life span were also identified to contribute to ethanol tolerance in yeast. Conclusions The system based network approach developed allows the identification of novel gene targets for improved ethanol tolerance and supports the highly complex nature of ethanol tolerance in yeast. PMID:25103914

  2. Simultaneously improving xylose fermentation and tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors through evolutionary engineering of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbouring xylose isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yeasts tolerant to toxic inhibitors from steam-pretreated lignocellulose with xylose co-fermentation capability represent an appealing approach for 2nd generation ethanol production. Whereas rational engineering, mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering are established techniques for either improved xylose utilisation or enhancing yeast tolerance, this report focuses on the simultaneous enhancement of these attributes through mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbouring xylose isomerase in anoxic chemostat culture using non-detoxified pretreatment liquor from triticale straw. Results Following ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5A+ (ATCC 200062 strain platform), harbouring the xylose isomerase (XI) gene for pentose co-fermentation was grown in anoxic chemostat culture for 100 generations at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1 in a medium consisting of 60% (v/v) non-detoxified hydrolysate liquor from steam-pretreated triticale straw, supplemented with 20 g/L xylose as carbon source. In semi-aerobic batch cultures in the same medium, the isolated strain D5A+H exhibited a slightly lower maximum specific growth rate (?max?=?0.12?±?0.01 h-1) than strain TMB3400, with no ethanol production observed by the latter strain. Strain D5A+H also exhibited a shorter lag phase (4 h vs. 30 h) and complete removal of HMF, furfural and acetic acid from the fermentation broth within 24 h, reaching an ethanol concentration of 1.54 g/L at a yield (Yp/s) of 0.06 g/g xylose and a specific productivity of 2.08 g/gh. Evolutionary engineering profoundly affected the yeast metabolism, given that parental strain D5A+ exhibited an oxidative metabolism on xylose prior to strain development. Conclusions Physiological adaptations confirm improvements in the resistance to and conversion of inhibitors from pretreatment liquor with simultaneous enhancement of xylose to ethanol fermentation. These data support the sequential application of random mutagenesis followed by continuous culture under simultaneous selective pressure from inhibitors and xylose as primary carbon source. PMID:24884721

  3. Lipolytic activity of Williopsis californica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Iride, A

    2006-03-01

    Inoculation trials performed with three strains of yeasts, isolated from extra virgin olive oil, Williopsis californica 1,639, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1,525 and Candida boidinii 1,638, demonstrated that some yeast can lower the quality of the oil during storage. Laboratory tests highlighted a substantial increase in the total diglycerides and free fatty acids in the samples of oil inoculated with the lipase-producing strains of yeasts, W. californica 1,639 and S. cerevisiae 1,525, while in the samples of oil inoculated with the lipase-negative strain C. boidinii 1,638 no differences were found in respect to the uninoculated control. The acidity of the extra virgin olive oil, inoculated with the lipase-producing strains W. californica 1,639 and S. cerevisiae 1,525, during 2 weeks of incubation at 30 degrees C increased respectively from 0.62% to 1.50 and 1.62%, exceeding the limit of 0.8% established by current regulations for this commercial category of olive oil, while in the oil inoculated with the lipase-negative strain and in the uninoculated control, the acidity remained constant throughout. Furthermore, the two strains of lipase-producing yeasts also increased the concentration of the 1.3-diglyceride isomer in the oil lowering the values of the total 1.2-diglycerides/total 1.3-diglycerides ratio considered to be an important index of quality for an extra virgin olive oil. The lipolytic activity of lipase-producing strains W. californica 1,639 and S. cerevisiae 1,525 showed an optimum pH of 6 and 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C respectively. Nevertheless, the lipolytic activity was negatively influenced by glucose and polyphenols when the concentration was higher than 0.25% and 0.4% (wt/vol) respectively. PMID:16271789

  4. AGAPE (Automated Genome Analysis PipelinE) for Pan-Genome Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Song, Giltae; Dickins, Benjamin J. A.; Demeter, Janos; Engel, Stacia; Dunn, Barbara; Cherry, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The characterization and public release of genome sequences from thousands of organisms is expanding the scope for genetic variation studies. However, understanding the phenotypic consequences of genetic variation remains a challenge in eukaryotes due to the complexity of the genotype-phenotype map. One approach to this is the intensive study of model systems for which diverse sources of information can be accumulated and integrated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an extensively studied model organism, with well-known protein functions and thoroughly curated phenotype data. To develop and expand the available resources linking genomic variation with function in yeast, we aim to model the pan-genome of S. cerevisiae. To initiate the yeast pan-genome, we newly sequenced or re-sequenced the genomes of 25 strains that are commonly used in the yeast research community using advanced sequencing technology at high quality. We also developed a pipeline for automated pan-genome analysis, which integrates the steps of assembly, annotation, and variation calling. To assign strain-specific functional annotations, we identified genes that were not present in the reference genome. We classified these according to their presence or absence across strains and characterized each group of genes with known functional and phenotypic features. The functional roles of novel genes not found in the reference genome and associated with strains or groups of strains appear to be consistent with anticipated adaptations in specific lineages. As more S. cerevisiae strain genomes are released, our analysis can be used to collate genome data and relate it to lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution. Our new tool set will enhance our understanding of genomic and functional evolution in S. cerevisiae, and will be available to the yeast genetics and molecular biology community. PMID:25781462

  5. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating competing pathways and resolving cofactor imbalance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isobutanol is an important target for biorefinery research as a next-generation biofuel and a building block for commodity chemical production. Metabolically engineered microbial strains to produce isobutanol have been successfully developed by introducing the Ehrlich pathway into bacterial hosts. Isobutanol-producing baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains have been developed following the strategy with respect to its advantageous characteristics for cost-effective isobutanol production. However, the isobutanol yields and titers attained by the developed strains need to be further improved through engineering of S. cerevisiae metabolism. Results Two strategies including eliminating competing pathways and resolving the cofactor imbalance were applied to improve isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol production levels were increased in strains lacking genes encoding members of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex such as LPD1, indicating that the pyruvate supply for isobutanol biosynthesis is competing with acetyl-CoA biosynthesis in mitochondria. Isobutanol production was increased by overexpression of enzymes responsible for transhydrogenase-like shunts such as pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. The integration of a single gene deletion lpd1? and the activation of the transhydrogenase-like shunt further increased isobutanol levels. In a batch fermentation test at the 50-mL scale from 100 g/L glucose using the two integrated strains, the isobutanol titer reached 1.62?±?0.11 g/L and 1.61?±?0.03 g/L at 24 h after the start of fermentation, which corresponds to the yield at 0.016?±?0.001 g/g glucose consumed and 0.016?±?0.0003 g/g glucose consumed, respectively. Conclusions These results demonstrate that downregulation of competing pathways and metabolic functions for resolving the cofactor imbalance are promising strategies to construct S. cerevisiae strains that effectively produce isobutanol. PMID:24305546

  6. Rational and Evolutionary Engineering Approaches Uncover a Small Set of Genetic Changes Efficient for Rapid Xylose Fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Rin; Skerker, Jeffrey M.; Kang, Wei; Lesmana, Anastashia; Wei, Na; Arkin, Adam P.; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-01-01

    Economic bioconversion of plant cell wall hydrolysates into fuels and chemicals has been hampered mainly due to the inability of microorganisms to efficiently co-ferment pentose and hexose sugars, especially glucose and xylose, which are the most abundant sugars in cellulosic hydrolysates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot metabolize xylose due to a lack of xylose-metabolizing enzymes. We developed a rapid and efficient xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae through rational and inverse metabolic engineering strategies, comprising the optimization of a heterologous xylose-assimilating pathway and evolutionary engineering. Strong and balanced expression levels of the XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes constituting the xylose-assimilating pathway increased ethanol yields and the xylose consumption rates from a mixture of glucose and xylose with little xylitol accumulation. The engineered strain, however, still exhibited a long lag time when metabolizing xylose above 10 g/l as a sole carbon source, defined here as xylose toxicity. Through serial-subcultures on xylose, we isolated evolved strains which exhibited a shorter lag time and improved xylose-fermenting capabilities than the parental strain. Genome sequencing of the evolved strains revealed that mutations in PHO13 causing loss of the Pho13p function are associated with the improved phenotypes of the evolved strains. Crude extracts of a PHO13-overexpressing strain showed a higher phosphatase activity on xylulose-5-phosphate (X-5-P), suggesting that the dephosphorylation of X-5-P by Pho13p might generate a futile cycle with xylulokinase overexpression. While xylose consumption rates by the evolved strains improved substantially as compared to the parental strain, xylose metabolism was interrupted by accumulated acetate. Deletion of ALD6 coding for acetaldehyde dehydrogenase not only prevented acetate accumulation, but also enabled complete and efficient fermentation of xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and xylose by the evolved strain. These findings provide direct guidance for developing industrial strains to produce cellulosic fuels and chemicals. PMID:23468911

  7. Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Roukas, T. . Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

    1994-02-05

    The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

  8. Chromosomal attachments set length and microtubule number in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Nannas, Natalie J; O'Toole, Eileen T; Winey, Mark; Murray, Andrew W

    2014-12-15

    The length of the mitotic spindle varies among different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to micro-tubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that spindle length scales with kinetochore number, increasing when kinetochores are inactivated and shortening on addition of synthetic or natural kinetochores, showing that kinetochore-microtubule interactions generate an inward force to balance forces that elongate the spindle. Electron microscopy shows that manipulating kinetochore number alters the number of spindle microtubules: adding extra kinetochores increases the number of spindle microtubules, suggesting kinetochore-based regulation of microtubule number. PMID:25318669

  9. Effect of controlled aeration on glycerol production in a sulfite process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from sugarcane molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maximum product concentration of only 40 g/L and productivities only up to 5 g/L/day are obtained, making the process industrially unattractive. Fermentation carried out under controlled conditions of aeration improved product concentration in the medium by twofold (96 g/L) and productivity by threefold (16 g/L/day), while permitting the yeast to tolerate higher initial concentration of sugar (400-465 g/L). There was a concomittant increase in glycerol concentration and productivity with increasing aeration rate (0-1.4 vvm), whereas ethanol concentration in the medium dropped by ca. twofold. At aeration rates greater than 1.4 vvm, all these parameters showed a sharp decline, indicating general inhibition of fermentation.

  10. Identification and analysis of the N(6)-methyladenosine in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tran, Hong; Liang, Zhiyong; Lin, Hao; Zhang, Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is invaluable for understanding RNA biological functions. However, limitation in experimental methods impedes the progress towards the identification of m(6)A site. As a complement of experimental methods, a support vector machine based-method is proposed to identify m(6)A sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. In this model, RNA sequences are encoded by their nucleotide chemical property and accumulated nucleotide frequency information. It is observed in the jackknife test that the accuracy achieved by the proposed model in identifying the m(6)A site was 78.15%. For the convenience of experimental scientists, a web-server for the proposed model is provided at http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/m6Apred.php. PMID:26343792

  11. Mam33 promotes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Roloff, Gabrielle A.; Henry, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Three mitochondrial DNA–encoded proteins, Cox1, Cox2, and Cox3, comprise the core of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Gene-specific translational activators ensure that these respiratory chain subunits are synthesized at the correct location and in stoichiometric ratios to prevent unassembled protein products from generating free oxygen radicals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclear-encoded proteins Mss51 and Pet309 specifically activate mitochondrial translation of the largest subunit, Cox1. Here we report that Mam33 is a third COX1 translational activator in yeast mitochondria. Mam33 is required for cells to adapt efficiently from fermentation to respiration. In the absence of Mam33, Cox1 translation is impaired, and cells poorly adapt to respiratory conditions because they lack basal fermentative levels of Cox1. PMID:26108620

  12. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-08-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde; glycerol; formic, lactic and acetic acids; 1-propanol; 2-methyl-l-butanol; and 2,3,-butanediol; to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed.

  13. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mairoella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents, may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde, glycerol, formic, lactic, and acetic acids, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanediol to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a useful model host to study fundamental biology of viral replication.

    PubMed

    Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Galão, Rui Pedro; Meyerhans, Andreas; Díez, Juana

    2006-09-01

    Understanding the fundamental steps of virus life cycles including virus-host interactions is essential for the design of effective antiviral strategies. Such understanding has been deferred by the complexity of higher eukaryotic host organisms. To circumvent experimental difficulties associated with this, systems were developed to replicate viruses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The systems include viruses with RNA and DNA genomes that infect plants, animals and humans. By using the powerful methodologies available for yeast genetic analysis, fundamental processes occurring during virus replication have been brought to light. Here, we review the different viruses able to direct replication and gene expression in yeast and discuss their main contributions in the understanding of virus biology. PMID:16698107

  15. Identification of proteins whose synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced by DNA damage and heat shock.

    PubMed

    Gailit, J

    1990-05-01

    Protein synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pulse-labelled proteins. The synthesis of 12 distinct proteins was induced by treatment with UV doses of 10-200 J/m2. The induced proteins differed in the minimum dose necessary for induction, the maximum dose at which induction still occurred and the constitutive level present in unirradiated cells. A chemical mutagen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced synthesis of the same proteins. Induction after UV treatment was observed in seven different yeast strains, including three mutants deficient in DNA repair. Synthesis of five of the proteins was also induced by brief heat shock treatment. These five proteins may be members of a family of proteins whose synthesis is regulated by two different pathways responding to different types of stress. PMID:1970999

  16. Disruption of LRG1 inhibits mother-daughter separation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Svarovsky, Michael J; Palecek, Sean P

    2005-10-30

    LRG1, previously characterized as a Rho-GAP that regulates beta-1,3-glucan synthesis, was identified using a filtration screen designed to isolate genes that promote cell aggregation in Sigma1278b Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Disruption of LRG1 in haploid cells resulted in enhanced invasive growth and a strain-specific 'clustered' phenotype that is a consequence of failed separation of mother and daughter cells. Genetic analysis revealed that clustering required functional ROM2, FKS1 and STE12 but not FLO8 or FLO11. Additionally, this phenotype required sufficient nitrogen. beta-1,3-Glucan content was elevated in lrg1 haploids and these cells possessed a thicker cell wall and septum than wild-type strains. Additional glucan at the bud site inhibited separation of lrg1 mutants as the clustered phenotype was repressed by expression of the glucanases ENG1 or EGT2. PMID:16240460

  17. D-Lactate Production as a Function of Glucose Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Benjamin J.; Navid, Ali; Kulp, Kristen S.; Knaack, Jennifer L. S.; Bench, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Methylglyoxal, a reactive, toxic dicarbonyl, is generated by the spontaneous degradation of glycolytic intermediates. Methylglyoxal can form covalent adducts with cellular macromolecules, potentially disrupting cellular function. We performed experiments using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in media containing low, moderate, and high glucose concentrations to determine the relationship between glucose consumption and methylglyoxal metabolism. Normal growth experiments and glutathione depletion experiments showed that metabolism of methylglyoxal by log-phase yeast cultured aerobically occurred primarily through the glyoxalase pathway. Growth in high-glucose media resulted in increased generation of the methylglyoxal metabolite D-lactate and overall lower efficiency of glucose utilization as measured by growth rates. Cells grown in high-glucose media maintained higher glucose uptake flux than cells grown in moderate-glucose or low-glucose media. Computational modeling showed that increased glucose consumption may impair catabolism of triose phosphates as a result of an altered NAD+/NADH ratio. PMID:23361949

  18. Factors affecting the palmitoyl-coenzyme A desaturase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The activity and stability of the palmitoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was influenced by several factors. Cells, grown nonaerobically and then incubated with glucose, either in air or under N2, showed a marked increase in desaturase activity. Cycloheximide, added during such incubations, prevented the increase in activity, suggesting de novo synthesis. The stability of the desaturase from cells grown nonaerobically was affected by subsequent treatment of the cells; enzyme from freshly harvested cells, or from cells that were then shaken under nitrogen, readily lost activity upon washing or during density gradient analysis, whereas aerated cells, in the presence or absence of glucose, yielded stable enzyme preparations. The loss of activity in nonaerobic preparations could be reversed by adding soluble supernatant from these homogenates and could be prevented by growing the cells in the presence of palmitoleic acid and ergosterol, but not with several other lipids tested.

  19. Molecular and genetic characterization of the RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Naumovski, L.

    1987-01-01

    The RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in the excision repair of damaged DNA. Strains carrying a radS mutation are highly sensitive to certain types of DNA damage. A fragment of yeast DNA which complemented the UV-light sensitivity of a rad3 strain was isolated and shown by genetic evidence to be the RAD3 gene. Using this cloned gene, it was shown that RAD3 is essential for the viability of haploid cells under normal growth conditions. The RAD3 gene is not inducible by DNA damage. The sequence of the RAD3 gene predicted a protein of 90kd, with a highly negatively charged carboxy terminus, however, deletion analysis demonstrated that this region was not required for either function of RAD3. The sequence also showed some homology to nucleotide binding proteins and to DNA binding proteins.

  20. Functional expression of amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger (AO-I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kolaríková, Katerina; Galuszka, Petr; Sedlárová, Iva; Sebela, Marek; Frébort, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare recombinant amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger after overexpressing in yeast. The yeast expression vector pDR197 that includes a constitutive PMA1 promoter was used for the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant amine oxidase was extracted from the growth medium of the yeast, purified to homogeneity and identified by activity assay and MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting. Similarity search in the newly published A. niger genome identified six genes coding for copper amine oxidase, two of them corresponding to the previously described enzymes AO-I a methylamine oxidase and three other genes coding for FAD amine oxidases. Thus, A. niger possesses an enormous metabolic gear to grow on amine compounds and thus support its saprophytic lifestyle. PMID:17899443

  1. Tight Coupling of Metabolic Oscillations and Intracellular Water Dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thoke, Henrik Seir; Tobiesen, Asger; Brewer, Jonathan; Hansen, Per Lyngs; Stock, Roberto P.; Olsen, Lars F.; Bagatolli, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    We detected very strong coupling between the oscillating concentration of ATP and the dynamics of intracellular water during glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results indicate that: i) dipolar relaxation of intracellular water is heterogeneous within the cell and different from dilute conditions, ii) water dipolar relaxation oscillates with glycolysis and in phase with ATP concentration, iii) this phenomenon is scale-invariant from the subcellular to the ensemble of synchronized cells and, iv) the periodicity of both glycolytic oscillations and dipolar relaxation are equally affected by D2O in a dose-dependent manner. These results offer a new insight into the coupling of an emergent intensive physicochemical property of the cell, i.e. cell-wide water dipolar relaxation, and a central metabolite (ATP) produced by a robustly oscillating metabolic process. PMID:25705902

  2. Ctk1 Function Is Necessary for Full Translation Initiation Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Coordes, Britta; Brünger, Katharina M.; Burger, Kaspar; Soufi, Boumediene; Horenk, Juliane; Eick, Dirk; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2014-01-01

    Translation is a fundamental and highly regulated cellular process. Previously, we reported that the kinase and transcription elongation factor Ctk1 increases fidelity during translation elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that loss of Ctk1 function also affects the initiation step of translation. Translation active extracts from Ctk1-depleted cells show impaired translation activity of capped mRNA, but not mRNA reporters containing the cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Furthermore, the formation of 80S initiation complexes is decreased, which is probably due to reduced subunit joining. In addition, we determined the changes in the phosphorylation pattern of a ribosome enriched fraction after depletion of Ctk1. Thus, we provide a catalogue of phosphoproteomic changes dependent on Ctk1. Taken together, our data suggest a stimulatory function of Ctk1 in 80S formation during translation initiation. PMID:25416238

  3. Identification and analysis of the N6-methyladenosine in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Tran, Hong; Liang, Zhiyong; Lin, Hao; Zhang, Liqing

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is invaluable for understanding RNA biological functions. However, limitation in experimental methods impedes the progress towards the identification of m6A site. As a complement of experimental methods, a support vector machine based-method is proposed to identify m6A sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. In this model, RNA sequences are encoded by their nucleotide chemical property and accumulated nucleotide frequency information. It is observed in the jackknife test that the accuracy achieved by the proposed model in identifying the m6A site was 78.15%. For the convenience of experimental scientists, a web-server for the proposed model is provided at http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/m6Apred.php. PMID:26343792

  4. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  5. A capillary zone electrophoresis method for adenine nucleotides analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pan; Wang, Song; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Li; Shi, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites are involved in the cellular metabolism process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is very important to simultaneously determine the relative contents of ATP and its metabolites in yeast. In this study, an effective capillary zone electrophoresis method with high selectivity was established. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range from 1 to 20mg/L (ATP and cAMP) and 2 to 40mg/L (ADP and AMP) with excellent correlation coefficients (r(2))>0.999. The recovery of ATP, ADP, AMP, and cAMP were 99.4%, 94.7%, 100.3% and 99.6%, respectively. Simple sample preparation and easy detection of ATP and its metabolites make this method suitable for the study of changes in the four adenine nucleotides levels caused by caloric restriction in yeast. It is expected that the current method may contribute to further energy metabolism and related investigations of yeast. PMID:26655107

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sainz-Polo, M. Angela; Lafraya, Alvaro; Polo, Aitana; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (ScInv) is an enzyme encoded by the SUC2 gene that releases ?-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various ?-­d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The native enzyme, which presents a high degree of oligomerization, was crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = 268.6, b = 268.6, c = 224.4?Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3?Å resolution and gave complete data sets using a synchrotron X-ray source. PMID:23192042

  7. A DNA Sequence Element That Advances Replication Origin Activation Time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas J.; Kolor, Katherine; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time. PMID:24022751

  8. Genetic and physiological relationships between L-asparaginase I and asparaginase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jones, G E

    1977-04-01

    The cistron that codes for L-asparaginase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (aspl) is not genetically linked to either of the cistrons coding for expression of asparaginase II (asp2 and asp3). Cells containing different combinations of theses enzymes grow at different rates in media in which L-asparagine or D-asparagine is the only source of nitrogen for cell replication. Cells lacking L-asparaginase I but possessing asparaginase II grow more rapidly in medium containing D-asparagine as a nitrogen source than cells containing both enzymes, even though D-asparagine is not a substrate of L-asparaginase I. These results indicate that L-asparaginase I and asparaginase II interact in some way to regulate the utilization of asparagine as a nitrogen source for cell growth. PMID:323221

  9. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  10. Permeabilization of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls using nanosecond high power electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirke, A.; Zimkus, A.; Balevicius, S.; Stankevic, V.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Ramanavicius, A.; Zurauskiene, N.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical field-induced changes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells permeabilization to tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) ions were studied using square-shaped, nanosecond duration high power electrical pulses. It was obtained that pulses having durations ranging from 10 ns to 60 ns, and generating electric field strengths up to 190 kV/cm significantly (up to 65 times) increase the absorption rate of TPP+ ions without any detectible influence on the yeast cell viability. The modelling of the TPP+ absorption process using a second order rate equation demonstrates that depending on the duration of the pulses, yeast cell clusters of different sizes are homogeniously permeabilized. It was concluded, that nanosecond pulse-induced permeabilization can be applied to increase the operational speed of whole cell biosensors.

  11. Mutations in Cen3 Cause Aberrant Chromosome Segregation during Meiosis in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, A.; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the structural requirements of the centromere from chromosome III (CEN3) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by analyzing the ability of chromosomes with CEN3 mutations to segregate properly during meiosis. We analyzed diploid cells in which one or both copies of chromosome III carry a mutant centromere in place of the wild-type centromere and found that some alterations in the length, base composition and primary sequence characteristics of the central A+T-rich region (CDE II) of the centromere had a significant effect on the ability of the chromosome to segregate properly through meiosis. Chromosomes containing mutations which delete a portion of CDE II showed a high rate of premature disjunction at meiosis I. Chromosomes containing point mutations in CDE I or lacking CDE I appeared to segregate properly through meiosis; however, plasmids carrying centromeres with CDE I completely deleted showed an increased frequency of segregation to nonsister spores. PMID:2653962

  12. Producing human ceramide-NS by metabolic engineering using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Suguru; Shimamoto, Toshi; Nagano, Hideaki; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Okuhara, Hiroaki; Hatanaka, Haruyo; Tojo, Hiromasa; Kodama, Yukiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is one of the most important intercellular components responsible for the barrier and moisture retention functions of the skin. Because of the risks involved with using products of animal origin and the low productivity of plants, the availability of ceramides is currently limited. In this study, we successfully developed a system that produces sphingosine-containing human ceramide-NS in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the genes for yeast sphingolipid hydroxylases (encoded by SUR2 and SCS7) and introducing the gene for a human sphingolipid desaturase (encoded by DES1). The inactivation of the ceramidase gene YDC1, overexpression of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C gene ISC1, and endoplasmic reticulum localization of the DES1 gene product resulted in enhanced production of ceramide-NS. The engineered yeast strains can serve as hosts not only for providing a sustainable source of ceramide-NS but also for developing further systems to produce sphingosine-containing sphingolipids. PMID:26573460

  13. Complex in vivo Ligation Using Homologous Recombination and High-efficiency Plasmid Rescue from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The protocols presented here allow for the facile generation of a wide variety of complex multipart DNA constructs (tagged gene products, gene fusions, chimeric proteins, and other variants) using homologous recombination and in vivo ligation in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). This method is straightforward, efficient and cost-effective, and can be used both for vector creation and for subsequent one-step, high frequency integration into a chromosomal locus in yeast. The procedure utilizes PCR with extended oligonucleotide “tails” of homology between multiple fragments to allow for reassembly in yeast in a single transformation followed by a method for highly efficient plasmid extraction from yeast (for transformation into bacteria). The latter is an improvement on existing methods of yeast plasmid extraction, which, historically, has been a limiting step in recovery of desired constructs. We describe the utility and convenience of our techniques, and provide several examples. PMID:26523287

  14. Heterologous xylose isomerase pathway and evolutionary engineering improve xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin; Zha, Jian; Liu, Gao-Gang; Zhang, Weiwen; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Xylose utilization is one key issue for the bioconversion of lignocelluloses. It is a promising approach to engineering heterologous pathway for xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we constructed a xylose-fermenting yeast SyBE001 through combinatorial fine-tuning the expression of XylA and endogenous XKS1. Additional overexpression of genes RKI1, RPE1, TKL1, and TAL1 in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in SyBE001 increased the xylose consumption rate by 1.19-fold. By repetitive adaptation, the xylose utilization rate was further increased by ?10-fold in the resultant strain SyBE003. Gene expression analysis identified a variety of genes with significantly changed expression in the PPP, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in SyBE003. PMID:26539187

  15. Elucidation of the DNA end-replication problem in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soudet, Julien; Jolivet, Pascale; Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2014-03-20

    The model for telomere shortening at each replication cycle is currently incomplete, and the exact contribution of the telomeric 3' overhang to the shortening rate remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate key steps of the mechanism of telomere replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By following the dynamics of telomeres during replication at near-nucleotide resolution, we find that the leading-strand synthesis generates blunt-end intermediates before being 5'-resected and filled in. Importantly, the shortening rate is set by positioning the last Okazaki fragments at the very ends of the chromosome. Thus, telomeres shorten in direct proportion to the 3' overhang lengths of 5-10 nucleotides that are present in parental templates. Furthermore, the telomeric protein Cdc13 coordinates leading- and lagging-strand syntheses. Taken together, our data unravel a precise choreography of telomere replication elucidating the DNA end-replication problem and provide a framework to understand the control of the cell proliferation potential. PMID:24656131

  16. Metabolic response of Danaüs archippus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to weak oscillatory magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, D. N.; Webb, S. J.

    1981-09-01

    Respiration of the insect larva, Danaüs archippus, and the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in log phase has been monitored before and after an oscillatory magnetic insult of 0.005 Gauss rms amplitude and 40 50 min duration. Frequencies used were 10 16 Hz for the insect and 100 200 Hz for the yeast. Depression of as much as 30% in metabolic rate has been found to occur immediately after the field is both imposed and eliminated with a general recovery over the 30-min period thereafter both in and out of the imposed field, although complete recovery to original levels may take much longer. Evidence is given that the response may depend on the frequency pattern used. This data is used to formulate an hypothesis whereby changes in the geomagnetic field variability pattern may act as a biochronometric zeitgeber.

  17. Effects of ubiquinone derivatives on the mitochondrial unselective channel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; López-Carbajal, Helga M; Uribe-Alvarez, Cristina; Espinoza-Simón, Emilio; Rosas-Lemus, Mónica; Chiquete-Félix, Natalia; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Ubiquinone derivatives modulate the mammalian mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (PTP). Yeast mitochondria harbor a similar structure: the respiration- and ATP-induced Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrial Unselective Channel ( Sc MUC). Here we show that decylubiquinone, a well-characterized inhibitor of the PTP, suppresses Sc MUC opening in diverse strains and independently of respiratory chain modulation or redox-state. We also found that naturally occurring derivatives such as hexaprenyl and decaprenyl ubiquinones lacked effects on the Sc MUC. The PTP-inactive ubiquinone 5 (Ub5) promoted the Sc MUC-independent activation of the respiratory chain in most strains tested. In an industrial strain however, Ub5 blocked the protection elicited by dUb. The results indicate the presence of a ubiquinone-binding site in the Sc MUC. PMID:25465614

  18. Ultrastructural Imaging of Endocytic Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Immunolabeling

    PubMed Central

    Buser, Christopher; Drubin, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Defining the ultrastructure of endocytic sites and localization of endocytic proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by immunoelectron microscopy is central in understanding the mechanisms of membrane deformation and scission during endocytosis. We show that an improved sample preparation protocol based on high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution, and low-temperature embedding allows us to maintain the cellular fine structure and to immunolabel green fluorescent protein–tagged endocytic proteins or actin in the same sections. Using this technique we analyzed the stepwise deformation of endocytic membranes and immuno-localized the endocytic proteins Abp1p, Sla1p, Rvs167p, and actin, and were able to draw a clear ultrastructural distinction between endocytic sites and eisosomes by immunolocalizing Pil1p. In addition to defining the geometry and the fine structure of budding yeast endocytic sites, we observed associated actin filaments forming a cage-like meshwork around the endocytic membrane. PMID:23458500

  19. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cell Wall Components as Tools for Ochratoxin A Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata; Masek, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall preparations in the adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA). The study involved the use of a brewer’s yeast cell wall devoid of protein substances, glucans obtained by water and alkaline extraction, a glucan commercially available as a dietary supplement for animals and, additionally, dried brewer’s yeast for comparison. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis of the obtained preparations showed bands characteristic for glucans in the resulting spectra. The yeast cell wall preparation, water-extracted glucan and the commercial glucan bound the highest amount of ochratoxin A, above 55% of the initial concentration, and the alkaline-extracted glucan adsorbed the lowest amount of this toxin. It has been shown that adsorption is most effective at a close-to-neutral pH, while being considerably limited in alkaline conditions. PMID:25848694

  20. DNA microarray analysis suggests that zinc pyrithione causes iron starvation to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yasokawa, Daisuke; Murata, Satomi; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Kitagawa, Emiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; Okumura, Yukihiro; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been used in anti-dandruff shampoos and in anti-fouling paint on ships. However, little is known of its mode of action. We characterized the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. The majority of the strongly upregulated genes are related to iron transport, and many of the strongly downregulated genes are related to the biosynthesis of cytochrome (heme). These data suggest that Zpt induces severe iron starvation. To confirm the DNA microarray data, we supplemented cultures containing Zpt with iron, and the growth of the yeast was restored significantly. From these results, we propose that the principal toxicity of zinc pyrithione arises from iron starvation. PMID:20347771

  1. Characterization of synthetic DNA bar codes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene-deletion strains

    PubMed Central

    Eason, Robert G.; Pourmand, Nader; Tongprasit, Waraporn; Herman, Zelek S.; Anthony, Kevin; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Davis, Ronald W.; Stolc, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Incorporation of strain-specific synthetic DNA tags into yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene-deletion strains has enabled identification of gene functions by massively parallel growth rate analysis. However, it is important to confirm the sequences of these tags, because mutations introduced during construction could lead to significant errors in hybridization performance. To validate this experimental system, we sequenced 11,812 synthetic 20-mer molecular bar codes and adjacent sequences (>1.8 megabases synthetic DNA) by pyrosequencing and Sanger methods. At least 31% of the genome-integrated 20-mer tags contain differences from those originally synthesized. However, these mutations result in anomalous hybridization in only a small subset of strains, and the sequence information enables redesign of hybridization probes for arrays. The robust performance of the yeast gene-deletion dual oligonucleotide bar-code design in array hybridization validates the use of molecular bar codes in living cells for tracking their growth phenotype. PMID:15258289

  2. Determination of the core promoter regions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPS3 gene.

    PubMed

    Joo, Yoo Jin; Kim, Jin-Ha; Baek, Joung Hee; Seong, Ki Moon; Lee, Jae Yung; Kim, Joon

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal protein genes (RPG), which are scattered throughout the genomes of all eukaryotes, are subjected to coordinated expression. In yeast, the expression of RPGs is highly regulated, mainly at the transcriptional level. Recent research has found that many ribosomal proteins (RPs) function in multiple processes in addition to protein synthesis. Therefore, detailed knowledge of promoter architecture as well as gene regulation is important in understanding the multiple cellular processes mediated by RPGs. In this study, we investigated the functional architecture of the yeast RPS3 promoter and identified many putative cis-elements. Using beta-galactosidase reporter analysis and EMSA, the core promoter of RPS3 containing UASrpg and T-rich regions was corroborated. Moreover, the promoter occupancy of RPS3 by three transcription factors was confirmed. Taken together, our results further the current understanding of the promoter architecture and trans-elements of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPS3 gene. PMID:19853675

  3. Resonance assignments for the substrate binding domain of Hsp70 chaperone Ssa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wanhui; Wu, Huiwen; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Weibin; Perrett, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Hsp70 chaperone proteins play crucial roles in the cell. Extensive structural and functional studies have been performed for bacterial and mammalian Hsp70s. Ssa1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a member of the Hsp70 family. In vivo and biochemical studies on Ssa1 have revealed that it regulates prion propagation and the cell cycle. However, no structural data has been obtained for Ssa1 up to now. Here we report the almost complete (96 %) (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side chain NMR assignment of the 18.8 kDa Ssa1 substrate binding domain. The construct includes residues 382-554, which corresponds to the entire substrate binding domain and two following ?-helices in homologous structures. The secondary structure predicted from the assigned chemical shifts is consistent with that of homologous Hsp70 substrate binding domains. PMID:25682100

  4. Chaperone Proteins Select and Maintain [PIN+] Prion Conformations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, David L.; Dobson, C. Melissa; Rachubinski, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Prions are proteins that can adopt different infectious conformations known as “strains” or “variants,” each with a distinct, epigenetically inheritable phenotype. Mechanisms by which prion variants are determined remain unclear. Here we use the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prion Rnq1p/[PIN+] as a model to investigate the effects of chaperone proteins upon prion variant determination. We show that deletion of specific chaperone genes alters [PIN+] variant phenotypes, including [PSI+] induction efficiency, Rnq1p aggregate morphology/size and variant dominance. Mating assays demonstrate that gene deletion-induced phenotypic changes are stably inherited in a non-Mendelian manner even after restoration of the deleted gene, confirming that they are due to a bona fide change in the [PIN+] variant. Together, our results demonstrate a role for chaperones in regulating the prion variant complement of a cell. PMID:23148221

  5. Chromosomal attachments set length and microtubule number in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    Nannas, Natalie J.; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Winey, Mark; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    The length of the mitotic spindle varies among different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to micro­tubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that spindle length scales with kinetochore number, increasing when kinetochores are inactivated and shortening on addition of synthetic or natural kinetochores, showing that kinetochore–microtubule interactions generate an inward force to balance forces that elongate the spindle. Electron microscopy shows that manipulating kinetochore number alters the number of spindle microtubules: adding extra kinetochores increases the number of spindle microtubules, suggesting kinetochore-based regulation of microtubule number. PMID:25318669

  6. SPO73 and SPO71 Function Cooperatively in Prospore Membrane Elongation During Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Emily M.; Roesner, Joseph M.; Huang, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells undergoing sporulation form prospore membranes to surround their meiotic nuclei. The prospore membranes ultimately become the plasma membranes of the new cells. The putative phospholipase Spo1 and the tandem Pleckstrin Homology domain protein Spo71 have previously been shown to be required for prospore membrane development, along with the constitutively expressed Vps13 involved in vacuolar sorting. Here, we utilize genetic analysis, and find that SPO73 is required for proper prospore membrane shape and, like SPO71, is necessary for prospore membrane elongation. Additionally, similar to SPO71, loss of SPO73 partially suppresses spo1?. Spo73 localizes to prospore membranes and complexes with Spo71. We also find that phosphatidylserine localizes to the prospore membrane. Our results suggest a model where SPO71 and SPO73 act in opposition to SPO1 to form and elongate prospore membranes, while VPS13 plays a distinct role in prospore membrane development. PMID:26605945

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200?rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  8. Crystallographic studies of the structured core domain of Knr4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Julien, Sylviane; Tondl, Patrick; Durand, Fabien; Dagkessamanskaia, Adilia; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; François, Jean Marie; Mourey, Lionel; Zerbib, Didier; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Maveyraud, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    The potentially structured core domain of the intrinsically disordered protein Knr4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, comprising residues 80-340, was expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Selenomethionine-containing (SeMet) protein was also purified and crystallized. Crystals of both proteins belonged to space group P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 112.44, c = 265.21?Å for the native protein and a = b = 112.49, c = 262.21?Å for the SeMet protein, and diffracted to 3.50 and 3.60?Å resolution, respectively. There are two molecules in the asymmetric unit related by a twofold axis. The anomalous signal of selenium was recorded and yielded an electron-density map of sufficient quality to allow the identification of secondary-structure elements. PMID:26323295

  9. Barosensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Closely Associated with a Deletion of the COX1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazuki; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2015-05-01

    High hydrostatic pressure causes physical stress to microorganisms; therefore, this technology may be applied to food pasteurization without introducing the unfavorable effects of thermal denaturation. However, its application is limited to high-value foods because the treatment requires a robust steel vessel and expensive pressurization equipment. To reduce these costs, we studied the pasteurization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using relatively moderate high-pressure levels. A mutant strain isolated by ultraviolet mutagenesis showed significant loss of viability under high-pressure conditions. Gene expression analysis of the mutant strain revealed that it incurred a deletion of the COX1 gene. Our results suggest that the pressure-sensitivity can readily be introduced into industrial/food microorganisms by complementing a COX1 deleted mitochondria. PMID:25881710

  10. Cell death caused by excision of centromeric DNA from a chromosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Akihiro; Yanamoto, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Hatano, Takushi; Matsuzaki, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    If genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are spread through the natural environment, it might affect the natural environment. To help prevent the spread of GMOs, we examined whether it is possible to introduce conditional lethality by excising centromeric DNA from a chromosome by site-specific recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model organism. First, we constructed haploid cells in which excision of the centromeric DNA from chromosome IV can occur due to recombinase induced by galactose. By this excision, cell death can occur. In diploid cells, cell death can also occur by excision from both homologous chromosomes IV. Furthermore, cell death can occur in the case of chromosome V. A small number of surviving cells appeared with excision of centromeric DNA, and the diploid showed greater viability than the haploid in both chromosomes IV and V. The surviving cells appeared mainly due to deletion of a recombination target site (RS) from the chromosome. PMID:24018677

  11. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  12. Fatty Acid-Derived Biofuels and Chemicals Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A.; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Volatile energy costs and environmental concerns have spurred interest in the development of alternative, renewable, sustainable, and cost-effective energy resources. Environment-friendly processes involving microbes can be used to synthesize advanced biofuels. These fuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels in supporting high-power demanding machinery such as aircrafts and trucks. From an engineering perspective, the pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis is an attractive route for the production of advanced fuels such as fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and alkanes. The robustness and excellent accessibility to molecular genetics make the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a suitable host for the purpose of bio-manufacturing. Recent advances in metabolic engineering, as well as systems and synthetic biology, have now provided the opportunity to engineer yeast metabolism for the production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals. PMID:25225637

  13. Unified inventory of established and putative transporters encoded within the complete genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, I T; Sliwinski, M K; Nelissen, B; Goffeau, A; Saier, M H

    1998-06-23

    We present the complete inventory of currently recognized and putative transporters encoded within the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These 258 transporters are classified into 42 families according to phylogenetic and substrate specificity criteria. Twelve of these yeast families are found only in eukaryotic organisms, and four are so far unique to yeast. Putative yeast-specific families transport heavy metals, arsenite and calcium. The phylogenetic analyses reported allow classification of 139 functionally uncharacterized yeast transporters into families of known functions. The relative proportions of yeast transporters specific for different classes of substrates differ only slightly from those reported for Escherichia coli. However, the ratio of secondary transporters (uniporters, cation symporters and antiporters) to primary ATP-driven transporters is much higher for yeast than for bacteria. PMID:9678606

  14. Effect of C-Terminal Protein Tags on Pentitol and l-Arabinose Transport by Ambrosiozyma monospora Lat1 and Lat2 Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Peter; Valkonen, Mari; Viljanen, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Functional expression in heterologous hosts is often less successful for integral membrane proteins than for soluble proteins. Here, two Ambrosiozyma monospora transporters were successfully expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as tagged proteins. Growth of A. monospora on l-arabinose instead of glucose caused transport activities of l-arabinose, l-arabitol, and ribitol, measured using l-[1-3H]arabinose, l-[14C]arabitol, and [14C]ribitol of demonstrated purity. A. monospora LAT1 and LAT2 genes were cloned earlier by using their ability to improve the growth of genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae on l-arabinose. However, the l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of S. cerevisiae carrying LAT1 or LAT2 are only slightly greater than those of control strains. S. cerevisiae carrying the LAT1 or LAT2 gene fused in frame to the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (mCherry) or adenylate kinase (AK) exhibited large (>3-fold for LAT1; >20-fold for LAT2) increases in transport activities. Lat1-mCherry transported l-arabinose with high affinity (Km ? 0.03 mM) and l-arabitol and ribitol with very low affinity (Km ? 75 mM). The Lat2-GFP, Lat2-mCherry, and Lat2-AK fusion proteins could not transport l-arabinose but were high-affinity pentitol transporters (Kms ? 0.2 mM). The l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of A. monospora could not be completely explained by any combination of the observed properties of tagged Lat1 and Lat2, suggesting either that tagging and expression in a foreign membrane alters the transport kinetics of Lat1 and/or Lat2 or that A. monospora contains at least one more l-arabinose transporter. PMID:24561586

  15. [Construction and preliminary applications of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae detection plasmid using for screening promoter elements].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Zhi-Biao; Li, Li-Na; Jian-Mei, A N; Wang-Wei; Cheng, Ke-Di; Kong, Jian-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Synthetic biology of natural products is the design and construction of new biological systems by transferring a metabolic pathway of interest products into a chassis. Large-scale production of natural products is achieved by coordinate expression of multiple genes involved in genetic pathway of desired products. Promoters are cis-elements and play important roles in the balance of the metabolic pathways controlled by multiple genes by regulating gene expression. A detection plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed based on DsRed-Monomer gene encoding for a red fluorescent protein. This plasmid was used for screening the efficient promoters applying for multiple gene-controlled pathways. First of all, eight pairs of primers specific to DsRed-Monomer gene were synthesized. The rapid cloning of DsRed-Monomer gene was performed based on step-by-step extension of a short region of the gene through a series of PCR reactions. All cloned sequences were confirmed by DNA sequencing. A vector named pEASYDs-M containing full-length DsRed-Monomer gene was constructed and was used as the template for the construction of S. cerevisiae expression vector named for pYeDP60-Ds-M. pYeDP60-Ds-M was then transformed into S. cerevisiae for heterologous expression of DsRed-Monomer gene. SDS-PAGE, Western blot and fluorescence microscopy results showed that the recombinant DsRed-Monomer protein was expressed successfully in S. cerevisiae. The well-characterized DsRed-Monomer gene was then cloned into a yeast expression vector pGBT9 to obtain a promoter detection plasmid pGBT9Red. For determination efficacy of pGBT9Red, six promoters (including four inducible promoters and two constitutive promoters) were cloned by PCR from the S. cerevisiae genome, and cloned into pGBT9Red by placing upstream of DsRed-Monomer gene, separately. The fluorescence microscopy results indicated that the six promoters (GAL1, GAL2, GAL7, GAL10, TEF2 and PGK1) can regulate the expression of DsRed-Monomer gene. The successful construction of pGBT9Red lays the foundation for further analysis of promoter activity and screening of promoter element libraries. PMID:23672019

  16. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-Interactome using the iTRAQ-SPROX Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, M. Ariel; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2015-11-01

    The stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) technique was used in combination with an isobaric mass tagging strategy to identify adenosine triphosphate (ATP) interacting proteins in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. The SPROX methodology utilized in this work enabled 373 proteins in a yeast cell lysate to be assayed for ATP interactions (both direct and indirect) using the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). A total of 28 proteins were identified with AMP-PNP-induced thermodynamic stability changes. These protein hits included 14 proteins that were previously annotated as ATP-binding proteins in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). The 14 non-annotated ATP-binding proteins included nine proteins that were previously found to be ATP-sensitive in an earlier SPROX study using a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based approach. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein hits identified here and in the earlier SILAC-SPROX experiments revealed that many of the previously annotated ATP-binding protein hits were kinases, ligases, and chaperones. In contrast, many of the newly discovered ATP-sensitive proteins were not from these protein classes, but rather were hydrolases, oxidoreductases, and nucleic acid-binding proteins.

  17. ATG18 and FAB1 Are Involved in Dehydration Stress Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Gema; Margalef-Català, Mar; Salinas, Francisco; Liti, Gianni; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, different dehydration-based technologies have been evaluated for the purpose of cell and tissue preservation. Although some early results have been promising, they have not satisfied the requirements for large-scale applications. The long experience of using quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a good model organism for studying the link between complex phenotypes and DNA variations. Here, we use QTL analysis as a tool for identifying the specific yeast traits involved in dehydration stress tolerance. Three hybrids obtained from stable haploids and sequenced in the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project showed intermediate dehydration tolerance in most cases. The dehydration resistance trait of 96 segregants from each hybrid was quantified. A smooth, continuous distribution of the anhydrobiosis tolerance trait was found, suggesting that this trait is determined by multiple QTLs. Therefore, we carried out a QTL analysis to identify the determinants of this dehydration tolerance trait at the genomic level. Among the genes identified after reciprocal hemizygosity assays, RSM22, ATG18 and DBR1 had not been referenced in previous studies. We report new phenotypes for these genes using a previously validated test. Finally, our data illustrates the power of this approach in the investigation of the complex cell dehydration phenotype. PMID:25803831

  18. [Construction of high sulphite-producing industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Qu, Na; He, Xiu-ping; Guo, Xue-na; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Bo-run

    2006-02-01

    In the process of beer storage and transportation, off-flavor can be produced for oxidation of beer. Sulphite is important for stabilizing the beer flavor because of its antioxidant activity. However, the low level of sulphite synthesized by the brewing yeast is not enough to stabilize beer flavor. Three enzymes involve sulphite biosynthesis in yeast. One of them, APS kinase (encoded by MET14) plays important role in the process of sulphite formation. In order to construct high sulphite-producing brewing yeast strain for beer production, MET14 gene was cloned and overexpressed in industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Primer 1 (5'-TGTGAATTCCTGTACACCAATGGCTACT-3', EcoR I) and primer 2 (5'-TATAAGCTTGATGA GGTGGATGAAGACG-3', HindIII) were designed according to the MET14 sequence in GenBank. A 1.1kb DNA fragment containing the open reading frame and terminator of MET14 gene was amplified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae YSF-5 by PCR, and inserted into YEp352 to generate recombinant plasmid pMET14. To express MET14 gene properly in S. cerevisiae, the recombinant expression plasmids pPM with URA3 gene as the selection marker and pCPM with URA3 gene and copper resistance gene as the selection marker for yeast transformation were constructed. In plasmid pPM, the PGK1 promoter from plasmid pVC727 was fused with the MET14 gene from pMET14, and the expression cassette was inserted into the plasmid YEp352. The dominant selection marker, copper-resistance gene expression cassette CUP1-MTI was inserted in plasmid pPM to result in pCPM. Restriction enzyme analysis showed that plasmids pPM and pCPM were constructed correctly. The laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae YS58 with ura3, trp1, leu2, his4 auxotroph was transformed with plasmid pPM. Yeast transformants were screened on synthetic minimal medium (SD) containing leucine, histidine and tryptophan. The sulphite production of the transformants carrying pPM was 2 fold of that in the control strain YS58, which showed that the MET14 gene on plasmid pPM was expressed functionally in YS58. The industrial brewing yeast strain YSF-38 was transformed with the plasmid pCPM and yeast transformants were selected on YEPD medium containing 4mmol/L copper sulphate. The recombinant strain carrying pCPM showed a 3.2-fold increase in sulphite production when compared to the host strain YSF-38 under laboratory culture conditions. Flask fermentation under brewing-like conditions was performed in Tsingtao Beer Brewery. The sulphite production of the recombinant strain began to be higher than that of the host strain YSF-38 at the fourth day and reached the maximum at the eighth day. At the end of fermentation, the sulphite produced by recombinant strain is 1.4 fold of that in the host strain. The overexpression of MET14 gene in both laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae increases the sulphite formation. It is the first time to construct high sulphite-producing industrial strain by functional expression of MET14 in S. cerevisiae. Such study provides the foundation for construction of an excellent brewing yeast strain that can produce proper sulphite and can be used in commercial beer production. PMID:16579462

  19. Metabolic Flux Analysis during the Exponential Growth Phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Quirós, Manuel; Martínez-Moreno, Rubén; Albiol, Joan; Morales, Pilar; Vázquez-Lima, Felícitas; Barreiro-Vázquez, Antonio; Ferrer, Pau; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of the increase in global average temperature, grapes with the adequate phenolic and aromatic maturity tend to be overripe by the time of harvest, resulting in increased sugar concentrations and imbalanced C/N ratios in fermenting musts. This fact sets obvious additional hurdles in the challenge of obtaining wines with reduced alcohols levels, a new trend in consumer demands. It would therefore be interesting to understand Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during the fermentation of must with these altered characteristics. The present study aims to determine the distribution of metabolic fluxes during the yeast exponential growth phase, when both carbon and nitrogen sources are in excess, using continuous cultures. Two different sugar concentrations were studied under two different winemaking temperature conditions. Although consumption and production rates for key metabolites were severely affected by the different experimental conditions studied, the general distribution of fluxes in central carbon metabolism was basically conserved in all cases. It was also observed that temperature and sugar concentration exerted a higher effect on the pentose phosphate pathway and glycerol formation than on glycolysis and ethanol production. Additionally, nitrogen uptake, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was strongly influenced by environmental conditions. This work provides the most complete stoichiometric model used for Metabolic Flux Analysis of S. cerevisiae in wine fermentations employed so far, including the synthesis and release of relevant aroma compounds and could be used in the design of optimal nitrogen supplementation of wine fermentations. PMID:23967264

  20. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of novel lipid compounds.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J M; Chapital, D C; Kuan, J W; Mullen, R T; Pepperman, A B

    2002-07-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been modified successfully for production of numerous metabolites and therapeutic proteins through metabolic engineering, but has not been utilized to date for the production of lipid-derived compounds. We developed a lipid metabolic engineering strategy in S. cerevisiae based upon culturing techniques that are typically employed for studies of peroxisomal biogenesis; cells were grown in media containing fatty acids as a sole carbon source, which promotes peroxisomal proliferation and induction of enzymes associated with fatty acid beta-oxidation. Our results indicate that growth of yeast on fatty acids such as oleate results in extensive uptake of these fatty acids from the media and a subsequent increase in total cellular lipid content from 2% to 15% dry cell weight. We also show that co-expression of plant fatty acid desaturases 2 and 3 ( FAD2 and FAD3), using a fatty acid-inducible peroxisomal gene promoter, coupled the processes of fatty acid uptake with the induction of a new metabolic pathway leading from oleic acid (18:1) to linolenic acid (18:3). Finally, we show that cultivation of yeast cells in the presence of triacylglycerols and exogenously supplied lipase promotes extensive incorporation of triglyceride fatty acids into yeast cells. Collectively, these results provide a framework for bioconversion of low-cost oils into value-added lipid products. PMID:12111150

  1. The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Pichia membranifaciens killer toxin.

    PubMed

    Santos, Antonio; Del Mar Alvarez, María; Mauro, Manuel San; Abrusci, Concepción; Marquina, Domingo

    2005-12-23

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Pichia membranifaciens killer toxin (PMKT) was investigated. We explored the global gene expression responses of the yeast S. cerevisiae to PMKT using DNA microarrays, real time quantitative PCR, and Northern blot. We identified 146 genes whose expression was significantly altered in response to PMKT in a non-random functional distribution. The majority of induced genes, most of them related to the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, were core environmental stress response genes, showing that the coordinated transcriptional response to PMKT is related to changes in ionic homeostasis. Hog1p was observed to be phosphorylated in response to PMKT implicating the HOG signaling pathway. Individually deleted mutants of both up- (99) and down-regulated genes (47) were studied for altered sensitivity; it was observed that the deletion of up-regulated genes generated hypersensitivity (82%) to PMKT. Deletion of down-regulated genes generated wild-type (36%), resistant (47%), and hypersensitive (17%) phenotypes. This is the first study that shows the existence of a transcriptional response to the poisoning effects of a killer toxin. PMID:16204237

  2. Regulation of cation transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the salt tolerance gene HAL3.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, A; Kron, S J; Rios, G; Fink, G R; Serrano, R

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of ion transport is essential for homeostasis as cells confront changes in their environment. The gene HAL3 encodes a novel component of this regulatory circuit in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overexpression of HAL3 improves growth of wild-type cells exposed to toxic concentrations of sodium and lithium and suppresses the salt sensitivity conferred by mutation of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin. Null mutants of HAL3 display salt sensitivity. The sequence of HAL3 gives little clue to its function. However, alterations in intracellular cation concentrations associated with changes in HAL3 expression suggest that HAL3 activity may directly increase cytoplasmic K+ and decrease Na+ and Li+. Cation efflux in S. cerevisiae is mediated by the P-type ATPase encoded by the ENA1/PMR24 gene, a putative plasma membrane Na+ pump whose expression is salt induced. Acting in concert with calcineurin, HAL3 is necessary for full activation of ENA1 expression. This functional complementarity is also reflected in the participation of both proteins in recovery from alpha-factor-induced growth arrest. Recently, HAL3 was isolated as a gene (named SIS2) which when overexpressed partially relieves loss of transcription of G1 cyclins in mutants lacking the protein phosphatase Sit4p. Therefore, HAL3 influences cell cycle control and ion homeostasis, acting in parallel to the protein phosphatases Sit4p and calcineurin. PMID:7565698

  3. Signal peptide optimization tool for the secretion of recombinant protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akihiro; Hara, Shoichi; Sugahara, Tomohiro; Kojima, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yugo; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Sahara, Takehiko; Ohgiya, Satoru; Nakano, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    The secretion efficiency of foreign proteins in recombinant microbes is strongly dependent on the combination of the signal peptides (SPs) used and the target proteins; therefore, identifying the optimal SP sequence for each target protein is a crucial step in maximizing the efficiency of protein secretion in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we developed a novel method, named the SP optimization tool (SPOT), for the generation and rapid screening of a library of SP-target gene fusion constructs to identify the optimal SP for maximizing target protein secretion. In contrast to libraries generated in previous studies, SPOT fusion constructs are generated without adding the intervening sequences associated with restriction enzyme digestion sites. Therefore, no extra amino acids are inserted at the N-terminus of the target protein that might affect its function or conformational stability. As a model system, ?-galactosidase (LacA) from Aspergillus oryzae was used as a target protein for secretion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In total, 60 SPs were selected from S. cerevisiae secretory proteins and utilized to generate the SP library. While many of the SP-LacA fusions were not secreted, several of the SPs, AGA2, CRH1, PLB1, and MF(alpha)1, were found to enhance LacA secretion compared to the WT sequence. Our results indicate that SPOT is a valuable method for optimizing the bioproduction of any target protein, and could be adapted to many host strains. PMID:25912446

  4. CK2 activity is modulated by growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Tripodi, Farida; Cirulli, Claudia; Reghellin, Veronica; Marin, Oriano; Brambilla, Luca; Schiappelli, Maria Patrizia; Porro, Danilo; Vanoni, Marco; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} CK2 subunits are nuclear both in glucose and in ethanol growing yeast cells. {yields} CK2 activity is modulated in S. cerevisiae. {yields} CK2 activity is higher in conditions supporting higher growth rates. {yields} V{sub max} is higher in faster growing cells, while K{sub m} is not affected. -- Abstract: CK2 is a highly conserved protein kinase controlling different cellular processes. It shows a higher activity in proliferating mammalian cells, in various types of cancer cell lines and tumors. The findings presented herein provide the first evidence of an in vivo modulation of CK2 activity, dependent on growth rate, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In fact, CK2 activity, assayed on nuclear extracts, is shown to increase in exponential growing batch cultures at faster growth rate, while localization of catalytic and regulatory subunits is not nutritionally modulated. Differences in intracellular CK2 activity of glucose- and ethanol-grown cells appear to depend on both increase in molecule number and k{sub cat}. Also in chemostat cultures nuclear CK2 activity is higher in faster growing cells providing the first unequivocal demonstration that growth rate itself can affect CK2 activity in a eukaryotic organism.

  5. Structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cet1-Ceg1 mRNA Capping Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meigang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-05-04

    The 5{prime} guanine-N7 cap is the first cotranscriptional modification of messenger RNA. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first two steps in capping are catalyzed by the RNA triphosphatase Cet1 and RNA guanylyltransferase Ceg1, which form a complex that is directly recruited to phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAP IIo), primarily via contacts between RNAP IIo and Ceg1. A 3.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cet1-Ceg1 revealed a 176 kDa heterotetrameric complex composed of one Cet1 homodimer that associates with two Ceg1 molecules via interactions between the Ceg1 oligonucleotide binding domain and an extended Cet1 WAQKW amino acid motif. The WAQKW motif is followed by a flexible linker that would allow Ceg1 to achieve conformational changes required for capping while maintaining interactions with both Cet1 and RNAP IIo. The impact of mutations as assessed through genetic analysis in S. cerevisiae is consonant with contacts observed in the Cet1-Ceg1 structure.

  6. RNA complementary to the 5' UTR of mRNA triggers effective silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Bonoli, M.; Graziola, M.; Poggi, V.; Hochkoeppler, A. . E-mail: hochko@ms.fci.unibo.it

    2006-01-27

    Conditional silencing of target genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by antisense RNAs expressed in vivo has been challenged. The MF{alpha}1::lacZ fusion present in S. cerevisiae SF51-3 was chosen as a model target, and fragments of this gene were cloned in reverse orientation into the expression vector pYES2, bearing the GAL1 promoter. Among the different antisense constructs tested, only the one complementary to the 5' UTR of target mRNA featured effective silencing. Nevertheless, the expression in vivo of this antisense RNA could not be properly tuned by the absence or presence of galactose in the culture medium. Accordingly, conditional silencing could not be attained by this antisense hosted into pYES2. On the contrary, cloning the same antisense construct into the expression vector pSAL4 yielded a fully conditional silencing linked to the control of antisense expression by the absence or presence of Cu{sup 2+} into the culture medium.

  7. Multi-Capillary Column-Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Volatile Metabolites Emitted by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Halbfeld, Christoph; Ebert, Birgitta E.; Blank, Lars M.

    2014-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during microbial fermentations determine the flavor of fermented food and are of interest for the production of fragrances or food additives. However, the microbial synthesis of these compounds from simple carbon sources has not been well investigated so far. Here, we analyzed the headspace over glucose minimal salt medium cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using multi-capillary column-ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS). The high sensitivity and fast data acquisition of the MCC-IMS enabled online analysis of the fermentation off-gas and 19 specific signals were determined. To four of these volatile compounds, we could assign the metabolites ethanol, 2-pentanone, isobutyric acid, and 2,3-hexanedione by MCC-IMS measurements of pure standards and cross validation with thermal desorption–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements. Despite the huge biochemical knowledge of the biochemistry of the model organism S. cerevisiae, only the biosynthetic pathways for ethanol and isobutyric acid are fully understood, demonstrating the considerable lack of research of volatile metabolites. As monitoring of VOCs produced during microbial fermentations can give valuable insight into the metabolic state of the organism, fast and non-invasive MCC-IMS analyses provide valuable data for process control. PMID:25197771

  8. Design and engineering of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Sijin; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    The development of high-throughput phenotyping tools is lagging far behind the rapid advances of genotype generation methods. To bridge this gap, we report a new strategy for design, construction, and fine-tuning of intracellular-metabolite-sensing/regulation gene circuits by repurposing bacterial transcription factors and eukaryotic promoters. As proof of concept, we systematically investigated the design and engineering of bacterial repressor-based xylose-sensing/regulation gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that numerous properties, such as induction ratio and dose-response curve, can be fine-tuned at three different nodes, including repressor expression level, operator position, and operator sequence. By applying these gene circuits, we developed a cell sorting based, rapid and robust high-throughput screening method for xylose transporter engineering and obtained a sugar transporter HXT14 mutant with 6.5-fold improvement in xylose transportation capacity. This strategy should be generally applicable and highly useful for evolutionary engineering of proteins, pathways, and genomes in S. cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 206-215. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26059511

  9. Consolidated bioprocessing of starchy substrates into ethanol by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains secreting fungal amylases.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Viktor, Marko J; Rose, Shaunita H; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda; van Zyl, Willem H; Basaglia, Marina; Cagnin, Lorenzo; Casella, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    The development of a yeast strain that converts raw starch to ethanol in one step (called Consolidated Bioprocessing, CBP) could significantly reduce the commercial costs of starch-based bioethanol. An efficient amylolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain suitable for industrial bioethanol production was developed in this study. Codon-optimized variants of the Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoamylase (TLG1) and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ?-amylase (SFA1) genes were ?-integrated into two S. cerevisiae yeast with promising industrial traits, i.e., strains M2n and MEL2. The recombinant M2n[TLG1-SFA1] and MEL2[TLG1-SFA1] yeast displayed high enzyme activities on soluble and raw starch (up to 8118 and 4461?nkat/g dry cell weight, respectively) and produced about 64?g/L ethanol from 200?g/L raw corn starch in a bioreactor, corresponding to 55% of the theoretical maximum ethanol yield (g of ethanol/g of available glucose equivalent). Their starch-to-ethanol conversion efficiencies were even higher on natural sorghum and triticale substrates (62 and 73% of the theoretical yield, respectively). This is the first report of direct ethanol production from natural starchy substrates (without any pre-treatment or commercial enzyme addition) using industrial yeast strains co-secreting both a glucoamylase and ?-amylase. PMID:25786804

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for the study of extranuclear functions of mammalian telomerase.

    PubMed

    Simonicova, Lucia; Dudekova, Henrieta; Ferenc, Jaroslav; Prochazkova, Katarina; Nebohacova, Martina; Dusinsky, Roman; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2015-11-01

    The experimental evidence from the last decade made telomerase a prominent member of a family of moonlighting proteins performing different functions at various cellular loci. However, the study of extratelomeric functions of the catalytic subunit of mammalian telomerase (TERT) is often complicated by the fact that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them from its role(s) at the chromosomal ends. Here, we present an experimental model for studying the extranuclear function(s) of mammalian telomerase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that the catalytic subunit of mammalian telomerase protects the yeast cells against oxidative stress and affects the stability of the mitochondrial genome. The advantage of using S. cerevisiae to study of mammalian telomerase is that (1) mammalian TERT does not interfere with its yeast counterpart in the maintenance of telomeres, (2) yeast telomerase is not localized in mitochondria and (3) it does not seem to be involved in the protection of cells against oxidative stress and stabilization of mtDNA. Thus, yeast cells can be used as a 'test tube' for reconstitution of mammalian TERT extranuclear function(s). PMID:25567623

  11. Surface display of malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyan; Hou, Xiaoyan; Liang, Fang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    In order to display malolactic enzyme (MLE) on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast cell surface display plasmid pADH1-AGG was constructed by fusing the ?-factor signal encoding sequence (267 bp) and the C-terminal half of ?-agglutinin encoding sequence (1,645 bp) into the plasmid pADH1. The pADH1-AGG could successfully express and anchor the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) onto the yeast cell surface when the EGFP was used to verify its function. Then the pADH1-MLE was constructed by inserting the MLE encoding sequence (1,600 bp) into the pADH1-AGG and introduced into S. cerevisiae cells. The positive strain carrying pADH1-MLE was confirmed by use of the 6× His monoclonal antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. All results indicated that the MLE was displayed successfully on the cell surface of positive transformant. The MLE activity of genetically engineered yeast strain could turn 21.11 % L-malate into lactic acid after 12 h reaction with L-malate. The constructed yeast strain might be used to conduct malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine to solve the important issues of sluggish MLF, microbial spoilage, and adverse metabolic substances produced by the lactic acid bacteria. PMID:23446978

  12. Diversion of Flux toward Sesquiterpene Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Fusion of Host and Heterologous Enzymes? †

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Line; Chen, Yun; Bach, Lars S.; Rattleff, Stig; Maury, Jerome; Brix, Susanne; Nielsen, Jens; Mortensen, Uffe H.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to transfer metabolic pathways from the natural producer organisms to the well-characterized cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well documented. However, as many secondary metabolites are produced by collaborating enzymes assembled in complexes, metabolite production in yeast may be limited by the inability of the heterologous enzymes to collaborate with the native yeast enzymes. This may cause loss of intermediates by diffusion or degradation or due to conversion of the intermediate through competitive pathways. To bypass this problem, we have pursued a strategy in which key enzymes in the pathway are expressed as a physical fusion. As a model system, we have constructed several fusion protein variants in which farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) of yeast has been coupled to patchoulol synthase (PTS) of plant origin (Pogostemon cablin). Expression of the fusion proteins in S. cerevisiae increased the production of patchoulol, the main sesquiterpene produced by PTS, up to 2-fold. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the fusion strategy can be used in combination with traditional metabolic engineering to further increase the production of patchoulol. This simple test case of synthetic biology demonstrates that engineering the spatial organization of metabolic enzymes around a branch point has great potential for diverting flux toward a desired product. PMID:21148687

  13. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. PMID:25082441

  14. The Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Oenological Traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Francisco; Cubillos, Francisco A.; Soto, Daniela; Garcia, Verónica; Bergström, Anders; Warringer, Jonas; Ganga, M. Angélica; Louis, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for wine alcoholic fermentation. The oenological phenotypes resulting from fermentation, such as the production of acetic acid, glycerol, and residual sugar concentration are regulated by multiple genes and vary quantitatively between different strain backgrounds. With the aim of identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate oenological phenotypes, we performed linkage analysis using three crosses between highly diverged S. cerevisiae strains. Segregants from each cross were used as starter cultures for 20-day fermentations, in synthetic wine must, to simulate actual winemaking conditions. Linkage analysis on phenotypes of primary industrial importance resulted in the mapping of 18 QTLs. We tested 18 candidate genes, by reciprocal hemizygosity, for their contribution to the observed phenotypic variation, and validated five genes and the chromosome II right subtelomeric region. We observed that genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, sugar transport, nitrogen metabolism, and the uncharacterized ORF YJR030W explained most of the phenotypic variation in oenological traits. Furthermore, we experimentally validated an exceptionally strong epistatic interaction resulting in high level of succinic acid between the Sake FLX1 allele and the Wine/European MDH2 allele. Overall, our work demonstrates the complex genetic basis underlying wine traits, including natural allelic variation, antagonistic linked QTLs and complex epistatic interactions between alleles from strains with different evolutionary histories. PMID:23185390

  15. Construction of Novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Bioethanol Active Dry Yeast (ADY) Production

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kehui; Liu, Zewei; Zhang, Xing; Li, Ou; Sun, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Du, Fengguang; Sun, Peiyong; Qu, Aimin; Wu, Xuechang

    2013-01-01

    The application of active dry yeast (ADY) in bioethanol production simplifies operation processes and reduces the risk of bacterial contamination. In the present study, we constructed a novel ADY strain with improved stress tolerance and ethanol fermentation performances under stressful conditions. The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZTW1 showed excellent properties and thus subjected to a modified whole-genome shuffling (WGS) process to improve its ethanol titer, proliferation capability, and multiple stress tolerance for ADY production. The best-performing mutant, Z3-86, was obtained after three rounds of WGS, producing 4.4% more ethanol and retaining 2.15-fold higher viability than ZTW1 after drying. Proteomics and physiological analyses indicated that the altered expression patterns of genes involved in protein metabolism, plasma membrane composition, trehalose metabolism, and oxidative responses contribute to the trait improvement of Z3-86. This work not only successfully developed a novel S. cerevisiae mutant for application in commercial bioethanol production, but also enriched the current understanding of how WGS improves the complex traits of microbes. PMID:24376860

  16. Spatial reorganization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase to alter carbon metabolism under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Natsuko; Shinohara, Masahiro; Tatsukami, Yohei; Sato, Yasuhiko; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Hypoxia has critical effects on the physiology of organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycolytic enzymes, including enolase (Eno2p), formed cellular foci under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the regulation and biological functions of these foci. Focus formation by Eno2p was inhibited temperature independently by the addition of cycloheximide or rapamycin or by the single substitution of alanine for the Val22 residue. Using mitochondrial inhibitors and an antioxidant, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was shown to participate in focus formation. Focus formation was also inhibited temperature dependently by an SNF1 knockout mutation. Interestingly, the foci were observed in the cell even after reoxygenation. The metabolic turnover analysis revealed that [U-(13)C]glucose conversion to pyruvate and oxaloacetate was accelerated in focus-forming cells. These results suggest that under hypoxia, S. cerevisiae cells sense mitochondrial ROS and, by the involvement of SNF1/AMPK, spatially reorganize metabolic enzymes in the cytosol via de novo protein synthesis, which subsequently increases carbon metabolism. The mechanism may be important for yeast cells under hypoxia, to quickly provide both energy and substrates for the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins independently of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also to fit changing environments. PMID:23748432

  17. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives ?-Zearalenol and ?-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage.

    PubMed

    Keller, Luiz; Abrunhosa, Luís; Keller, Kelly; Rosa, Carlos Alberto; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Venâncio, Armando

    2015-08-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, ?- and ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL and ?-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives ?-ZOL and ?-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into ?-ZOL (53%) and ?-ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of ?-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of ?-ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of ?-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and ?-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells. PMID:26308051

  18. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, Frankie J.; Downard, Alison J.; Baronian, Keith H.

    2014-06-01

    Redox mediators can interact with eukaryote cells at a number of different cell locations. While cell membrane redox centres are easily accessible, the redox centres of catabolism are situated within the cytoplasm and mitochondria and can be difficult to access. We have systematically investigated the interaction of thirteen commonly used lipophilic and hydrophilic mediators with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A double mediator system is used in which ferricyanide is the final electron acceptor (the reporter mediator). After incubation of cells with mediators, steady state voltammetry of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple allows quantitation of the amount of mediator reduced by the cells. The plateau current at 425 mV vs Ag/AgCl gives the analytical signal. The results show that five of the mediators interact with at least three different trans Plasma Membrane Electron Transport systems (tPMETs), and that four mediators cross the plasma membrane to interact with cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox molecules. Four of the mediators inhibit electron transfer from S. cerevisiae. Catabolic inhibitors were used to locate the cellular source of electrons for three of the mediators.

  19. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient conversion of red algal biosugars to bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Soo-Jung; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the evolutionary engineering to construct a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ7-14 resistant on 2-deoxy-D-glucose and with an enhanced ability of bioethanol production from galactose, a mono-sugar in red algae. In batch and repeated-batch fermentations, HJ7-14 metabolized 5-fold more galactose and produced ethanol 2.1-fold faster than the parental D452-2 strain. Transcriptional analysis of genes involved in the galactose metabolism revealed that moderate relief from the glucose-mediated repression of the transcription of the GAL genes might enable HJ7-14 to metabolize galactose rapidly. HJ7-14 produced 7.4 g/L ethanol from hydrolysates of the red alga Gelidium amansii within 12 h, which was 1.5-times faster than that observed with D452-2. We demonstrate conclusively that evolutionary engineering is a promising tool to manipulate the complex galactose metabolism in S. cerevisiae to produce bioethanol from red alga. PMID:25804535

  20. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Frankie J.; Downard, Alison J.; Baronian, Keith H.

    2014-01-01

    Redox mediators can interact with eukaryote cells at a number of different cell locations. While cell membrane redox centres are easily accessible, the redox centres of catabolism are situated within the cytoplasm and mitochondria and can be difficult to access. We have systematically investigated the interaction of thirteen commonly used lipophilic and hydrophilic mediators with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A double mediator system is used in which ferricyanide is the final electron acceptor (the reporter mediator). After incubation of cells with mediators, steady state voltammetry of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple allows quantitation of the amount of mediator reduced by the cells. The plateau current at 425?mV vs Ag/AgCl gives the analytical signal. The results show that five of the mediators interact with at least three different trans Plasma Membrane Electron Transport systems (tPMETs), and that four mediators cross the plasma membrane to interact with cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox molecules. Four of the mediators inhibit electron transfer from S. cerevisiae. Catabolic inhibitors were used to locate the cellular source of electrons for three of the mediators. PMID:24910017

  1. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for production of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been engineered to become a cell factory for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), molecules suitable for crude diesel replacement. To find new metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of FAEE cell factories, three different FAEE-producing strains of S. cerevisiae, constructed previously, were compared and characterized by quantification of key fluxes and genome-wide transcription analysis. From both the physiological and the transcriptional data, it was indicated that strain CB2I20, with high expression of a heterologous wax ester synthase gene (ws2) and strain BdJ15, containing disruptions of genes DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2 and POX1, which prevent the conversion of acyl-CoA to sterol esters, triacylglycerides and the degradation to acetyl-CoA, triggered oxidative stress that consequently influenced cellular growth. In the latter strain, stress was possibly triggered by disabling the buffering capacity of lipid droplets in encapsulating toxic fatty acids such as oleic acid. Additionally, it was indicated that there was an increased demand for NADPH required for the reduction steps in fatty acid biosynthesis. In conclusion, our analysis clearly shows that engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis results in transcriptional reprogramming and has a significant effect on overall cellular metabolism. PMID:26590613

  2. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Critical Role of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Perrone, Benedetta; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Hube, Bernhard; Querol, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of human infection cases produced by the food related species Saccharomyces cerevisiae has increased. Whereas many strains of this species are considered safe, other ‘opportunistic’ strains show a high degree of potential virulence attributes and can cause infections in immunocompromised patients. Here we studied the genetic characteristics of selected opportunistic strains isolated from dietary supplements and also from patients by array comparative genomic hybridization. Our results show increased copy numbers of IMD genes in opportunistic strains, which are implicated in the de novo biosynthesis of the purine nucleotides pathway. The importance of this pathway for virulence of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by infections in immunodeficient murine models using a GUA1 mutant, a key gene of this pathway. We show that exogenous guanine, an end product of this pathway in its triphosphorylated form, increases the survival of yeast strains in ex vivo blood infections. Finally, we show the importance of the DNA damage response that activates dNTP biosynthesis in yeast cells during ex vivo blood infections. We conclude that opportunistic yeasts may use an enhanced de novo biosynthesis of the purine nucleotides pathway to increase survival and favor infections in the host. PMID:25816288

  3. The protein kinase Sch9 is a key regulator of sphingolipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Swinnen, Erwin; Wilms, Tobias; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Smets, Bart; De Snijder, Pepijn; Accardo, Sabina; Ghillebert, Ruben; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno; De Vos, Dirk; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Winderickx, Joris

    2014-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is an in vitro and in vivo effector of sphingolipid signaling. This study examines the link between Sch9 and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae in vivo based on the observation that the sch9? mutant displays altered sensitivity to different inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolism, namely myriocin and aureobasidin A. Sphingolipid profiling indicates that sch9? cells have increased levels of long-chain bases and long-chain base-1 phosphates, decreased levels of several species of (phyto)ceramides, and altered ratios of complex sphingolipids. We show that the target of rapamycin complex 1–Sch9 signaling pathway functions to repress the expression of the ceramidase genes YDC1 and YPC1, thereby revealing, for the first time in yeast, a nutrient-dependent transcriptional mechanism involved in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we establish that Sch9 affects the activity of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C, Isc1, which is required for ceramide production by hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids. Given that sphingolipid metabolites play a crucial role in the regulation of stress tolerance and longevity of yeast cells, our data provide a model in which Sch9 regulates the latter phenotypes by acting not only as an effector but also as a regulator of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:24196832

  4. The Exocyst is a multiprotein complex required for exocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    TerBush, D R; Maurice, T; Roth, D; Novick, P

    1996-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the products of at least 15 genes are involved specifically in vesicular transport from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Previously, we have shown that three of these genes, SEC6, SEC8 and SEC15, encode components of a multisubunit complex which localizes to the tip of the bud, the predominant site of exocytosis in S. cerevisiae. Mutations in three more of these genes, SEC3, SEC5 and SEC10, were found to disrupt the subunit integrity of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex, indicating that these genes may encode some of the remaining components of this complex. To examine this possibility, we cloned and sequenced the SEC5 and SEC10 genes, disrupted them, and either epitope tagged them (Sec5p) or prepared polyclonal antisera (Sec10p) to them for co-immunoprecipitation studies. Concurrently, we biochemically purified the remaining unidentified polypeptides of the Sec6-Sec8-Sec15 complex for peptide microsequencing. The genes encoding these components were identified by comparison of predicted amino acid sequences with those obtained from peptide microsequencing of the purified complex components. In addition to Sec6p, Sec8p and Sec15p, the complex contains the proteins encoded by SEC3, SEC5, SEC10 and a novel gene, EXO70. Since these seven proteins function together in a complex required for exocytosis, and not other intracellular trafficking steps, we have named it the Exocyst. Images PMID:8978675

  5. Spatial Reorganization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Enolase To Alter Carbon Metabolism under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Natsuko; Shinohara, Masahiro; Tatsukami, Yohei; Sato, Yasuhiko; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia has critical effects on the physiology of organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycolytic enzymes, including enolase (Eno2p), formed cellular foci under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the regulation and biological functions of these foci. Focus formation by Eno2p was inhibited temperature independently by the addition of cycloheximide or rapamycin or by the single substitution of alanine for the Val22 residue. Using mitochondrial inhibitors and an antioxidant, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was shown to participate in focus formation. Focus formation was also inhibited temperature dependently by an SNF1 knockout mutation. Interestingly, the foci were observed in the cell even after reoxygenation. The metabolic turnover analysis revealed that [U-13C]glucose conversion to pyruvate and oxaloacetate was accelerated in focus-forming cells. These results suggest that under hypoxia, S. cerevisiae cells sense mitochondrial ROS and, by the involvement of SNF1/AMPK, spatially reorganize metabolic enzymes in the cytosol via de novo protein synthesis, which subsequently increases carbon metabolism. The mechanism may be important for yeast cells under hypoxia, to quickly provide both energy and substrates for the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins independently of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also to fit changing environments. PMID:23748432

  6. Impact of Photocatalysis on Fungal Cells: Depiction of Cellular and Molecular Effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Sana; Simonet, France; Lemaire, Marc; Guillard, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the antimicrobial effects of photocatalysis on the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To accurately study the antimicrobial mechanisms of the photocatalytic process, we focused our investigations on two questions: the entry of the nanoparticles in treated cells and the fate of the intracellular environment. Transmission electronic microscopy did not reveal any entry of nanoparticles within the cells, even for long exposure times, despite degradation of the cell wall space and deconstruction of cellular compartments. In contrast to proteins located at the periphery of the cells, intracellular proteins did not disappear uniformly. Disappearance or persistence of proteins from the pool of oxidized intracellular isoforms was not correlated to their functions. Altogether, our data suggested that photocatalysis induces the establishment of an intracellular oxidative environment. This hypothesis was sustained by the detection of an increased level of superoxide ions (O2°?) in treated cells and by greater cell cultivability for cells expressing oxidant stress response genes during photocatalytic exposure. The increase in intracellular ROS, which was not connected to the entry of nanoparticles within the cells or to a direct contact with the plasma membrane, could be the result of an imbalance in redox status amplified by chain reactions. Moreover, we expanded our study to other yeast and filamentous fungi and pointed out that, in contrast to the laboratory model S. cerevisiae, some environmental strains are very resistant to photocatalysis. This could be related to the cell wall composition and structure. PMID:25261515

  7. Fermentation of Soybean Meal Hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Luján-Rhenals, Deivis E; Morawicki, Rubén O; Gbur, Edward E; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Most of the ethanol currently produced by fermentation is derived from sugar cane, corn, or beets. However, it makes good ecological and economic sense to use the carbohydrates contained in by-products and coproducts of the food processing industry for ethanol production. Soybean meal, a co-product of the production of soybean oil, has a relatively high carbohydrate content that could be a reasonable substrate for ethanol production after fermentable sugars are released via hydrolysis. In this research, the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2233 and Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis NRRL B-4286 to produce ethanol was evaluated using soybean meal hydrolyzates as substrates for the fermentation. These substrates were produced from the dilute-acid hydrolysis of soybean meal at 135 °C for 45 min with 0, 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2% H2 SO4 and at 120 °C for 30 min with 1.25% H2 SO4 . Kinetic parameters of the fermentation were estimated using the logistic model. Ethanol production using S. cerevisiae was highest with the substrates obtained at 135 °C, 45 min, and 0.5% H2 SO4 and fermented for 8 h, 8 g/L (4 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM), while Z. mobilis reached its maximum ethanol production, 9.2 g/L (4.6 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM) in the first 20 h of fermentation with the same hydrolyzate. PMID:25998174

  8. Bacterial XylRs and synthetic promoters function as genetically encoded xylose biosensors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Suong; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2015-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable and abundant starting material for biofuel production. However, lignocellulosic hydrolysates contain not only glucose, but also other sugars including xylose which cannot be metabolized by the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hence, engineering of xylose assimilating S. cerevisiae has been much studied, including strain optimization strategies. In this work, we constructed genetically encoded xylose biosensors that can control protein expression upon detection of xylose sugars. These were constructed with the constitutive expression of heterologous XylR repressors, which function as protein sensors, and cloning of synthetic promoters with XylR operator sites. Three XylR variants and the corresponding synthetic promoters were used: XylR from Tetragenococcus halophile, Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacillus pentosus. To optimize the biosensor, two promoters with different strengths were used to express the XylR proteins. The ability of XylR to repress yEGFP expression from the synthetic promoters was demonstrated. Furthermore, xylose sugars added exogenously to the cells were shown to regulate gene expression. We envision that the xylose biosensors can be used as a tool to engineer and optimize yeast that efficiently utilizes xylose as carbon source for growth and biofuel production. PMID:24975936

  9. Transcriptomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its adaptation to sulphuric acid-induced stress.

    PubMed

    de Lucena, Rodrigo Mendonça; Elsztein, Carolina; de Barros Pita, Will; de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Sá Leitão Paiva Júnior, Sérgio; de Morais Junior, Marcos Antonio

    2015-11-01

    In bioethanol production plants, yeast cells are generally recycled between fermentation batches by using a treatment with sulphuric acid at a pH ranging from 2.0 to 2.5. We have previously shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to sulphuric acid treatment induce the general stress response pathway, fail to activate the protein kinase A signalling cascade and requires the mechanisms of cell wall integrity and high osmolarity glycerol pathways in order to survive in this stressful condition. In the present work, we used transcriptome-wide analysis as well as physiological assays to identify the transient metabolic responses of S. cerevisiae under sulphuric acid treatment. The results presented herein indicate that survival depends on a metabolic reprogramming of the yeast cells in order to assure the yeast cell viability by preventing cell growth under this harmful condition. It involves the differential expression of a subset of genes related to cell wall composition and integrity, oxidation-reduction processes, carbohydrate metabolism, ATP synthesis and iron uptake. These results open prospects for application of this knowledge in the improvement of industrial processes based on metabolic engineering to select yeasts resistant to acid treatment. PMID:26362331

  10. Engineering increased triacylglycerol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a modified type 1 plant diacylglycerol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Greer, Michael S; Truksa, Martin; Deng, Wei; Lung, Shiu-Cheung; Chen, Guanqun; Weselake, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to produce triacylglycerol (TAG). This enzyme, which is critical to numerous facets of oilseed development, has been highlighted as a genetic engineering target to increase storage lipid production in microorganisms designed for biofuel applications. Here, four transcriptionally active DGAT1 genes were identified and characterized from the oil crop Brassica napus. Overexpression of each BnaDGAT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased TAG biosynthesis. Further studies showed that adding an N-terminal tag could mask the deleterious influence of the DGATs' native N-terminal sequences, resulting in increased in vivo accumulation of the polypeptides and an increase of up to about 150-fold in in vitro enzyme activity. The levels of TAG and total lipid fatty acids in S. cerevisiae producing the N-terminally tagged BnaDGAT1.b at 72 h were 53 and 28 % higher than those in cultures producing untagged BnaA.DGAT1.b, respectively. These modified DGATs catalyzed the synthesis of up to 453 mg fatty acid/L by this time point. The results will be of benefit in the biochemical analysis of recombinant DGAT1 produced through heterologous expression in yeast and offer a new approach to increase storage lipid content in yeast for industrial applications. PMID:25520169

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression changes during rotating wall vessel suspension culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johanson, Kelly; Allen, Patricia L.; Lewis, Fawn; Cubano, Luis A.; Hyman, Linda E.; Hammond, Timothy G.

    2002-01-01

    This study utilizes Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study genetic responses to suspension culture. The suspension culture system used in this study is the high-aspect-ratio vessel, one type of the rotating wall vessel, that provides a high rate of gas exchange necessary for rapidly dividing cells. Cells were grown in the high-aspect-ratio vessel, and DNA microarray and metabolic analyses were used to determine the resulting changes in yeast gene expression. A significant number of genes were found to be up- or downregulated by at least twofold as a result of rotational growth. By using Gibbs promoter alignment, clusters of genes were examined for promoter elements mediating these genetic changes. Candidate binding motifs similar to the Rap1p binding site and the stress-responsive element were identified in the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. This study shows that, as in higher order organisms, S. cerevisiae changes gene expression in response to rotational culture and also provides clues for investigations into the signaling pathways involved in gravitational response.

  12. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an overview of methods to study autophagy progression.

    PubMed

    Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth; Guimaraes, Rodrigo Soares; Reggiori, Fulvio; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a highly evolutionarily conserved process essential for sustaining cellular integrity, homeostasis, and survival. Most eukaryotic cells constitutively undergo autophagy at a low basal level. However, various stimuli, including starvation, organelle deterioration, stress, and pathogen infection, potently upregulate autophagy. The hallmark morphological feature of autophagy is the formation of the double-membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome. In yeast, flux through the pathway culminates in autophagosome-vacuole fusion, and the subsequent degradation of the resulting autophagic bodies and cargo by vacuolar hydrolases, followed by efflux of the breakdown products. Importantly, aberrant autophagy is associated with diverse human pathologies. Thus, there is a need for ongoing work in this area to further understand the cellular factors regulating this process. The field of autophagy research has grown exponentially in recent years, and although numerous model organisms are being used to investigate autophagy, the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains highly relevant, as there are significant and unique benefits to working with this organism. In this review, we will focus on the current methods available to evaluate and monitor autophagy in S. cerevisiae, which in several cases have also been subsequently exploited in higher eukaryotes. PMID:25526918

  13. Roles of glycerol and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) in acquired osmotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, A; Adler, L

    1989-01-01

    In a cell culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exponentially growing in basal medium, only 0.02% of the cells were osmotolerant, i.e., survived transfer to medium containing 1.4 M NaCl. Short-time conditioning in 0.7 M NaCl medium transformed the whole population into an osmotolerance phenotype. During this conditioning, the rate of formation of glycerol, the main compatible solute in S. cerevisiae, increased threefold and the specific activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (GPDH) (EC 1.1.1.8) was enhanced sixfold. The apparent flux control coefficient for GPDH in the formation of glycerol was estimated to be 0.6. Glycerol production was also favored by regulated activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)]+ (EC 1.2.1.5). About 50% of the total glycerol produced during conditioning in 0.7 M NaCl was retained intracellularly, and the increased glycerol accumulation was shown to be not merely a result of enhanced production rate but also of increased retention of glycerol. Washing the cells with solutions of lower salinities resulted in loss of glycerol, with retained levels proportional to the concentration of NaCl in the washing solution. Cycloheximide addition inhibited the development of acquired osmotolerance and conditioned cells washed free of glycerol retained a high degree of osmotolerance, which indicate that protein synthesis was required to establish the osmotolerance state. PMID:2644223

  14. New complexes containing the internal alternative NADH dehydrogenase (Ndi1) in mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matus-Ortega, M G; Cárdenas-Monroy, C A; Flores-Herrera, O; Mendoza-Hernández, G; Miranda, M; González-Pedrajo, B; Vázquez-Meza, H; Pardo, J P

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lack the respiratory complex I, but contain three rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenases distributed on both the external (Nde1 and Nde2) and internal (Ndi1) surfaces of the inner mitochondrial membrane. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone without the translocation of protons across the membrane. Due to the high resolution of the Blue Native PAGE (BN-PAGE) technique combined with digitonin solubilization, several bands with NADH dehydrogenase activity were observed on the gel. The use of specific S. cerevisiae single and double mutants of the external alternative elements (?NDE1, ?NDE2, ?NDE1/?NDE2) showed that the high and low molecular weight complexes contained the Ndi1. Some of the Ndi1 associations took place with complexes III and IV, suggesting the formation of respirasome-like structures. Complex II interacted with other proteins to form a high molecular weight supercomplex with a molecular mass around 600 kDa. We also found that the majority of the Ndi1 was in a dimeric form, which is in agreement with the recently reported three-dimensional structure of the protein. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26173916

  15. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives ?-Zearalenol and ?-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Luiz; Abrunhosa, Luís; Keller, Kelly; Rosa, Carlos Alberto; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Venâncio, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, ?- and ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL and ?-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives ?-ZOL and ?-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into ?-ZOL (53%) and ?-ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of ?-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of ?-ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of ?-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and ?-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells. PMID:26308051

  16. Phosphatidylethanolamine from phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 is essential for autophagy under cadmium stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kannan; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potent toxic element used in several industries and in the process contaminates air, soil, and water. Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cd increases the major phospholipids, and profound increase was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). In yeast, there are four different pathways contributing to the biosynthesis of PE, and contribution to PE pool through phosphatidylserine decarboxylase2 (psd2) is not significant in normal conditions. Upon Cd exposure, psd2? strain showed a significant decrease in major phospholipids including PE. When exposed to Cd, wild-type (WT) cells depicted an increase in ER stress and autophagy, whereas in psd2, ER stress was noted but autophagy process was impaired. The supplementation of ethanolamine did not overcome the Cd stress and also the autophagy process, whereas overexpression of PSD2 in psd2? increased the cellular tolerance, PE levels, and the autophagy process against Cd stress. From our studies, we can suggest that PSD2 of S. cerevisiae has an important role in PE synthesis and in autophagy process under Cd stress. PMID:23743710

  17. Identification of novel GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and involved in wine microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Branco, Patrícia; Francisco, Diana; Chambon, Christophe; Hébraud, Michel; Arneborg, Nils; Almeida, Maria Gabriela; Caldeira, Jorge; Albergaria, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a primordial role in alcoholic fermentation and has a vast worldwide application in the production of fuel-ethanol, food and beverages. The dominance of S. cerevisiae over other microbial species during alcoholic fermentations has been traditionally ascribed to its higher ethanol tolerance. However, recent studies suggested that other phenomena, such as microbial interactions mediated by killer-like toxins, might play an important role. Here we show that S. cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) during alcoholic fermentation that are active against a wide variety of wine-related yeasts (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) and bacteria (e.g. Oenococcus oeni). Mass spectrometry analyses revealed that these AMPs correspond to fragments of the S. cerevisiae glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein. The involvement of GAPDH-derived peptides in wine microbial interactions was further sustained by results obtained in mixed cultures performed with S. cerevisiae single mutants deleted in each of the GAPDH codifying genes (TDH1-3) and also with a S. cerevisiae mutant deleted in the YCA1 gene, which codifies the apoptosis-involved enzyme metacaspase. These findings are discussed in the context of wine microbial interactions, biopreservation potential and the role of GAPDH in the defence system of S. cerevisiae. PMID:24292082

  18. Analyzing the dose-dependence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae global transcriptional response to methyl methanesulfonate and ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Michael G; Somasundaram, Swetha; Glasner, Jeremy D; Palecek, Sean P

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the most crucial tasks for a cell to ensure its long term survival is preserving the integrity of its genetic heritage via maintenance of DNA structure and sequence. While the DNA damage response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic organism, has been extensively studied, much remains to be elucidated about how the organism senses and responds to different types and doses of DNA damage. We have measured the global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae to multiple doses of two representative DNA damaging agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and gamma radiation. Results Hierarchical clustering of genes with a statistically significant change in transcription illustrated the differences in the cellular responses to MMS and gamma radiation. Overall, MMS produced a larger transcriptional response than gamma radiation, and many of the genes modulated in response to MMS are involved in protein and translational regulation. Several clusters of coregulated genes whose responses varied with DNA damaging agent dose were identified. Perhaps the most interesting cluster contained four genes exhibiting biphasic induction in response to MMS dose. All of the genes (DUN1, RNR2, RNR4, and HUG1) are involved in the Mec1p kinase pathway known to respond to MMS, presumably due to stalled DNA replication forks. The biphasic responses of these genes suggest that the pathway is induced at lower levels as MMS dose increases. The genes in this cluster with a threefold or greater transcriptional response to gamma radiation all showed an increased induction with increasing gamma radiation dosage. Conclusion Analyzing genome-wide transcriptional changes to multiple doses of external stresses enabled the identification of cellular responses that are modulated by magnitude of the stress, providing insights into how a cell deals with genotoxicity. PMID:17140446

  19. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ICL2 Gene Encodes a Mitochondrial 2-Methylisocitrate Lyase Involved in Propionyl-Coenzyme A Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Kötter, Peter; Salomons, Florian A.; van der Klei, Ida J.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ICL1 gene encodes isocitrate lyase, an essential enzyme for growth on ethanol and acetate. Previous studies have demonstrated that the highly homologous ICL2 gene (YPR006c) is transcribed during the growth of wild-type cells on ethanol. However, even when multiple copies are introduced, ICL2 cannot complement the growth defect of icl1 null mutants. It has therefore been suggested that ICL2 encodes a nonsense mRNA or nonfunctional protein. In the methylcitrate cycle of propionyl-coenzyme A metabolism, 2-methylisocitrate is converted to succinate and pyruvate, a reaction similar to that catalyzed by isocitrate lyase. To investigate whether ICL2 encodes a specific 2-methylisocitrate lyase, isocitrate lyase and 2-methylisocitrate lyase activities were assayed in cell extracts of wild-type S. cerevisiae and of isogenic icl1, icl2, and icl1 icl2 null mutants. Isocitrate lyase activity was absent in icl1 and icl1 icl2 null mutants, whereas in contrast, 2-methylisocitrate lyase activity was detected in the wild type and single icl mutants but not in the icl1 icl2 mutant. This demonstrated that ICL2 encodes a specific 2-methylisocitrate lyase and that the ICL1-encoded isocitrate lyase exhibits a low but significant activity with 2-methylisocitrate. Subcellular fractionation studies and experiments with an ICL2-green fluorescent protein fusion demonstrated that the ICL2-encoded 2-methylisocitrate lyase is located in the mitochondrial matrix. Similar to that of ICL1, transcription of ICL2 is subject to glucose catabolite repression. In glucose-limited cultures, growth with threonine as a nitrogen source resulted in a ca. threefold induction of ICL2 mRNA levels and of 2-methylisocitrate lyase activity in cell extracts relative to cultures grown with ammonia as the nitrogen source. This is consistent with an involvement of the 2-methylcitrate cycle in threonine catabolism. PMID:11092862

  20. Involvement of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and signaling regulatory pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae biofilms during fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenjian; Chen, Yong; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Nan; Cheng, Hao; Ren, Hengfei; Guo, Ting; Niu, Huanqing; Zhuang, Wei; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-01-01

    Compared to free (free-living) cells, biofilm cells show increased resistance and stability to high-pressure fermentation conditions, although the reasons underlying these phenomena remain unclear. Here, we investigated biofilm formation with immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown on fiber surfaces during the process of ethanol fermentation. The development of biofilm colonies was visualized by fluorescent labeling and confocal microscopy. RNA from yeast cells at three different biofilm development periods was extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. We quantitated gene expression differences between biofilm cells and free cells and found that 2098, 1556, and 927 genes were significantly differentially expressed, respectively. We also validated the expression of previously reported genes and identified novel genes and pathways under the control of this system. Statistical analysis revealed that biofilm genes show significant gene expression changes principally in the initial period of biofilm formation compared to later periods. Carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction, and oxidoreductase activity were needed for biofilm formation. In contrast to previous findings, we observed some differential expression performances of FLO family genes, indicating that cell aggregation in our immobilized fermentation system was possibly independent of flocculation. Cyclic AMP-protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways regulated signal transduction pathways during yeast biofilm formation. We found that carbohydrate metabolism, especially glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, played a key role in the development of S. cerevisiae biofilms. This work provides an important dataset for future studies aimed at gaining insight into the regulatory mechanisms of immobilized cells in biofilms, as well as for optimizing bioprocessing applications with S. cerevisiae. PMID:25755652