Sample records for saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yong-Su; Laplaza, Jose M; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2004-11-01

    Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for d-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase (XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and d-xylulokinase (XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3, mRNA transcript levels for glycolytic, fermentative, and pentose phosphate enzymes did not change significantly on glucose or xylose under aeration or oxygen limitation. However, expression of genes encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respiration enzymes (HXK1, ADH2, COX13, NDI1, and NDE1), and regulatory proteins (HAP4 and MTH1) increased significantly when cells were cultivated on xylose, and the genes for respiration were even more elevated under oxygen limitation. These results suggest that recombinant S. cerevisiae does not recognize xylose as a fermentable carbon source and that respiratory proteins are induced in response to cytosolic redox imbalance; however, lower sugar uptake and growth rates on xylose might also induce transcripts for respiration. A petite respiration-deficient mutant (rho degrees ) of the engineered strain produced more ethanol and accumulated less xylitol from xylose. It formed characteristic colonies on glucose, but it did not grow on xylose. These results are consistent with the higher respiratory activity of recombinant S. cerevisiae when growing on xylose and with its inability to grow on xylose under anaerobic conditions. PMID:15528549

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Amy C.; Wickner, Reed B.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23–46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  3. Vaccinium corymbosum L. (blueberry) extracts exhibit protective action against cadmium toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Eliza; Ruta, Lavinia L; Nicolau, Ioana; Popa, Claudia V; Neagoe, Aurora D; Farcasanu, Ileana C

    2014-01-01

    Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are a rich source of antioxidants and their consumption is believed to contribute to food-related protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, the chemoprotective action of blueberry extracts against cadmium toxicity was investigated using a cadmium-hypersensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four varieties of blueberries were used in the study, and it was found that the extracts with high content of total anthocyanidins exhibited significant protective effect against the toxicity of cadmium and H2O2. Both the blueberry extracts and pure cyanidin exhibited protective effects against cadmium in a dose-dependent manner, but without significantly interfering with the cadmium accumulation by the yeast cells. The results imply that the blueberry extracts might be a potentially valuable food supplement for individuals exposed to high cadmium. PMID:24444969

  4. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts exhibiting rough colonies and pseudohyphal morphology with respect to alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Reis, Vanda Renata; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; da Silva, Jessica Carolina Gomes; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2013-12-01

    Among the native yeasts found in alcoholic fermentation, rough colonies associated with pseudohyphal morphology belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae are very common and undesirable during the process. The aim of this work was to perform morphological and physiological characterisations of S. cerevisiae strains that exhibited rough and smooth colonies in an attempt to identify alternatives that could contribute to the management of rough colony yeasts in alcoholic fermentation. Characterisation tests for invasiveness in Agar medium, killer activity, flocculation and fermentative capacity were performed on 22 strains (11 rough and 11 smooth colonies). The effects of acid treatment at different pH values on the growth of two strains ("52"--rough and "PE-02"--smooth) as well as batch fermentation tests with cell recycling and acid treatment of the cells were also evaluated. Invasiveness in YPD Agar medium occurred at low frequency; ten of eleven rough yeasts exhibited flocculation; none of the strains showed killer activity; and the rough strains presented lower and slower fermentative capacities compared to the smooth strains in a 48-h cycle in a batch system with sugar cane juice. The growth of the rough strain was severely affected by the acid treatment at pH values of 1.0 and 1.5; however, the growth of the smooth strain was not affected. The fermentative efficiency in mixed fermentation (smooth and rough strains in the same cell mass proportion) did not differ from the efficiency obtained with the smooth strain alone, most likely because the acid treatment was conducted at pH 1.5 in a batch cell-recycle test. A fermentative efficiency as low as 60% was observed with the rough colony alone. PMID:24688501

  5. Epigenetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Grunstein, Michael; Gasser, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a well-studied model system for heritable silent chromatin, in which a nonhistone protein complex—the SIR complex—represses genes by spreading in a sequence-independent manner, much like heterochromatin in higher eukaryotes. The ability to study mutations in histones and to screen genome-wide for mutations that impair silencing has yielded an unparalleled depth of detail about this system. Recent advances in the biochemistry and structural biology of the SIR-chromatin complex bring us much closer to a molecular understanding of how Sir3 selectively recognizes the deacetylated histone H4 tail and demethylated histone H3 core. The existence of appropriate mutants has also shown how components of the silencing machinery affect physiological processes beyond transcriptional repression. PMID:23818500

  6. Dichlorofluoromethane Inactivates Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, J. L.; Marth, E. H.; Fennema, O.

    1975-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was incubated in aerosol cans containing YM broth and dichlorofluoromethane (f-21). The presence and number of viable cells were determined by inoculating (1% vol/vol) YM broth and by the plate count procedure (YM agar). Inactivation of the yeast was greater or more rapid when: (i) the thermodynamic activity (saturation value) of f-21 became greater through increasing the concentration of chemical from 0.5 to 1.5% (wt/wt) in a given volume (20, 40, or 80 ml) of broth, or by holding the concentration of chemical constant but increasing the volume of broth in the test vessel, (ii) the temperature of treatment was increased (7, 22, 37, and 47 C), (iii) samples with 1.5% (wt/wt) f-21 were agitated, (iv) young (8 h) rather than old (36 h or 10 days) cells were treated, and (v) cells were grown in YM broth without, rather than with, glucose. Adjusting the pH (6.3 to 4.0) of broth before treatment, pretreating the substrate with f-21, or distilling the chemical before use had no effect on viability of cells when treated with f-21. Yeast cells inactivated by f-21, chlorine, or heat were more resistant to disruption by sonic treatment than were viable cells. PMID:234713

  7. Xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kötter; Michael Ciriacy

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a comparative study of xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants expressing two key enzymes in xylose metabolism, xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and in a prototypic xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis. In the absence of respiration (see text), baker's yeast cells convert half of the xylose to xylitol and ethanol, whereas P. stipilis cells display rather

  8. Cystathionine accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Suruga, T; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, S; Murata, K; Kimura, A; Shinoda, S; Ohmori, S

    1984-01-01

    A cysteine-dependent strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its prototrophic revertants accumulated cystathionine in cells. The cystathionine accumulation was caused by a single mutation having a high incidence of gene conversion. The mutation was designated cys3 and was shown to cause loss of gamma-cystathionase activity. Cysteine dependence of the initial strain was determined by two linked and interacting mutations, cys3 and cys1 . Since cys1 mutations cause a loss of serine acetyltransferase activity, our observation led to the conclusion that S. cerevisiae synthesizes cysteine by sulfhydrylation of serine with hydrogen sulfide and by cleavage of cystathionine which is synthesized from serine and homocysteine. Images PMID:6373742

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Simon; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge regarding Saccharomyces cerevisiae has accumulated over time, and today S. cerevisiae serves as a widley used biotechnological production organism as well as a eukaryotic model system. The high transformation efficiency, in addition to the availability of the complete yeast genome sequence, has facilitated genetic manipulation of this microorganism, and new approaches are constantly being taken to metabolicially engineer this organism in order to suit specific needs. In this paper, strategies and concepts for metabolic engineering are discussed and several examples based upon selected studies involving S. cerevisiae are reviewed. The many different studies of metabolic engineering using this organism illustrate all the categories of this multidisciplinary field: extension of substrate range, improvements of producitivity and yield, elimination of byproduct formation, improvement of process performance, improvements of cellular properties, and extension of product range including heterologous protein production. PMID:10704473

  10. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a functional interaction with the Sin4p complex of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, S C; Chang, Y W; Budovskaya, Y V; Herman, P K

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells enter into the G(0)-like resting state, stationary phase, in response to specific types of nutrient limitation. We have initiated a genetic analysis of this resting state and have identified a collection of rye mutants that exhibit a defective transcriptional response to nutrient deprivation. These transcriptional defects appear to disrupt the control of normal growth because the rye mutants are unable to enter into a normal stationary phase upon nutrient deprivation. In this study, we examined the mutants in the rye1 complementation group and found that rye1 mutants were also defective for stationary phase entry. Interestingly, the RYE1 gene was found to be identical to SIN4, a gene that encodes a component of the yeast Mediator complex within the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Moreover, mutations that affected proteins within the Sin4p module of the Mediator exhibited specific genetic interactions with the Ras protein signaling pathway. For example, mutations that elevated the levels of Ras signaling, like RAS2(val19), were synthetic lethal with sin4. In all, our data suggest that specific proteins within the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme might be targets of signal transduction pathways that are responsible for coordinating gene expression with cell growth. PMID:11560888

  11. Genetic analysis of longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Kaeberlein, Matt (Matt Robert), 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Aging is a universal process that affects organisms from yeast to humans. Replicative life span in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is defined as the number of daughter cells produced by a mother cell prior to ...

  12. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the Met25 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit enhanced levels of cysteine and glutathione and increased tolerance to oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Matityahu; L. Kachan; I. Bar Ilan; R. Amir

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  The cysteine biosynthesis pathway differs between plants and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast MET25 gene encoded to O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (AHS) catalyzed the reaction that form homocysteine, which later can be converted into cystiene.\\u000a In vitro studies show that this enzyme possesses also the activity of O-acetyl(thiol)lyase (OASTL) that catalyzes synthesis of cysteine in plants. In this study, we generated

  13. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  14. The proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria. The proteins of highly pure yeast mitochondria were separated by several bioenergetics, apoptosis, and the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and iron (1­4). Many diseases have been human genes involved in diseases possess functional homologues in yeast. Because of the excellent

  15. A halotolerant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola, R; Corona, M; Zinker, S

    1996-01-01

    FRD, a nuclear and dominant spontaneous mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of growing in up to 2 M NaCl, was isolated. Compared with parental cells, the mutant cells have a lower intracellular Na+/K+ ratio, shorter generation times in the presence of 1 M NaCl, and alterations in gene expression. PMID:8631691

  16. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  17. Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet is also sensitive to higher ethanol concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Ethanol tolerance is associated with interplay of complex networks at the genome level. Although significant eff...

  18. Genomic Convergence toward Diploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Otto, Sarah

    Genomic Convergence toward Diploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aleeza C. Gerstein, Hye-Jung E, British Columbia, Canada Genome size, a fundamental aspect of any organism, is subject to a variety of mutational and selection pressures. We investigated genome size evolution in haploid, diploid, and tetraploid

  19. Acrolein-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Death Exhibiting Features of Apoptosis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Deficient in SOD1.

    PubMed

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Zadr?g-T?cza, Renata; Bednarska, Sabina; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-11-14

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a useful eukaryotic model to study the toxicity of acrolein, an important environmental toxin and endogenous product of lipid peroxidation. The study was aimed at elucidation of the cytotoxic effect of acrolein on the yeast deficient in SOD1, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase which is hypersensitive to aldehydes. Acrolein generated within the cell from its precursor allyl alcohol caused growth arrest and cell death of the yeast cells. The growth inhibition involved an increase in production of reactive oxygen species and high level of protein carbonylation. DNA condensation and fragmentation, exposition of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface as well as decreased dynamic of actin microfilaments and mitochondria disintegration point to the induction of apoptotic-type cell death besides necrotic cell death. PMID:25395196

  20. Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    PubMed

    Giaever, Guri; Chu, Angela M; Ni, Li; Connelly, Carla; Riles, Linda; Véronneau, Steeve; Dow, Sally; Lucau-Danila, Ankuta; Anderson, Keith; André, Bruno; Arkin, Adam P; Astromoff, Anna; El-Bakkoury, Mohamed; Bangham, Rhonda; Benito, Rocio; Brachat, Sophie; Campanaro, Stefano; Curtiss, Matt; Davis, Karen; Deutschbauer, Adam; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Flaherty, Patrick; Foury, Francoise; Garfinkel, David J; Gerstein, Mark; Gotte, Deanna; Güldener, Ulrich; Hegemann, Johannes H; Hempel, Svenja; Herman, Zelek; Jaramillo, Daniel F; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L; Kötter, Peter; LaBonte, Darlene; Lamb, David C; Lan, Ning; Liang, Hong; Liao, Hong; Liu, Lucy; Luo, Chuanyun; Lussier, Marc; Mao, Rong; Menard, Patrice; Ooi, Siew Loon; Revuelta, Jose L; Roberts, Christopher J; Rose, Matthias; Ross-Macdonald, Petra; Scherens, Bart; Schimmack, Greg; Shafer, Brenda; Shoemaker, Daniel D; Sookhai-Mahadeo, Sharon; Storms, Reginald K; Strathern, Jeffrey N; Valle, Giorgio; Voet, Marleen; Volckaert, Guido; Wang, Ching-yun; Ward, Teresa R; Wilhelmy, Julie; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Yang, Yonghong; Yen, Grace; Youngman, Elaine; Yu, Kexin; Bussey, Howard; Boeke, Jef D; Snyder, Michael; Philippsen, Peter; Davis, Ronald W; Johnston, Mark

    2002-07-25

    Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under six well-studied conditions: high salt, sorbitol, galactose, pH 8, minimal medium and nystatin treatment. Less than 7% of genes that exhibit a significant increase in messenger RNA expression are also required for optimal growth in four of the tested conditions. Our results validate the yeast gene-deletion collection as a valuable resource for functional genomics. PMID:12140549

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the Met25 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibit enhanced levels of cysteine and glutathione and increased tolerance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Matityahu, I; Kachan, L; Bar Ilan, I; Amir, R

    2006-03-01

    The cysteine biosynthesis pathway differs between plants and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast MET25 gene encoded to O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (AHS) catalyzed the reaction that form homocysteine, which later can be converted into cystiene. In vitro studies show that this enzyme possesses also the activity of O-acetyl(thiol)lyase (OASTL) that catalyzes synthesis of cysteine in plants. In this study, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the yeast MET25 gene under the control of a constitutive promoter and targeted the yeast protein to the cytosol or to the chloroplasts. Both sets of transgenic plants were taller and greener than wild-type plants. Addition of SO(2), the substrate of the yeast enzyme caused a significant elevation of the glutathione content in representative plants from each of the two sets of transgenic plants expressing the yeast gene. Determination of non-protein thiol content indicated up to four-folds higher cysteine and 2.5-fold glutathione levels in these plants. In addition, the leaf discs of the transgenic plants were more tolerant to toxic levels of sulphite, and to paraquat, an herbicide generating active oxygen species. PMID:16193226

  2. Identification of genes required for growth under ethanol stress using transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takahashi; H. Shimoi; K. Ito

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits high ethanol tolerance compared with other microorganisms. The mechanism of ethanol tolerance in yeast is thought to be regulated by many genes. To identify some of these genes, we screened for ethanol-sensitive S. cerevisiae strains among a collection of mutants obtained using transposon mutagenesis. Five ethanol-sensitive (ets) mutants were isolated from approximately 7000 mutants created

  3. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae ) antibody...

  4. Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22084423

  5. Cell Wall Assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Guillaume; Bussey, Howard

    2006-01-01

    An extracellular matrix composed of a layered meshwork of ?-glucans, chitin, and mannoproteins encapsulates cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organelle determines cellular morphology and plays a critical role in maintaining cell integrity during cell growth and division, under stress conditions, upon cell fusion in mating, and in the durable ascospore cell wall. Here we assess recent progress in understanding the molecular biology and biochemistry of cell wall synthesis and its remodeling in S. cerevisiae. We then review the regulatory dynamics of cell wall assembly, an area where functional genomics offers new insights into the integration of cell wall growth and morphogenesis with a polarized secretory system that is under cell cycle and cell type program controls. PMID:16760306

  6. [Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for sclareol production].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhou, Yongjin; Liu, Wujun; Shen, Hongwei; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2013-08-01

    Sclareol is a member of labdane type diterpenes mostly used as fragrance ingredient. To enable microbial production of sclareol, synthetic pathways were constructed by incorporating labdenediol diphosphate synthase (LPPS) and terpene synthase (TPS) of the plant Salvia sclarea into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that sclareol production could be benefited by overexpression of key enzyme for precursor biosynthesis, construction of fusion protein for substrate channeling, and removal of signal peptides from LPPS and TPS. Under optimal shake flask culture conditions, strain S6 produced 8.96 mg/L sclareol. These results provided useful information for development of heterologous hosts for production of terpenoids. PMID:24364354

  7. Biodiversity study of wine yeasts belonging to the "terroir" of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo "Colline Teramane" revealed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains exhibiting atypical and unique 5.8S-ITS restriction patterns.

    PubMed

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Schirone, Maria; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    The Montepulciano d'Abruzzo "Colline Teramane" premium wine DOCG is produced in the Teramo province (Abruzzo, Italy). This region has a great tradition in winemaking and the wine is produced by a spontaneous fermentation so it could represent a reservoir of wine natural yeasts with important oenological features. The aim of this study was to characterize the yeast community of this wine grape growing region in order to create a Saccharomyces cerevisiae bank, providing data on oenological properties for potential industrial applications. A total of 430 yeasts were isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentation. PCR-RFLP was applied for the identification at the species level and underlined that 14 strains exhibited unusual and characteristic restriction patterns different from those typical of the species S. cerevisiae. This difference was due to the insertion of base C at a position 138 in the ITS1 region that determined an additional cleavage site for the enzyme HaeIII. This insertion could be associated to the fermentative performance and associated to the relationship existing between yeasts and a viticulture region or 'terroir'. PMID:24387846

  8. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  9. Human acylphosphatase cannot replace phosphoglycerate kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Van Hoek, P; Modesti, A; Ramponi, G; Kötter, P; van Dijken, J P; Pron, J T

    2001-10-01

    Human acylphosphatase (h-AP, EC 3.6.1.7) has been reported to catalyse the hydrolysis of the 1-phosphate group of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. In vivo operation of this reaction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would bypass phosphoglycerate kinase and thus reduce the ATP yield from glycolysis. To investigate whether h-AP can indeed replace the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate kinase, a multi-copy plasmid carrying the h-AP gene under control of the yeast TDH3 promoter was introduced into a pgk1 delta mutant of S. cerevisiae. A strain carrying the expression vector without the h-AP cassette was used as a reference. For both strains, steady-state carbon- and energy-limited chemostat cultures were obtained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h(-1) on a medium containing a mixture of glucose and ethanol (15% and 85% on a carbon basis, respectively). Although the h-AP strain exhibited a high acylphosphatase activity in cell extracts, switching to glucose as sole carbon and energy source resulted in a complete arrest of glucose consumption and growth. The lack of a functional glycolytic pathway was further evident from the absence of ethanol formation in the presence of excess glucose in the culture. As h-AP cannot replace yeast phosphoglycerate kinase in vivo, the enzyme is not a useful tool to modify the ATP yield of glycolysis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:11761363

  10. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for or blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in expression of viral components. Here we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901

  11. Survival kit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for anhydrobiosis.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Sebastien; Rapoport, Alexander; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Yeast cells are well adapted to interfacial habitats, such as the surfaces of soil or plants, where they can resist frequent fluctuations between wet and dry conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as an anhydrobiotic organism, and it has been the subject of numerous studies that aimed to elucidate this ability. Extensive data have been obtained from these studies based on a wide range of experimental approaches, which have added significantly to our understanding of the cellular bases and mechanisms of resistance to desiccation. The aim of this review is to provide an integrated view of these mechanisms in yeast and to describe the survival kit of S. cerevisiae for anhydrobiosis. This kit comprises constitutive and inducible mechanisms that prevent cell damage during dehydration and rehydration. This review also aims to characterize clearly the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis itself based on detailed descriptions of the causes and effects of the constraints imposed on cells by desiccation. These constraints mainly lead to mechanical, structural, and oxidative damage to cell components. Considerations of these constraints and the possible utilization of components of the survival kit could help to improve the survival of sensitive cells of interest during desiccation. PMID:25172136

  12. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Salusjärvi; Matti Kankainen; Rabah Soliymani; Juha-Pekka Pitkänen; Merja Penttilä; Laura Ruohonen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was

  13. Thermal Denaturation Kinetics of Yeast Proteins in Whole Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Otero; J. R. Wagner; M. C. Vasallo; M. C. Añón; L. García; J. C. Jiménez; J. C. López

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of thermal denaturation of yeast proteins in intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae instant dry yeast and Kluyveromyces fragilis L-1930 have been studied through differential scanning calorimetry. Maximum deflection-peak temperatures (TP) were greater for S. cerevisiae (66.65°C) than for K. fragilis (63.21 °C). Kinetic parameters showed that the former was slightly more resistant to thermal protein denaturation and exhibited

  14. Cybernetic model of the growth dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. Jones; Dhinakar S. Kompala

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose in aerobic batch culture follows the well-documented diauxic pattern of completely fermenting glucose to ethanol during the first exponential growth phase, followed by an intermediate lag phase and a second exponential growth phase consuming ethanol. In continuous cultures over a range of intermediate dilution rates, the yeast bioreactor exhibits sustained oscillations in all the

  15. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant cells that are conditionally defective only for the resumption of proliferation from stationary phase provides evidence that stationary phase is a unique developmental state. Strains with mutations affecting entry into and survival during stationary phase have also been isolated, and the mutations have been shown to affect at least seven different cellular processes: (i) signal transduction, (ii) protein synthesis, (iii) protein N-terminal acetylation, (iv) protein turnover, (v) protein secretion, (vi) membrane biosynthesis, and (vii) cell polarity. The exact nature of the relationship between these processes and survival during stationary phase remains to be elucidated. We propose that cell cycle arrest coordinated with the ability to remain viable in the absence of additional nutrients provides a good operational definition of starvation-induced stationary phase. PMID:8393130

  16. Ribosomal DNA magnification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kaback, D B; Halvorson, H O

    1978-01-01

    Strains monosomic for chromosome I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain 25 to 35% fewer rRNA genes than do normal diploid strains. When these strains are repeatedly subcultured, colonies are isolated that have magnified their number of rRNA genes to the diploid amount while remaining monosomic for chromosome I. We have determined the amount of DNA complementary to rRNA in viable haploid spores derived from a magnified monosomic strain. Some of these haploids contained 24 to 48% more rRNA genes than a normal euploid strain. These extra genes may be responsible for the increased number of rRNA genes in the strain monosomic for chromosome I. Genetic analysis of the haploids containing extra rRNA genes suggested that these genes are linked to chromosomal DNA and are heterozygous. They were not closely linked to any centromere and were not located on chromosome I. Furthermore, all the DNA complementary to rRNA in one of these haploid strains with magnified rRNA genes sedimented at a chromosomal molecular weight, consistent with chromosomal linkage. In addition, several new mutations mapping on chromosome I were used to show that ribosomal DNA magnification was not due to a chromosome I duplication. PMID:348680

  17. Transcriptional changes associated with ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragana Stanley; Paul J. Chambers; Anthony Borneman; Sarah Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces spp. are widely used for ethanol production; however, fermentation productivity is negatively affected by the impact of ethanol\\u000a accumulation on yeast metabolic rate and viability. This study used microarray and statistical two-way ANOVA analysis to compare\\u000a and evaluate gene expression profiles of two previously generated ethanol-tolerant mutants, CM1 and SM1, with their parent,\\u000a Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A, in the presence

  18. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  19. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  20. Mutational Analysis of Morphologic Differentiation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Blacketer, M. J.; Madaule, P.; Myers, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    A genetic analysis was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms controlling cellular morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sixty mutant strains exhibiting abnormally elongated cell morphology were isolated. The cell elongation phenotype in at least 26 of the strains resulted from a single recessive mutation. These mutations, designated generically elm (elongated morphology), defined 14 genes; two of these corresponded to the previously described genes GRR1 and CDC12. Genetic interactions between mutant alleles suggest that several ELM genes play roles in the same physiological process. The cell and colony morphology and growth properties of many elm mutant strains are similar to those of wild-type yeast strains after differentiation in response to nitrogen limitation into the pseudohyphal form. Each elm mutation resulted in multiple characteristics of pseudohyphal cells, including elongated cell shape, delay in cell separation, simultaneous budding of mother and daughter cells, a unipolar budding pattern, and/or the ability to grow invasively beneath the agar surface. Mutations in 11 of the 14 ELM gene loci potentiated pseudohyphal differentiation in nitrogen-limited medium. Thus, a subset of the ELM genes are likely to affect control or execution of a defined morphologic differentiation pathway in S. cerevisiae. PMID:7498768

  1. Genome-Scale Reconstruction of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolic Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Forster; Iman Famili; Patrick Fu; Bernhard Ø; Jens Nielsen

    2003-01-01

    The metabolic network in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reconstructed using currently available genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The metabolic reactions were compartmentalized between the cytosol and the mitochondria, and transport steps between the compartments and the environment were included. A total of 708 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were accounted for in the reconstructed network, corresponding to 1035 metabolic

  2. Characteristic genome rearrangements in experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) isolated after 100­500 genera- tions of growth in glucose-limited chemostats. Changes of chromosome 4 that includes the high-affinity hexose transporters; one of these also had the aforementioned asexually for 100­500 genera- tions in glucose-limited continuous culture. Paquin and Adams (1) found

  3. Inhibition of glycolysis by furfural in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirupama Banerjee; Rakesh Bhatnagar; L. Viswanathan

    1981-01-01

    Furfural, a Maillard reaction product, was found to inhibit growth and alcohol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural concentrations above 1 mg ml-1 significantly decreased CO2 evolution by resuspended yeast cells. Important glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, triosephosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase and alcohol dehydrogenase were assayed in presence of furfural. Dehydrogenases appeared to be the most sensitive enzymes and are probably

  4. Flocculation of industrial and laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Sieiro; Natalia M. Reboredo; Tomás G. Villa

    1995-01-01

    Summary A comparative study has been made of different laboratory and industrial wild-type strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to their flocculation behavior. All strains were inhibited by mannose and only one by maltose. In regard to the stability of these characters in the presence of proteases and high salt concentrations, a relevant degree of variation was found among the strains.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pp. 507519

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pp. 507­519 Dean Calahan- tion tolerance in budding yeast that establish it as a powerful genetic system to understand, pp. 561­577 Sang Chul Choi and Jody Hey Although genetic data can be used to determine which

  6. Size control models of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wheals

    1982-01-01

    By using time-elapsed photomicroscopy, the individual cycle times and sizes at bud emergence were measured for a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing exponentially under balanced growth conditions in a specially constructed filming slide. There was extensive variability in both parameters for daughter and parent cells. The data on 162 pairs of siblings were analyzed for agreement with the predictions

  7. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PEARL MILLET BY USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four pearl millet genotypes were tested for their potential as raw material for fuel ethanol production in this study. Ethanol fermentation was performed both in flasks on a rotary shaker and in a 5-L bioreactor by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24860). For rotary-shaker fermentation, the fi...

  8. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mannan Antibodies in Familial Crohn's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boualem Sendid; Jean-François Quinton; Gwénaële Charrier; Olivier Goulet; Antoine Cortot; Bruno Grandbastien; Daniel Poulain; Jean-Frédéric Colombel

    1998-01-01

    Objective:Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies (ASCA) are associated with Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ASCA in families in which at least two members were affected with Crohn's disease.Methods:A total of 20 families including two (n = 15) or more (n = 5) patients with Crohn's disease were tested for ASCA with use of

  9. THE FUNCTION OF THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. M. Stoppani; S. L. S. de Favelukes; L. Conches; E. Ramos; M. M. Pigretti

    1959-01-01

    The role of the citric acid cycle in yeast was investigated. ; Suspensions of fasting Saccharomyces cerevisiae were incubated with carbon-14 ; bicarbonate and substrates in a closed vessel connected with a volume ; compensator, and simultaneous measurements of the oxygen consumption were made ; under equal experimental conditions. (C.H.);

  10. Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Armaleo; Guang-Ning Ye; Theodore M. Klein; Katherine B. Shark; John C. Sanford; Stephen Albert Johnston

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten microprojectiles coated with nucleic acid and accelerated to velocities of approximately 500 m\\/s, can penetrate living cells and tissues with consequent expression of the introduced genes (Klein et al. 1987). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used here as a model system to define the basic parameters governing the biolistic (biological-ballistic) delivery of DNA into cells. Among the physical factors affecting the

  11. Molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol-stress response in past decades, molecular mecha...

  12. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-01

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. PMID:25956738

  13. Separation and characterization of six (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hien, N H; Fleet, G H

    1983-01-01

    Using a system of chromatography through columns of DEAE-Bio-Gel, HTP-Bio-Gel, and CM-Bio-Gel, we isolated and characterized six different (1 leads to 3)-beta-glucanases from cell wall autolysates and cell extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain 2180B. These enzymes were designated glucanases I, II, IIIA, IIIB, IV, and V. The haploid mating type S. cerevisiae strain 2180A and the diploid strains S. cerevisiae 2180D and S. cerevisiae 595 contained the same complex of glucanases. Glucanases II and IIIA were exoenzymes, and glucanases I, IIIB, IV, and V were endoenzymes. The enzymes exhibited different molecular weights, kinetic properties, and activities on isolated yeast cell walls. The products of substrate (laminarin) hydrolysis were quantified by using high-pressure liquid chromatography and were significantly different for the four endoglucanases. PMID:6358190

  14. Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    ARTICLE Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production in Fed on a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction is developed for in silico analysis of Saccharomyces Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; dynamic flux bal- ance analysis; genome-scale metabolic

  15. Manifold anomalies in gene expression in a vineyard isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed by

    E-print Network

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    Manifold anomalies in gene expression in a vineyard isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from wine grapes in a Tuscan vineyard, along with the diploid progeny obtained number of genes. We conclude that natural vineyard populations of S. cerevisiae can harbor alleles

  16. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  17. Performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1077 or Saccharomyces boulardii 1079

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Pinos-Rodríguez; P. H. Robinson; M. E. Ortega; S. L. Berry; G. Mendoza; R. Bárcena

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate supplementation with the yeast products Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 (SC) and Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SB) on performance of calves, 24 Holstein calves (12 males, 12 females) were randomly assigned to each of 3 treatments being: C (control treatment), SC (1g\\/d); or SB (1g\\/d). Calves were fed whole milk (4.5l\\/d) and a starter feed ad libitum from 4d

  18. Initiation of recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid meiosis.

    PubMed Central

    De Massy, B; Baudat, F; Nicolas, A

    1994-01-01

    In most eukaryotes during prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine by coordinated molecular and cellular processes. To directly test whether or not the early steps of the initiation of recombination depend on the presence of a homologous chromosome, we have examined the formation and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the earliest physical landmark of recombination initiation) in various haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of entering meiosis. We find that DSBs occur in haploid meiosis, showing that the presence of a homolog is not required for DSB formation. DSBs occur at the same positions in haploid and diploid meioses. However, these two types of meiosis exhibit subtle differences with respect to the timing of formation and levels of DSBs. In haploid meiosis, a slower rate of DSB formation and a reduction in the frequency of DSB (at one of the three sites analyzed) were observed. These results might indicate that interactions between homologs play a role in the formation of meiotic DSBs. Furthermore, haploid strains exhibit a pronounced delay in the disappearance of meiotic DSBs compared to diploid strains, which suggests that sister chromatid interactions for DSB repair are inhibited in haploid meiosis. Images PMID:7991559

  19. L-Asparaginase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an extracellular Enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, P C; Roon, R J

    1975-01-01

    During recent studies conducted with suspensions of three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it was observed that ammonia was rapidly liberated when L-asparagine was added to the medium. Subsequent investigation has revealed that these strains of S. cerevisiae have an externally active asparaginase as well as an internally active one. The appearance of the external asparaginase is stimulated by nitrogen starvation, requires an available energy source, and is prevented by cycloheximide. The internal enzyme appears to be constitutive. The external activity is relatively insensitive to para-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibition, whereas the internal activity is highly inhibited by this compound. PMID:238936

  20. Statistics-based model for prediction of chemical biosynthesis yield from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Yi

    Background: The robustness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in facilitating industrial-scale production of ethanol extends its utilization as a platform to synthesize other metabolites. Metabolic engineering strategies, typically ...

  1. Protein phosphatase type 1 regulates ion homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Hart, Tara; Wu, Xiaolin; Tatchell, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) is encoded by the essential gene GLC7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. glc7-109 (K259A, R260A) has a dominant, hyperglycogen defect and a recessive, ion and drug sensitivity. Surprisingly, the hyperglycogen phenotype is partially retained in null mutants of GAC1, GIP2, and PIG1, which encode potential glycogen-targeting subunits of Glc7. The R260A substitution in GLC7 is responsible for the dominant and recessive traits of glc7-109. Another mutation at this residue, glc7-R260P, confers only salt sensitivity, indicating that the glycogen and salt traits of glc7-109 are due to defects in distinct physiological pathways. The glc7-109 mutant is sensitive to cations, aminoglycosides, and alkaline pH and exhibits increased rates of l-leucine and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide uptake, but it is resistant to molar concentrations of sorbitol or KCl, indicating that it has normal osmoregulation. KCl suppresses the ion and drug sensitivities of the glc7-109 mutant. The CsCl sensitivity of this mutant is suppressed by recessive mutations in PMA1, which encodes the essential plasma membrane H(+)ATPase. Together, these results indicate that Glc7 regulates ion homeostasis by controlling ion transport and/or plasma membrane potential, a new role for Glc7 in budding yeast. PMID:11973298

  2. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, Roy D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Karig, David K [ORNL; Cooke, John F [ORNL; Cox, Chris D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  3. Thermosensitive mutations affecting ribonucleic acid polymerases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thonart, P; Bechet, J; Hilger, F; Burny, A

    1976-01-01

    Among 150 temperature-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants which we have isolated, 15 are specifically affected in ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis. Four of these mutants exhibit particularly drastic changes and were chosen for a more detailed study. In these four mutants, RNA synthesis is immediately blocked after a shift at the nonpermissive temperature (37 C), protein synthesis decays at a rate compatible with messenger RNA half-life, and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis increases by about 40%. All the mutations display a recessive phenotype. The segregation of the four allelic pairs ts-/ts+ in diploids is mendelian, and the four mutants belong to three complementation groups. The elution patterns (diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex) of the three RNA polymerases of the mutants grown at 37 C for 3.5 h show very low residual activities. The in vitro thermodenaturation confirms the in vivo results; the half-lives of the mutant activities at 45 C are 10 times smaller than those of the wild-type enzymes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that the synthesis of all species of RNA is thermosensitive. The existence of three distinct genes, which are each indispensable for the activity of the three RNA polymerases in vivo as well as in vitro, strongly favors the hypothesis of three common subunits in the three RNA polymerases. PMID:1107309

  4. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, R. D.; Karig, D. K.; Cooke, J. F.; Cox, C. D.; Simpson, M. L.

    2010-09-28

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offsmore »between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.« less

  5. Distribution and regulation of stochasticity and plasticity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dar, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science and Univ. of Tenneessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Karig, D. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Cooke, J. F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cox, C. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Simpson, M. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science and Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2010-09-28

    Stochasticity is an inherent feature of complex systems with nanoscale structure. In such systems information is represented by small collections of elements (e.g. a few electrons on a quantum dot), and small variations in the populations of these elements may lead to big uncertainties in the information. Unfortunately, little is known about how to work within this inherently noisy environment to design robust functionality into complex nanoscale systems. Here, we look to the biological cell as an intriguing model system where evolution has mediated the trade-offs between fluctuations and function, and in particular we look at the relationships and trade-offs between stochastic and deterministic responses in the gene expression of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We find gene regulatory arrangements that control the stochastic and deterministic components of expression, and show that genes that have evolved to respond to stimuli (stress) in the most strongly deterministic way exhibit the most noise in the absence of the stimuli. We show that this relationship is consistent with a bursty 2-state model of gene expression, and demonstrate that this regulatory motif generates the most uncertainty in gene expression when there is the greatest uncertainty in the optimal level of gene expression.

  6. ULTRAVIOLET MICROSCOPY OF THE VACUOLE OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE DURING SPORULATION

    PubMed Central

    Svihla, G.; Dainko, J. L.; Schlenk, F.

    1964-01-01

    Svihla, G. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill.), J. L. Dainko, and F. Schlenk. Ultraviolet microscopy of the vacuole of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during sporulation. J. Bacteriol. 88:449–456. 1964.—Normal cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cells containing, in their vacuoles, large quantities of S-adenosylmethionine were induced to sporulate. In the latter case, the strong ultraviolet absorption of the compound permitted photomicrographic observation of cytological detail. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses of cell extracts supplemented the cytological studies. The vacuole is abolished at the onset of sporulation, and its contents may be observed temporarily in the intersporular space. As sporulation progresses, the material is discharged into the culture medium. Sporulation of both types of cells also leads to a release of nucleic acid fragments into the culture medium. Images PMID:14203363

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23764836

  8. The reference genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: then and now.

    PubMed

    Engel, Stacia R; Dietrich, Fred S; Fisk, Dianna G; Binkley, Gail; Balakrishnan, Rama; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Lloyd, Paul; Skrzypek, Marek S; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Cherry, J Michael

    2014-03-01

    The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science. PMID:24374639

  9. Purification of Arp2/3 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, Lynda K.; Rosen, Michael K.; Padrick, Shae B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Much of cellular control over actin dynamics comes through regulation of actin filament initiation. At the molecular level, this is accomplished through a collection of cellular protein machines, called actin nucleation factors, which position actin monomers to initiate a new actin filament. The Arp2/3 complex is a principal actin nucleation factor used throughout the eukaryotic family tree. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be not only an excellent genetic platform for the study of the Arp2/3 complex, but also an excellent source for the purification of endogenous Arp2/3 complex. Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of endogenous Arp2/3 complex from wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protocol produces material suitable for biochemical study, and yields milligram quantities of purified Arp2/3 complex. PMID:23868593

  10. DOT4 Links Silencing and Cell Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALON KAHANA; DANIEL E. GOTTSCHLING

    Transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at specific loci and is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Rap1p and the Sir proteins. We studied the function of a recently identified gene, DOT4, that disrupts silencing when overexpressed. DOT4 encodes an ubiquitin processing protease (hydrolase) that is primarily located in the nucleus. By two-hybrid analysis, the amino-terminal third of Dot4p

  11. Posttranscriptional regulation in the myo1? mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marielis E Rivera-Ruiz; José F Rodríguez-Quiñones; Pearl Akamine; José R Rodríguez-Medina

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae myosin type II-deficient (myo1?) strains remain viable and divide, despite the absence of a cytokinetic ring, by activation of the PKC1-dependent cell wall integrity pathway (CWIP). Since the myo1? transcriptional fingerprint is a subset of the CWIP fingerprint, the myo1? strain may provide a simplified paradigm for cell wall stress survival. RESULTS: To explore the post-transcriptional regulation

  12. Effect of Polygodial on the Mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER S. LUNDE; ISAO KUBO

    2000-01-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced de- crease in external pH at 3.13 mg\\/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial.

  13. Response to different oxidants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ure2? mutant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatina T. Todorova; Ventsislava Y. Petrova; Stéphane Vuilleumier; Anna V. Kujumdzieva

    2009-01-01

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae\\u000a ure2? mutant strain was investigated in the presence of diverse oxidant compounds. The inability of the strain to grow on a medium\\u000a supplemented with H2O2 was confirmed and a relationship between diminishing levels of glutathione (GSH) and peroxide sensitivity was established.\\u000a Data for the lack of significant effect of URE2 disruption on the cellular growth in

  14. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Xylose Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; C. Fredrik Wahlbom; Márk Gárdonyi; Willem H. van Zyl; Ricardo R. Cordero Otero; L eif J. Jönsson

    Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanolic fermentation of xylose is summarized with emphasis on progress made during the last decade. Advances in xylose\\u000a transport, initial xylose metabolism, selection of host strains, transformation and classical breeding techniques applied\\u000a to industrial polyploid strains as well as modeling of xylose metabolism are discussed. The production and composition of\\u000a the substrates — lignocellulosic

  15. Properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane dicarboxylate transporter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Aliverdieva; D. V. Mamaev; D. I. Bondarenko; K. F. Sholtz

    2006-01-01

    Transport of succinate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using the endogenous coupled mitochondrial succinate oxidase system. The dependence of succinate oxidation\\u000a rate on the substrate concentration was a curve with saturation. At neutral pH the K\\u000a m value of the mitochondrial “succinate oxidase” was fivefold less than that of the cellular “succinate oxidase”. O-Palmitoyl-L-malate,\\u000a not penetrating across the plasma

  16. Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nevan J. Krogan; Gerard Cagney; Haiyuan Yu; Gouqing Zhong; Xinghua Guo; Alexandr Ignatchenko; Joyce Li; Shuye Pu; Nira Datta; Aaron P. Tikuisis; Thanuja Punna; José M. Peregrín-Alvarez; Michael Shales; Xin Zhang; Michael Davey; Mark D. Robinson; Alberto Paccanaro; James E. Bray; Anthony Sheung; Bryan Beattie; Dawn P. Richards; Veronica Canadien; Atanas Lalev; Frank Mena; Peter Wong; Andrei Starostine; Myra M. Canete; James Vlasblom; Samuel Wu; Chris Orsi; Sean R. Collins; Shamanta Chandran; Robin Haw; Jennifer J. Rilstone; Kiran Gandi; Natalie J. Thompson; Gabe Musso; Peter St Onge; Shaun Ghanny; Mandy H. Y. Lam; Gareth Butland; Amin M. Altaf-Ul; Shigehiko Kanaya; Ali Shilatifard; Erin O'Shea; Jonathan S. Weissman; C. James Ingles; Timothy R. Hughes; John Parkinson; Mark Gerstein; Shoshana J. Wodak; Andrew Emili; Jack F. Greenblatt

    2006-01-01

    Identification of protein–protein interactions often provides insight into protein function, and many cellular processes are performed by stable protein complexes. We used tandem affinity purification to process 4,562 different tagged proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each preparation was analysed by both matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to increase coverage and accuracy.

  17. Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela L. Linderholm; Carrie L. Findleton; Gagandeep Kumar; Yeun Hong; Linda F. Bisson

    2008-01-01

    A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total

  18. Allicin-induced global gene expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Yu; Na Guo; Rizeng Meng; Bin Liu; Xudong Tang; Jing Jin; Yumei Cui; Xuming Deng

    2010-01-01

    To understand the response mechanisms of fungus cells upon exposure to the natural fungicide allicin, we performed commercial\\u000a oligonucleotide microarrays to determine the overall transcriptional response of allicin-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain L1190. Compared with the transcriptional profiles of untreated cultures, 147 genes were significantly upregulated,\\u000a and 145 genes were significantly downregulated in the allicin-treated cells. We interpreted the microarray data

  19. Tritium-induced lethal and genetic changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Burki; E. Moustacchi

    1977-01-01

    Haploid and diploid yeast cell strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were labeled with (6-³H)uracil, a general precursor of nucleic acids. Damage from tritium decay was accumulated at 4°C. Tritium-induced reporductive death, gene conversion, and mutation were compared to the same effects produced by gamma radiation. In all cases, the results were qualitatively similar to gamma rays, suggesting that the genetic hazard

  20. Multilocus sequence typing of oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Muñoz; Alicia Gómez; Virginia Robles; Patricia Rodríguez; Eduardo Cebollero; Laura Tabera; Alfonso V. Carrascosa; Ramon Gonzalez

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the application of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis for molecular discrimination at the strain level of Spanish wine yeast strains. The discrimination power of MLST is compared to mitochondrial RFLP analysis. Fragments of the ADP1, ACC1, RPN2, GLN4, and ALA1 genes were amplified by PCR from chromosomal DNA of 18 wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Ten polymorphic

  1. Genetic engineering of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Genetic engineering has been successfully applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for different purposes: extension of substrate range, improvement of productivity and yield, elimination of by-products, improvement of process performance and cellular properties, and extension of product range. The potential of genetically engineered yeasts for the massive production of biofuels as bioethanol and other nonfuel products from renewable resources as lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates has been recognized. For such applications, robust industrial strains of S. cerevisiae have to be used. Here, some relevant genetic and genomic characteristics of industrial strains are discussed in relation to the problematic of the genetic engineering of such strains. General molecular tools applicable to the manipulation of S. cerevisiae industrial strains are presented and examples of genetically engineered industrial strains developed for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass are given. PMID:22160914

  2. Respiratory capacities of mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 and Candida utilis CBS 621 grown under glucose limitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik van Urk; Peter M. Bruinenberg; Marten Veenhuis; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. van Dijken

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the in vitro respiratory capacity of mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. An electron-microscopic analysis of whole cells revealed that the volume density of mitochondria was the same in both yeasts. Mitochondria from both organisms exhibited respiratory control with NADH, pyruvate + malate, 2-oxoglutarate + acetate or

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley.

    PubMed

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M P B S; de Mélo, Dângelly L F M; Santana, Caroline A; Pereira, Giuliano E; Mendonça, Michelle O C; Gomes, Fátima C O; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Barbosa, Antonio M; Trindade, Rita C; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  4. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Catarina; Lage, Patrícia; Vilela, Alice; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  5. Phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, pursuing yeast strains that display both a high potential fitness for alcoholic fermentation and a favorable impact on quality is a major goal in the alcoholic beverage industry. This considerable industrial interest has led to many studies characterizing the phenotypic and metabolic traits of commercial yeast populations. In this study, 20 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from different geographical origins exhibited high phenotypic diversity when their response to nine biotechnologically relevant conditions was examined. Next, the fermentation fitness and metabolic traits of eight selected strains with a unique phenotypic profile were evaluated in a high-sugar synthetic medium under two nitrogen regimes. Although the strains exhibited significant differences in nitrogen requirements and utilization rates, a direct relationship between nitrogen consumption, specific growth rate, cell biomass, cell viability, acetic acid and glycerol formation was only observed under high-nitrogen conditions. In contrast, the strains produced more succinic acid under the low-nitrogen regime, and a direct relationship with the final cell biomass was established. Glucose and fructose utilization patterns depended on both yeast strain and nitrogen availability. For low-nitrogen fermentation, three strains did not fully degrade the fructose. This study validates phenotypic and metabolic diversity among commercial wine yeasts and contributes new findings on the relationship between nitrogen availability, yeast cell growth and sugar utilization. We suggest that measuring nitrogen during the stationary growth phase is important because yeast cells fermentative activity is not exclusively related to population size, as previously assumed, but it is also related to the quantity of nitrogen consumed during this growth phase. PMID:24949272

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a nomadic yeast with no niche?

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Matthew R.; Greig, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Different species are usually thought to have specific adaptations, which allow them to occupy different ecological niches. But recent neutral ecology theory suggests that species diversity can simply be the result of random sampling, due to finite population sizes and limited dispersal. Neutral models predict that species are not necessarily adapted to specific niches, but are functionally equivalent across a range of habitats. Here, we evaluate the ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most important microbial species in human history. The artificial collection, concentration and fermentation of large volumes of fruit for alcohol production produce an environment in which S. cerevisiae thrives, and therefore it is assumed that fruit is the ecological niche that S. cerevisiae inhabits and has adapted to. We find very little direct evidence that S. cerevisiae is adapted to fruit, or indeed to any other specific niche. We propose instead a neutral nomad model for S. cerevisiae, which we believe should be used as the starting hypothesis in attempting to unravel the ecology of this important microbe. PMID:25725024

  7. C resonance assignment of the acyl carrier protein subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase

    E-print Network

    Wider, Gerhard

    of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase Daniel R. Perez Æ Gerhard Wider Received: 13 January 2009 resonances assignment of the acyl carrier protein domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase Fatty acid synthase (FAS) Biological context Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) are part of a family

  8. GC content and recombination: reassessing the causal effects for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 GC content and recombination: reassessing the causal effects for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae in "Genetics 183, 1 (2009) 31-8" DOI : 10.1534/genetics.109.105049 #12;2 Running title: GC and recombination: causality in yeast Keywords: recombination, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GC content, biased gene conversion

  9. Whole-genome expression analysis of snf swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    Whole-genome expression analysis of snf swi mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Priya Sudarsanam (received for review September 22, 1999) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf Swi complex has been previ- ously mutants deleted for a gene encoding one conserved (Snf2) or one unconserved (Swi1) Snf Swi component

  10. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    LETTERS Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1, obesity and other diseases1­5 . The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems

  11. Genetic Analysis of Desiccation Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Calahan, Dean; Dunham, Maitreya; DeSevo, Chris; Koshland, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance, the ability to survive nearly total dehydration, is a rare strategy for survival and reproduction observed in all taxa. However, the mechanism and regulation of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Correlations between desiccation tolerance and potential effectors have been reported in many species, but their physiological significance has not been established in vivo. Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits extreme desiccation tolerance, its usefulness has been hampered by an inability to reduce tolerance more than a few fold by physiological or genetic perturbations. Here we report that fewer than one in a million yeast cells from low-density logarithmic cultures survive desiccation, while 20–40% of cells from saturated cultures survive. Using this greatly expanded metric, we show that mutants defective in trehalose biosynthesis, hydrophilins, responses to hyperosmolarity, and hypersalinity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and DNA damage repair nevertheless retain wild-type levels of desiccation tolerance, suggesting that this trait involves a unique constellation of stress factors. A genome-wide screen for mutants that render stationary cells as sensitive as log phase cells identifies only mutations that block respiration. Respiration as a prerequisite for acquiring desiccation tolerance is corroborated by respiration inhibition and by growth on nonfermentable carbon sources. Suppressors bypassing the respiration requirement for desiccation tolerance reveal at least two pathways, one of which, involving the Mediator transcription complex, is associated with the shift from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. Further study of these regulators and their targets should provide important clues to the sensors and effectors of desiccation tolerance. PMID:21840858

  12. Small Toxic Protein Encoded on Chromosome VII of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Makanae, Koji; Kintaka, Reiko; Ishikawa, Koji; Moriya, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found an unknown element that caused growth inhibition after its copy number increased in the 3? region of DIE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we further identified this element and observed that overexpression of a small protein (sORF2) of 57 amino acids encoded in this region caused growth inhibition. The transcriptional response and multicopy suppression of the growth inhibition caused by sORF2 overexpression suggest that sORF2 overexpression inhibits the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway. sORF2 was not required in the normal growth of S. cerevisiae, and not conserved in related yeast species including S. paradoxus. Thus, sORF2 (designated as OTO1) is an orphan ORF that determines the specificity of this species. PMID:25781884

  13. Direct evidence for a xylose metabolic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Batt, C.A.; Carvallo, S.; Easson, D.D.; Akedo, M.; Sinskey, A.J.

    1986-04-01

    Xylose transport, xylose reductase, and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are demonstrated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzymes in the xylose catabolic pathway necessary for the conversion of xylose xylulose are present, although S. cerevisiae cannot grow on xylose as a sole carbon source. Xylose transport is less efficient than glucose transport, and its rate is dependent upon aeration. Xylose reductase appears to be a xylose inducible enzyme and xylitol dehydrogenase activity is constitutive, although both are repressed by glucose. Both xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities are five- to tenfold lower in S. cerevisie as compared to Candida utilis. In vivo conversion of /sup 14/C-xylose in S. cerevisiage is demonstrated and xylitol is detected, although no significant levels of any other /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites (e.g., ethanol) are observed. 22 references.

  14. Functional evaluation of serine 252 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Cardemil, Emilio; Jabalquinto, Ana M

    2009-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase mutant Ser252Ala, affecting the conserved Walker A serine residue, was characterized to elucidate the role of this serine residue. The substitution did not result in changes in the protein structure, as indicated by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and gel-exclusion chromatography. Kinetic analysis of the mutated enzyme in both directions of the main reaction and in the two secondary reactions showed an approximately 50-fold increase in apparent K(m) for oxaloacetate with minor alterations in the other kinetic parameters. These results show that the hydroxyl group of serine 252 is required for proper oxaloacetate interaction. PMID:18996167

  15. Dual system for potassium transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Navarro, A; Ramos, J

    1984-01-01

    In a newly formulated growth medium lacking Na+ and NH4+, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grew maximally at 5 microM K+. Cells grown under these conditions transported K+ with an apparent Km of 24 microM, whereas cells grown in customary high-K+ medium had a significantly higher Km (2 mM K+). The two types of transport also differed in carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone sensitivity, response to ATP depletion, and temperature dependence. The results can be accounted for either by two transport systems or by one system operating in two different ways. PMID:6384187

  16. Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Efficient Anaerobic Alcoholic Fermentation of l-Arabinose?

    PubMed Central

    Wisselink, H. Wouter; Toirkens, Maurice J.; del Rosario Franco Berriel, M.; Winkler, Aaron A.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2007-01-01

    For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as l-arabinose, is required. Wild-type strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the organism used in industrial ethanol production, cannot ferment xylose and arabinose. Although metabolic and evolutionary engineering has enabled the efficient alcoholic fermentation of xylose under anaerobic conditions, the conversion of l-arabinose into ethanol by engineered S. cerevisiae strains has previously been demonstrated only under oxygen-limited conditions. This study reports the first case of fast and efficient anaerobic alcoholic fermentation of l-arabinose by an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. This fermentation was achieved by combining the expression of the structural genes for the l-arabinose utilization pathway of Lactobacillus plantarum, the overexpression of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the enzymes of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and extensive evolutionary engineering. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h?1 g [dry weight]?1) and ethanol production (0.29 g h?1 g [dry weight]?1) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g?1) during anaerobic growth on l-arabinose as the sole carbon source. In addition, efficient ethanol production from sugar mixtures containing glucose and arabinose, which is crucial for application in industrial ethanol production, was achieved. PMID:17545317

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Population Divergence and Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Clinical, Domesticated and Wild Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Diezmann, Stephanie; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been associated with human life for millennia in the brewery and bakery. Recently it has been recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen. To study the evolutionary history of S. cerevisiae, the origin of clinical isolates and the importance of a virulence-associated trait, population genetics and phenotypic assays have been applied to an ecologically diverse set of 103 strains isolated from clinics, breweries, vineyards, fruits, soil, commercial supplements and insect guts. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequence data from five nuclear DNA loci were analyzed for population structure and haplotype distribution. Additionally, all strains were tested for survival of oxidative stress, a trait associated with microbial pathogenicity. DNA sequence analyses identified three genetic subgroups within the recombining S. cerevisiae strains that are associated with ecology, geography and virulence. Shared alleles suggest that the clinical isolates contain genetic contribution from the fruit isolates. Clinical and fruit isolates exhibit high levels of recombination, unlike the genetically homogenous soil isolates in which no recombination was detected. However, clinical and soil isolates were more resistant to oxidative stress than any other population, suggesting a correlation between survival in oxidative stress and yeast pathogenicity. Conclusions/Significance Population genetic analyses of S. cerevisiae delineated three distinct groups, comprising primarily the (i) human-associated brewery and vineyard strains, (ii) clinical and fruit isolates (iii) and wild soil isolates from eastern U.S. The interactions between S. cerevisiae and humans potentiate yeast evolution and the development of genetically, ecologically and geographically divergent groups. PMID:19390633

  18. SPME-GC method as a tool to differentiate VOC profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, Giacomo; Capece, Angela; D'Auria, Maurizio; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Romano, Patrizia

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability of 36 Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strains isolated from different grape varieties and from two very distant zones, located in Northern and Southern Italy. The strains were differentiated on the basis of parameters of technological interest, such as resistance to antimicrobial compounds frequently present in wine, and the production of volatile aromatic compounds (VOC), determined by SPME procedure in the experimental wines obtained by inoculated fermentations. The VOC profile allowed to differentiate the yeasts in function of isolation area: S. cerevisiae isolated from Southern Italy grapes were able to produce more volatile compounds than those from Northern Italy. The compounds synthesized by all the yeasts, besides the ethanol, were 3-methyl-1-butanol and ethyl acetate. The production of acids during the alcoholic fermentation was a characteristic of Southern yeast strains. The screening of S. cerevisiae strains for technological parameters, such as sulphur dioxide, copper and ethanol resistance or hydrogen sulphide production, revealed similar behaviour for sulphur dioxide resistance among Northern and Southern S. cerevisiae strains. Copper resistance and sulphur dioxide production were correlated to isolation area: S. cerevisiae "Northern" strains showed higher copper resistance and lowest hydrogen sulphide production than that exhibited from "Southern" strains. PMID:19269564

  19. Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response.

    PubMed

    Verwaal, René; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Daran, Jean-Marc; Sandmann, Gerhard; van den Berg, Johan A; van Ooyen, Albert J J

    2010-12-01

    To obtain insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptome of two different S. cerevisiae strains overexpressing carotenogenic genes from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous grown in carbon-limited chemostat cultures was analysed. The strains exhibited different absolute carotenoid levels as well as different intermediate profiles. These discrepancies were further sustained by the difference of the transcriptional response exhibited by the two strains. Transcriptome analysis of the strain producing high carotenoid levels resulted in specific induction of genes involved in pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). These genes encode ABC-type and major facilitator transporters which are reported to be involved in secretion of toxic compounds out of cells. ?-Carotene was found to be secreted when sunflower oil was added to the medium of S. cerevisiae cells producing high levels of carotenoids, which was not observed when added to X. dendrorhous cells. Deletion of pdr10, one of the induced ABC transporters, decreased the transformation efficiency of a plasmid containing carotenogenic genes. The few transformants that were obtained had decreased growth rates and lower carotenoid production levels compared to a pdr5 deletion and a reference strain transformed with the same genes. Our results suggest that production of high amounts of carotenoids in S. cerevisiae leads to membrane stress, in which Pdr10 might play an important role, and a cellular response to secrete carotenoids out of the cell. PMID:20632327

  20. Production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Kristy M; Smolke, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse class of metabolites that exhibit a broad range of pharmacological activities and are synthesized through plant biosynthetic pathways comprised of complex enzyme activities and regulatory strategies. We have engineered yeast to produce the key intermediate reticuline and downstream BIA metabolites from a commercially available substrate. An enzyme tuning strategy was implemented that identified activity differences between variants from different plants and determined optimal expression levels. By synthesizing both stereoisomer forms of reticuline and integrating enzyme activities from three plant sources and humans, we demonstrated the synthesis of metabolites in the sanguinarine/berberine and morphinan branches. We also demonstrated that a human P450 enzyme exhibits a novel activity in the conversion of (R)-reticuline to the morphinan alkaloid salutaridine. Our engineered microbial hosts offer access to a rich group of BIA molecules and associated activities that will be further expanded through synthetic chemistry and biology approaches. PMID:18690217

  1. Microcalorimetric monitoring of growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: osmotolerance in relation to physiological state.

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, A; Larsson, C; Gustafsson, L

    1988-01-01

    The importance of the physiological state of a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for tolerance to sudden osmotic dehydration was studied, and it was investigated whether specific osmotolerance factors were demonstrable. The microcalorimeter was used to monitor growth, and different physiological states of the culture were selected and their osmotolerance was tested. In addition to cells in the stationary phase, cells from the transition phase between respirofermentative and respiratory catabolism were osmotolerant. S. cerevisiae exhibited ever-changing metabolism during batch growth on either glucose or ethanol as the carbon source. Instantaneous heat production per biomass formation (dQ/dX) and specific activity of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) (EC 1.1.1.8) were shown to differ for different physiological states. Neither high respiratory activity nor low total cellular activity, nor factors involved in osmoregulation, i.e., intracellular glycerol or activity of GPDH, correlated with the osmotolerant phenotype. PMID:3049540

  2. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J; Kovacs, Joseph A

    2013-07-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine-rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein ?-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine-rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with ?-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg. PMID:23532098

  3. Expression of Pneumocystis jirovecii Major Surface Glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Geetha; England, Katherine J.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (Msg), which is the most abundant protein expressed on the cell surface of Pneumocystis organisms, plays an important role in the attachment of this organism to epithelial cells and macrophages. In the present study, we expressed Pneumocystis jirovecii Msg in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a phylogenetically related organism. Full-length P. jirovecii Msg was expressed with a DNA construct that used codons optimized for expression in yeast. Unlike in Pneumocystis organisms, recombinant Msg localized to the plasma membrane of yeast rather than to the cell wall. Msg expression was targeted to the yeast cell wall by replacing its signal peptide, serine-threonine–rich region, and glycophosphatidylinositol anchor signal region with the signal peptide of cell wall protein ?-agglutinin of S. cerevisiae, the serine-threonine–rich region of epithelial adhesin (Epa1) of Candida glabrata, and the carboxyl region of the cell wall protein (Cwp2) of S. cerevisiae, respectively. Immunofluorescence analysis and treatment with ?-1,3 glucanase demonstrated that the expressed Msg fusion protein localized to the yeast cell wall. Surface expression of Msg protein resulted in increased adherence of yeast to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Heterologous expression of Msg in yeast will facilitate studies of the biologic properties of Pneumocystis Msg. PMID:23532098

  4. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biofilm reactors.

    PubMed

    Demirci, A; Pometto, A L; Ho, K L

    1997-10-01

    Biofilms are natural forms of cell immobilization in which microorganisms attach to solid supports. At ISU, we have developed plastic composite-supports (PCS) (agricultural material (soybean hulls or oat hulls), complex nutrients, and polypropylene) which stimulate biofilm formation and which supply nutrients to the attached microorganisms. Various PCS blends were initially evaluated in repeated-batch culture-tube fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24859) in low organic nitrogen medium. The selected PCS (40% soybean hull, 5% soybean flour, 5% yeast extract-salt and 50% polypropylene) was then used in continuous and repeated-batch fermentation in various media containing lowered nitrogen content with selected PCS. During continuous fermentation, S. cerevisiae demonstrated two to 10 times higher ethanol production in PCS bioreactors than polypropylene-alone support (PPS) control. S. cerevisiae produced 30 g L-1 ethanol on PCS with ammonium sulfate medium in repeated batch fermentation, whereas PPS-control produced 5 g L-1 ethanol. Overall, increased productivity in low cost medium can be achieved beyond conventional fermentations using this novel bioreactor design. PMID:9439005

  5. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  6. Properties of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane dicarboxylate transporter.

    PubMed

    Aliverdieva, D A; Mamaev, D V; Bondarenko, D I; Sholtz, K F

    2006-10-01

    Transport of succinate into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was determined using the endogenous coupled mitochondrial succinate oxidase system. The dependence of succinate oxidation rate on the substrate concentration was a curve with saturation. At neutral pH the K(m) value of the mitochondrial "succinate oxidase" was fivefold less than that of the cellular "succinate oxidase". O-Palmitoyl-L-malate, not penetrating across the plasma membrane, completely inhibited cell respiration in the presence of succinate but not glucose or pyruvate. The linear inhibition in Dixon plots indicates that the rate of succinate oxidation is limited by its transport across the plasmalemma. O-Palmitoyl-L-malate and L-malate were competitive inhibitors (the K(i) values were 6.6 +/- 1.3 microM and 17.5 +/- 1.1 mM, respectively). The rate of succinate transport was also competitively inhibited by the malonate derivative 2-undecyl malonate (K(i) = 7.8 +/- 1.2 microM) but not phosphate. Succinate transport across the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is not coupled with proton transport, but sodium ions are necessary. The plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae is established to have a carrier catalyzing the transport of dicarboxylates (succinate and possibly L-malate and malonate). PMID:17125465

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosario; Gómez, Alicia; Robles, Virginia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Cebollero, Eduardo; Tabera, Laura; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-12-01

    This study describes the application of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis for molecular discrimination at the strain level of Spanish wine yeast strains. The discrimination power of MLST is compared to mitochondrial RFLP analysis. Fragments of the ADP1, ACC1, RPN2, GLN4, and ALA1 genes were amplified by PCR from chromosomal DNA of 18 wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Ten polymorphic sites were found in the five loci analyzed showing 13 different genotypes, with 11 of them represented by only one strain. RFLP analysis of the same 18 wine yeast strains showed seventeen different mitochondrial patterns. Phylogenetic relationships among the strains analyzed, inferred by MLST data, showed wine isolates of S. cerevisiae as a rather homogeneous group. The discrimination potential of mitochondrial RFLP analysis was superior to the MLST scheme used in this work. However, MLST analysis allowed an easy construction of reliable phylogenetic trees. MLST analysis offers the possibility of typing wine S. cerevisiae strains simultaneously to the study of the genetic relationship among them. PMID:19835769

  8. Endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: internalization of enveloped viruses into spheroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Makarow, M

    1985-01-01

    When vesicular stomatitis virus was incubated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae spheroplasts at 37 degrees C, part of the virus was internalized by the spheroplasts as shown by the following criteria. (i) The spheroplast-associated virus was protected from proteinase K digestion, which releases surface-bound virus by degrading the envelope glycoproteins. (ii) The spheroplast-associated virus was resistant to mild Triton X-100 treatment, which readily solubilizes the virus. The same results were obtained with Semliki Forest virus. Internalization of the two viruses followed linear kinetics up to 90 min at 37 degrees C. Internalization was concentration- and temperature-dependent. At 11 degrees C no uptake could be detected for at least 2 h. Homogenization and organelle fractionation protocols were designed for the S. cerevisiae spheroplasts to study the compartments into which the virions were internalized. Three compartments containing both marker viruses could be separated in density gradients. One coincided with vacuole markers, one banded at a slightly higher and one at a similar density to the plasma membrane markers. Thus, S. cerevisiae spheroplasts appear to have the capability of endocytosing particulate markers like viruses. The companion paper describes internalization of two soluble macromolecules, alpha-amylase and fluorescent dextran, into intact cells. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2992948

  9. Analysis a Stiff Limit Cycle with CSP: Glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    Analysis a Stiff Limit Cycle with CSP: Glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Panayotis D. Kourdis1 glycolysis model, by employing the Computational Singular Perturbation algorithm. It is shown that, due

  10. Exploring Iron Metabolism and Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Integrative Biophysical and Bioanalytical Approach 

    E-print Network

    Park, Jinkyu

    2013-12-03

    Fe metabolism in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using an integrative systems-level approach involving M?ssbauer, EPR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ICP-MS, combined with conventional biochemical techniques. Wild-type cells growing...

  11. Control of cell division by nutrients, and ER stress signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Guo, Jinbai

    2007-09-17

    Cell cycle progression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was monitored in continuous cultures limited for glucose or nitrogen. The G1 cell cycle phase, before initiation of DNA replication, did not exclusively expand when growth rate decreased...

  12. Exploring Iron Metabolism and Regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using an Integrative Biophysical and Bioanalytical Approach

    E-print Network

    Park, Jinkyu

    2013-12-03

    Fe metabolism in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using an integrative systems-level approach involving M?ssbauer, EPR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and LC-ICP-MS, combined with conventional biochemical techniques. Wild-type cells growing...

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose fermentation patterns and to increase numbers of rumen bacteria, especially cellulolytic species (Wallace and fermentation of cellulose by an anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3, which is particularly

  14. Spectroscopic and analytical characterization of the distribution of iron in intact mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Hudder, Brandon Neal

    2006-10-30

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and M�¶ssbauer spectroscopy were used to examine the distribution of iron in mitochondria from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These organelles were packed into EPR and M�¶ssbauer cuvettes, affording spectra...

  15. Mms4, a putative transcriptional (co)activator, protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from endogenous and environmental DNA damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Xiao; B. L. Chow; C. N. Milo

    1998-01-01

    mms4-1 is one of several Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that exhibit an increased sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), but not to UV or X-rays. We have isolated\\u000a the MMS4 gene by functional complementation of the MMS-sensitive phenotype in the mms4-1 strain. The MMS4 gene encodes a 691-amino acid, 78.7-kDa protein. The deduced Mms4 protein does not show significant homology to any

  16. Interaction among Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone receptors during endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-I; Schandel, Kimberly A.; Jenness, Duane D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates endocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in this process. ?-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, we found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the ?-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, recognition of the endocytosis signal sequence and recognition of the ligand-induced conformational change are likely to be two independent events. PMID:24682008

  17. Modeling growth and telomere dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bertuch, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    A general branching process is proposed to model a population of cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae following loss of telomerase. Previously published experimental data indicate that a population of telomerase-deficient cells regain exponential growth after a period of slowing due to critical telomere shortening. The explanation for this phenomenon is that some cells engage telomerase-independent pathways to maintain telomeres that allow them to become “survivors.” Our model takes into account random variation in individual cell cycle times, telomere length, finite replicative lifespan of mother cells, and survivorship. We identify and estimate crucial parameters such as the probability of an individual cell becoming a survivor, and compare our model predictions to experimental data. PMID:20018194

  18. Replication of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, “naked” RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3? and the cytoplasmic 5? RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  19. Replication of avocado sunblotch viroid in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Delan-Forino, Clémentine; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Torchet, Claire

    2011-04-01

    Viroids are the smallest known pathogenic agents. They are noncoding, single-stranded, closed-circular, "naked" RNAs, which replicate through RNA-RNA transcription. Viroids of the Avsunviroidae family possess a hammerhead ribozyme in their sequence, allowing self-cleavage during their replication. To date, viroids have only been detected in plant cells. Here, we investigate the replication of Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd) of the Avsunviroidae family in a nonconventional host, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that ASBVd RNA strands of both polarities are able to self-cleave and to replicate in a unicellular eukaryote cell. We show that the viroid monomeric RNA is destabilized by the nuclear 3' and the cytoplasmic 5' RNA degradation pathways. For the first time, our results provide evidence that viroids can replicate in other organisms than plants and that yeast contains all of the essential cellular elements for the replication of ASBVd. PMID:21270165

  20. Overexpressed ribosomal proteins suppress defective chaperonins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M Anaul; Sherman, Fred

    2008-12-01

    The chaperonin Cct complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is composed of eight different subunits encoded by eight essential genes, CCT1-CCT8. This Cct complex is responsible for the folding of a number of proteins including actin and tubulin. We have isolated and characterized 22 multicopy suppressors of the temperature-sensitive allele, cct4-1, which encodes an altered protein with a G345D replacement that diminishes ATP hydrolysis. Fourteen of the suppressors encode ribosomal proteins, four have roles in ribosome biogenesis, two have phosphatase activities, one is involved in protein synthesis and one of the suppressors corresponded to Cct4p. Some of the suppressors also acted on certain cct1, cct2, cct3 and cct6 mutations. We suggest that certain overexpressed ribosomal and other proteins can act as weak chaperones, phenotypically alleviating the partial defects of mutationally altered Cct subunits. PMID:18680526

  1. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOEpatents

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  2. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhan, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  3. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling-ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-dong; Zhan, Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  4. Long-chain alkane production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade industrial-scale production of renewable transportation biofuels has been developed as an alternative to fossil fuels, with ethanol as the most prominent biofuel and yeast as the production organism of choice. However, ethanol is a less efficient substitute fuel for heavy-duty and maritime transportation as well as aviation due to its low energy density. Therefore, new types of biofuels, such as alkanes, are being developed that can be used as drop-in fuels and can substitute gasoline, diesel, and kerosene. Here, we describe for the first time the heterologous biosynthesis of long-chain alkanes by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that elimination of the hexadecenal dehydrogenase Hfd1 and expression of a redox system are essential for alkane biosynthesis in yeast. Deletion of HFD1 together with expression of an alkane biosynthesis pathway resulted in the production of the alkanes tridecane, pentadecane, and heptadecane. Our study provides a proof of principle for producing long-chain alkanes in the industrial workhorse S. cerevisiae, which was so far limited to bacteria. We anticipate that these findings will be a key factor for further yeast engineering to enable industrial production of alkane based drop-in biofuels, which can allow the biofuel industry to diversify beyond bioethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 1275-1279. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25545362

  5. Quantifying separation and similarity in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Goddard, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic microbes are key ecosystem drivers; however, we have little theory and few data elucidating the processes influencing their observed population patterns. Here we provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of population separation and similarity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of providing a more detailed account of the population processes occurring in microbes. Over 10?000 individual isolates were collected from native plants, vineyards and spontaneous ferments of fruit from six major regions spanning 1000?km across New Zealand. From these, hundreds of S. cerevisiae genotypes were obtained, and using a suite of analytical methods we provide comprehensive quantitative estimates for both population structure and rates of gene flow or migration. No genetic differentiation was detected within geographic regions, even between populations inhabiting native forests and vineyards. We do, however, reveal a picture of national population structure at scales above ?100?km with distinctive populations in the more remote Nelson and Central Otago regions primarily contributing to this. In addition, differential degrees of connectivity between regional populations are observed and correlate with the movement of fruit by the New Zealand wine industry. This suggests some anthropogenic influence on these observed population patterns. PMID:25062126

  6. Heterologous Production of Dihomo-?-Linolenic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Aki, Tsunehiro; Ono, Kazuhisa; Uemura, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    To make dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) (20:3n-6) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we introduced Kluyveromyces lactis ?12 fatty acid desaturase, rat ?6 fatty acid desaturase, and rat elongase genes. Because Fad2p is able to convert the endogenous oleic acid to linoleic acid, this allowed DGLA biosynthesis without the need to supply exogenous fatty acids on the media. Medium composition, cultivation temperature, and incubation time were examined to improve the yield of DGLA. Fatty acid content was increased by changing the medium from a standard synthetic dropout medium to a nitrogen-limited minimal medium (NSD). Production of DGLA was higher in the cells grown at 15°C than in those grown at 20°C, and no DGLA production was observed in the cells grown at 30°C. In NSD at 15°C, fatty acid content increased up until day 7 and decreased after day 10. When the cells were grown in NSD for 7 days at 15°C, the yield of DGLA reached 2.19 ?g/mg of cells (dry weight) and the composition of DGLA to total fatty acids was 2.74%. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in S. cerevisiae without supplying the exogenous fatty acids. PMID:17873077

  7. Coordinated induction of multi-gene pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Ning, Jonathan C.; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial operons are nature’s tool for regulating and coordinating multi-gene expression in prokaryotes. They are also a gene architecture commonly used in the biosynthesis of many pharmaceutically important compounds and industrially useful chemicals. Despite being an important eukaryotic production host, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has never had such gene architecture. Here, we report the development of a system to assemble and regulate a multi-gene pathway in S. cerevisiae. Full pathways can be constructed using pre-made parts from a plasmid toolbox. Subsequently, through the use of a yeast strain containing a stably integrated gene switch, the assembled pathway can be regulated using a readily available and inexpensive compound—estradiol—with extremely high sensitivity (10 nM). To demonstrate the use of the system, we assembled the five-gene zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in a single step and showed the ligand-dependent coordinated expression of all five genes as well as the tightly regulated production of zeaxanthin. Compared with a previously reported constitutive zeaxanthin pathway, our inducible pathway was shown to have 50-fold higher production level. PMID:23262224

  8. Isolation of the gene encoding adenylate cyclase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Casperson, G F; Walker, N; Bourne, H R

    1985-01-01

    By complementation of the cyr1-1 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have isolated yeast genomic DNA containing the structural gene that encodes the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1). The isolated DNA restored adenylate cyclase activity to cyr1-1 mutants and directed integration at the CYR1 locus. Wild-type strains transformed with CYR1 DNA on the high copy number vector YEp24 contained 4- to 6-fold more adenylate cyclase activity than strains carrying the plasmid with no insert. This result suggests that expression of the CYR1 gene product, rather than that of other polypeptide components of the adenylate cyclase system, limits total adenylate cyclase activity in S. cerevisiae. CYR1-containing plasmids also complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect of the cell division cycle mutation cdc35-1, which confers a phenotype under restrictive conditions similar to that of cyr1-1 and maps to the same locus. Further, cdc35-1 cam mutants, which contain mutations that enable them to take up cAMP from the medium, grew at the restrictive temperature in the presence of exogenous cAMP. These observations support the view that CDC35 and CYR1 are allelic and confirm the hypothesis that cAMP synthesis is required for cells to pass through the "start" position of the cell division cycle. PMID:2991907

  9. Transcriptional regulation by ergosterol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S J; Crowley, J H; Parks, L W

    1996-01-01

    Sterol biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an energy-expensive, aerobic process, requiring heme and molecular oxygen. Heme, also synthesized exclusively during aerobic growth, not only acts as an enzymatic cofactor but also is directly and indirectly responsible for the transcriptional control of several yeast genes. Because of their biosynthetic similarities, we hypothesized that ergosterol, like heme, may have a regulatory function. Sterols are known to play a structural role in membrane integrity, but regulatory roles have not been characterized. To test possible regulatory roles of sterol, the promoter for the ERG3 gene, encoding the sterol C-5 desaturase, was fused to the bacterial lacZ reporter gene. This construct was placed in strains making aberrant sterols, and the effect of altered sterol composition on gene expression was monitored by beta-galactosidase activity. The absence of ergosterol resulted in a 35-fold increase in the expression of ERG3 as measured by beta-galactosidase activity. The level of ERG3 mRNA was increased as much as ninefold in erg mutant strains or wild-type strains inhibited in ergosterol biosynthesis by antifungal agents. The observed regulatory effects of ergosterol on ERG3 are specific for ergosterol, as several ergosterol derivatives failed to elicit the same controlling effect. These results demonstrate for the first time that ergosterol exerts a regulatory effect on gene transcription in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8816455

  10. The gene for a major exopolyphosphatase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wurst, H; Shiba, T; Kornberg, A

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding a major exopolyphosphatase (scPPX1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (H. Wurst and A. Kornberg, J. Biol. Chem. 269:10996-11001, 1994) has been isolated from a genomic library. The gene, located at 57 kbp from the end of the right arm of chromosome VIII, encodes a protein of 396 amino acids. Overexpression in Escherichia coli allowed the ready purification of a recombinant form of the enzyme. Disruption of the gene did not affect the growth rate of S. cerevisiae. Lysates from the mutants displayed considerably lower exopolyphosphatase activity than the wild type. The enzyme is located in the cytosol, whereas the vast accumulation of polyphosphate (polyP) of the yeast is in the vacuole. Disruption of PPX1 in strains with and without deficiencies in vacuolar proteases allowed the identification of exopolyphosphatase activity in the vacuole. This residual activity was strongly reduced in the absence of vacuolar proteases, indicating a dependence on proteolytic activation. A 50-fold-lower protease-independent activity could be distinguished from this protease-dependent activity by different patterns of expression during growth and activation by arginine. With regard to the levels of polyP in various mutants, those deficient in vacuolar ATPase retain less than 1% of the cellular polyP, a loss that is not offset by additional mutations that eliminate the cytosolic exopolyphosphatase and the vacuolar polyphosphatases dependent on vacuolar protease processing. PMID:7860598

  11. Physiological adaptations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for improved butanol tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butanol is a chemical with potential uses as biofuel and solvent, which can be produced by microbial fermentation. However, the end product toxicity is one of the main obstacles for developing the production process irrespective of the choice of production organism. The long-term goal of the present project is to produce 2-butanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of solvents such as butanol and understanding the mechanisms by which tolerant strains of S. cerevisiae adapt to them would be an important contribution to the development of a bio-based butanol production process. Results A butanol tolerant S. cerevisiae was achieved through a series of sequential batch cultures with gradual increase of 2-butanol concentration. The final mutant (JBA-mut) tolerates all different alcohols tested at higher concentrations compared to the wild type (JBA-wt). Proteomics analysis of the two strains grown under mild butanol-stress revealed 46 proteins changing their expression by more than 1.5-fold in JBA-mut, 34 of which were upregulated. Strikingly, 21 out of the 34 upregulated proteins were predicted constituents of mitochondria. Among the non-mitochondrial up-regulated proteins, the minor isoform of Glycerol-3-phosphatase (Gpp2) was the most notable, since it was the only tested protein whose overexpression was found to confer butanol tolerance. Conclusion The study demonstrates several differences between the butanol tolerant mutant and the wild type. Upregulation of proteins involved in the mitochondrial ATP synthesizing machinery constituents and glycerol biosynthesis seem to be beneficial for a successful adaptation of yeast cells to butanol stress. PMID:23855998

  12. Single QTLmapping and nucleotide-level resolution ofa physiologic trait in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Single QTLmapping and nucleotide-level resolution ofa physiologic trait in wine Saccharomyces microarray; aneuploidy; ASP1 ; wine fermentation. Abstract Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains Yeasts used in wine fermentation are derived from wild strains capable of developing in grape juice

  13. Cd Impact on Metabolic Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae over an Extended Period and Implications for Bioremediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Wang; Aga McCarthney; Xuan Qiu; Rui Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between Cd of different concentrations (1, 2, and 3 mg\\/L) and metabolic active cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in YPD batch cultures for a time period of 168 hours. Temporal variations of cell biomass, protein yields, and aqueous and intracellular Cd concentrations were measured. S. cerevisiae cells were inhibited to grow by the presence of Cd at low

  14. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  15. Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards

    E-print Network

    Fay, Justin

    Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards unrelated to fermentations. Strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes, wine must and vineyards worldwide- associated barriers to gene flow. Here, we make use of the relatively recent establish- ment of vineyards

  16. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  17. Genome Snapshot: a new resource at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) presenting an overview of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi E. Hirschman; Rama Balakrishnan; Karen R. Christie; Maria C. Costanzo; Selina S. Dwight; Stacia R. Engel; Dianna G. Fisk; Eurie L. Hong; Michael S. Livstone; Robert S. Nash; Julie Park; Rose Oughtred; Marek S. Skrzypek; Barry Starr; Chandra L. Theesfeld; Jennifer Williams; Rey Andrada; Gail Binkley; Qing Dong; Stuart R. Miyasato; Anand Sethuraman; Mark Schroeder; Mayank K. Thanawala; Shuai Weng; Kara Dolinski; David Botstein; J. Michael Cherry

    2006-01-01

    Sequencing and annotation of the entire Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome has made it pos- sible to gain a genome-wide perspective on yeast genes and gene products. To make this information available on an ongoing basis, the Saccharomyces 20Genome Database (SGD) (http:\\/\\/www.yeastgenome. org\\/) has created the Genome Snapshot (http:\\/\\/db. yeastgenome.org\\/cgi-bin\\/genomeSnapShot.pl). The Genome Snapshot summarizes the current state of knowledge about the genes

  18. Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides tools to identify and analyze sequences from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related sequences from other organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Christie; Shuai Weng; Rama Balakrishnan; Maria C. Costanzo; Kara Dolinski; Selina S. Dwight; Stacia R. Engel; Becket Feierbach; Dianna G. Fisk; Jodi E. Hirschman; Eurie L. Hong; Laurie Issel-tarver; Robert S. Nash; Anand Sethuraman; Barry Starr; Chandra L. Theesfeld; Rey Andrada; Gail Binkley; Qing Dong; Mark Schroeder; David Botstein; J. Michael Cherry

    2004-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http:\\/\\/ www.yeastgenome.org\\/), a scientific database of the molecular biology and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has recently developed several new resources that allow the comparison and integration of information on a genome-wide scale, enabling the user not only to find detailed information about individual genes, but also to make connections across groups of genes

  19. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 ?-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y294 and the semi-industrial strain, S. cerevisiae Mnu?1. The recombinant AmyA and GlaA displayed protein sizes of 110–150 kDa and 90 kDa, respectively, suggesting significant glycosylation in S. cerevisiae. The Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] and Y294[AmyA-GlaA] strains were able to utilise 20 g l-1 raw corn starch as sole carbohydrate source, with ethanol titers of 9.03 and 6.67 g l-1 (0.038 and 0.028 g l-1 h-1), respectively, after 10 days. With a substrate load of 200 g l-1 raw corn starch, Mnu?1[AmyA-GlaA] yielded 70.07 g l-1 ethanol (0.58 g l-1 h-1) after 120 h of fermentation, whereas Y294[AmyA-GlaA] was less efficient at 43.33 g l-1 ethanol (0.36 g l-1 h-1). Conclusions In a semi-industrial amylolytic S. cerevisiae strain expressing the A. tubingensis ?-amylase and glucoamylase genes, 200 g l-1 raw starch was completely hydrolysed (saccharified) in 120 hours with 74% converted to released sugars plus fermentation products and the remainder presumably to biomass. The single-step conversion of raw starch represents significant progress towards the realisation of CBP without the need for any heat pretreatment. Furthermore, the amylases were produced and secreted by the host strain, thus circumventing the need for exogenous amylases. PMID:24286270

  20. Metabolism of sulfur amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Surdin-Kerjan, Y

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a large number of enzymes required for the de novo biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine and the recycling of organic sulfur metabolites. This review summarizes the details of these processes and analyzes the molecular data which have been acquired in this metabolic area. Sulfur biochemistry appears not to be unique through terrestrial life, and S. cerevisiae is one of the species of sulfate-assimilatory organisms possessing a larger set of enzymes for sulfur metabolism. The review also deals with several enzyme deficiencies that lead to a nutritional requirement for organic sulfur, although they do not correspond to defects within the biosynthetic pathway. In S. cerevisiae, the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway is tightly controlled: in response to an increase in the amount of intracellular S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), transcription of the coregulated genes is turned off. The second part of the review is devoted to the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. The coordinated response to AdoMet requires two cis-acting promoter elements. One centers on the sequence TCACGTG, which also constitutes a component of all S. cerevisiae centromeres. Situated upstream of the sulfur genes, this element is the binding site of a transcription activation complex consisting of a basic helix-loop-helix factor, Cbf1p, and two basic leucine zipper factors, Met4p and Met28p. Molecular studies have unraveled the specific functions for each subunit of the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex as well as the modalities of its assembly on the DNA. The Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex contains only one transcription activation module, the Met4p subunit. Detailed mutational analysis of Met4p has elucidated its functional organization. In addition to its activation and bZIP domains, Met4p contains two regulatory domains, called the inhibitory region and the auxiliary domain. When the level of intracellular AdoMet increases, the transcription activation function of Met4 is prevented by Met30p, which binds to the Met4 inhibitory region. In addition to the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex, transcriptional regulation involves two zinc finger-containing proteins, Met31p and Met32p. The AdoMet-mediated control of the sulfur amino acid pathway illustrates the molecular strategies used by eucaryotic cells to couple gene expression to metabolic changes. PMID:9409150

  1. The rye Mutants Identify a Role for Ssn\\/Srb Proteins of the RNA Polymerase II Holoenzyme During Stationary Phase Entry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Wen Chang; Susie C. Howard; Yelena V. Budovskaya; Jasper Rine; Paul K. Herman

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells enter into a distinct resting state, known as stationary phase, in response to specific types of nutrient deprivation. We have identified a collection of mutants that exhibited a defective transcriptional response to nutrient limitation and failed to enter into a normal stationary phase. These rye mutants were isolated on the basis of defects in the regulation of

  2. Adenine deaminase and adenine utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Deeley, M C

    1992-01-01

    Compared with other purine salvage and nitrogen catabolism enzymatic activities, adenine deaminase (adenine aminohydrolase [AAH]; EC 3.5.4.2) activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is uniquely regulated. AAH specific activity is not induced by adenine and is reduced sevenfold when cells are cultivated in medium containing proline in place of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. Exogenous adenine enters metabolic pathways primarily via the function of either AAH or adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT; EC 2.4.2.7). Exogenous adenosine cannot normally be utilized as a purine source. Strains efficiently utilized adenosine or inosine when grown in pH 4.5 medium containing Triton X-100. A recessive mutation permitting utilization of adenosine or inosine in standard media was isolated. In both situations, growth of purine auxotrophs required either AAH or APRT activity. With medium containing either ammonium or proline as a nitrogen source, minimum doubling times of purine auxotrophs deficient in either APRT or AAH were measured. In proline-based medium, AAH and APRT permitted equal utilization of exogenous adenine. In ammonium-based medium, the absence of APRT increased the minimum doubling time by 50%. Similar experiments using sufficient exogenous histidine to feedback inhibit histidine biosynthesis failed to affect the growth rates of adenine auxotrophs blocked in AAH or APRT, indicating that the histidine-biosynthetic pathway does not play a significant role in adenine utilization. The gene that encodes AAH in S. cerevisiae was isolated by complementation using yeast strain XD1-1, which is deficient in AAH, APRT, and purine synthesis. A 1.36-kb EcoRI-SphI fragment was demonstrated to contain the structural gene for AAH by expressing this DNA in Escherichia coli under control of the trp promoter-operator. Northern (RNA) studies using the AAH-, APRT-, and CDC3-coding regions indicated that AAH regulation was not mediated at the level of transcription or mRNA degradation. Images PMID:1577682

  3. Adaptive Evolution of a Lactose-Consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae Recombinant?

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Pedro M. R.; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc; Teixeira, José A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2008-01-01

    The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation. A flocculent lactose-consuming S. cerevisiae recombinant expressing the LAC12 (lactose permease) and LAC4 (?-galactosidase) genes of Kluyveromyces lactis was constructed previously but showed poor efficiency in lactose fermentation. This strain was therefore subjected to an evolutionary engineering process (serial transfer and dilution in lactose medium), which yielded an evolved recombinant strain that consumed lactose twofold faster, producing 30% more ethanol than the original recombinant. We identified two molecular events that targeted the LAC construct in the evolved strain: a 1,593-bp deletion in the intergenic region (promoter) between LAC4 and LAC12 and a decrease of the plasmid copy number by about 10-fold compared to that in the original recombinant. The results suggest that the intact promoter was unable to mediate the induction of the transcription of LAC4 and LAC12 by lactose in the original recombinant and that the deletion established the transcriptional induction of both genes in the evolved strain. We propose that the tuning of the expression of the heterologous LAC genes in the evolved recombinant was accomplished by the interplay between the decreased copy number of both genes and the different levels of transcriptional induction for LAC4 and LAC12 resulting from the changed promoter structure. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude other possible mutations that may have contributed to the improved lactose fermentation phenotype. This study illustrates the usefulness of simple evolutionary engineering approaches in strain improvement. The evolved strain efficiently fermented threefold-concentrated cheese whey, providing an attractive alternative for the fermentation of lactose-based media. PMID:18245248

  4. Xylulose and glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in chemostat culture.

    PubMed Central

    Jeppsson, H; Yu, S; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24860 was cultivated in chemostat culture under anoxic conditions with 111.1 mmol of glucose liter-1 alone or with a mixture of 66.7 mmol of xylulose liter-1 and 111.1 mmol of glucose liter-1. The substrate consumption rate was 5.4 mmol g of cells-1 h-1 for glucose, whereas for xylulose it was 1.0 mmol g of cells-1 h-1. The ethanol yield decreased from 0.52 carbon mole of ethanol produced per carbon mole of sugar consumed during the utilization of glucose alone to 0.49 carbon mole produced per carbon mole consumed during the simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose, while cell biomass was maintained at 2.04 to 2.10 g liter-1. Xylulose coutilization was accompanied by a shift in product formation from ethanol to acetate and arabinitol. Xylulokinase activity was absent during glucose metabolism but detectable during simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose. Xylulose cometabolism resulted in increased in vitro activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and an increased concentration of the intracellular metabolite fructose 1,6-diphosphate without significant changes in the concentrations of 6-phosphogluconate and pyruvate. The results are discussed in relation to (i) altered enzyme activities and (ii) the redox flux of the cell. PMID:8633869

  5. d-Xylulose Fermentation to Ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lin-Chang; Gong, Cheng-Shung; Chen, Li-Fu; Tsao, George T.

    1981-01-01

    We used commercial bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to study the conversion of d-xylulose to ethanol in the presence of d-xylose. The rate of ethanol production increased with an increase in yeast cell density. The optimal temperature for d-xylulose fermentation was 35°C, and the optimal pH range was 4 to 6. The fermentation of d-xylulose by yeast resulted in the production of ethanol as the major product; small amounts of xylitol and glycerol were also produced. The production of xylitol was influenced by pH as well as temperature. High pH values and low temperatures enhanced xylitol production. The rate of d-xylulose fermentation decreased when the production of ethanol yielded concentrations of 4% or more. The slow conversion rate of d-xylulose to ethanol was increased by increasing the yeast cell density. The overall production of ethanol from d-xylulose by yeast cells under optimal conditions was 90% of the theoretical yield. PMID:16345828

  6. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve 1-hexadecanol production.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty alcohols are important components of a vast array of surfactants, lubricants, detergents, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce 1-hexadecanol by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) from barn owl (Tyto alba). In order to improve fatty alcohol production, we have manipulated both the structural genes and the regulatory genes in yeast lipid metabolism. The acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACC1) was over-expressed, which improved 1-hexadecanol production by 56% (from 45mg/L to 71mg/L). Knocking out the negative regulator of the INO1 gene in phospholipid metabolism, RPD3, further enhanced 1-hexadecanol production by 98% (from 71mg/L to 140mg/L). The cytosolic acetyl-CoA supply was next engineered by expressing a heterologous ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which increased the production of 1-hexadecanol by an additional 136% (from 140mg/L to 330mg/L). Through fed-batch fermentation using resting cells, over 1.1g/L 1-hexadecanol can be produced in glucose minimal medium, which represents the highest titer reported in yeast to date. PMID:25466225

  7. Autonomous oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during batch cultures on trehalose.

    PubMed

    Jules, Matthieu; François, Jean; Parrou, Jean Luc

    2005-03-01

    We report that autonomous oscillations, which usually happen in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures of yeast at low dilution rate, were also observed in trehalose discontinuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This unexpected oscillatory behaviour was therefore examined using fast Fourier transformation of online gas measurements. This robust mathematical analysis underlined the existence of two types of oscillation. The first was found to be linked to the cell cycle because (a) the periodicity corresponded to a fraction of the generation time and (b) the oscillations were accompanied by a transient increase in the budding index, mobilization of storage carbohydrates, and fermentative activity. Moreover, these oscillations occurred in a range of specific growth rates between 0.04 and 0.15 h(-1). All these criteria were consistent with the cell-cycle-related metabolic oscillations observed in the same range of growth rates in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The second type were short-period respiratory oscillations, independent of the specific growth rate. Both types of oscillation were found to take place consecutively and/or simultaneously during batch culture on trehalose. In addition, mobilization of intracellular trehalose emerged as a key parameter for the sustainability of these autonomous oscillations as they were no longer observed in a mutant defective in neutral trehalase activity. We propose that batch culture on trehalose may be an excellent device for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie autonomous oscillations in yeast. PMID:15752364

  8. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion

    PubMed Central

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by zinc, an essential mineral required for growth and metabolism. Cells depleted of zinc contain increased levels of phosphatidylinositol and decreased levels of phosphatidylethanolamine. In addition to the major phospholipids, the levels of the minor phospholipids phosphatidate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate decrease in the vacuole membrane of zinc-depleted cells. Alterations in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine can be ascribed to an increase in PIS1-encoded phosphatidylinositol synthase activity and to decreases in the activities of CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes including the CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase, respectively. Alterations in the minor vacuole membrane phospholipids are due to the induction of the DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase. These changes in the activities of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes result from differential regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription. Under zinc-deplete conditions, the positive transcription factor Zap1p stimulates the expression of the DPP1 and PIS1 genes through the cis-acting element UASZRE. In contrast, the negative regulatory protein Opi1p, which is involved in inositol-mediated regulation of phospholipid synthesis, represses the expression of the CHO1 gene through the cis-acting element UASINO. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis may provide an important mechanism by which cells cope with the stress of zinc depletion, given the roles that phospholipids play in the structure and function of cellular membranes. PMID:16807089

  9. Chromatin remodeling during Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Verdone, L; Camilloni, G; Di Mauro, E; Caserta, M

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed at both low and high resolution the distribution of nucleosomes over the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter region in its chromosomal location, both under repressing (high-glucose) conditions and during derepression. Enzymatic treatments (micrococcal nuclease and restriction endonucleases) were used to probe the in vivo chromatin structure during ADH2 gene activation. Under glucose-repressed conditions, the ADH2 promoter was bound by a precise array of nucleosomes, the principal ones positioned at the RNA initiation sites (nucleosome +1), at the TATA box (nucleosome -1), and upstream of the ADR1-binding site (UAS1) (nucleosome -2). The UAS1 sequence and the adjacent UAS2 sequence constituted a nucleosome-free region. Nucleosomes -1 and +1 were destabilized soon after depletion of glucose and had become so before the appearance of ADH2 mRNA. When the transcription rate was high, nucleosomes -2 and +2 also underwent rearrangement. When spheroplasts were prepared from cells grown in minimal medium, detection of this chromatin remodeling required the addition of a small amount of glucose. Cells lacking the ADR1 protein did not display any of these chromatin modifications upon glucose depletion. Since the UAS1 sequence to which Adr1p binds is located immediately upstream of nucleosome -1, Adr1p is presumably required for destabilization of this nucleosome and for aiding the TATA-box accessibility to the transcription machinery. PMID:8628264

  10. Metabolic Engineering of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanxiao; Wood, Karl V.; Morgan, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids are valuable natural products derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The objective of this study was to create a host for the biosynthesis of naringenin, the central precursor of many flavonoids. This was accomplished by introducing the phenylpropanoid pathway with the genes for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana, and chalcone synthase (CHS) from Hypericum androsaemum into two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, namely, AH22 and a pad1 knockout mutant. Each gene was cloned and inserted into an expression vector under the control of a separate individual GAL10 promoter. Besides its PAL activity, the recombinant PAL enzyme showed tyrosine ammonia lyase activity, which enabled the biosynthesis of naringenin without introducing cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). 4CL catalyzed the conversion of both trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid to their corresponding CoA products, which were further converted to pinocembrin chalcone and naringenin chalcone by CHS. These chalcones were cyclized to pinocembrin and naringenin. The yeast AH22 strain coexpressing PAL, 4CL, and CHS produced approximately 7 mg liter?1 of naringenin and 0.8 mg liter?1 of pinocembrin. Several by-products, such as 2?,4?,6?-trihydroxydihydrochalcone and phloretin, were also identified. Precursor feeding studies indicated that metabolic flux to the engineered flavonoid pathway was limited by the flux to the precursor l-tyrosine. PMID:15932991

  11. Identification of Genes Affecting Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Linderholm, Angela L.; Findleton, Carrie L.; Kumar, Gagandeep; Hong, Yeun; Bisson, Linda F.

    2008-01-01

    A screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion strain set was performed to identify genes affecting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. Mutants were screened using two assays: colony color on BiGGY agar, which detects the basal level of sulfite reductase activity, and production of H2S in a synthetic juice medium using lead acetate detection of free sulfide in the headspace. A total of 88 mutants produced darker colony colors than the parental strain, and 4 produced colonies significantly lighter in color. There was no correlation between the appearance of a dark colony color on BiGGY agar and H2S production in synthetic juice media. Sixteen null mutations were identified as leading to the production of increased levels of H2S in synthetic juice using the headspace analysis assay. All 16 mutants also produced H2S in actual juices. Five of these genes encode proteins involved in sulfur containing amino acid or precursor biosynthesis and are directly associated with the sulfate assimilation pathway. The remaining genes encode proteins involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell membrane integrity, cell energy regulation and balance, or other metabolic functions. The levels of hydrogen sulfide production of each of the 16 strains varied in response to nutritional conditions. In most cases, creation of multiple deletions of the 16 mutations in the same strain did not lead to a further increase in H2S production, instead often resulting in decreased levels. PMID:18192430

  12. Regulation of cystathionine gamma-lyase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Naito, K; Shirahige, Y; Yamamoto, M

    1991-11-01

    Regulation of the two enzymes in reverse trans-sulfuration was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In wild-type strains, cystathionine gamma-lyase, but not cystathionine beta-synthase, was depressed nearly 15-fold if cells were starved for both inorganic and organic sulfur compounds. In a met17 strain which is defective of O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase, the same enzyme was derepressed if organic sulfur compounds were limited; the repressive effect was in the order of glutathione greater than methionine greater than cysteine. The repressive effect of methionine was not observed, however, in a cys2 cys4 strain which is deficient of serine O-acetyltransferase and cystathionine beta-synthase, indicating that methionine itself is not the effector. The weak repressive effect of cysteine was attributed to inefficient uptake of this amino acid. Our observations indicate that cystathionine gamma-lyase is the target of regulation in reverse trans-sulfuration and that cysteine is very likely to be the effector of this regulation. PMID:1789005

  13. Effect of Polygodial on the Mitochondrial ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lunde, Christopher S.; Kubo, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 3.13 ?g/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial. In contrast, the two other membrane-bound ATPases in yeast were found to be susceptible to the compound. The mitochondrial ATPase was inhibited by polygodial in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations similar to the fungicidal concentration, whereas the vacuolar ATPase was only slightly inhibited. Cytoplasmic petite mutants, which lack mitochondrial DNA and are respiration deficient, were significantly less susceptible to polygodial than the wild type, as was shown in time-kill curves. A pet9 mutant which lacks a functional ADP-ATP translocator and is therefore respiration dependent was rapidly inhibited by polygodial. The results of these susceptibility assays link enzyme inhibition to physiological effect. Previous studies have reported that plasma membrane disruption is the mechanism of polygodial-induced cell death; however, these results support a more complex picture of its effect. A major target of polygodial in yeast is mitochondrial ATP synthase. Reduction of the ATP supply leads to a suppression of Pma1 ATPase activity and impairs adaptive responses to other facets of polygodial's cellular inhibition. PMID:10858359

  14. The nucleotide sequence of chromosome I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, H; Kaback, D B; Zhong, W; Vo, D T; Clark, M W; Fortin, N; Hall, J; Ouellette, B F; Keng, T; Barton, A B

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome I from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a DNA molecule of approximately 231 kbp and is the smallest naturally occurring functional eukaryotic nuclear chromosome so far characterized. The nucleotide sequence of this chromosome has been determined as part of an international collaboration to sequence the entire yeast genome. The chromosome contains 89 open reading frames and 4 tRNA genes. The central 165 kbp of the chromosome resembles other large sequenced regions of the yeast genome in both its high density and distribution of genes. In contrast, the remaining sequences flanking this DNA that comprise the two ends of the chromosome and make up more than 25% of the DNA molecule have a much lower gene density, are largely not transcribed, contain no genes essential for vegetative growth, and contain several apparent pseudogenes and a 15-kbp redundant sequence. These terminally repetitive regions consist of a telomeric repeat called W', flanked by DNA closely related to the yeast FLO1 gene. The low gene density, presence of pseudogenes, and lack of expression are consistent with the idea that these terminal regions represent the yeast equivalent of heterochromatin. The occurrence of such a high proportion of DNA with so little information suggests that its presence gives this chromosome the critical length required for proper function. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7731988

  15. Size control models of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wheals, A E

    1982-04-01

    By using time-lapse photomicroscopy, the individual cycle times and sizes at bud emergence were measured for a population of saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing exponentially under balanced growth conditions in a specially constructed filming slide. There was extensive variability in both parameters for daughter and parent cells. The data on 162 pairs of siblings were analyzed for agreement with the predictions of the transition probability hypothesis and the critical-size hypothesis of yeast cell proliferation and also with a model incorporating both of these hypotheses in tandem. None of the models accounted for all of the experimental data, but two models did give good agreement to all of the data. The wobbly tandem model proposes that cells need to attain a critical size, which is very variable, enabling them to enter a start state from which they exit with first order kinetics. The sloppy size control model suggests that cells have an increasing probability per unit time of traversing start as they increase in size, reaching a high plateau value which is less than one. Both models predict that the kinetics of entry into the cell division sequence will strongly depend on variability in birth size and thus will be quite different for daughters and parents of the asymmetrically dividing yeast cells. Mechanisms underlying these models are discussed. PMID:7050671

  16. Variability in individual cell cycles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lord, P G; Wheals, A E

    1981-08-01

    The kinetics of cell proliferation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 4 growth rates using time-lapse cinephotomicrography. Cells were grown on media with a high refractive index to reveal greater intracellular detail under the phase-contrast microscope. The morphological cell-cycle events scored were: bud emergence, nuclear migration, nuclear division, onset of cytokinesis and cell separation. Cell size was measured at cell separation and at bud emergence. The daughter-cycle time was always longer than the parent-cycle time mainly due to the large difference in the lengths of the unbudded phases. Parent cells had a shorter budded period than daughter cells. The large variance in daughter-cycle times was accounted for by the large variance in the lengths of the unbudded phase of daughter cells. The duration and variability of the periods in the cyclc from nuclear migration onwards were equivalent for parent and daughter cells. Daughter cells were always smaller than parent cells at division. There was wide variation in cell size at both division and bud emergence. The results indicated that a modified deterministic model could best explain cell proliferation kinetics in yeast. The data were used to evaluate 2 different models. The 'sloppy size control' model of Wheals (1981 a) was more consistent with the data than the 'tandem' model of Shilo, Shilo & Simchen (1976). The distribution of unbudded periods of daughter cells suggested that there was an additional incompressible period not present in parent cells. PMID:7033253

  17. Size control models of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Wheals, A.E.

    1982-04-01

    By using time-elapsed photomicroscopy, the individual cycle times and sizes at bud emergence were measured for a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells growing exponentially under balanced growth conditions in a specially constructed filming slide. There was extensive variability in both parameters for daughter and parent cells. The data on 162 pairs of siblings were analyzed for agreement with the predictions of the transition probability hypothesis and the critical-size hypothesis of yeast cell proliferation and also with a model incorporating both of these hypotheses in tandem. None of the models accounted for all of the experimental data, but two models did give good agreement to all of the data. The wobbly tandem model proposes that cells need to attain a critical size, which is very variable, enabling them to enter a start state from which they exit with first-order kinetics. The sloppy size control model suggests that cells have an increasing probability per unit time of traversing start as they increase in size, reaching a high plateau value which is less than one. Both models predict that the kinetics of entry into the cell division sequence will strongly depend on variability in birth size and thus will be quite different for daughters and parents of the asymmetrically dividing yeast cells. Mechanisms underlying these models are discussed.

  18. Principles of MAP kinase signaling specificity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Monica A; Madhani, Hiten D

    2004-01-01

    Cells respond to a plethora of signals using a limited set of intracellular signal transduction components. Surprisingly, pathways that transduce distinct signals can share protein components, yet avoid erroneous cross-talk. A highly tractable model system in which to study this paradox is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which harbors three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascades that share multiple signaling components. In this review we first describe potential mechanisms by which specificity could be achieved by signaling pathways that share components. Second, we summarize key features and components of the yeast MAPK pathways that control the mating pheromone response, filamentous growth, and the response to high osmolarity. Finally, we review biochemical analyses in yeast of mutations that cause cross-talk between these three MAPK pathways and their implications for the mechanistic bases for signaling specificity. Although much remains to be learned, current data indicate that scaffolding and cross pathway inhibition play key roles in the maintenance of fidelity. PMID:15568991

  19. Transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jatinder; Kumar, Deept; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Singhal, Vibha; Jervis, Jody; Garst, James F; Slaughter, Stephen M; DeSantis, Andrea M; Potts, Malcolm; Helm, Richard F

    2005-12-01

    A transcriptional analysis of the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743 to controlled air-drying (desiccation) and subsequent rehydration under minimal glucose conditions was performed. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle was observed to increase during drying and remained in this state during the rehydration phase. When the BY4743 expression profile for the dried sample was compared to that of a commercially prepared dry active yeast, strikingly similar expression changes were observed. The fact that these two samples, dried by different means, possessed very similar transcriptional profiles supports the hypothesis that the response to desiccation is a coordinated event independent of the particular conditions involved in water removal. Similarities between "stationary-phase-essential genes" and those upregulated during desiccation were also noted, suggesting commonalities in different routes to reduced metabolic states. Trends in extracellular and intracellular glucose and trehalose levels suggested that the cells were in a "holding pattern" during the rehydration phase, a concept that was reinforced by cell cycle analyses. Application of a "redescription mining" algorithm suggested that sulfur metabolism is important for cell survival during desiccation and rehydration. PMID:16332871

  20. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  1. Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, James E; Norville, Julie E; Mali, Prashant; Rios, Xavier; Aach, John; Church, George M

    2013-04-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea use RNA-guided nuclease activity to provide adaptive immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. The CRISPR-Cas components, Cas9 gene and a designer genome targeting CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA), show robust and specific RNA-guided endonuclease activity at targeted endogenous genomic loci in yeast. Using constitutive Cas9 expression and a transient gRNA cassette, we show that targeted double-strand breaks can increase homologous recombination rates of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotide donors by 5-fold and 130-fold, respectively. In addition, co-transformation of a gRNA plasmid and a donor DNA in cells constitutively expressing Cas9 resulted in near 100% donor DNA recombination frequency. Our approach provides foundations for a simple and powerful genome engineering tool for site-specific mutagenesis and allelic replacement in yeast. PMID:23460208

  2. Mitochondria-mediated nuclear mutator phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Anne Karin; Chatterjee, Aditi; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Singh, Keshav K.

    2003-01-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism, we analyzed the consequences of disrupting mitochondrial function on mutagenesis of the nuclear genome. We measured the frequency of canavanine-resistant colonies as a measure of nuclear mutator phenotype. Our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a nuclear mutator phenotype (i) when oxidative phosphorylation is blocked in wild-type yeast at mitochondrial complex III by antimycin A and (ii) in mutant strains lacking the entire mitochondrial genome (rho0) or those with deleted mitochondrial DNA (rho–). The nuclear mutation frequencies obtained for antimycin A-treated cells as well as for rho– and rho0 cells were ?2- to 3-fold higher compared to untreated control and wild-type cells, respectively. Blockage of oxidative phosphorylation by antimycin A treatment led to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, inactivation of mitochondrial activity (rho– and rho0) led to decreased intracellular levels of ROS. We also demonstrate that in rho0 cells the REV1, REV3 and REV7 gene products, all implicated in error-prone translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), mediate mutagenesis in the nuclear genome. However, TLS was not involved in nuclear DNA mutagenesis caused by inhibition of mitochondrial function by antimycin A. Together, our data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is mutagenic and multiple pathways are involved in this nuclear mutator phenotype. PMID:12853606

  3. Functional studies of aldo-keto reductases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qing; Griest, Terry A.; Harter, Theresa M.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast. PMID:17140678

  4. Functional studies of aldo-keto reductases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Griest, Terry A; Harter, Theresa M; Petrash, J Mark

    2007-03-01

    We utilized the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to systematically explore physiological roles for yeast and mammalian aldo-keto reductases. Six open reading frames encoding putative aldo-keto reductases were identified when the yeast genome was queried against the sequence for human aldose reductase, the prototypical mammalian aldo-keto reductase. Recombinant proteins produced from five of these yeast open reading frames demonstrated NADPH-dependent reductase activity with a variety of aldehyde and ketone substrates. A triple aldo-keto reductase null mutant strain demonstrated a glucose-dependent heat shock phenotype which could be rescued by ectopic expression of human aldose reductase. Catalytically-inactive mutants of human or yeast aldo-keto reductases failed to effect a rescue of the heat shock phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype results from either an accumulation of one or more unmetabolized aldo-keto reductase substrates or a synthetic deficiency of aldo-keto reductase products generated in response to heat shock stress. These results suggest that multiple aldo-keto reductases fulfill functionally redundant roles in the stress response in yeast. PMID:17140678

  5. Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

  6. Comparative Genomics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Natural Isolates for Bioenergy Production

    PubMed Central

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Rovinskiy, Nikolay; Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Sardi, Maria; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Martin, Joel A.; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Christopher G.; Lipzen, Anna; Sato, Trey K.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic plant material is a viable source of biomass to produce alternative energy including ethanol and other biofuels. However, several factors—including toxic byproducts from biomass pretreatment and poor fermentation of xylose and other pentose sugars—currently limit the efficiency of microbial biofuel production. To begin to understand the genetic basis of desirable traits, we characterized three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with robust growth in a pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysate or tolerance to stress conditions relevant to industrial biofuel production, through genome and transcriptome sequencing analysis. All stress resistant strains were highly mosaic, suggesting that genetic admixture may contribute to novel allele combinations underlying these phenotypes. Strain-specific gene sets not found in the lab strain were functionally linked to the tolerances of particular strains. Furthermore, genes with signatures of evolutionary selection were enriched for functional categories important for stress resistance and included stress-responsive signaling factors. Comparison of the strains’ transcriptomic responses to heat and ethanol treatment—two stresses relevant to industrial bioethanol production—pointed to physiological processes that were related to particular stress resistance profiles. Many of the genotype-by-environment expression responses occurred at targets of transcription factors with signatures of positive selection, suggesting that these strains have undergone positive selection for stress tolerance. Our results generate new insights into potential mechanisms of tolerance to stresses relevant to biofuel production, including ethanol and heat, present a backdrop for further engineering, and provide glimpses into the natural variation of stress tolerance in wild yeast strains. PMID:25364804

  7. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of ?1,3- and ?1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, ?1,3- and ?1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  8. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MAT?. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MAT?1, and MAT?2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HML? and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Caffeine and Theobromine Production

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lu; Bhuiya, Mohammad Wadud; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, XiangQi; Han, Jixiang; Deng, WeiWei; Wang, Min; Yu, Oliver; Zhang, Zhengzhu

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g. tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed. PMID:25133732

  10. Kem Mutations Affect Nuclear Fusion in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J.; Ljungdahl, P. O.; Fink, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    We have identified mutations in three genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KEM1, KEM2 and KEM3, that enhance the nuclear fusion defect of kar1-1 yeast during conjugation. The KEM1 and KEM3 genes are located on the left arm of chromosome VII. Kem mutations reduce nuclear fusion whether the kem and the kar1-1 mutations are in the same or in different parents (i.e., in both kem kar1-1 X wild-type and kem X kar1-1 crosses). kem1 X kem1 crosses show a defect in nuclear fusion, but kem1 X wild-type crosses do not. Mutant kem1 strains are hypersensitive to benomyl, lose chromosomes at a rate 10-20-fold higher than KEM(+) strains, and lose viability upon nitrogen starvation. In addition, kem1/kem1 diploids are unable to sporulate. Cells containing a kem1 null allele grow very poorly, have an elongated rod-shape and are defective in spindle pole body duplication and/or separation. The KEM1 gene, which is expressed as a 5.5-kb mRNA transcript, contains a 4.6-kb open reading frame encoding a 175-kD protein. PMID:2076815

  11. Rapid identification of chemical genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dilworth, David; Nelson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Determining the mode of action of bioactive chemicals is of interest to a broad range of academic, pharmaceutical, and industrial scientists. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote for which a complete collection of ~6,000 gene deletion mutants and hypomorphic essential gene mutants are commercially available. These collections of mutants can be used to systematically detect chemical-gene interactions, i.e. genes necessary to tolerate a chemical. This information, in turn, reports on the likely mode of action of the compound. Here we describe a protocol for the rapid identification of chemical-genetic interactions in budding yeast. We demonstrate the method using the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which has a well-defined mechanism of action. Our results show that the nuclear TRAMP RNA exosome and DNA repair enzymes are needed for proliferation in the presence of 5-FU, which is consistent with previous microarray based bar-coding chemical genetic approaches and the knowledge that 5-FU adversely affects both RNA and DNA metabolism. The required validation protocols of these high-throughput screens are also described. PMID:25867090

  12. Genes Required for Vacuolar Acidity in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Preston, R. A.; Reinagel, P. S.; Jones, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Mutations that cause loss of acidity in the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by screening colonies labeled with the fluorescent, pH-sensitive, vacuolar labeling agent, 6-carboxyfluorescein. Thirty nine vacuolar pH (Vph(-)) mutants were identified. Four of these contained mutant alleles of the previously described PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7 genes. The remaining mutants defined eight complementation groups of vph mutations. No alleles of the VAT2 or TFP1 genes (known to encode subunits of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase) were identified in the Vph(-) screen. Strains bearing mutations in any of six of the VPH genes failed to grow on medium buffered at neutral pH; otherwise, none of the vph mutations caused notable growth inhibition on standard yeast media. Expression of the vacuolar protease, carboxypeptidase Y, was defective in strains bearing vph4 mutations but was apparently normal in strains bearing any of the other vph mutations. Defects in vacuolar morphology at the light microscope level were evident in all Vph(-) mutants. Strains that contained representative mutant alleles of the 17 previously described PEP genes were assayed for vacuolar pH; mutations in seven of the PEP genes (including PEP3, PEP5, PEP6 and PEP7) caused loss of vacuolar acidity. PMID:1628805

  13. Processing pathway for protease B of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The vacuolar protease B of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a subtilisin- like protease encoded by the PRB1 gene. Antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide and an Escherichia coli-derived PRB1 open reading frame (ORF) protein cross-react with authentic protease B from yeast. By using these antibodies, the posttranslational biosynthetic pathway of protease B has been elucidated. Preproprotease B is a 76-kD unglycosylated precursor that enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it receives one asparagine-linked (Asn-linked) and an undetermined number of non-Asn-linked carbohydrate side chains. The large glycosylated intermediate is proteolytically processed to a 39-kD form before exiting the ER. In the Golgi complex, the 39-kD form becomes 40 kD, due to elaboration of the Asn-linked side chain. The carboxyterminal end of the 40-kD proprotease B undergoes protease A- mediated processing to a 37-kD intermediate, which in turn is quickly processed to 31-kD mature protease B. The ultimate processing step removes a peptide containing the Asn-linked chain; mature PrB has only non-Asn-linked carbohydrate. PMID:2645294

  14. Localization of polyphosphate in vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Urech, K; Dürr, M; Boller, T; Wiemken, A; Schwencke, J

    1978-03-01

    Virtually all of the polyphosphate (PP) present in yeast protoplasts can be recovered in a crude particulate fraction if polybase-induced lysis is used for disrupting the protoplasts. This fraction contains most of the vacuoles, mitochondria and nuclei. Upon the purification of vacuoles the PP is enriched to the same extent as are the vacuolar markers. The amount of PP per vacuole is comparable to the amount of PP per protoplast. The possibility that PP is located in the cell wall is also considered. In the course of the incubation necessary for preparing protoplasts, 20% of the cellular PP is broken down. As this loss of PP occurs to the same extent in the absence of cell wall degrading enzymes, it is inferred that internal PP is metabolically degraded, no PP being located in the cell walls. It is concluded that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae most if not all of the PP is located in the vacuoles, at least under the growth conditions used. PMID:348146

  15. Regulation of repressible acid phosphatase gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, J M; Willcocks, T; Halvorson, H O; Bostian, K A

    1985-01-01

    We examined the genetic system responsible for transcriptional regulation of repressible acid phosphatase (APase; orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase [acid optimum, EC 3.1.3.2]) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the molecular level by analysis of previously isolated and genetically well-defined regulatory gene mutants known to affect APase expression. These mutants identify numerous positive- (PHO4, PHO2, PHO81) and negative-acting (PHO80, PHO85) regulatory loci dispersed throughout the yeast genome. We showed that the interplay of these positive and negative regulatory genes occurs before or during APase gene transcription and that their functions are all indispensible for normal regulation of mRNA synthesis. Biochemical evidence suggests that the regulatory gene products they encode are expressed constitutively. More detailed investigation of APase synthesis is a conditional PHO80(Ts) mutant indicated that neither PHO4 nor any other protein factor necessary for APase mRNA synthesis is transcriptionally regulated by PHO80. Moreover, in the absence of PHO80, the corepressor, presumed to be a metabolite of Pi, did not inhibit their function in the transcriptional activation of APase. Images PMID:3915785

  16. Cell, Vol. 117, 4756, April 2, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer3 Helicase Stimulates

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Cell, Vol. 117, 47­56, April 2, 2004, Copyright 2004 by Cell Press Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mer3 of genes including ZIP1, ZIP2,tion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MER3 gene is ZIP3, MSH4, MSH5, MLH1, MLH3, EXO1, and MER3known to affect selectively crossover, but not non- are specifically required

  17. Novel physiological roles for glutathione in sequestering acetaldehyde to confer acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsufuji, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Kohei; Yamauchi, Kosei; Mitsunaga, Tohru; Hayakawa, Takashi; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we identified novel physiological functions of glutathione in acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains deleted in the genes encoding the enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis and reduction, GSH1, GSH2 and GLR1, exhibited severe growth defects compared to wild-type under acetaldehyde stress, although strains deleted in the genes encoding glutathione peroxidases or glutathione transferases did not show any growth defects. On the other hand, intracellular levels of reduced glutathione decreased in the presence of acetaldehyde in response to acetaldehyde concentration. Moreover, we show that glutathione can trap a maximum of four acetaldehyde molecules within its molecule in a non-enzymatic manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that glutathione has an important role in acetaldehyde tolerance, as a direct scavenger of acetaldehyde in the cell. PMID:22615054

  18. Evaluation of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as the chassis cell for second-generation bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxing; Wu, Meiling; Xu, Lili; Hou, Jin; Guo, Ting; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To develop a suitable Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strain as a chassis cell for ethanol production using lignocellulosic materials, 32 wild-type strains were evaluated for their glucose fermenting ability, their tolerance to the stresses they might encounter in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation and their genetic background for pentose metabolism. The strain BSIF, isolated from tropical fruit in Thailand, was selected out of the distinctly different strains studied for its promising characteristics. The maximal specific growth rate of BSIF was as high as 0.65?h?1 in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium, and the ethanol yield was 0.45?g?g?1 consumed glucose. Furthermore, compared with other strains, this strain exhibited superior tolerance to high temperature, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress; better growth performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysate; and better xylose utilization capacity when an initial xylose metabolic pathway was introduced. All of these results indicate that this strain is an excellent chassis strain for lignocellulosic ethanol production. PMID:25616171

  19. The respirative breakdown of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an assessment of a physiological state.

    PubMed

    Käppeli, O; Arreguin, M; Rieger, M

    1985-06-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibiting respirative glucose metabolism in continuous culture were able to use ethanol as a co-substrate. The ethanol uptake rate was dependent on the residual respirative capacity of the cells. The activities of gluconeogenic enzymes and of malate dehydrogenase were higher in cells degrading glucose respiratively than in cells metabolizing glucose respiro-fermentatively, but were lower than in cells growing on ethanol only. The pattern of distribution of the mitochondrial cytochromes was similar but the differences were less distinct. In synchronously growing cells, the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes and of malate dehydrogenase oscillated, with activities increasing during the budding phase. The increase was preceded by the appearance of ethanol in the culture medium. PMID:2995544

  20. Transporter engineering for improved tolerance against alkane biofuels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrocarbon alkanes, components of major fossil fuels, are considered as next-generation biofuels because their biological production has recently been shown to be possible. However, high-yield alkane production requires robust host cells that are tolerant against alkanes, which exhibit cytotoxicity. In this study, we aimed to improve alkane tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key industrial microbial host, by harnessing heterologous transporters that potentially pump out alkanes. Results To this end, we attempted to exploit ABC transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica based on the observation that it utilizes alkanes as a carbon source. We confirmed the increased transcription of ABC2 and ABC3 transporters upon exposure to a range of alkanes in Y. lipolytica. We then showed that the heterologous expression of ABC2 and ABC3 transporters significantly increased tolerance against decane and undecane in S. cerevisiae through maintaining lower intracellular alkane level. In particular, ABC2 transporter increased the tolerance limit of S. cerevisiae about 80-fold against decane. Furthermore, through site-directed mutagenesis for glutamate (E988 for ABC2, and E989 for ABC3) and histidine (H1020 for ABC2, and H1021 for ABC3), we provided the evidence that glutamate was essential for the activity of ABC2 and ABC3 transporters, with ATP most likely to be hydrolyzed by a catalytic carboxylate mechanism. Conclusions Here, we demonstrated that transporter engineering through expression of heterologous efflux pumps led to significantly improved tolerance against alkane biofuels in S. cerevisiae. We believe that our results laid the groundwork for developing robust alkane-producing yeast cells through transporter engineering, which will greatly aid in next-generation alkane biofuel production and recovery. PMID:23402697

  1. L-Carnosine Affects the Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Metabolism-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Stephanie P.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Hipkiss, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    The dipeptide L-carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been described as enigmatic: it inhibits growth of cancer cells but delays senescence in cultured human fibroblasts and extends the lifespan of male fruit flies. In an attempt to understand these observations, the effects of L-carnosine on the model eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were examined on account of its unique metabolic properties; S. cerevisiae can respire aerobically, but like some tumor cells, it can also exhibit a metabolism in which aerobic respiration is down regulated. L-Carnosine exhibited both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on yeast cells, dependent upon the carbon source in the growth medium. When yeast cells were not reliant on oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation (e.g. when grown on a fermentable carbon source such as 2% glucose), 10–30 mM L-carnosine slowed growth rates in a dose-dependent manner and increased cell death by up to 17%. In contrast, in media containing a non-fermentable carbon source in which yeast are dependent on aerobic respiration (e.g. 2% glycerol), L-carnosine did not provoke cell death. This latter observation was confirmed in the respiratory yeast, Pichia pastoris. Moreover, when deletion strains in the yeast nutrient-sensing pathway were treated with L-carnosine, the cells showed resistance to its inhibitory effects. These findings suggest that L-carnosine affects cells in a metabolism-dependent manner and provide a rationale for its effects on different cell types. PMID:22984600

  2. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea that wine making strains have been domesticated for wine production. In this study, we demonstrate that humans can distinguish between wines produced using wine strains and wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as its sibling species, Saccharomyces paradoxus. Wine strains produced wine with fruity and floral characteristics, whereas wild strains produced wine with earthy and sulfurous characteristics. The differences that we observe between wine and wild strains provides further evidence that wine strains have evolved phenotypes that are distinct from their wild ancestors and relevant to their use in wine production. PMID:22093681

  3. Rapid Identification and Enumeration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells in Wine by Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, P.; Querol, A.; Fernández-Espinar, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the beneficial role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the food industry for food and beverage production, it is able to cause spoilage in wines. We have developed a real-time PCR method to directly detect and quantify this yeast species in wine samples to provide winemakers with a rapid and sensitive method to detect and prevent wine spoilage. Specific primers were designed for S. cerevisiae using the sequence information obtained from a cloned random amplified polymorphic DNA band that differentiated S. cerevisiae from its sibling species Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. The specificity of the primers was demonstrated for typical wine spoilage yeast species. The method was useful for estimating the level of S.?cerevisiae directly in sweet wines and red wines without preenrichment when yeast is present in concentrations as low as 3.8 and 5 CFU per ml. This detection limit is in the same order as that obtained from glucose-peptone-yeast growth medium (GPY). Moreover, it was possible to quantify S. cerevisiae in artificially contaminated samples accurately. Limits for accurate quantification in wine were established, from 3.8 × 105 to 3.8 CFU/ml in sweet wine and from 5 × 106 to 50?CFU/ml in red wine. PMID:16269715

  4. Computational identification of non-coding RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, John P.; Eddy, Sean R.

    2003-01-01

    We screened for new structural non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the genome sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using computational comparative analysis of genome sequences from five related species of Saccharomyces. The screen identified 92 candidate ncRNA genes. Thirteen showed discrete transcripts when assayed by northern blot. Of these, eight appear to be novel ncRNAs ranging in size from 268 to 775 nt, including three new H/ACA box small nucleolar RNAs. PMID:12853629

  5. Relationship between cadmium sensitivity and degree of plasma membrane fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Howlett; S. V. Avery

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the redox-active metal copper has recently been found to be influenced by cellular fatty acid composition. This study\\u000a sought to investigate whether fatty acid composition affected plasma membrane permeabilisation and whole-cell toxicity induced\\u000a by the redox-inactive metal cadmium. S. cerevisiae NCYC 1383 was enriched with the polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleate (18:2) and linolenate (18:3)

  6. Alcoholic fermentation of carbon sources in biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae : current status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonius J. A. van Maris; Derek A. Abbott; Eleonora Bellissimi; Joost van den Brink; Marko Kuyper; Marijke A. H. Luttik; H. Wouter Wisselink; W. Alexander Scheffers; Johannes P. van Dijken; Jack T. Pronk

    2006-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production from plant biomass hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of great economic and environmental significance. This paper reviews the current status with respect to alcoholic fermentation of the main plant biomass-derived monosaccharides by this yeast. Wild-type S. cerevisiae strains readily ferment glucose, mannose and fructose via the Embden–Meyerhof pathway of glycolysis, while galactose is fermented via the Leloir

  7. Protein Kinase A, TOR, and Glucose Transport Control the Response to Nutrient Repletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew G. Slattery; Dritan Liko; Warren Heideman

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient repletion leads to substantial restructuring of the transcriptome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression levels of approximately one-third of all S. cerevisiae genes are altered at least twofold when a nutrient-depleted culture is transferred to fresh medium. Several nutrient-sensing pathways are known to play a role in this process, but the relative contribution that each pathway makes to the total

  8. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during industrial bioethanol fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing-Zhi Li; Jing-Sheng Cheng; Bin Qiao; Ying-Jin Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely applied in large-scale industrial bioethanol fermentation; however, little is known about the molecular responses\\u000a of industrial yeast during large-scale fermentation processes. We investigated the global transcriptional responses of an\\u000a industrial strain of S. cerevisiae during industrial continuous and fed-batch fermentation by oligonucleotide-based microarrays. About 28 and 62% of all genes\\u000a detected showed differential gene expression during

  9. Biogenesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mating Pheromone a-Factor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Sapperstein, Stephanie K.; Choi, Jonathan D.; Michaelis, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone a-factor is a prenylated and carboxyl methylated extracellular peptide signaling molecule. Biogenesis of the a-factor precursor proceeds via a distinctive multistep pathway that involves COOH-terminal modification, NH2-terminal proteolysis, and a nonclassical export mechanism. In this study, we examine the formation and fate of a-factor biosynthetic intermediates to more precisely define the events that occur during a-factor biogenesis. We have identified four distinct a-factor biosynthetic intermediates (P0, P1, P2, and M) by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and SDSPAGE. We determined the biochemical composition of each by defining their NH2-terminal amino acid and COOH-terminal modification status. Unexpectedly, we discovered that not one, but two NH2-terminal cleavage steps occur during the biogenesis of a-factor. In addition, we have shown that COOH-terminal prenylation is required for the NH2-terminal processing of a-factor and that all the prenylated a-factor intermediates (P1, P2, and M) are membrane bound, suggesting that many steps of a-factor biogenesis occur in association with membranes. We also observed that although the biogenesis of a-factor is a rapid process, it is inherently inefficient, perhaps reflecting the potential for regulation. Previous studies have identified gene products that participate in the COOH-terminal modification (Ram1p, Ram2p, Ste14p), NH2-terminal processing (Ste24p, Axl1p), and export (Ste6p) of a-factor. The intermediates defined in the present study are discussed in the context of these biogenesis components to formulate an overall model for the pathway of a-factor biogenesis. PMID:9015298

  10. Expression of Heteropolymeric Ferritin Improves Iron Storage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Ji-Hye; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Park, Seung-Moon; Jahng, Kwang-Yeup; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2003-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to express different amount of heavy (H)- and light (L)-chain subunits of human ferritin by using a low-copy integrative vector (YIp) and a high-copy episomal vector (YEp). In addition to pep4::HIS3 allele, the expression host strain was bred to have the selection markers leu2? and ura3? for YIplac128 and YEp352, respectively. The heterologous expression of phytase was used to determine the expression capability of the host strain. Expression in the new host strain (2805-a7) was as high as that in the parental strain (2805), which expresses high levels of several foreign genes. Following transformation, Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrated the expression of H- and L-chain genes. The recombinant yeast was more iron tolerant, in that transformed cells formed colonies on plates containing more than 25 mM ferric citrate, whereas none of the recipient strain cells did. Prussian blue staining indicated that the expressed isoferritins were assembled in vivo into a complex that bound iron. The expressed subunits showed a clear preference for the formation of heteropolymers over homopolymers. The molar ratio of H to L chains was estimated to be 1:6.8. The gel-purified heteropolymer took up iron faster than the L homopolymer, and it took up more iron than the H homopolymer did. The iron concentrations in transformants expressing the heteropolymer, L homopolymer, and H homopolymer were 1,004, 760, and 500 ?g per g (dry weight) of recombinant yeast cells, respectively. The results indicate that heterologously expressed H and L subunits coassemble into a heteropolymer in vivo and that the iron-carrying capacity of yeast is further enhanced by the expression of heteropolymeric isoferritin. PMID:12676675

  11. Studies of anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    den Hollander, J.A.; Ugurbil, K.; Brown, T.R.; Bednar, M.; Redfield, C.; Shulman, R.G.

    1986-01-14

    Glucose metabolism was followed in suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using 13C NMR and 14C radioactive labeling techniques and by Warburg manometer experiments. These experiments were performed for cells grown with various carbon sources in the growth medium, so as to evaluate the effect of catabolite repression. The rate of glucose utilization was most conveniently determined by the 13C NMR experiments, which measured the concentration of (1-13C)glucose, whereas the distribution of end products was determined from the 13C and the 14C experiments. By combining these measurements the flows into the various pathways that contribute to glucose catabolism were estimated, and the effect of oxygen upon glucose catabolism was evaluated. From these measurements, the Pasteur quotient (PQ) for glucose catabolism was calculated to be 2.95 for acetate-grown cells and 1.89 for cells grown on glucose into saturation. The Warburg experiments provided an independent estimate of glucose catabolism. The PQ estimated from Warburg experiments was 2.9 for acetate-grown cells in excellent agreement with the labeled carbon experiments and 4.6 for cells grown into saturation, which did not agree. Possible explanations of these differences are discussed. From these data an estimate is obtained of the net flow through the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The backward flow through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2-ase) was calculated from the scrambling of the 13C label of (1-13C)glucose into the C1 and C6 positions of trehalose. Combining these data allowed us to calculate the net flux through phosphofructokinase (PFK). For acetate-grown cells we found that the relative flow through PFK is a factor of 1.7 faster anaerobically than aerobically.

  12. MET17 and hydrogen sulfide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Spiropoulos, A; Bisson, L F

    2000-10-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H(2)S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H(2)S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H(2)S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H(2)S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H(2)S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H(2)S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H(2)S production and release. PMID:11010893

  13. MET17 and Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spiropoulos, Apostolos; Bisson, Linda F.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H2S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H2S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H2S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H2S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H2S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H2S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H2S production and release. PMID:11010893

  14. Molecular basis of cell integrity and morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Cid, V J; Durán, A; del Rey, F; Snyder, M P; Nombela, C; Sánchez, M

    1995-01-01

    In fungi and many other organisms, a thick outer cell wall is responsible for determining the shape of the cell and for maintaining its integrity. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a useful model organism for the study of cell wall synthesis, and over the past few decades, many aspects of the composition, structure, and enzymology of the cell wall have been elucidated. The cell wall of budding yeasts is a complex and dynamic structure; its arrangement alters as the cell grows, and its composition changes in response to different environmental conditions and at different times during the yeast life cycle. In the past few years, we have witnessed a profilic genetic and molecular characterization of some key aspects of cell wall polymer synthesis and hydrolysis in the budding yeast. Furthermore, this organism has been the target of numerous recent studies on the topic of morphogenesis, which have had an enormous impact on our understanding of the intracellular events that participate in directed cell wall synthesis. A number of components that direct polarized secretion, including those involved in assembly and organization of the actin cytoskeleton, secretory pathways, and a series of novel signal transduction systems and regulatory components have been identified. Analysis of these different components has suggested pathways by which polarized secretion is directed and controlled. Our aim is to offer an overall view of the current understanding of cell wall dynamics and of the complex network that controls polarized growth at particular stages of the budding yeast cell cycle and life cycle. PMID:7565410

  15. Mating-type Gene Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2015-04-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two alternative mating types designated MATa and MAT?. These are distinguished by about 700 bp of unique sequences, Ya or Y?, including divergent promoter sequences and part of the open reading frames of genes that regulate mating phenotype. Homothallic budding yeast, carrying an active HO endonuclease gene, HO, can switch mating type through a recombination process known as gene conversion, in which a site-specific double-strand break (DSB) created immediately adjacent to the Y region results in replacement of the Y sequences with a copy of the opposite mating type information, which is harbored in one of two heterochromatic donor loci, HML? or HMRa. HO gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that only half of the cells in a lineage switch to the opposite MAT allele, thus promoting conjugation and diploid formation. Study of the silencing of these loci has provided a great deal of information about the role of the Sir2 histone deacetylase and its associated Sir3 and Sir4 proteins in creating heterochromatic regions. MAT switching has been examined in great detail to learn about the steps in homologous recombination. MAT switching is remarkably directional, with MATa recombining preferentially with HML? and MAT? using HMRa. Donor preference is controlled by a cis-acting recombination enhancer located near HML. RE is turned off in MAT? cells but in MATa binds multiple copies of the Fkh1 transcription factor whose forkhead-associated phosphothreonine binding domain localizes at the DSB, bringing HML into conjunction with MATa. PMID:26104712

  16. Membrane stress caused by octanoic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Chernyshov, Andriy; Najdi, Tarek; Fu, Yao; Dickerson, Julie; Sandmeyer, Suzanne; Jarboe, Laura

    2013-04-01

    In order to compete with petroleum-based fuel and chemicals, engineering a robust biocatalyst that can convert renewable feedstocks into biorenewable chemicals, such as carboxylic acids, is increasingly important. However, product toxicity is often problematic. In this study, the toxicity of the carboxylic acids hexanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acid on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated, with a focus on octanoic acid. These compounds are completely inhibitory at concentrations of magnitude 1 mM, and the toxicity increases as chain length increases and as media pH decreases. Transciptome analysis, reconstruction of gene regulatory network, and network component analysis suggested decreased membrane integrity during challenge with octanoic acid. This was confirmed by quantification of dose-dependent and chain length-dependent induction of membrane leakage, though membrane fluidity was not affected. This induction of membrane leakage could be significantly decreased by a period of pre-adaptation, and this pre-adaptation was accompanied by increased oleic acid content in the membrane, significantly increased production of saturated lipids relative to unsaturated lipids, and a significant increase in the average lipid chain length in the membrane. However, during adaptation cell surface hydrophobicity was not altered. The supplementation of oleic acid to the medium not only elevated the tolerance of yeast cells to octanoic acid but also attenuated the membrane leakiness. However, while attempts to mimic the oleic acid supplementation effects through expression of the Trichoplusia ni acyl-CoA ?9 desaturase OLE1(TniNPVE desaturase) were able to increase the oleic acid content, the magnitude of the increase was not sufficient to reproduce the supplementation effect and increase octanoic acid tolerance. Similarly, introduction of cyclopropanated fatty acids through expression of the Escherichia coli cfa gene was not helpful for tolerance. Thus, we have provided quantitative evidence that carboxylic acids damage the yeast membrane and that manipulation of the lipid content of the membrane can increase tolerance, and possibly production, of these valuable products. PMID:23435986

  17. Mutagenic effect of freezing on nuclear DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todorova, T; Pesheva, M; Stamenova, R; Dimitrov, M; Venkov, P

    2012-05-01

    Although fragmentation of DNA has been observed in cells undergoing freezing procedures, a mutagenic effect of sub-zero temperature treatment has not been proved by induction and isolation of mutants in nuclear DNA (nDNA). In this communication we supply evidence for mutagenicity of freezing on nDNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In the absence of cryoprotectors, cooling for 2 h at +4°C and freezing for 1 h at -10°C and 16 h at -20°C, with a cooling rate of 3°C/min, resulted in induction of frame-shift and reverse mutations in microsatellite and coding regions of nDNA. The sub-zero temperature exposure also has a strong recombinogenic effect, evidenced by induction of gene-conversion and crossing-over events. Freezing induces mutations and enhances recombination with a frequency equal to or higher than that of methylmethanesulphonate at comparable survival rates. The signals for the appearance of nDNA lesions induced by freezing are detected and transduced by the DNA damage pathway. Extracellular cryoprotectors did not prevent the mutagenic effect of freezing, while accumulation of trehalose inside cells reduced nDNA cryodamage. Freezing of cells is accompanied by generation of high ROS levels, and the oxidative stress raised during the freeze-thaw process is the most likely reason for the DNA damaging effect. Experiments with mitochondrial rho? mutants or scavengers of ROS indicated that mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of sub-zero temperatures can be decreased but not eliminated by reduction of ROS level. The complete protection against cryodamage in nDNA required simultaneous usage of intracellular cryoprotector and ROS scavenger during the freeze-thaw process. PMID:22576810

  18. Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Irfan; Bialka, Katherine L; Demirci, Ali; Karhan, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method. The obtained extract was utilized for production of ethanol by using suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The effect of various fermentation parameters such as pH, media content and inoculum size were evaluated for ethanol fermentation in carob extract. Also, in order to determine economically appropriate nitrogen sources, four different nitrogen sources were evaluated. The optimum extraction condition for carob extract was determined to be 80 degrees C, 2h in 1:4 dilution rate (fruit: water ratio) according to the result of response surface analysis (115.3g/L). When the fermentation with pH at 5.5 was applied, the final ethanol concentration and production rates were 42.6g/L and 3.37 g/L/h, respectively, which were higher than using an uncontrolled pH. Among inoculum sizes of 1%, 3%, and 5%, 3% was determined as the best inoculum size. The maximum production rate and final ethanol concentration were 3.48 g/L/h and 44.51%, respectively, with an alternative nitrogen source of meat-bone meal. Overall, this study suggested that carob extract can be utilized for production of ethanol in order to meet the demands of renewable energy. PMID:20189805

  19. Engineering and Analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain That Uses Formaldehyde as an Auxiliary Substrate?

    PubMed Central

    Baerends, Richard J. S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments showed that the engineered strain coutilized formaldehyde with glucose, but these mixed-substrate cultures failed to reach steady-state conditions and did not exhibit an increased biomass yield on glucose. Subsequent transcriptome analyses of chemostat cultures of the engineered strain, grown on glucose-formaldehyde mixtures, indicated that the presence of formaldehyde in the feed caused biotin limitations. Further transcriptome analysis demonstrated that this biotin inactivation was prevented by using separate formaldehyde and vitamin feeds. Using this approach, steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures were obtained that coutilized glucose and formaldehyde. Coutilization of formaldehyde under these conditions resulted in an enhanced biomass yield of the glucose-limited cultures. The biomass yield was quantitatively consistent with the use of formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate that generates NADH and subsequently, via oxidative phosphorylation, ATP. On an electron pair basis, the biomass yield increase observed with formaldehyde was larger than that observed previously for formate, which is tentatively explained by different modes of formate and formaldehyde transport in S. cerevisiae. PMID:18378663

  20. Production of fructanase by a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on tequila agave fructan.

    PubMed

    Corona-González, R I; Pelayo-Ortiz, C; Jacques, G; Guatemala, G; Arriola, E; Arias, J A; Toriz, G

    2015-01-01

    A new wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CF3) isolated from tequila must was evaluated for production of fructanase on Agave tequilana Weber fructan (FT). Fructanase activity (F) was assessed by a 3(3) factorial design (substrate, temperature and pH). High enzymatic activity (31.1 U/ml) was found at 30 °C, pH 5, using FT (10 g/l) as substrate. The effect of initial substrate concentration on F (FT0, 5.7-66 g/l) was studied and it was found that F was highest (44.8 U/ml) at FT0 25 g/l. A 2(2) factorial experimental design with five central points was utilized to study the effect of stirring and aeration on fructanase activity; stirring exhibited a stronger effect on F. The ratio fructanase to invertase (F/S) was 0.57, which confirms that the enzymes are fructanase. Crude fructanase reached high substrate hydrolysis (48 wt%) in 10 h. It is shown that S. cerevisiae CF3 was able to produce large amounts of fructanase by growing it on fructan from A. tequilana. PMID:25432071

  1. Intron mutations affect splicing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUP53 precursor tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, M C; Abelson, J

    1986-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amber suppressor tRNA gene SUP53 (a tRNALeu3 allele) was used to investigate the role of intron structure and sequence on precursor tRNA splicing in vivo and in vitro. This gene encodes a pre-tRNA which contains a 32-base intervening sequence. Two types of SUP53 intron mutants were constructed: ones with an internal deletion of the natural SUP53 intron and ones with a novel intron. These mutant genes were transcribed in vitro, and the end-processed transcripts were analyzed for their ability to serve as substrates for the partially purified S. cerevisiae tRNA endonuclease and ligase. The in vitro phenotype of these mutant RNAs was correlated with the in vivo suppressor tRNA function of these SUP53 alleles after integration of the genes into the yeast genome. Analysis of these mutant pre-tRNAs, which exhibited no perturbation of the mature domain, clearly showed that intron structure and sequence can have profound effects on pre-tRNA splicing. All of the mutant RNAs, which were inefficiently spliced or unspliced, evidenced cleavage only at the 5' splice junction. Base changes in the intron proximal to the 3' splice junction could partially rescue the splicing defect. The implications of these data for tRNA endonuclease-substrate interactions are discussed. Images PMID:3537725

  2. Mutator Activity of Petite Strains of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    PubMed Central

    Flury, Fred; von Borstel, R. C.; Williamson, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Petite strains in Saccharomyces exhibit enhanced spontaneous mutation rates of nuclear genes regardless of whether they are cytoplasmically or nuclearly inherited, or whether or not the cytoplasmic petite strains have mitochondrial DNA. In petite strains, the mutation rate for the nonsense allele lys1-1 is enhanced by a factor of 3-6 and for the missense allele his1-7 by a factor of 2 as compared with their grande counterparts. The reversion of a third allele, the putative frameshift mutation, hom3-10 , is not enhanced in a petite background. The results indicate that the spontaneous mutation rate of an organism can be altered by indirect intracellular influences. PMID:786779

  3. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    PubMed

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. PMID:25886016

  4. Characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with enhanced production of beta-D-fructofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    ul-Haq, Ikram; Ali, Sikander; Aslam, Aafia; Qadeer, M A

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on the improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through random mutagenesis for enhanced production of beta-D-fructofuranosidase (FFase) using sucrose salt media. Sixty strains of S. cerevisiae were isolated from different fruits and soil samples and screened for FFase production. Enzyme productivity of different yeast isolates ranged from 0.03 to 1.10 U/ml. The isolate with the highest activity was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and mutagenesis using N-methyl N-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG). One mutant produced FFase at a level of 17.8+/-0.9 U/ml. The MNNG-treated isolate was exposed to ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), and a mutant with an enzyme activity of 25.56+/-1.4 U/ml was obtained. Further exposure to UV radiation and chemicals yielded a mutant exhibiting an activity of 34.12+/-1.8 U/ml. After optimization of incubation time (48 h), sucrose concentration (5.0 g/L), initial pH (6.0) and inoculum size (2.0% v/v), enzyme production reached 45.65+/-4.6 U/ml with a noticeable greater than 40-fold increase compared to the wild-type culture. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Q(p) (0.723+/-0.2U/g/h), Y(p/s) (2.036+/-0.05 U/g) and q(p) (0.091+/-0.02 U/g yeast cells/h), the mutant S. cerevisiae UME-2 was found to be a hyperproducer of FFase (LSD 0.054, p0.05). PMID:17321738

  5. De novo production of the flavonoid naringenin in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flavonoids comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolic intermediates that exhibit a wide variety of antioxidant and human health-related properties. Plant production of flavonoids is limited by the low productivity and the complexity of the recovered flavonoids. Thus to overcome these limitations, metabolic engineering of specific pathway in microbial systems have been envisaged to produce high quantity of a single molecules. Result Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce the key intermediate flavonoid, naringenin, solely from glucose. For this, specific naringenin biosynthesis genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were selected by comparative expression profiling and introduced in S. cerevisiae. The sole expression of these A. thaliana genes yielded low extracellular naringenin concentrations (<5.5 ?M). To optimize naringenin titers, a yeast chassis strain was developed. Synthesis of aromatic amino acids was deregulated by alleviating feedback inhibition of 3-deoxy-d-arabinose-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (Aro3, Aro4) and byproduct formation was reduced by eliminating phenylpyruvate decarboxylase (Aro10, Pdc5, Pdc6). Together with an increased copy number of the chalcone synthase gene and expression of a heterologous tyrosine ammonia lyase, these modifications resulted in a 40-fold increase of extracellular naringenin titers (to approximately 200 ?M) in glucose-grown shake-flask cultures. In aerated, pH controlled batch reactors, extracellular naringenin concentrations of over 400 ?M were reached. Conclusion The results reported in this study demonstrate that S. cerevisiae is capable of de novo production of naringenin by coexpressing the naringenin production genes from A. thaliana and optimization of the flux towards the naringenin pathway. The engineered yeast naringenin production host provides a metabolic chassis for production of a wide range of flavonoids and exploration of their biological functions. PMID:23216753

  6. Nanoscale Effects of Caspofungin against Two Yeast Species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Formosa, C.; Schiavone, M.; Martin-Yken, H.; François, J. M.; Duval, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans are model yeasts for biotechnology and human health, respectively. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the effects of caspofungin, an antifungal drug used in hospitals, on these two species. Our nanoscale investigation revealed similar, but also different, behaviors of the two yeasts in response to treatment with the drug. While administration of caspofungin induced deep cell wall remodeling in both yeast species, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in chitin and decrease in ?-glucan content, changes in cell wall composition were more pronounced with C. albicans cells. Notably, the increase of chitin was proportional to the increase in the caspofungin dose. In addition, the Young modulus of the cell was three times lower for C. albicans cells than for S. cerevisiae cells and increased proportionally with the increase of chitin, suggesting differences in the molecular organization of the cell wall between the two yeast species. Also, at a low dose of caspofungin (i.e., 0.5× MIC), the cell surface of C. albicans exhibited a morphology that was reminiscent of cells expressing adhesion proteins. Interestingly, this morphology was lost at high doses of the drug (i.e., 4× MIC). However, the treatment of S. cerevisiae cells with high doses of caspofungin resulted in impairment of cytokinesis. Altogether, the use of AFM for investigating the effects of antifungal drugs is relevant in nanomedicine, as it should help in understanding their mechanisms of action on fungal cells, as well as unraveling unexpected effects on cell division and fungal adhesion. PMID:23669379

  7. NDT80, a meiosis-specific gene required for exit from pachytene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liuzhong; Ajimura, M.; Padmore, R.; Klein, C.; Kleckner, N. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the identification of a new meiosis-specific gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae called NDT80. DNA cloning and molecular analysis revealed that the NDT80 gene maps on the right arm of chromosome 8 and is transcribed during middle meiotic prophase. 82 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Desferrioxamine-mediated Iron Uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae EVIDENCE FOR TWO PATHWAYS OF IRON UPTAKE*

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    Medical Institute, Stanford, California 94305-5428 In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, uptake of iron. Deletion of ARN3 did not prevent yeast from using ferrioxamine B as an iron source; however, deletion microbes to man have developed mechanisms for obtain- ing iron from the environment. The budding yeast

  9. Analysis of the morphologic changes of Monascus sp. J101 cells cocultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Hae Suh; Chul Soo Shin

    2000-01-01

    Changes in cell life cycle and intracellular structure of Monascus sp. J101 by coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Cocultured Monascus cells showed accelerated cell growth and reproduction. Production of asexual and sexual spores was used as an efficient method of cell proliferation. Formation of meiotic (sexual) spores was more frequently observed in the cocultured Monascus cells. The interior structure

  10. Growth-rate regulated genes have profound impact on interpretation of transcriptome profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgitte Regenberg; Thomas Grotkjær; Ole Winther; Anders Fausbøll; Mats Åkesson; Christoffer Bro; Lars Kai Hansen; Søren Brunak; Jens Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growth rate is central to the development of cells in all organisms. However, little is known about the impact of changing growth rates. We used continuous cultures to control growth rate and studied the transcriptional program of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with generation times varying between 2 and 35 hours. RESULTS: A total of 5930 transcripts were identified

  11. In silico aided metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoffer Bro; Birgitte Regenberg; Jochen Förster; Jens Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    In silico genome-scale cell models are promising tools for accelerating the design of cells with improved and desired properties. We demonstrated this by using a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to score a number of strategies for metabolic engineering of the redox metabolism that will lead to decreased glycerol and increased ethanol yields on glucose under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Biochemistry, cell biology and molecular biology of lipids ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunther Daum; Norman D. Lees; Martin Bard; Robert Dickson

    1998-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful experimental system to study biochemical, cell biological and molecular biological aspects of lipid synthesis. Most but not all genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid, phospholipid, sterol or sphingolipid biosynthesis of this unicellular eukaryote have been cloned, and many gene products have been functionally characterized. Less information is available about genes and gene

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae– Oenococcus oeni interactions in wine: current knowledge and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Alexandre; Peter J. Costello; Fabienne Remize; Jean Guzzo; Michéle Guilloux-Benatier

    2004-01-01

    Winemaking can be summarized as the biotransformation of must into wine, which is performed principally by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the primary or alcoholic fermentation. A secondary fermentation, the so-called malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a biodeacidification that is often encouraged, since it improves wine stability and quality. Malolactic fermentation usually occurs either spontaneously or after inoculation with selected bacteria after

  14. The YEASTRACT database: a tool for the analysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel C. Teixeira; Pedro T. Monteiro; Pooja Jain; Sandra Tenreiro; Alexandra R. Fernandes; Nuno P. Mira; Marta Alenquer; Ana T. Freitas; Arlindo L. Oliveira; Isabel Sá-correia

    2006-01-01

    We present the YEAst Search for Transcriptional Regulators And Consensus Tracking (YEASTRACT; www.yeastract.com) database, a tool for the ana- lysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This database is a repos- itory of 12 346 regulatory associations between tran- scription factors and target genes, based on experimental evidence which was spread throughout 861 bibliographic references. It also includes 257

  15. Replication and transcription of human papillomavirus type 58 genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Xiao Wang; Juan Liu; Hong Wang; Xiao-Li Zhang; Wei Tang; Yun-Dong Sun; Xin Wang; Xiu-Ping Yu; Wei-Ming Zhao

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To establish a convenient system for the study of human papillomavirus (HPV), we inserted a Saccharomyces cerevisiae selectable marker, Ura, into HPV58 genome and transformed it into yeast. RESULTS: HPV58 genome could replicate extrachromosomally in yeast, with transcription of its early and late genes. However, with mutation of the viral E2 gene, HPV58 genome lost its mitotic stability, and

  16. Variability of the response ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae strains to lignocellulose hydrolysate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Modig; João R. M. Almeida; Marie F. Gorwa-Grauslund; Gunnar Lidén

    2008-01-01

    The development of tolerant microorganisms is needed for the efficient fermentation of inhibitory ligno- cellulose hydrolysates. In the current work, the fermenta- tion performance of six selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in dilute-acid spruce hydrolysate was compared using two different modes of fermentation; either single pulse addition of hydrolysate to exponentially growing cells or continuous feeding of the same amount

  17. Kinetics studies on ethanol production from banana peel waste using mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Manikandan; V Saravanan; T Viruthagiri

    Five different mutant strains were developed from the wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC No.287) using UV irradiation technique by varying the exposure timings. All the mutant cultures were used for ethanol production using banana peel as a substrate in a batch fermenter. The effect of temperature, pH and initial substrate concentration on ethanol production were studied and optimized. The

  18. Transmission and recombination of mitochondrial genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after protoplast fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Marfiz; Július Šubík

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae of opposite and identical mating types carrying different mitochondrial drug-resistance markers, with both homosexual and heterosexual mitochondrial backgrounds, were induced to fuse by polyethylene glycol. After selective regeneration of prototrophic fusion products, the transmission and recombination frequencies of mitochondrial genes in populations of cells were determined and compared with those obtained in mating

  19. Metabolic engineering of a xylose-isomerase-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for rapid anaerobic xylose fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marko Kuyper; Miranda M. P. Hartog; Maurice J. Toirkens; Marinka J. H. Almering; Aaron A. Winkler; Johannes P. van Dijken; Jack T. Pronk

    2005-01-01

    After an extensive selection procedure, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that express the xylose isomerase gene from the fungus Piromyces sp. E2 can grow anaerobically on xylose with a ?max of 0.03 h?1. In order to investigate whether reactions downstream of the isomerase control the rate of xylose consumption, we overexpressed structural genes for all enzymes involved in the conversion of xylulose

  20. Optimization of Ethanol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Metabolic Engineering of the Ammonium Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torben L. Nissen; Morten C. Kielland-Brandt; Jens Nielsen; John Villadsen

    2000-01-01

    Ethanol is still one of the most important products originating from the biotechnological industry with respect to both value and amount. In addition to ethanol, a number of byproducts are formed during an anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the most important of these compounds, glycerol, is produced by yeast to reoxidize NADH, formed in synthesis of biomass and

  1. A mathematical model of the mating signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ivan Milac

    1998-09-14

    Outline of two major goals in my proposal for this fellowship. First goal having no previous training in biology, was to become knowledgeable of the paradigms, experimental techniques, and current research interests of molecular biology. Second goal was to construct a mathematical model of the mating signal transduction pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  2. The wheat LEA protein Em functions as an osmoprotective molecule in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ginger A. Swire-Clark; William R. Marcotte

    1999-01-01

    The biased amino acid composition and aperiodic (random coil) configuration of Group 1 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins imply that these proteins are capable of binding large amounts of water. While Group 1 LEAs have been predicted to contribute to osmotic stress protection in both embryonic and vegetative tissues, biochemical support has been lacking. We have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a

  3. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing in starch and biomass conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of starch or biomass to biofuel is a two-stage process involving enzymatic treatment, followed by yeast fermentation. An alternative route would be to consolidate the process by engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of both saccharification and fermentation. An approach was d...

  4. Reconstruction and logical modeling of glucose repression signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias S Christensen; Ana Paula Oliveira; Jens Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the presence of high levels of glucose leads to an array of down-regulatory effects known as glucose repression. This process is complex due to the presence of feedback loops and crosstalk between different pathways, complicating the use of intuitive approaches to analyze the system. RESULTS: We established a logical model of yeast glucose repression,

  5. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 20. Evolution of gene redundancy compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Llorente; Pascal Durrens; Alain Malpertuy; Michel Aigle; François Artiguenave; Gaëlle Blandin; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Philippe Brottier; Serge Casaregola; Bernard Dujon; Jacky de Montigny; Andrée Lépingle; Cécile Neuvéglise; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Serge Potier; William Saurin; Fredj Tekaia; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Patrick Wincker; Jean Weissenbach; Jean-Luc Souciet; Claude Gaillardin

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the degree of gene redundancy in the nuclear genomes of 13 hemiascomycetous yeast species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae singletons and gene families appear generally conserved in these species as singletons and families of similar size, respectively. Variations of the number of homologues with respect to that expected affect from 7 to less than 24% of each genome. Since S.

  6. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 4. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaëlle Blandin; Pascal Durrens; Fredj Tekaia; Michel Aigle; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Serge Casarégola; Jacky de Montigny; Claude Gaillardin; Andrée Lépingle; Bertrand Llorente; Alain Malpertuy; Cécile Neuvéglise; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Arnaud Perrin; Serge Potier; Jean-Luc Souciet; Emmanuel Talla; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Christian Marck; Bernard Dujon

    2000-01-01

    Since its completion more than 4 years ago, the sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used and studied. The original sequence has received a few corrections, and the identification of genes has been completed, thanks in particular to transcriptome analyses and to specialized studies on introns, tRNA genes, transposons or multigene families. In order to undertake the extensive comparative

  7. Heat Shock Protein Genes and Newly Integrated Glucose Metabolic Pathways Promote Ethanol Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion provides a promising alternative means for production of sustainable and cleaner transportation fuels. Development of stress tolerant ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for low-cost biobased economy. Tolerance to high levels of ethanol has been...

  8. Polluted water concentrates: Induction of genetic alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moretton; P. Baró; A. Zelazny; M. D'Aquino

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors showed that samples of raw water obtained from the Riachuelo (a heavily polluted watercourse) induced genetic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In those tests the raw water samples were assayed within 24 hr and only the mutagenic activity of the non-volatile, water soluble constituents could be detected. The detection and quantitation of genetic

  9. Thiamin biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Origin of carbon-2 of the thiazole moiety.

    PubMed Central

    White, R L; Spenser, I D

    1979-01-01

    Radioactivity from [2-14C]glycine enters C-2 of the thiazole moiety of thiamin and no other site, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strains A.T.C.C. 24903 and 39916, H.J. Bunker). Radioactivity from L-[Me-14C]methionine or from DL-[2-14C]tyrosine does not enter thiamin. PMID:384994

  10. Aminopeptidase I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is localized to the vacuole independent of the secretory pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Klionsky; Rosario Cueva; Debbie S. Yaver

    1992-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae APE1 gene product, aminopeptidase I (API), is a soluble hydro- lase that has been shown to be localized to the vac- uole. API lacks a standard signal sequence and con- tains an unusual amino-terminal propeptide. We have examined the biosynthesis of API in order to elucidate the mechanism of its delivery to the vacuole. API is synthesized

  11. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  12. Effects of immobilization on growth, fermentation properties, and macromolecular composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae attached to gelatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline M. Doran; James E. Bailey

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on crosslinked gelatin were found to be substantially different from those of the suspended yeast. Batch fermentation experiments conducted in a gradientless reaction system allowed comparison of immobilized cell and suspended cell performance. The specific rate of ethanol production by the immobilized cells was 40-50% greater than for the suspended yeast. The immobilized

  13. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Jardine; Julian Gough; Cyrus Chothia; Sarah A. Teichmann

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the small molecule metabolism pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one half and two thirds of the gene products of small molecule metabolism in E. coli and yeast, respectively.

  14. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION BY SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE EXPRESSING A RHIZOPUS ORYZAE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal LDH expressed in yeast. A L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adhl promoter and terminator, then placed in a 2 micron contai...

  15. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14oc-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. n open reading fram of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. hen this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain requires e...

  16. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have sequenced the structural gene and flanking regions for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An open reading frame of 530 codons encodes a 60.7-kDa protein. When this gene is disrupted by integrative transformation, the resulting strain req...

  17. Effect of yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on ruminal fermentation during adaptation to high-concentrate feeding

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effect of yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on ruminal fermentation during adaptation in the fermentation pathway, and can accumulate rapidly (Mackie and Gilchrist, 1979, Appl Environ Microbiol, 38, 422 (SC), on the stabilization of ruminal fermentation. The objective of this study was to provide

  18. Nuclear accumulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm3 is dependent on its nuclear localization sequence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Young; Katsunori Suzuki; Hong Yan; Susan Gibson; Bik K. Tye

    1997-01-01

    Background: The proteins of the Mcm2-7 family are required for the initiation of DNA replication. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the nuclear envelope does not break down during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Large nuclear proteins, such as the Mcm proteins, which accumulate in the nucleus during specific portions of the cell cycle, must have regulated mechanisms to direct their

  19. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  20. Phosphate uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hansen wild type and phenotypes exposed to space flight irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, D; Volz, P A

    1979-01-01

    Rates of phosphate uptake were approximately twice as great for Saccharomyces cerevisiae single-cell phenotypic isolates exposed to space parameters as for the wild-type ground control. Quantitative determination of 32P was performed by liquid scintillation spectrometry utilizing Cerenkov radiation counting techniques. PMID:395899

  1. Isolation And Evaluation Of Thermotolerant Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae For Aguardiente And Rum Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marcet; W. Olivera; C. Martín; J. Neel

    Thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from the residual yeast resulting from industrial fermentations subjected to thermal stress. The isolated strains were purified and characterised morphologically and biochemically. The thermal tolerance of one of the selected strains was e valuated in laboratory-scale batch fermentations at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C. The high ethanol yield (0.41 g g -1)

  2. AISLAMIENTO Y EVALUACIÓN DE CEPAS TERMOTOLERANTES DE Saccharomyces cerevisiae PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AGUARDIENTES Y RONES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marcet; W. Olivera; C. Martín; TECNOLOGÍA TECNOLOGÍA

    2008-01-01

    Thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from the residual yeast resulting from industrial fermentations subjected to thermal stress. The isolated strains were purified and characterised morphologically and biochemically. The thermal tolerance of one of the selected strains was evaluated in laboratory-scale batch fermentations at temperatures between 30 and 45 °C. The high ethanol yield (0.41 g g -1 )

  3. Effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Culture on Nutrient Digestion in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Doreau; J. P. Jouany

    1998-01-01

    The digestive effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture were investigated. Four cows in early lacta- tion that were fitted with ruminal and duodenal can- nulas were used in a crossover design. The diet, which consisted of 60% corn silage and 40% concentrates, was supplemented or not supplemented with a daily dose of 50 g of premix containing 0.5 g of

  4. Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiko Arikawa; Tomoko Kuroyanagi; Makoto Shimosaka; Haruhiro Muratsubaki; Keiichiro Enomoto; Ritsuko Kodaira; Mitsuo Okazaki

    1999-01-01

    Succinate is the main taste component produced by yeasts during sake (Japanese rice wine) fermentation. The pathway leading to accumulation of succinate was examined in liquid culture in the presence of a high concentration (15%) of glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using a series of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which various genes that encode the expression of enzymes required

  5. Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria from Proteolytic

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    Dissociation of Import of the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria into the matrix space of mitochondria by inhibiting a step other than proteolysis of the presequence. The Rieske. The iron-sulfur protein is then post-translationally imported into the mitochondria where it is inserted

  6. Minear, S., et al Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1

    E-print Network

    Stearns, Tim

    Minear, S., et al 1 Curcumin inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1 through iron chelation2 3 of print on 9 September 2011 #12;Minear, S., et al 2 Abstract (limit 250 words)46 47 Curcumin, a polyphenol of ailments. Interest in curcumin has49 increased recently, with on-going clinical trials exploring curcumin

  7. Chromosomal integration of recombinant alpha-amylase and glucoamylase genes in saccharomyces cerevisiae for starch conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant constructs of barley '-amylase and Lentinula edodes glucoamylase genes were integrated into the chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The insertion was confirmed by PCR amplification of the gene sequence in the chromosomes. The expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE of the enzymes puri...

  8. HOCl-mediated cell death and metabolic dysfunction in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A King; Diane M Hannum; Jian-Shen Qi; James K Hurst

    2004-01-01

    The nature of oxidative damage to Saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by levels of HOCl that inhibit cell replication was explored with the intent of identifying the loci of lethal lesions. Functions of cytosolic enzymes and organelles that are highly sensitive to inactivation by HOCl, including aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the mitochondrion, were only marginally affected by exposure of the yeast

  9. Functional genomic analysis of a commercial wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under differing nitrogen conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leilah E. Backhus; Joseph DeRisi; Patrick O. Brown; Linda F. Bisson

    2001-01-01

    DNA microarray analysis was used to profile gene expression in a commercial isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a synthetic grape juice medium under conditions mimicking a natural environment for yeast: High-sugar and variable nitrogen conditions. The high nitrogen condition displayed elevated levels of expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of macromolecular precursors across the time course as compared to

  10. High vanillin tolerance of an evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain owing to its enhanced vanillin reduction and antioxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Li, Hongxing; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Xiaoran; Hou, Jin; Wang, Linfeng; Gao, Nan; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compounds present in hydrolysates pose significant challenges for the sustainable lignocellulosic materials refining industry. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high tolerance to lignocellulose hydrolysate were obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate mutation and adaptive evolution. Among them, strain EMV-8 exhibits specific tolerance to vanillin, a phenolic compound common in lignocellulose hydrolysate. The EMV-8 maintains a specific growth rate of 0.104 h(-1) in 2 g L(-1) vanillin, whereas the reference strain cannot grow. Physiological studies revealed that the vanillin reduction rate of EMV-8 is 1.92-fold higher than its parent strain, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of EMV-8 is 15 % higher than its parent strain. Transcriptional analysis results confirmed an up-regulated oxidoreductase activity and antioxidant activity in this strain. Our results suggest that enhancing the antioxidant capacity and oxidoreductase activity could be a strategy to engineer S. cerevisiae for improved vanillin tolerance. PMID:25261986

  11. Glucose induces rapid changes in the secretome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein secretion is a fundamental process in all living cells. Proteins can either be secreted via the classical or non-classical pathways. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gluconeogenic enzymes are in the extracellular fraction/periplasm when cells are grown in media containing low glucose. Following a transfer of cells to high glucose media, their levels in the extracellular fraction are reduced rapidly. We hypothesized that changes in the secretome were not restricted to gluconeogenic enzymes. The goal of the current study was to use a proteomic approach to identify extracellular proteins whose levels changed when cells were transferred from low to high glucose media. Results We performed two iTRAQ experiments and identified 347 proteins that were present in the extracellular fraction including metabolic enzymes, proteins involved in oxidative stress, protein folding, and proteins with unknown functions. Most of these proteins did not contain typical ER-Golgi signal sequences. Moreover, levels of many of these proteins decreased upon a transfer of cells from media containing low to high glucose media. Using an extraction procedure and Western blotting, we confirmed that the metabolic enzymes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase), proteins involved in oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin), and heat shock proteins (Ssa1p, Hsc82p, and Hsp104p) were in the extracellular fraction during growth in low glucose and that the levels of these extracellular proteins were reduced when cells were transferred to media containing high glucose. These proteins were associated with membranes in vesicle-enriched fraction. We also showed that small vesicles were present in the extracellular fraction in cells grown in low glucose. Following a transfer from low to high glucose media for 30 minutes, 98% of these vesicles disappeared from the extracellular fraction. Conclusions Our data indicate that transferring cells from low to high glucose media induces a rapid decline in levels of a large number of extracellular proteins and the disappearance of small vesicles from the extracellular fraction. Therefore, we conclude that the secretome undergoes dynamic changes during transition from glucose-deficient to glucose-rich media. Most of these extracellular proteins do not contain typical ER signal sequences, suggesting that they are secreted via the non-classical pathway. PMID:24520859

  12. Contribution of Horizontal Gene Transfer to the Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Charles; Brachat, Sophie; Dietrich, Fred S.

    2005-01-01

    The genomes of the hemiascomycetes Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Ashbya gossypii have been completely sequenced, allowing a comparative analysis of these two genomes, which reveals that a small number of genes appear to have entered these genomes as a result of horizontal gene transfer from bacterial sources. One potential case of horizontal gene transfer in A. gossypii and 10 potential cases in S. cerevisiae were identified, of which two were investigated further. One gene, encoding the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD), is potentially a case of horizontal gene transfer, as shown by sequencing of this gene from additional bacterial and fungal species to generate sufficient data to construct a well-supported phylogeny. The DHOD-encoding gene found in S. cerevisiae, URA1 (YKL216W), appears to have entered the Saccharomycetaceae after the divergence of the S. cerevisiae lineage from the Candida albicans lineage and possibly since the divergence from the A. gossypii lineage. This gene appears to have come from the Lactobacillales, and following its acquisition the endogenous eukaryotic DHOD gene was lost. It was also shown that the bacterially derived horizontally transferred DHOD is required for anaerobic synthesis of uracil in S. cerevisiae. The other gene discussed in detail is BDS1, an aryl- and alkyl-sulfatase gene of bacterial origin that we have shown allows utilization of sulfate from several organic sources. Among the eukaryotes, this gene is found in S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and appears to derive from the alpha-proteobacteria. PMID:15947202

  13. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Sônia C.; Santos, Regineide X.; Melgaço, Ana C.; Pereira, Alanna C. F.; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2? mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p) in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet–C (UVC) radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2? mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE)-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2? mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT) level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae. PMID:26039235

  14. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene.

    PubMed

    Melo, Sônia C; Santos, Regineide X; Melgaço, Ana C; Pereira, Alanna C F; Pungartnik, Cristina; Brendel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2) of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2? mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF) coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs) located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p) in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2? mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE)-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2? mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT) level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae. PMID:26039235

  15. Low-Molecular-Weight O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase and Serine Sulfhydrylase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Are the Same Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Shuzo

    1981-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase was purified from a cysteine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was demonstrated to be identical with l-serine sulfhydrylase. Images PMID:7021536

  16. Fine measurement of ergosterol requirements for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Deytieux, Christelle; Mussard, Ludivine; Biron, Marie-José; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2005-08-01

    Yeasts can incorporate a wide variety of exogenous sterols under strict anaerobiosis. Yeasts normally require oxygen for growth when exogenous sterols are limiting, as this favours the synthesis of lipids (sterols and unsaturated fatty acids). Although much is known about the oxygen requirements of yeasts during anaerobic growth, little is known about their exact sterol requirements in such conditions. We developed a method to determine the amount of ergosterol required for the growth of several yeast strains. We found that pre-cultured yeast strains all contained similar amounts of stored sterols, but exhibited different ergosterol assimilation efficiencies in enological conditions [as measured by the ergosterol concentration required to sustain half the number of generations attributed to ergosterol assimilation (P(50))]. P(50) was correlated with the intensity of sterol synthesis. Active dry yeasts (ADYs) contained less stored sterols than their pre-cultured counterparts and displayed very different ergosterol assimilation efficiencies. We showed that five different batches of the same industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADY exhibited significantly different ergosterol requirements for growth. These differences were mainly attributed to differences in initial sterol reserves. The method described here can therefore be used to quantify indirectly the sterol synthesis abilities of yeast strains and to estimate the size of sterol reserves. PMID:15666147

  17. RSC Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is Important for Mitochondrial Function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuko; Yu, Feifei; Nakamura, Misaki; Chihara, Yuhki; Okane, Kyo; Sato, Masahiro; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hamada, Ryoko; Ueno, Masaru; Yukawa, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    RSC (Remodel the Structure of Chromatin) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex essential for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RSC exists as two distinct isoforms that share core subunits including the ATPase subunit Nps1/Sth1 but contain either Rsc1or Rsc2. Using the synthetic genetic array (SGA) of the non-essential null mutation method, we screened for mutations exhibiting synthetic growth defects in combination with the temperature-sensitive mutant, nps1-105, and found connections between mitochondrial function and RSC. rsc mutants, including rsc1?, rsc2?, and nps1-13, another temperature-sensitive nps1 mutant, exhibited defective respiratory growth; in addition, rsc2? and nps1-13 contained aggregated mitochondria. The rsc2? phenotypes were relieved by RSC1 overexpression, indicating that the isoforms play a redundant role in respiratory growth. Genome-wide expression analysis in nps1-13 under respiratory conditions suggested that RSC regulates the transcription of some target genes of the HAP complex, a transcriptional activator of respiratory gene expression. Nps1 physically interacted with Hap4, the transcriptional activator moiety of the HAP complex, and overexpression of HAP4 alleviated respiratory defects in nps1-13, suggesting that RSC plays pivotal roles in mitochondrial gene expression and shares a set of target genes with the HAP complex. PMID:26086550

  18. Surface display of active lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using Cwp2 as an anchor protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenshan; Zhao, Heyun; Jia, Bin; Xu, Li; Yan, Yunjun

    2010-02-01

    Lipase Lip2 from Yarrowia lipolytica was displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using Cwp2 as an anchor protein. Successful display of the lipase on the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and halo assay. The length of linker sequences was further examined to confirm that the correct conformation of Lip2 was maintained. The results showed that the displayed Lip2 exhibited the highest activity at 7.6 +/- 0.4 U/g (dry cell) when using (G(4)S)(3) sequence as the linker, with an optimal temperature and pH at 40 degrees C and pH 8.0. The displayed lipase did not lose any activity after being treated with 0.1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% Tween 80 for 30 min, and it retained 92% of its original activity after incubation in 10% DMSO for 30 min. It also exhibited better thermostability than free Lip2 as reported previously. PMID:19821073

  19. Review: the Cct eukaryotic chaperonin subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts.

    PubMed

    Stoldt, V; Rademacher, F; Kehren, V; Ernst, J F; Pearce, D A; Sherman, F

    1996-05-01

    All eight of the CCT1-CCT8 genes encoding the subunits of the Cct chaperonin complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been identified, including three that were uncovered by the systematic sequencing of the yeast genome. Although most of the properties of the eukaryotic Cct chaperonin have been elucidated with mammalian systems in vitro, studies with S. cerevisiae conditional mutants revealed that Cct is required for assembly of microtubules and actin in vivo. Cct subunits from the other yeasts, Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also have been identified from partial and complete DNA sequencing of genes. Cct8p from C. albicans, the only other completely sequenced Cct protein from a fungal species other than S. cerevisiae, is 72% and 61% similar to the S. cerevisiae and mouse Cct8 proteins, respectively. PMID:8771707

  20. Rho3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Which Regulates the Actin Cytoskeleton and Exocytosis, Is a GTPase Which Interacts with Myo2 and Exo70

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICOLE G. G. ROBINSON; LEA GUO; JUN IMAI; AKIO TOH-E; YASUSHI MATSUI; FUYUHIKO TAMANOI

    1999-01-01

    The Rho3 protein plays a critical role in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directing proper cell growth. Rho3 appears to influence cell growth by regulating polarized secretion and the actin cytoskeleton, since rho3 mutants exhibit large rounded cells with an aberrant actin cytoskeleton. To gain insights into how Rho3 influences these events, we have carried out a yeast two-hybrid

  1. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts. PMID:23329062

  2. Damage Recovery Pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Revealed by Genomic Phenotyping

    E-print Network

    of mutagen-exposed Saccha- romyces cerevisiae plus computational analysis of the data led to the finding damage proteins, RNA, carbohydrates, lipids, and other cellular molecules. Here we have systematically

  3. The kinetic reduction of Cr(VI) by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Phaffia rhodozyma and their protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Chwastowski, Jaros?aw; Ko?oczek, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    Chromium in the sixth oxidation state may easily penetrate cellular membranes via non-specific sulfate transporters due to its tetrahedral symmetry (high similarity to SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-)). This feature makes chromium a toxic and hazardous pollutant responsible for the deterioration of midland water quality. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capacity of two yeast species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Phaffia rhodozyma - and their protoplasts to reduce Cr(VI) to lower oxidation states. The study also deals with the behavior of the yeasts upon the presence of elevated sulfate ions as a competitive inhibitor of chromate transport by the sulfate transporters. The chromate-reducing activities were monitored by determination of Cr(V) free radical form with the use of L-band (1.2 GHz) EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. It was observed that both of the studied yeast strains exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI) applied at 4 mM. The cells of P. rhodozyma showed about 3.5 times higher reduction than S. cerevisiae. The reduction efficiency was significantly improved when the protoplasts of both strains were used and reached 100% in the first 10 minutes of the reduction process which suggests that the cellular wall may have a notable influence on the uptake and/or inhibition of chromium reduction process. The reduction effect of P. rhodozyma cells and protoplasts may be associated with the more sufficient production of metabolites (such as glutathione and cysteine), which may also be responsible for the increased tolerance of the strain towards high concentrations of toxic chromium. PMID:24432341

  4. Growth Temperature Exerts Differential Physiological and Transcriptional Responses in Laboratory and Wine Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae? †

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Francisco J.; Jewett, Michael C.; Nielsen, Jens; Agosin, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been widely used as a model for studying eukaryotic cells and mapping the molecular mechanisms of many different human diseases. Industrial wine yeasts, on the other hand, have been selected on the basis of their adaptation to stringent environmental conditions and the organoleptic properties that they confer to wine. Here, we used a two-factor design to study the responses of a standard laboratory strain, CEN.PK113-7D, and an industrial wine yeast strain, EC1118, to growth temperatures of 15°C and 30°C in nitrogen-limited, anaerobic, steady-state chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization revealed that the growth temperature strongly impacted the biomass yield of both strains. Moreover, we found that the wine yeast was better adapted to mobilizing resources for biomass production and that the laboratory yeast exhibited higher fermentation rates. To elucidate mechanistic differences controlling the growth temperature response and underlying adaptive mechanisms between the strains, DNA microarrays and targeted metabolome analysis were used. We identified 1,007 temperature-dependent genes and 473 strain-dependent genes. The transcriptional response was used to identify highly correlated gene expression subnetworks within yeast metabolism. We showed that temperature differences most strongly affect nitrogen metabolism and the heat shock response. A lack of stress response element-mediated gene induction, coupled with reduced trehalose levels, indicated that there was a decreased general stress response at 15°C compared to that at 30°C. Differential responses among strains were centered on sugar uptake, nitrogen metabolism, and expression of genes related to organoleptic properties. Our study provides global insight into how growth temperature affects differential physiological and transcriptional responses in laboratory and wine strains of S. cerevisiae. PMID:18723660

  5. Production of extracellular and total invertase by Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts.

    PubMed

    DWORSCHACK, R G; WICKERHAM, L J

    1961-07-01

    Some strains of Candida utilis produce exceptionally large amounts of extracellular and total invertase. Strain Y-900 of C. utilis produces high yields whether the carbon source is sucrose, glucose, maltose, or xylose and still higher yields with lactic acid, glycerol, and ethyl alcohol. Approximately 20 to 30% of the total invertase of C. utilis is extracellular. Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis are generally inferior to C. utilis in production of extracellular and total invertase, the difference being accentuated in shaken cultures. The industrial yeasts are generally superior in invertase production to the other yeasts included in the survey. PMID:13725351

  6. Genomic Exploration of the Hemiascomycetous Yeasts: 18. Comparative analysis of chromosome maps and synteny with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Llorente; Alain Malpertuy; Cécile Neuvéglise; Jacky de Montigny; Michel Aigle; François Artiguenave; Gaëlle Blandin; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Elisabeth Bon; Philippe Brottier; Serge Casaregola; Pascal Durrens; Claude Gaillardin; Andrée Lépingle; Odile Ozier-Kalogéropoulos; Serge Potier; William Saurin; Fredj Tekaia; Claire Toffano-Nioche; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Patrick Wincker; Jean Weissenbach; Jean-Luc Souciet; Bernard Dujon

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of chromosome maps of Hemiascomycetes by comparing gene order and orientation of the 13 yeast species partially sequenced in this program with the genome map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the analysis of nearly 8000 situations in which two distinct genes having homologs in S. cerevisiae could be identified on the sequenced inserts of another yeast

  7. Role of ATP hydrolysis in the antirecombinase function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 protein.

    PubMed

    Krejci, Lumir; Macris, Margaret; Li, Ying; Van Komen, Stephen; Villemain, Jana; Ellenberger, Thomas; Klein, Hannah; Sung, Patrick

    2004-05-28

    Mutants of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRS2 gene are hyperrecombinogenic and sensitive to genotoxic agents, and they exhibit a synthetic lethality with mutations that compromise DNA repair or other chromosomal processes. In addition, srs2 mutants fail to adapt or recover from DNA damage checkpoint-imposed G2/M arrest. These phenotypic consequences of ablating SRS2 function are effectively overcome by deleting genes of the RAD52 epistasis group that promote homologous recombination, implicating an untimely recombination as the underlying cause of the srs2 mutant phenotypes. TheSRS2-encodedproteinhasasingle-stranded (ss) DNA-dependent ATPase activity, a DNA helicase activity, and an ability to disassemble the Rad51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament, which is the key catalytic intermediate in Rad51-mediated recombination reactions. To address the role of ATP hydrolysis in Srs2 protein function, we have constructed two mutant variants that are altered in the Walker type A sequence involved in the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The srs2 K41A and srs2 K41R mutant proteins are both devoid of ATPase and helicase activities and the ability to displace Rad51 from ssDNA. Accordingly, yeast strains harboring these srs2 mutations are hyperrecombinogenic and sensitive to methylmethane sulfonate, and they become inviable upon introducing either the sgs1Delta or rad54Delta mutation. These results highlight the importance of the ATP hydrolysisfueled DNA motor activity in SRS2 functions. PMID:15047689

  8. Cellular proteolytic systems in P450 degradation: evolutionary conservation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to mammalian liver.

    PubMed

    Correia, Maria Almira; Liao, Mingxiang

    2007-02-01

    Mammalian hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored haemoproteins with the bulk of their catalytic domains exposed to the cytosol and engaged in the metabolism of numerous xeno- and endobiotics. The native P450s exhibit widely ranging half-lifes and predominantly turn over via either autophagic-lysosomal degradation (ALD) or ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation (UPD). The basis for this heterogeneity and differential proteolytic targeting is unknown. On the other hand, structurally/functionally inactivated P450s are predominantly degraded via UPD in a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). ALD/UPD/ERAD pathways are evolutionarily highly conserved. The availability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with specific genetic defects/deletions in various ALD/UPD/ERAD-associated proteins and corresponding isogenic wild-type strains has enabled the molecular dissection of the degradation pathways for heterologously expressed mammalian P450s, leading to the identification of specific protein participants. These findings collectively attest to a highly versatile cellular system for the physiological disposal of native, senescent and/or inactivated, structurally damaged mammalian liver P450s. PMID:17269893

  9. Secretion can proceed uncoupled from net plasma membrane expansion in inositol-starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, K D; Ramirez, R M

    1984-10-01

    Secretion of acid phosphatase and invertase was examined in an inositol-requiring ino1 mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Inositol starvation is known to block plasma membrane expansion, presumably due to restricted membrane phospholipid synthesis. If membrane expansion and extracellular protein secretion are accomplished by the same intracellular transport process, one would expect secretion to fail coordinately with cessation of plasma membrane growth in inositol-starved cells. In glucose-grown, inositol-starved cells, plasma membrane expansion and acid phosphatase secretion stopped coordinately, and intracellular acid phosphatase accumulated. In sucrose-grown, inositol-starved cells, plasma membrane growth halted, but secretion of both acid phosphatase and invertase continued until the onset of inositol-less death. Although glucose-grown and sucrose-grown cells differ in their ability to secrete when deprived of inositol, they exhibited the same disturbances in phospholipid synthesis. Phosphatidylinositol synthesis failed, and its precursors phosphatidic acid and CDP-diglyceride accumulated equally in both cultures. Sucrose-grown yeast cells appear to accomplish normal levels of extracellular protein secretion by an inositol-independent mechanism. In glucose-grown yeasts, both plasma membrane expansion and secretion are inositol dependent. PMID:6384202

  10. Evidence that the antiproliferative effects of auranofin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae arise from inhibition of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Gamberi, Tania; Fiaschi, Tania; Modesti, Alessandra; Massai, Lara; Messori, Luigi; Balzi, Manuela; Magherini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Auranofin is a gold based drug in clinical use since 1985 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Beyond its antinflammatory properties, auranofin exhibits other attractive biological and pharmacological actions such as a potent in vitro cytotoxicity and relevant antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects that make it amenable for new therapeutic indications. For instance, auranofin is currently tested as an anticancer agent in four independent clinical trials; yet, its mode of action is highly controversial. With the present study, we explore the effects of auranofin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its likely mechanism. Notably, auranofin is reported to induce remarkable yeast growth inhibition. Solid evidence is provided that growth inhibition is the consequence of a direct cytotoxic insult occurring at the mitochondrial level; a profound depression of cell respiration is indeed clearly documented as the main cause of cell death while induction of ROS plays only a secondary role. More in detail, the mitochondrial NADH kinase Pos5 is identified as a primary target for auranofin. The implications of these results are discussed in the frame of current mechanistic knowledge on the cellular effects of auranofin and of its role as a prospective anticancer drug. PMID:26024642

  11. Structural and functional characterisation of recombinant human haemoglobin A expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, D; Jones, G; Denton, K A; Wilson, M T; Chan, B; Harris, R; Woodrow, J R; Ogden, J E

    1992-08-01

    Recombinant human HbA, produced by co-expressing alpha-globin and beta-globin chains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been characterised extensively both physically and functionally. Structural studies using N-terminal sequence analysis, peptide mapping, amino acid composition analysis and electrospray MS demonstrated that the recombinant protein was identical to standard HbA purified from erythrocytes. The functional properties of the recombinant protein were assessed using equilibrium and kinetic measurements of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding. The oxygen-binding studies demonstrated that the yeast-derived HbA behaved as a fully functional, cooperative tetramer (Hill coefficient, 2.9), exhibited a normal Bohr effect and response to phosphate, and displayed a rate of oxygen dissociation identical to that of the native human molecule. The recombinant protein also showed the same characteristics of carbon monoxide combination as the standard protein. These studies demonstrate that yeast provides an ideal system for the production of Hb for structural and functional analysis and a potentially useful source of HbA for formulation into a Hb-based oxygen carrier. PMID:1499566

  12. Regulation of intracellular heme levels by HMX1, a homologue of heme oxygenase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Protchenko, Olga; Philpott, Caroline C

    2003-09-19

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to iron deprivation by increasing the transcription of genes involved in the uptake of environmental iron and in the mobilization of vacuolar iron stores. HMX1 is also transcribed under conditions of iron deprivation and is under the control of the major iron-dependent transcription factor, Aft1p. Although Hmx1p exhibits limited homology to heme oxygenases, it has not been shown to be enzymatically active. We find that Hmx1p is a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum and that isolated yeast membranes contain a heme degradation activity that is dependent on HMX1. Hmx1p facilitates the capacity of cells to use heme as a nutritional iron source. Deletion of HMX1 leads to defects in iron accumulation and to expansion of intracellular heme pools. These alterations in the regulatory pools of iron lead to activation of Aft1p and inappropriate activation of heme-dependent transcription factors. Expression of HmuO, the heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, restores iron and heme levels, as well as Aft1p- and heme-dependent transcriptional activities, to those of wild type cells, indicating that the heme degradation activity associated with Hmx1p is important in mediating iron and heme homeostasis. Hmx1p promotes both the reutilization of heme iron and the regulation of heme-dependent transcription during periods of iron scarcity. PMID:12840010

  13. STE16, a New Gene Required for Pheromone Production by a Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katherine L.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Genes required for mating by a and ? cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (STE, "sterile," genes) encode products such as peptide pheromones, pheromone receptors, and proteins responsible for pheromone processing. a-specific STE genes are those required for mating by a cells but not by ? cells. To identify new a-specific STE genes, we have employed a novel strategy that enabled us to determine if a ste mutant defective in mating as a is also defective in mating as ? without the need to do crosses. This technique involved a strain (K12-14b) of genotype mata 1 HML? HMR? sir3ts, which mates as a at 25° and as ? at 34°. We screened over 40,000 mutagenized colonies derived from K12-14b and obtained 28 a-specific ste mutants. These strains contained mutations in three known a-specific genes— STE2, STE6 and STE14—and in a new gene, STE16. ste16 mutants are defective in the production of the pheromone, a-factor, and exhibit slow growth. Based on the distribution of a-specific ste mutants described here, we infer that we have identified most if not all nonessential genes that can give rise to a-specific mating defects. PMID:3552875

  14. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Suppressors of Sir4 Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, R.; D'Ari, L.; Foss, M.; Goodman, D.; Rine, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to learn more about other proteins that may be involved in repression of HML and HMR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extragenic suppressor mutations were identified that could restore repression in cells defective in SIR4, a gene required for function of the silencer elements flanking HML and HMR. These suppressor mutations, which define at least three new genes, SAN1, SAN2 and SAN3, arose at the frequency expected for loss-of-function mutations following mutagenesis. All san mutations were recessive. Suppression by san1 was allele-nonspecific, since san1 could suppress two very different alleles of SIR4, and was locus-specific since san1 was unable to suppress a SIR3 mutation or a variety of mutations conferring auxotrophies. The SAN1 gene was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a null allele. The null allele had the same phenotype as the EMS-induced mutations and exhibited no pleiotropies of its own. Thus, the SAN1 gene was not essential. SAN1-mediated suppression was neither due to compensatory mutations in interacting proteins, nor to translational missense suppression. SAN1 may act posttranslationally to control the stability or activity of the SIR4 protein. PMID:2471670

  15. Heterologous expression of transaldolase gene Tal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Fusarium oxysporum for enhanced bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jin-Xia; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Song, Jin-Zhu; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Cheng, Zhong-Xiang; Yao, Lin; Juba, Olivia S; Liang, Qing; Yang, Qian; Odeph, Margaret; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yun

    2011-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to ferment xylose-producing ethanol. However, efficiency of xylose utilization and ethanol yield was low. In this study, the transaldolase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully expressed in F. oxysporum by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant fungus (cs28pCAM-Sctal4) was 0.195 times higher than that of the wild-type strain (cs28). The recombinant strain also exhibited a 28.83% increase in ethanol yield on xylose media compared to the parental strain. Enhanced ethanol production and a reduction in the biomass were observed during xylose fermentation. Ethanol yield from rice straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with cs28pCAM-Sctal4 was 0.25 g?g?¹ of rice straw. The transgenic strain of F. oxysporum cs28pCAM-Sctal4 might therefore have potential applications in industrial bioenergy production. PMID:21394668

  16. Transcription factor Stb5p is essential for acetaldehyde tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsufuji, Yoshimi; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Fujimura, Shuki; Tani, Akio; Nakagawa, Junichi

    2010-10-01

    Transcription factor Stb5p, previously known as one of the multidrug resistance gene regulators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was shown here to play an essential role in acetaldehyde tolerance. A mutant strain, ?stb5 exhibited increased acetaldehyde sensitivity, and failed to induce genes such as GND1, TKL1 and TAL1 involved in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) upon acetaldehyde stress. Using this strain it was revealed that Stb5p acts as a repressor for PGI1 encoding glucose-6-phosphate isomerase under acetaldehyde stress. In reverse, over-expression of Stb5p reinforced acetaldehyde tolerance to the yeast. Furthermore, various deletion mutants of the genes involved in glycolysis showed increased acetaldehyde tolerance compared to the wild-type strain. From these results, it was suggested that Stb5p participates in acetaldehyde tolerance by regulating expression of the PPP genes and PGI1, and that down-regulation of glycolytic pathway may lead to vitalization of PPP and to increased acetaldehyde tolerance. PMID:20806246

  17. Mutational analysis of centromere DNA from chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hegemann, J.H.; Shero, J.H.; Cottarel, G.; Philippsen, P.; Hieter, P.

    1988-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromeres have a characteristic 120-base-pair region consisting of three different centromere DNA sequence elements (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII). The authors generated a series of 26 CEN mutations in vitro (including 22 point mutations, 3 insertions and 1 deletion) and tested their effects on mitotic chromosome segregation by using a new vector system. The yeast transformation vector pYCF5 was constructed to introduce wild-type mutant CEN DNAs onto large, linear chromosome fragments which are mitotically stable and nonessential. Six point mutations in CDEI show increased rates of chromosome loss events per cell division of 2- to 10-fold. Twenty mutations in CDEIII exhibit chromosome loss rates that vary from wild type (10/sup -4/) to nonfunctional (>10/sup -1/). These results directly identify nucleotides within CDEI and CDEIII that are required for the specification of a functional centromere and show that the degree of conservation of an individual base does not necessarily reflect its importance to mitotic CEN function.

  18. The Ubp15 deubiquitinase promotes timely entry into S phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ostapenko, Denis; Burton, Janet L; Solomon, Mark J

    2015-06-15

    The anaphase-promoting complex in partnership with its activator, Cdh1, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for targeting cell cycle proteins during G1 phase. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdh1 associates with the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp15, but the significance of this interaction is unclear. To better understand the physiological role(s) of Ubp15, we examined cell cycle phenotypes of cells lacking Ubp15. We found that ubp15? cells exhibited delayed progression from G1 into S phase and increased sensitivity to the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea. Both phenotypes of ubp15? cells were rescued by additional copies of the S-phase cyclin gene CLB5. Clb5 is an unstable protein targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation by several pathways. We found that during G1 phase, the APC(Cdh1)-mediated degradation of Clb5 was accelerated in ubp15? cells. Ubp15 interacted with Clb5 independent of Cdh1 and deubiquitinated Clb5 in a reconstituted system. Thus deubiquitination by Ubp15 counteracts APC activity toward cyclin Clb5 to allow Clb5 accumulation and a timely entry into S phase. PMID:25877870

  19. Surface display of active lipases Lip7 and Lip8 from Yarrowia lipolytica on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shan; Pan, Xiao-Xing; Jia, Bin; Zhao, He-Yun; Xu, Li; Liu, Yun; Yan, Yun-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Lipase has been used widely in industry. In this study, we have constructed two recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains displaying two active lipases on the cell surface by cell surface engineering. The genes encoding Yarrowia lipolytica lipases Lip7 and Lip8 were fused with the gene encoding small binding subunit Aga2 of a-agglutinin. Localization of the Lip7 and Lip8 on the cell surface was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Besides, the putative signal sequences of Lip7 and Lip8 were removed to compare their effect on the activities of surface-displayed lipases. The results showed that the activities towards p-nitrophenyl caprylate of surface-displayed Lip7 and Lip8 were 283 U/g (dry cell) and 121 U/g (dry cell), much higher than that using Flo1 as anchor protein in Pichia pastoris, and the putative signal sequences have significant effect on the activities of the displayed lipases; when deleted, the lipases' activities were declined to 65 U/g (dry cell) and 80 U/g (dry cell), respectively. The displayed lipases exhibit a preference for middle chain fatty acids and a high thermal stability. Additionally, from the study, to surface-display a target protein, it is recommendable that the structure feature of the protein should be assayed through bioinformatics methods and then the cell wall proteins with the anchor domain far away from the activity center should be chosen as anchor proteins. PMID:20676630

  20. Strain-specific nuclear genetic background differentially affects mitochondria-related phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Arianna; Francisci, Silvia; Fazzi D'Orsi, Mario; Bianchi, Michele Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the course of our studies on mitochondrial defects, we have observed important phenotypic variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suggesting that a better characterization of the genetic variability will be essential to define the relationship between the mitochondrial efficiency and the presence of different nuclear backgrounds. In this manuscript, we have extended the study of such relations by comparing phenotypic assays related to mitochondrial functions of three wild-type laboratory strains. In addition to the phenotypic variability among the wild-type strains, important differences have been observed among strains bearing identical mitochondrial tRNA mutations that could be related only to the different nuclear background of the cells. Results showed that strains exhibited an intrinsic variability in the severity of the effects of the mitochondrial mutations and that specific strains might be used preferentially to evaluate the phenotypic effect of mitochondrial mutations on carbon metabolism, stress responses, and mitochondrial DNA stability. In particular, while W303-1B and MCC123 strains should be used to study the effect of severe mitochondrial tRNA mutations, D273-10B/A1 strain is rather suitable for studying the effects of milder mutations. PMID:24700775

  1. Pronounced and extensive microtubule defects in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae DIS3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah B; Kiss, Daniel L; Turk, Edward; Tartakoff, Alan M; Andrulis, Erik D

    2011-11-01

    Subunits of the RNA processing exosome assemble into structurally distinct protein complexes that function in disparate cellular compartments and RNA metabolic pathways. Here, in a genetic, cell biological and transcriptomic analysis, we examined the role of Dis3, an essential polypeptide with endo- and 3'?5' exo-ribonuclease activity, in cell cycle progression. We present several lines of evidence that perturbation of DIS3 affects microtubule (MT) localization and structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells with a DIS3 mutant: (a) accumulate anaphase and pre-anaphase mitotic spindles; (b) exhibit spindles that are misorientated and displaced from the bud neck; (c) harbour elongated spindle-associated astral MTs; (d) have an increased G1 astral MT length and number; and (e) are hypersensitive to MT poisons. Mutations in the core exosome genes RRP4 and MTR3 and the exosome cofactor gene MTR4, but not other exosome subunit gene mutants, also elicit MT phenotypes. RNA deep sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) shows broad changes in the levels of cell cycle- and MT-related transcripts in mutant strains. Collectively, the data presented in this study suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for Dis3 in linking RNA metabolism, MTs and cell cycle progression. PMID:21919057

  2. Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Sean W.; Filiatrault, Megan C.; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The GPN proteins are a poorly characterized and deeply evolutionarily conserved family of three paralogous small GTPases, Gpn1, 2, and 3. The founding member, GPN1/NPA3/XAB1, is proposed to function in nuclear import of RNA polymerase II along with a recently described protein called Iwr1. Here we show that the previously uncharacterized protein Gpn2 binds both Gpn3 and Npa3/Gpn1 and that temperature-sensitive alleles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPN2 and GPN3 exhibit genetic interactions with RNA polymerase II mutants, hypersensitivity to transcription inhibition, and defects in RNA polymerase II nuclear localization. Importantly, we identify previously unrecognized RNA polymerase III localization defects in GPN2, GPN3, and IWR1 mutant backgrounds but find no localization defects of unrelated nuclear proteins or of RNA polymerase I. Previously, it was unclear whether the GPN proteins and Iwr1 had overlapping function in RNA polymerase II assembly or import. In this study, we show that the nuclear import defect of iwr1?, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3. These data, combined with strong genetic interactions between GPN2 and IWR1, suggest that the GPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerase II and III biogenesis. We propose that the three GPN proteins execute a common, and likely essential, function in RNA polymerase assembly and transport. PMID:23267056

  3. Synthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramides is involved in maintenance of cell integrity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuji; Tani, Motohiro

    2015-02-01

    Complex sphingolipids play important roles in many physiologically important events in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we screened yeast mutant strains showing a synthetic lethal interaction with loss of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) synthesis and found that a specific group of glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of mannan-type N-glycans is essential for the growth of cells lacking MIPC synthases (Sur1 and Csh1). The genetic interaction was also confirmed by repression of MNN2, which encodes alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase that synthesizes mannan-type N-glycans, by a tetracycline-regulatable system. MNN2-repressed sur1? csh1? cells exhibited high sensitivity to zymolyase treatment, and caffeine and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) strongly inhibited the growth of sur1? csh1? cells, suggesting impairment of cell integrity due to the loss of MIPC synthesis. The phosphorylated form of Slt2, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activated by impaired cell integrity, increased in sur1? csh1? cells, and this increase was dramatically enhanced by the repression of Mnn2. Moreover, the growth defect of MNN2-repressed sur1? csh1? cells was enhanced by the deletion of SLT2 or RLM1 encoding a downstream target of Slt2. These results indicated that loss of MIPC synthesis causes impairment of cell integrity, and this effect is enhanced by impaired synthesis of mannan-type N-glycans. PMID:25471153

  4. DNA microarray analysis suggests that zinc pyrithione causes iron starvation to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Yasokawa; Satomi Murata; Yumiko Iwahashi; Emiko Kitagawa; Katsuyuki Kishi; Yukihiro Okumura; Hitoshi Iwahashi

    2010-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been used in anti-dandruff shampoos and in anti-fouling paint on ships. However, little is known of its mode of action. We characterized the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. The majority of the strongly upregulated genes are related to iron transport, and many of the strongly downregulated genes are

  5. New Potential Cell Wall Glucanases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Their Involvement in Mating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CORINNA CAPPELLARO; VLADIMIR MRSA; WIDMAR TANNER

    1998-01-01

    Biotinylation of intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with a nonpermeant reagent (Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin) al- lowed the identification of seven cell wall proteins that were released from intact cells by dithiothreitol (DTT). By N-terminal sequencing, three of these proteins were identified as the known proteins b-exoglucanase 1 (Exg1p), b-endoglucanase (Bgl2p), and chitinase (Cts1p). One protein was related to the PIR protein family, whereas

  6. Unwinding RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: DEAD-box proteins and related families.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, J; Kressler, D; Linder, P

    1999-05-01

    Members of the RNA-helicase family are defined by several evolutionary conserved motifs. They are found in all organisms - from bacteria to humans - and many viruses. The minimum number of RNA helicases present within a eukaryotic cell can be predicted from the complete sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Recent progress in the functional analysis of various family members has given new insights into, and confirmed the significance of these proteins for, most cellular RNA metabolic processes. PMID:10322435

  7. Heterologous co-production of Thermobifida fusca Cel9A with other cellulases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niel van Wyk; Riaan den Haan; Willem H. van Zyl

    2010-01-01

    The processive endoglucanase Cel9A of the moderately thermophilic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca was functionally produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant Cel9A displayed activity on both soluble (carboxymethylcellulose) and insoluble (Avicel) cellulose substrates\\u000a confirming its processive endoglucanase activity. High-performance anionic exchange chromatography analyses of soluble sugars\\u000a released from Avicel revealed a cellobiose\\/glucose ratio of 2.5?±?0.1. Growth by the recombinant strain on amorphous cellulose

  8. Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  9. Evidence for Sterilization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae K 7 by an External Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tatsuya; Murayama, Yuzo; Suzuki, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Noboru; Iwano, Kimio; Kudo, Kozo

    1992-06-01

    A new process of sterilization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This process consists of external magnetic flux and ferrite. Consequently, an alteration of yeast cells, caused by treatment with 2000 G magnetic flux and 6 g of ferrite, was detected through observation of the release of materials from yeast cells absorbing at 260 nm and microscopy of disrupted cells, cell debris, ghost cells and intracellular components. The same results were seen at 28°C and 4°C.

  10. Enhanced Iron Uptake of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of a Tadpole Ferritin Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOUNG-MI SHIN; TAE-HO KWON; KYUNG-SUK KIM; KEON-SANG CHAE; DAE-HYUK KIM; JAE-HO KIM; MOON-SIK YANG

    2001-01-01

    We genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, with the major heavy-chain subunit of tadpole ferritin. A 450-kDa ferritin complex can store up to 4,500 iron atoms in its central cavity. We cloned the tadpole ferritin heavy-chain gene (TFH) into the yeast shuttle vector YEp352 under the control of a hybrid alcohol dehydrogenase II and

  11. Construction of a Library of Human Glycosyltransferases Immobilized in the Cell Wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoh-ichi Shimma; Fumie Saito; Fumi Oosawa; Yoshifumi Jigami

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-one human glycosyltransferases were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as immobilized enzymes and were assayed for enzymatic activities. The stem and catalytic regions of sialyl-, fucosyl-, galactosyl-, N-acetylgalactosaminyl-, and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases were fused with yeast cell wall Pir proteins, which anchor glycosyltransferases at the yeast cell wall glucan. More than 75% of expressed recombinant glycosyltransferases retained their enzymatic activities in the yeast

  12. Complex transcriptional circuitry at the G1\\/S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine E. Horak; Nicholas M. Luscombe; Jiang Qian; Paul Bertone; Stacy Piccirrillo; Mark Gerstein; Michael Snyder

    2002-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SBF (Swi4-Swi6 cell cycle box binding factor) and MBF (MluI binding factor) are the major transcription factors regulating the START of the cell cycle, a time just before DNA replication, bud growth initiation, and spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. These two factors bind to the promoters of 235 genes, but bind less than a quarter

  13. Effects of nucleotides and divalent cations on phospholipase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Witt; Peter Hampel; Klaus Böcker; Angelika Mertsching

    1989-01-01

    Divalent cations activate the lysophospholipase and transacylase reactions catalyzed by the same enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The activation was observed at neutral pH, but not at the pH optimum of lysophospholipase\\/transacylase, near 3.5. Adenine nucleotides, especially AMP and ADP, are strong inhibitors of the same group of enzymes. Half maximal inhibition by AMP was found at a concentration

  14. Bioethanol production performance of five recombinant strains of laboratory and industrial xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Matsushika; Hiroyuki Inoue; Katsuji Murakami; Osamu Takimura; Shigeki Sawayama

    2009-01-01

    In this study, five recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were compared for their xylose-fermenting ability. The most efficient xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using the industrial strain MA-R4, in which the genes for xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis along with an endogenous xylulokinase gene were expressed by chromosomal integration of the flocculent yeast strain IR-2. The MA-R4 strain

  15. Heterologous expression of a tannic acid-inducible laccase3 of Cryphonectria parasitica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Mi Kim; Seung-Moon Park; Dae-Hyuk Kim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A tannic acid-inducible and mycoviral-regulated laccase3 (lac3) from the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica has recently been identified, but further characterization was hampered because of the precipitation of protein products by tannic acid supplementation. The present study investigated the heterologous expression of the functional laccase3 using a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: Laccase activity in the culture broth of transformants

  16. Influence of fatty acids on the growth of wine microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Guilloux-Benatier; Y Le Fur; M Feuillat

    1998-01-01

      The effects of fatty acids, extracted during prefermentation grape skin-contact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni, were studied. The influence of skin-contact on total fatty acid content was evaluated both in Chardonnay must and in synthetic\\u000a medium. Prior to alcoholic fermentation, the skin-contact contributes to a large enrichment of long-chain fatty acids (C16 to C18:3). These results induced a positive

  17. Metabolic heat evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under very-high-gravity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karnnalin Theerarattananoon; Yen-Han Lin; Ding-Yu Peng

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic heat evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions of various combinations of glucose level (low gravity, 10g glucose\\/l; very-high-gravity, 300g glucose\\/l), temperature, and urea concentration was investigated. The measured overall metabolic heat evolution was 0.416 and 0.476J\\/h, respectively, for 10 and 300g glucose\\/l in the presence of urea. As glucose level was increased from low- to very-high-gravity when urea was

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Wilkins; Wilbur W. Widmer; Karel Grohmann

    2007-01-01

    The effects of d-limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37°C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process to remove more than 90% of the initial d-limonene present in the peel waste. d-Limonene is known to inhibit yeast

  19. Engineering of Polyploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Secretion of Large Amounts of Fungal Glucoamylase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Ekino; Hiroyuki Hayashi; Masahiro Moriyama; Minoru Matsuda; Masatoshi Goto; Sadazo Yoshino; Kensuke Furukawa

    2002-01-01

    We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that produce large amounts of fungal glucoamylase (GAI) from Aspergillus awamori var. kawachi. To do this, we used the -sequence-mediated integration vector system and the heat-induced endomitotic diploidization method. -Sequence-mediated integration is known to occur mainly in a particular chromosome, and the copy number of the integration is variable. In order to construct transformants carrying

  20. Genetic Identification of Factors That Modulate Ribosomal DNA Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hontz; Rachel O. Niederer; Joseph M. Johnson; Jeffrey S. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Despite being responsible for the majority of transcription in growing cells, Pol I regulation is poorly understood compared to Pol II. To gain new insights into rDNA transcriptional regulation, we developed a genetic assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that detects alterations in transcription from

  1. Cdc50p, a Conserved Endosomal Membrane Protein, Controls Polarized Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenjiro Misu; Konomi Fujimura-Kamada; Takashi Ueda; Akihiko Nakano; Hiroyuki Katoh; Kazuma Tanaka

    2003-01-01

    During the cell cycle of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the actin cytoskeleton and the growth of cell surface are polarized, mediating bud emergence, bud growth, and cytokinesis. We identified CDC50 as a multicopy suppressor of the myo3 myo5-360 temperature-sensitive mutant, which is defective in organization of cortical actin patches. The cdc50 null mutant showed cold-sensitive cell cycle arrest with a

  2. Transcriptional Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the Plasma Membrane-Perturbing Compound Chitosan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Zakrzewska; Andre Boorsma; Klaas J. Hellingwerf; Frans M. Klis

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan is a plasma membrane-perturbing compound consisting of linear chains of ?-1,4-linked glucosamine residues, which at acidic pHs become positively charged. It is extensively used as an antimicrobial compound, yet its mode of action is still unresolved. Chitosan strongly affected the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and two human-pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and

  3. Farnesol-induced growth inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a cell cycle mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyotaka Machida; Toshio Tanaka; Yoshihisa Yano; Shuzo Otani; Makoto Taniguchi

    1999-01-01

    The growth of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was inhibited in medium containing 25 pM farnesol (FOH). The FOH-treated cells were still viable, and were characterized by a transition from budded to unbudded phase as well as a significant loss of intracellular diacylglycerol (DAG). FOH-induced growth inhibition could be effectively prevented by the coaddition of a membrane-permeable DAG analogue which can

  4. Culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on hydrolyzed waste cassava starch for production of baking-quality yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony O. Ejiofor; Yusuf Chisti; Murray Moo-Young

    1996-01-01

    A fermentation medium based on waste cassava starch hydrolysate and a four-phase feeding strategy for a fed-batch culture of Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. Cassava starch isolated from the wastewater produced in processing of cassava mash into gari was liquefied with a thermostable 1.4-?-d-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.1) in the presence of 100 ppm Ca2+ at 80°C and pH 6.1–6.3 for

  5. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ruminal pH and microbial fermentation in dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thrune; A. Bach; M. Ruiz-Moreno; M. D. Stern; J. G. Linn

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with eight ruminally-cannulated cows using a crossover design with 2 periods to determine the effects of yeast supplementation on rumen fermentation. Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were either supplemented with 0.5 g\\/hd\\/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an active dry yeast (CNCM-1077, Levucell SC20 (r) SC, Lallemand Animal Nutrition) or not supplemented (control). A basal diet consisting of

  6. Comparative analysis of trehalose production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under saline stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. González-Hernández; M. Jiménez-Estrada; A. Peña

    2005-01-01

    The comparative analysis of growth, intracellular content of Na + and K +, and the production of trehalose in the halophilic Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined under saline stress. The yeast species were studied based on their ability to grow in the absence or presence of 0.6 or 1.0 M NaCl and KCl. D. hansenii strains grew better and

  7. Heterologous Expression of Transaldolase Gene Tal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Fusarium oxysporum for Enhanced Bioethanol Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Xia Fan; Xiao-Xue Yang; Jin-Zhu Song; Xiao-Mei Huang; Zhong-Xiang Cheng; Lin Yao; Olivia S. Juba; Qing Liang; Qian Yang; Margaret Odeph; Yan Sun; Yun Wang

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to ferment xylose-producing ethanol. However, efficiency of xylose utilization and ethanol yield\\u000a was low. In this study, the transaldolase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully expressed in F. oxysporum by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant fungus (cs28pCAM-Sctal4) was 0.195 times higher\\u000a than that

  8. Role of DNA Replication Proteins in Double-Strand Break-Induced Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuan Wang; Grzegorz Ira; JoseAntonio Tercero; Allyson M. Holmes; John F. X. Diffley; James E. Haber

    2004-01-01

    Mitotic double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion involves new DNA synthesis. We have analyzed the requirement of several essential replication components, the Mcm proteins, Cdc45p, and DNA ligase I, in the DNA synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MAT switching. In an mcm7-td (temperature-inducible degron) mutant, MAT switching occurred normally when Mcm7p was degraded below the level of detection, suggesting the lack of

  9. Nutrient utilization profile of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from palm wine in tropical fruit fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. U. Ezeronye; Michael Okpara

    2004-01-01

    The nutrient utilization pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from palm wine was studied using tropical fruits as substrate. Starter cultures were prepared by growing 15–18h old stock cultures of the yeast in successively larger bottles containing pasteurized fruit must. Microvinification, substrate utilization and assay of yeast activity were performed. Soluble solute (SS) content of the juices ranged from 10–18 Brix. Pinapple

  10. Preparation of fermentable lingonberry juice through removal of benzoic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arto Visti; Sanna Viljakainen; Simo Laakso

    2003-01-01

    Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) is a commercially important wild, uncultivated berry in northern regions of the world. It contains high amounts of benzoic acid, which contributes to the acidity of the berry and, as a microbisidic compound, prevents fermentation of lingonberry juice. Therefore a method was developed utilizing the pH-dependent ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remove benzoic acid from solutions. By

  11. First characterization of the gene RGD1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Barthe; Geoffroy de Bettignies; Olivier Louvet; Marie-France Peypouquet; Carine Morel; François Doignon; Marc Crouzet

    1998-01-01

    We identified the ORF YBR260c during systematic sequencing of one region of chromosome II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This ORF encodes a putative protein of 666 aa, of which the C-terminal part of the deduced amino acid sequence resembles human and yeast Rho\\/Rac GTPase activating proteins (GAP). An initial study is reported in the paper. This gene was expressed in haploid

  12. Effects of cell entrapment in Ca-alginate on the metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galazzo

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in suspension have been immobilized in calcium-alginate beads. Fermentation rates and intracellular composition have been determined under nongrowing conditions in these Ca-alginate entrapped cells and for identical cells in suspension. Glucose uptake and ethanol and glycerol production are approximately two times faster in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. Intermediate metabolite levels such as fructose-1,6-diphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate

  13. Regulation of aspartate-derived amino acid biosynthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Martínez-Force; Tahía Benítez

    1993-01-01

    The activity of three enzymes, aspartokinase, homoserine dehydrogenase, and homoserine kinase, has been studied in the industrial strainSaccharomyces cerevisiae IFI256 and in the mutants derived from it that are able to overproduce methionine and\\/or threonine. Most of the mutants showed alteration of the kinetic properties of the enzymes aspartokinase, which was less inhibited by threonine and increased its affinity for

  14. Backbone and side chain NMR assignments for the ribosome assembly factor Nop6 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Jan Philip; Lioutikov, Anatoli; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2014-10-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nop6 protein is involved in the maturation of the small ribosomal subunit. It contains a central RNA binding domain and a predicted C-terminal coiled-coil domain. Here we report the almost complete (>90%) (1)H,(13)C,(15)N backbone and side chain NMR assignment of a 15 kDa Nop6 construct comprising the RNA binding and coiled-coil domains. PMID:23921755

  15. Density, porosity, and structure of dried cell walls isolated from Bacillus megaterium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, R; Berlin, E; Gerhardt

    1977-01-01

    Helium displacement and nitrogen adsorption techniques were used to determine the density and porosity, respectively, of freeze-dried cell walls isolated from Bacillus megaterium KM and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The densities were 1.302 and 1.180 g/cm3, respectively, suggesting noncrystalline solids. The porosities were extremely small, indicating that the cell walls had collapsed and become essentially impervious upon lyophilization. PMID:402351

  16. l-Malic acid production from fumaric acid by a laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SHY2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohai Wang; C. S. Gong; George T. Tsao

    1996-01-01

    l-Malic acid was produced efficiently from fumaric acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SHY2. The amount of l-malic acid produced increased with the increase in initial fumaric acid concentration (from 20 to 120 g\\/L). The average specific and volumetric production rates reached up to 0.708 g\\/g·h and 2.787 g\\/L·h, respectively, in 24 hours. Final l-malic acid concentration of up to 109 g\\/L

  17. The cytosolic pathway of L -malic acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : the role of fumarase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Pines; S. Even-Ram; N. Elnathan; E. Battat; O. Aharonov; D. Gibson; I. Goldberg

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates L-malic acid but only minute amounts of fumaric acid. A 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance study following the label from glucose to L-malic acid indicates that the L-malic acid is synthesized from pyruvic acid via oxaloacetic acid. From this, and from previously published studies, we conclude that a cytosolic reductive pathway leading from pyruvic acid via oxaloacetic acid to

  18. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP22 Gene Codes for the Mitochondrial ATPase Subunit 6Specific Translation Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomei Zeng; Audrey Hourset; Alexander Tzagoloff

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP22 gene were previously shown to block assembly of the F0 component of the mitochondrial proton-translocating ATPase. Further inquiries into the function of Atp22p have revealed that it is essential for translation of subunit 6 of the mitochondrial ATPase. The mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by the presence in the same cell of wild-type

  19. Applications of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flp-FRT System in Bacterial Genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert P. Schweizer

    2003-01-01

    The Flp-FRT site-specific recombinationsystem from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful and efficient tool for high-throughput genetic analysis of bacteria in the postgenomic era. This review highlights the features of the Flp-FRT system, describes current bacterial genetic methods incorporating this technology and, finally, suggests potential future uses of this system. In combination with improved allele replacement methods, recyclable FRT mutagenesis cassettes,

  20. Expression of nutritionally well-balanced protein, AmA1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Geum Kim; Ju Kim; Dae-Hyuk Kim; Moon-Sik Yang

    2001-01-01

    Food yeast.Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a safe organism with a long history of use for the production of biomass rich in high quality proteins and vitamins.\\u000a AmA1, a seed storage albumin fromAmaranthus hypochondriacus, has a well-balanced amino acid composition and high levels of essential amino acids and offers the possibility of further\\u000a improving food and animal feed additives. In order to

  1. Data acquisition, analysis, and mining: Integrative tools for discerning metabolic function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Jewett; Michael Hansen; Jens Nielsen

    The well defined genetic architecture and metabolic network of Saccharomyces\\u000a cerevisiae make this organism a cornerstone for metabolomics research. Recent efforts\\u000a have focused on robust sample preparation techniques, analytical tools to quantitatively identify\\u000a hundreds of metabolites at the same time, and elegant approaches for analyzing and interpreting the\\u000a data. While equally important, we focus here on approaches for extracting useful information

  2. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. (Universita de Perugia (Italy))

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  3. Biosorption of water-soluble dyes on magnetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum cells.

    PubMed

    Safaríková, M; Ptácková, L; Kibriková, I; Safarík, I

    2005-05-01

    Brewer's yeast (bottom yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae subsp. uvarum) cells were magnetically modified using water based magnetic fluid stabilized with perchloric acid. Magnetically modified yeast cells efficiently adsorbed various water soluble dyes. The dyes adsorption can be described by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of the magnetic cells differed substantially for individual dyes; the highest value was found for aniline blue (approx. 220 mg per g of dried magnetic adsorbent). PMID:15811411

  4. AZF1 Is a Glucose-Dependent Positive Regulator of CLN3 Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Newcomb; Duane D. Hall; Warren Heideman

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of the CLN3 G1 cyclin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is positively regulated by glucose in a process that involves a set of DNA elements with the sequence AAGAAAAA (A2GA5). To identify proteins that interact with these elements, we used a 1-hybrid approach, which yielded a nuclear zinc finger protein previously iden- tified as Azf1. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments

  5. Degradation of Misfolded Endoplasmic Reticulum Glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Determined by a Specific Oligosaccharide Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude A. Jakob; Patricie Burda; Jürgen Roth; Markus Aebi

    1998-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , transfer of N-linked oligosaccharides is immediately followed by trimming of ER-localized glycosidases. We analyzed the influence of specific oligosaccharide structures for degradation of misfolded carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). By studying the trimming reactions in vivo, we found that removal of the terminal a 1,2 glucose and the first a 1,3 glucose by glucosidase I and glucosidase II

  6. Functional expression of the extraplastidial Arabidopsis thaliana oleate desaturase gene (FAD2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Smithers Covello; Darwin Wilfred Reed

    1996-01-01

    The functional expression in yeast of the Arabidopsis fhaliana FADZ gene, encoding the extraplastidial oleate desaturase (1 -acyl- 2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine A1 2-desaturase) is reported. Dienoic fatty acids constituted up to 11 % (w\\/w) of the total fatty acids in transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and were con- firmed to be linoleic acid and Ag,A'2-hexadecadienoic acid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  7. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Aldiguier; S. Alfenore; X. Cameleyre; G. Goma; J. L. Uribelarrea; S. E. Guillouet; C. Molina-Jouve

    2004-01-01

    The impact of ethanol and temperature on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol biofuel production was studied using an isothermal fed-batch process at five different temperatures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were quantified. The best performances were found at 30 and 33°C around 120 g l -1 ethanol produced in 30 h with a slight benefit for growth at 30°C and for

  8. High-yield production and characterization of biologically active recombinant aprotinin expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Meta; Hiroshi Nakatake; Takayuki Imamura; Chikateru Nozaki; Kazuhisa Sugimura

    2009-01-01

    Aprotinin is a polypeptide composed of 58 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 6512Da. The 58 amino acid residues are arranged in a single polypeptide chain, which is cross-linked by three disulfide bridges and folded to form a pear-shaped molecule. To express recombinant aprotinin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a synthetic gene encoding aprotinin was constructed and fused in

  9. Identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA ligase IV: involvement in DNA double-strand break repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Hwang Teo; Stephen P. Jackson

    1997-01-01

    DNA ligases catalyse the joining of single and double-strand DNA breaks, which is an essential final step in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Mammalian cells have four DNA ligases, termed ligases I–IV. In contrast, other than a DNA ligase I homologue (encoded by CDC9), no other DNA ligases have hitherto been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the identification

  10. Purification and characterization of recombinant human liver prolidase expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Hao Wang; Qing-Wen Zhi; Man-Ji Sun

    2005-01-01

    The recombinant human liver prolidase (rh-prolidase, EC 3.4.13.9) from the lysate supernatant of engineering yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was purified in two steps employing anion-exchange gradient chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose fast flow) and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 high resolution). The purified recombinant protein furnished a single band with a molecular weight of 56 kD. Intensity scanning of the SDS-PAGE gel revealed that the

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of Nucleotide-Level Variation in Commonly Used Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Schacherer; Douglas M. Ruderfer; David Gresham; Kara Dolinski; David Botstein; Leonid Kruglyak

    2007-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-more precisely, the S288c strain-was completely sequenced. However, experimental work in yeast is commonly performed using strains that are of unknown genetic relationship to S288c. Here, we characterized the nucleotide-level similarity between S288c and seven commonly used lab strains (A364A, W303, FL100, CEN.PK, S1278b, SK1 and BY4716) using 25mer oligonucleotide microarrays

  12. Fractionation of phenolic compounds extracted from propolis and their activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  13. Acetaldehyde addition throughout the growth phase alleviates the phenotypic effect of zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoufel Cheraiti; François-Xavier Sauvage; Jean-Michel Salmon

    2008-01-01

    During experiments to determine the effects of exogenously added acetaldehyde on pure cultures of various yeast strains, we\\u000a discovered that an early acetaldehyde perfusion during the growth phase allowed several yeasts to partially overcome the phenotypic\\u000a effects of zinc depletion during alcoholic fermentation. We, therefore, performed genome-wide expression and proteomic analysis\\u000a on an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain (VL1) growing

  14. Effects of acetaldehyde on Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to a range of chemical and environmental stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Barber; Frank Vriesekoop; Neville B. Pamment

    2002-01-01

    The ability of small quantities of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in environmentally-stressed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined over a broad range of stress conditions. Acetaldehyde addition substantially reduced the lag phase of cultures suddenly inoculated into medium containing inhibitory quantities of low M.W. alcohols and higher fatty acids. For ethanol-stressed cultures, acetaldehyde was effective whether added initially or

  15. Comparative proteome analysis of robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae insights into industrial continuous and batch fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Sheng Cheng; Bin Qiao; Ying-Jin Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A robust Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain has been widely applied in continuous and batch\\/fed-batch industrial fermentation. However, little is known about\\u000a the molecular basis of fermentative behavior of this strain in the two realistic fermentation processes. In this paper, we\\u000a presented comparative proteomic profiling of the industrial yeast in the industrial fermentation processes. The expression\\u000a levels of most identified protein were

  16. Acetaldehyde stimulates ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae , grown on various carbon sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hucker; F. Vriesekoop

    2008-01-01

    The ability of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae while grown on non-fermentable substrates (ethanol, glycerol) is reported. The addition of acetaldehyde to ethanol-stressed\\u000a yeast grown on either ethanol or glycerol led to a significant decrease in lag time of 67 and 45 %, respectively (p = 0.000) and an increase in the specific growth rate (0.008–0.038\\/h

  17. A general suppressor of RNA polymerase I, II and III mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Stettler; Nuchanard Chiannilkulchai; Sylvie Hermann-Le Denmat; Dominique Lalo; François Lacroute; André Sentenac; Pierre Thuriaux

    1993-01-01

    A multicopy genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain FL100) was screened for its ability to suppress conditionally defective mutations altering the 31 kDa subunit (rpc31–236) or the 53 kDa subunit (rpc53-254\\/424) of RNA polymerase III. In addition to allele-specific suppressors, we identified seven suppressor clones that acted on both mutations and also suppressed several other conditional mutations defective in RNA

  18. The novel nuclear gene DSS1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is necessary for mitochondrial biogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Dmochowska; Pawel Golik; Piotr P. Stepien

    1995-01-01

    A previously unknown nuclear gene DSS-1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned and sequenced. The gene was isolated as a multicopy suppressor of a disruption of the SUV-3 gene coding for a DEAD\\/H box protein involved in processing and turnover of mitochondrial transcripts. The DSS-1 gene codes for a 970 amino-acid protein of molecular weight 111 kDa and is necessary for

  19. The use of monochloroacetic acid for improved ethanol production by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Arasaratnam; K. Balasubramaniam

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae adsorbed on acid-treated glass beads produced 5.4 g l ?1 ethanol at 96 h in batch process. Precoating the acid-treated glass beads with gelatin (25 g l ?1 ) before immobilization of the cells increased ethanol production to 26.3 g l ?1 at 72 h. Cell leakage into the medium was decreased when the immobilized cells were crosslinked

  20. Synthesis of Novel Lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of an Unspecific Bacterial Acyltransferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Kalscheuer; Heinrich Luftmann; Alexander Steinbuchel

    2004-01-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase\\/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS\\/DGAT) is the key enzyme in storage lipid accumulation in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1, medi- ating wax ester, and to a lesser extent, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids. Four genes encoding a DGAT (Dga1p), a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Lro1p) and two acyl-coenzyme A:sterol acyltransferases

  1. Cell wall mannoproteins during the population growth phases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Valentín; E. Herrero; H. Rico; F. Miragall; R. Sentandreu

    1987-01-01

    Mannoproteins from cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesized at successive stages of the population growth cycle have been solubilized with Zymolyase and subsequently analyzed. The major change along the population cycle concerned a large size mannoprotein material; the size of the newly-synthesized molecules varied from 120,000–500,000 (mean of about 200,000) at early exponential phase to 250,000–350,000 (mean of about 300,000)

  2. Functional and physical interactions of Faf1p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleolar protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iwona Karkusiewicz; Bo?enna Rempola; Robert Gromadka; Marcin Grynberg; Joanna Rytka

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery and characterisation of a novel nucleolar protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified this protein encoded by ORF YIL019w, designated in SGD base as Faf1p, in a two hybrid interaction screen using the known nucleolar protein Krr1 as bait. The presented data indicate that depletion of the Faf1 protein has an impact on the 40S ribosomal subunit

  3. Induction of the cytoplasmic petite mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the antibacterial antibiotics erythromycin and chloramphenicol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Williamson; N. G. Maroudas; D. Wilkie

    1971-01-01

    Low concentrations of erythromycin and chloramphenicol (=0.3 mg\\/ml) specifically affect intra-mitochondrial protein synthesis in most strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thereby preventing growth on non-fermentable substrates. This effect is reversible, the genetic capacity for respiration in the absence of the drug being unaffected. However, we now show that exposure of growing cells to high concentrations (1.3–3.0 mg\\/ml) of either antibiotic generates

  4. Evaluation of the mutagenicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics in Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Koeda, T; Hirano, F

    1979-06-01

    The mutagenicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (KM, AKM, DKB, RSM, AMK, GM, TOB) has been studied in cells of the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The bacterial strains (Ames') monitor reverse mutation (point mutation) and the yeast strain D5 monitors mitotic crossing-over, mitotic gene conversion and point mutation. None of these antibiotics demonstrated any mutagenic activities in either the bacteria or the yeast. PMID:381273

  5. Comprehensive polymorphism survey elucidates population structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Kruglyak, Leonid

    studies in yeast. We also examined the population structure of S. cerevisiae, provid-density Affymetrix Yeast Tiling Microarray (YTM) and identified positions likely to differ from the reference sequence with the software package SNPscanner8 . We detected a total of 1,896,131 single nucleotide poly

  6. Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae serine O-acetyltransferase in cysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kenji; Awano, Naoki; Nakamori, Shigeru; Ono, Bun ichiro

    2003-01-28

    Some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have detectable activities of L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SATase) and O-acetyl-L-serine/O-acetyl-L-homoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH-SHLase), but synthesize L-cysteine exclusively via cystathionine by cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. To untangle this peculiar feature in sulfur metabolism, we introduced Escherichia coli genes encoding SATase and OAS-SHLase into S. cerevisiae L-cysteine auxotrophs. While the cells expressing SATase grew on medium lacking L-cysteine, those expressing OAS-SHLase did not grow at all. The cells expressing both enzymes grew very well without L-cysteine. These results indicate that S. cerevisiae SATase cannot support L-cysteine biosynthesis and that S. cerevisiae OAS/OAH-SHLase produces L-cysteine if enough OAS is provided by E. coli SATase. It appears as if S. cerevisiae SATase does not possess a metabolic role in vivo either because of very low activity or localization. For example, S. cerevisiae SATase may be localized in the nucleus, thus controlling the level of OAS required for regulation of sulfate assimilation, but playing no role in the direct synthesis of L-cysteine. PMID:12586406

  7. Comparative analysis of trehalose production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under saline stress.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, J C; Jiménez-Estrada, M; Peña, A

    2005-02-01

    The comparative analysis of growth, intracellular content of Na+ and K+, and the production of trehalose in the halophilic Debaryomyces hansenii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined under saline stress. The yeast species were studied based on their ability to grow in the absence or presence of 0.6 or 1.0 M NaCl and KCl. D. hansenii strains grew better and accumulated more Na+ than S. cerevisiae under saline stress (0.6 and 1.0 M of NaCl), compared to S. cerevisiae strains under similar conditions. By two methods, we found that D. hansenii showed a higher production of trehalose, compared to S. cerevisiae; S. cerevisiae active dry yeast contained more trehalose than a regular commercial strain (S. cerevisiae La Azteca) under all conditions, except when the cells were grown in the presence of 1.0 M NaCl. In our experiments, it was found that D. hansenii accumulates more glycerol than trehalose under saline stress (2.0 and 3.0 M salts). However, under moderate NaCl stress, the cells accumulated more trehalose than glycerol. We suggest that the elevated production of trehalose in D. hansenii plays a role as reserve carbohydrate, as reported for other microorganisms. PMID:15338455

  8. Functional analysis of chimerical plasma membrane H+-ATPases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Morsomme, P; Sempoux-Thinès, D; Supply, P; Goffeau, A; Ghislain, M

    1997-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not support growth of H+-ATPase-depleted cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even after deletion of the enzyme's carboxy terminus. Functional chimerical H+-ATPase proteins in which appropriate regions of the S. pombe enzyme were replaced with their S. cerevisiae counterparts were generated by in vivo gene recombination. Site-directed mutagenesis of the H+-ATPase chimeras showed that a single amino acid replacement, tyrosine residue 596 by alanine, resulted in functional expression of the S. pombe H+-ATPase. The reverse Ala-598-->Tyr substitution was introduced into the S. cerevisiae enzyme to better understand the role of this alanine residue. However, no obvious effect on ATPase activity could be detected. The S. cerevisiae cells expressing the S. pombe H+-ATPase substituted with alanine were enlarged and grew more slowly than wild-type cells. ATPase activity showed a more alkaline pH optimum, lower K(m) values for MgATP and decreased Vmax compared with wild-type S. cerevisiae activity. None of these kinetic parameters was found to be modified in glucose-starved cells, indicating that the S. pombe H+-ATPase remained fully active. Interestingly, regulation of ATPase activity by glucose was restored to a chimera in which the S. cerevisiae sequence spans most of the catalytic site. PMID:9282738

  9. Characterization of the PNT1 pentamidine resistance gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, G; Staben, C

    1994-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PNT1 gene was isolated and characterized. When present in high copy number in S. cerevisiae, PNT1 confers resistance to the anti-Pneumocystis carinii drug pentamidine. The PNT1 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized polypeptide of 409 amino acids. The predicted gene product is a very basic (pI 9.9) polypeptide with one potential membrane-associated region. PNT1 is located on chromosome XVR of S. cerevisiae. It is transcribed at a very low level. Overexpression of the gene increases resistance to the cytostatic and mitochondrial DNA-damaging effects of pentamidine and related cationic compounds. Disruption of the gene leads to slightly increased levels of susceptibility to pentamidine and some related compounds. Images PMID:7695273

  10. Two programmed replicative lifespans of Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Xinan; Yuan, Ruoshi; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Minjuan; Ao, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Cellular replicative capacity is a therapeutic target for regenerative medicine as well as cancer treatment. The mechanism of replicative senescence and cell immortality is still unclear. We investigated the diauxic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that the replicative capacity revealed by the yeast growth curve can be understood by using the dynamical property of the molecular-cellular network regulating S. cerevisiae. The endogenous network we proposed has a limit cycle when pheromone signaling is disabled, consistent with the exponential growth phase with an infinite replicative capacity. In the post-diauxic phase, the cooperative effect of the pheromone activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway with the cell cycle leads to a fixed point attractor instead of the limit cycle. The cells stop dividing after several generations counting from the beginning of the post-diauxic growth. By tuning the MAPK pathway, S. cerevisiae therefore programs the number of offsprings it replicates. PMID:24447585

  11. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lignocellulosic hydrolysate from Chrysanthemum waste degradation.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Hidalgo, Balkys; Monsalve-Marín, Felipe; Narváez-Rincón, Paulo César; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario Enrique

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol production derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of a hydrolysate from floriculture waste degradation was studied. The hydrolysate was produced from Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) waste degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus and characterized to determine the presence of compounds that may inhibit fermentation. The products of hydrolysis confirmed by HPLC were cellobiose, glucose, xylose and mannose. The hydrolysate was fermented by S. cerevisiae, and concentrations of biomass, ethanol, and glucose were determined as a function of time. Results were compared to YGC modified medium (yeast extract, glucose and chloramphenicol) fermentation. Ethanol yield was 0.45 g g(-1), 88 % of the maximal theoretical value. Crysanthemum waste hydrolysate was suitable for ethanol production, containing glucose and mannose with adequate nutrients for S. cerevisiae fermentation and low fermentation inhibitor levels. PMID:23117675

  12. Novel Evolutionary Engineering Approach for Accelerated Utilization of Glucose, Xylose, and Arabinose Mixtures by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains?

    PubMed Central

    Wisselink, H. Wouter; Toirkens, Maurice J.; Wu, Qixiang; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks are thought to have great economic and environmental significance for future biotechnological production processes. For cost-effective and efficient industrial processes, complete and fast conversion of all sugars derived from these feedstocks is required. Hence, simultaneous or fast sequential fermentation of sugars would greatly contribute to the efficiency of production processes. One of the main challenges emerging from the use of lignocellulosics for the production of ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is efficient fermentation of d-xylose and l-arabinose, as these sugars cannot be used by natural S. cerevisiae strains. In this study, we describe the first engineered S. cerevisiae strain (strain IMS0003) capable of fermenting mixtures of glucose, xylose, and arabinose with a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g?1 of total sugar) without formation of the side products xylitol and arabinitol. The kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of glucose-xylose-arabinose mixtures were greatly improved by using a novel evolutionary engineering strategy. This strategy included a regimen consisting of repeated batch cultivation with repeated cycles of consecutive growth in three media with different compositions (glucose, xylose, and arabinose; xylose and arabinose; and only arabinose) and allowed rapid selection of an evolved strain (IMS0010) exhibiting improved specific rates of consumption of xylose and arabinose. This evolution strategy resulted in a 40% reduction in the time required to completely ferment a mixture containing 30 g liter?1 glucose, 15 g liter?1 xylose, and 15 g liter?1 arabinose. PMID:19074603

  13. Glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: algorithmic exploration of robustness and origin of oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kourdis, Panayotis D; Goussis, Dimitris A

    2013-06-01

    The glycolysis pathway in saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered, modeled by a dynamical system possessing a normally hyperbolic, exponentially attractive invariant manifold, where it exhibits limit cycle behavior. The fast dissipative action simplifies considerably the exploration of the system's robustness, since its dynamical properties are mainly determined by the slow dynamics characterizing the motion along the limit cycle on the slow manifold. This manifold expresses a number of equilibrations among components of the cellular mechanism that have a non-negligible projection in the fast subspace, while the motion along the slow manifold is due to components that have a non-negligible projection in the slow subspace. The characteristic time scale of the limit cycle can be directly altered by perturbing components whose projection in the slow subspace contributes to its generation. The same effect can be obtained indirectly by perturbing components whose projection in the fast subspace participates in the generated equilibrations, since the slow manifold will thus be displaced and the slow dynamics must adjust. Along the limit cycle, the characteristic time scale exhibits successively a dissipative and an explosive nature (leading towards or away from a fixed point, respectively). Depending on their individual contribution to the dissipative or explosive nature of the characteristic time scale, the components of the cellular mechanism can be classified as either dissipative or explosive ones. Since dissipative/explosive components tend to diminish/intensify the oscillatory behavior, one would expect that strengthening a dissipative/explosive component will diminish/intensify the oscillations. However, it is shown that strengthening dissipative (explosive) components might lead the system to amplified oscillations (fixed point). By employing the Computational Singular Perturbation method, it is demonstrated that such a behavior is due to the constraints imposed by the slow manifold. PMID:23517854

  14. Proximity Effect among Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes Displayed on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jungu; Kuroda, Kouichi

    2014-01-01

    Proximity effect is a form of synergistic effect exhibited when cellulases work within a short distance from each other, and this effect can be a key factor in enhancing saccharification efficiency. In this study, we evaluated the proximity effect between 3 cellulose-degrading enzymes displayed on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface, that is, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and ?-glucosidase. We constructed 2 kinds of arming yeasts through genome integration: ALL-yeast, which simultaneously displayed the 3 cellulases (thus, the different cellulases were near each other), and MIX-yeast, a mixture of 3 kinds of single-cellulase-displaying yeasts (the cellulases were far apart). The cellulases were tagged with a fluorescence protein or polypeptide to visualize and quantify their display. To evaluate the proximity effect, we compared the activities of ALL-yeast and MIX-yeast with respect to degrading phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose after adjusting for the cellulase amounts. ALL-yeast exhibited 1.25-fold or 2.22-fold higher activity than MIX-yeast did at a yeast concentration equal to the yeast cell number in 1 ml of yeast suspension with an optical density (OD) at 600 nm of 10 (OD10) or OD0.1. At OD0.1, the distance between the 3 cellulases was greater than that at OD10 in MIX-yeast, but the distance remained the same in ALL-yeast; thus, the difference between the cellulose-degrading activities of ALL-yeast and MIX-yeast increased (to 2.22-fold) at OD0.1, which strongly supports the proximity effect between the displayed cellulases. A proximity effect was also observed for crystalline cellulose (Avicel). We expect the proximity effect to further increase when enzyme display efficiency is enhanced, which would further increase cellulose-degrading activity. This arming yeast technology can also be applied to examine proximity effects in other diverse fields. PMID:25304511

  15. Abundant Gene-by-Environment Interactions in Gene Expression Reaction Norms to Copper within Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hodgins-Davis, Andrea; Adomas, Aleksandra B.; Warringer, Jonas; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation for plastic phenotypes potentially contributes phenotypic variation to populations that can be selected during adaptation to novel ecological contexts. However, the basis and extent of plastic variation that manifests in diverse environments remains elusive. Here, we characterize copper reaction norms for mRNA abundance among five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to 1) describe population variation across the full range of ecologically relevant copper concentrations, from starvation to toxicity, and 2) to test the hypothesis that plastic networks exhibit increased population variation for gene expression. We find that although the vast majority of the variation is small in magnitude (considerably <2-fold), not just some, but most genes demonstrate variable expression across environments, across genetic backgrounds, or both. Plastically expressed genes included both genes regulated directly by copper-binding transcription factors Mac1 and Ace1 and genes indirectly responding to the downstream metabolic consequences of the copper gradient, particularly genes involved in copper, iron, and sulfur homeostasis. Copper-regulated gene networks exhibited more similar behavior within the population in environments where those networks have a large impact on fitness. Nevertheless, expression variation in genes like Cup1, important to surviving copper stress, was linked with variation in mitotic fitness and in the breadth of differential expression across the genome. By revealing a broader and deeper range of population variation, our results provide further evidence for the interconnectedness of genome-wide mRNA levels, their dependence on environmental context and genetic background, and the abundance of variation in gene expression that can contribute to future evolution. PMID:23019066

  16. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...brewer's yeast) in human serum or plasma. Detection of S. cerevisiae antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control is FDA's “Guidance for...

  20. Screening for hydrolytic enzymes reveals Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ploier, Birgit; Scharwey, Melanie; Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Schatte, Jessica; Rechberger, Gerald; Kollroser, Manfred; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2013-12-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other eukaryotes, preserves fatty acids and sterols in a biologically inert form, as triacylglycerols and steryl esters. The major triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast S. cerevisiae identified so far are Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p (Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2003) YMR313c/TGL3 encodes a novel triacylglycerol lipase located in lipid particles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23317-23323; Athenstaedt, K., and Daum, G. (2005) Tgl4p and Tgl5p, two triacylglycerol lipases of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are localized to lipid particles. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37301-37309). We observed that upon cultivation on oleic acid, triacylglycerol mobilization did not come to a halt in a yeast strain deficient in all currently known triacylglycerol lipases, indicating the presence of additional not yet characterized lipases/esterases. Functional proteome analysis using lipase and esterase inhibitors revealed a subset of candidate genes for yet unknown hydrolytic enzymes on peroxisomes and lipid droplets. Based on the conserved GXSXG lipase motif, putative functions, and subcellular localizations, a selected number of candidates were characterized by enzyme assays in vitro, gene expression analysis, non-polar lipid analysis, and in vivo triacylglycerol mobilization assays. These investigations led to the identification of Ayr1p as a novel triacylglycerol lipase of yeast lipid droplets and confirmed the hydrolytic potential of the peroxisomal Lpx1p in vivo. Based on these results, we discuss a possible link between lipid storage, lipid mobilization, and peroxisomal utilization of fatty acids as a carbon source. PMID:24187129

  1. Protective effect of antioxidants against para-nonylphenol-induced inhibition of cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okai, Y; Higashi-Okai, K; Machida, K; Nakamura, H; Nakayama, K; Fujita, K; Tanaka, T; Otani, S; Taniguchi, M

    2000-04-01

    The cell growth-modulating activity of an endocrine disruptor, p-nonylphenol (NP), was estimated using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a simple model of eukaryotic cells. NP caused a dose-dependent suppressive effect on cell growth of S. cerevisiae at 10, 25 and 50 microM. The NP-induced cell growth inhibition was restored when concomitantly lipophilic antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were supplied, but not the hydrophilic antioxidants ascorbic acid or (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The cellular oxygen consumption of S. cerevisiae was also inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by the extracellular addition of NP, and pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene suppressed NP-induced inhibition of cellular oxygen consumption, but ascorbic acid and EGCG were not effective. Furthermore, NP caused a marked generation of radical oxygen species (ROS) in S. cerevisiae, which was suppressed by treatment with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, but not with ascorbic acid and EGCG. However, NP did not show a significant inhibitory effect on cell growth and survival of mitochondria-deficient petite mutant cells and they showed a relatively weak ROS-generating activity compared with parent yeast cells. These results suggest that NP-induced inhibition of cell growth and oxygen consumption in S. cerevisiae might be possibly associated with ROS generation in yeast mitochondria. The significance of this finding is discussed from the viewpoint of NP-induced oxidative stress against eukaryotic cells. PMID:10731608

  2. Genetic approaches for identifying kinetochore components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Doheny, K.F.; Puziss, J.; Spencer, F.; Hieter, P. [John Hopkins Univ. Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A fundamental aspect of the cell division cycle is the chromosome cycle in which each of the chromosomal DNA molecules undergoes a series of morphological changes and complex movements to ensure faithful distribution at mitosis. The gene products responsible for execution of the chromosome cycle include structural components, such as those that assemble into the mitotic spindle apparatus, and regulatory components, such as those that coordinate the ordered series of events leading to chromosome segregation within the cell cycle. We have been taking several genetic approaches to identify genes encoding determinants critical to the chromosome cycle in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae.

  3. Calmodulin controls organization of the actin cytoskeleton via regulation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Desrivières, Sylvane; Cooke, Frank T; Morales-Johansson, Helena; Parker, Peter J; Hall, Michael N

    2002-01-01

    Phosphoinositides regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, cytoskeleton remodelling and membrane trafficking, yet the mechanisms controlling the kinases, phosphatases and lipases that modulate phosphoinositide levels are poorly understood. In the present study, we describe a mechanism controlling MSS4, the sole phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in MSS4 and CMD1, encoding the small Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin, confer similar phenotypes, including loss of viability and defects in endocytosis and in organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of MSS4 suppresses the growth and actin defects of cmd1-226, a temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutant which is defective in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Finally, the cmd1-226 mutant exhibits reduced levels of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate. These findings suggest that calmodulin positively controls MSS4 activity and thereby the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:12079494

  4. The unusual UBZ domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae polymerase ?

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Rachel V.; Bomar, Martha G.; D’Souza, Sanjay; Zhou, Pei; Walker, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has revealed the presence of ubiquitin-binding domains in the Y family polymerases. The ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain of human polymerase ? is vital for its regulation, localization, and function. Here, we elucidate structural and functional features of the non-canonical UBZ motif of S. cerevisiae pol ?. Characterization of pol ? mutants confirms the importance of the UBZ motif and implies that its function is independent of zinc binding. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that zinc does bind to and affect the structure of the purified UBZ domain, but is not required for its ubiquitin-binding activity. Our finding that this unusual zinc finger is able to interact with ubiquitin even in its apo form adds support to the model that ubiquitin binding is the primary and functionally important activity of the UBZ domain in S. cerevisiae polymerase ?. Putative ubiquitin-binding domains, primarily UBZs, are identified in the majority of known pol ? homologs. We discuss the implications of our observations for zinc finger structure and pol ? regulation. PMID:20837403

  5. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine. PMID:25345561

  6. Formation of AAV Single Stranded DNA Genome from a Circular Plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  7. Candida albicans SSD1 can suppress multiple mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Rosamond, J

    1998-11-01

    The SSD1 gene of Saccharomyces encodes a 160 kDa cytoplasmic protein that can suppress mutations in a number of other genes. A functional homologue of SSD1 from the human pathogen Candida albicans was isolated on the basis of its ability to restore viability at the restrictive temperature in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae swi4 ssd1-d strain. The C. albicans gene, designated CaSSD1, encodes a 1262 aa protein which has 47% identity overall to S. cerevisiae SSD1 as well as significant identity to Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 and sts5 products. It is shown that CaSSD1 expression is constitutive through the mitotic cell cycle, which is consistent with a role for the protein in cell growth. CaSSD1 rescues the swi4ts defect in an ssd1-d background when expressed from its own promoter on a single-copy plasmid and under the same conditions can rescue mutations in genes encoding protein phosphatase type 2A catalytic subunits. These data suggest that CaSSD1, like its S. cerevisiae homologue, can limit the effect of mutations on a variety of cellular processes. PMID:9846729

  8. GABA shunt mediates thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by reducing reactive oxygen production.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juxiang; Barbosa, Jose M; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D

    2013-04-01

    The GABA shunt pathway involves three enzymes, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA aminotransferase (GAT) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). These enzymes act in concert to convert glutamate (?-ketoglutarate) to succinate. Deletion mutations in each of these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in growth defects at 45°C. Double and triple mutation constructs were compared for thermotolerance with the wild-type and single mutant strains. Although wild-type and all mutant strains were highly susceptible to brief heat stress at 50°C, a non-lethal 30 min at 40°C temperature pretreatment induced tolerance of the wild-type and all of the mutants to 50°C. The mutant strains collectively exhibited similar susceptibility at 45°C to the induced 50°C treatments. Intracellular reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) accumulation was measured in wild-type and each of the mutant strains. ROI accumulation in each of the mutants and in various stress conditions was correlated to heat susceptibility of the mutant strains. The addition of ROI scavenger N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone (PBN) enhanced survival of the mutants and strongly inhibited the accumulation of ROI, but did not have significant effect on the wild-type. Measurement of intracellular GABA, glutamate and ?-ketoglutarate during lethal heat exposure at 45°C showed higher levels of accumulation of GABA and ?-ketoglutarate in the uga1 and uga2 mutants, while glutamate accumulated at higher level in the gad1 mutant. These results suggest that the GABA shunt pathway plays a crucial role in protecting yeast cells from heat damage by restricting ROI production involving the flux of carbon from ?-ketoglutarate to succinate during heat stress. PMID:23447388

  9. Enhanced hexose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through integration of stoichiometric modeling and genetic screening.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Josh; Kim, Soo Rin; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-01-20

    In order to determine beneficial gene deletions for ethanol production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed an in silico gene deletion experiment based on a genome-scale metabolic model. Genes coding for two oxidative phosphorylation reactions (cytochrome c oxidase and ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase) were identified by the model-based simulation as potential deletion targets for enhancing ethanol production and maintaining acceptable overall growth rate in oxygen-limited conditions. Since the two target enzymes are composed of multiple subunits, we conducted a genetic screening study to evaluate the in silico results and compare the effect of deleting various portions of the respiratory enzyme complexes. Over two-thirds of the knockout mutants identified by the in silico study did exhibit experimental behavior in qualitative agreement with model predictions, but the exceptions illustrate the limitation of using a purely stoichiometric model-based approach. Furthermore, there was a substantial quantitative variation in phenotype among the various respiration-deficient mutants that were screened in this study, and three genes encoding respiratory enzyme subunits were identified as the best knockout targets for improving hexose fermentation in microaerobic conditions. Specifically, deletion of either COX9 or QCR9 resulted in higher ethanol production rates than the parental strain by 37% and 27%, respectively, with slight growth disadvantages. Also, deletion of QCR6 led to improved ethanol production rate by 24% with no growth disadvantage. The beneficial effects of these gene deletions were consistently demonstrated in different strain backgrounds and with four common hexoses. The combination of stoichiometric modeling and genetic screening using a systematic knockout collection was useful for narrowing a large set of gene targets and identifying targets of interest. PMID:25435378

  10. Similarities and differences in the biochemical and enzymological properties of the four isomaltases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xu; Petitjean, Marjorie; Teste, Marie-Ange; Kooli, Wafa; Tranier, Samuel; François, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterization of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the ?-(1,6) disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis–Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyze trisaccharides bearing an ?-(1,6) linkage, but also ?-(1,2), ?-(1,3) and ?-(1,5) disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for ?-(1,6) substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties. PMID:24649402

  11. Adjustment of Trehalose Metabolism in Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains To Modify Ethanol Yields

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, D.; Heyns, E. H.; Setati, M. E.; Bosch, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1? and tdh3?), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines. PMID:23793638

  12. Similarities and differences in the biochemical and enzymological properties of the four isomaltases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu; Petitjean, Marjorie; Teste, Marie-Ange; Kooli, Wafa; Tranier, Samuel; François, Jean Marie; Parrou, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterization of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the ?-(1,6) disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis-Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyze trisaccharides bearing an ?-(1,6) linkage, but also ?-(1,2), ?-(1,3) and ?-(1,5) disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for ?-(1,6) substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties. PMID:24649402

  13. Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fumaric acid is a commercially important component of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and industrial materials, yet the current methods of production are unsustainable and ecologically destructive. Results In this study, the fumarate biosynthetic pathway involving reductive reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was exogenously introduced in S. cerevisiae by a series of simple genetic modifications. First, the Rhizopus oryzae genes for malate dehydrogenase (RoMDH) and fumarase (RoFUM1) were heterologously expressed. Then, expression of the endogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2) was up-regulated. The resultant yeast strain, FMME-001 ?PYC2 + ?RoMDH, was capable of producing significantly higher yields of fumarate in the glucose medium (3.18 ± 0.15 g liter-1) than the control strain FMME-001 empty vector. Conclusions The results presented here provide a novel strategy for fumarate biosynthesis, which represents an important advancement in producing high yields of fumarate in a sustainable and ecologically-friendly manner. PMID:22335940

  14. Multiple Pathways of Recombination Induced by Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pâques, Frédéric; Haber, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the principal organism used in experiments to examine genetic recombination in eukaryotes. Studies over the past decade have shown that meiotic recombination and probably most mitotic recombination arise from the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). There are multiple pathways by which such DSBs can be repaired, including several homologous recombination pathways and still other nonhomologous mechanisms. Our understanding has also been greatly enriched by the characterization of many proteins involved in recombination and by insights that link aspects of DNA repair to chromosome replication. New molecular models of DSB-induced gene conversion are presented. This review encompasses these different aspects of DSB-induced recombination in Saccharomyces and attempts to relate genetic, molecular biological, and biochemical studies of the processes of DNA repair and recombination. PMID:10357855

  15. Genomic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentation of bacanora produced by artisanal methods.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ainza, M L; Zamora-Quiñonez, K A; Moreno-Ibarra, G M; Acedo-Félix, E

    2015-03-01

    Bacanora is a spirituous beverage elaborated with Agave angustifolia Haw in an artisanal process. Natural fermentation is mostly performed with native yeasts and bacteria. In this study, 228 strains of yeast like Saccharomyces were isolated from the natural alcoholic fermentation on the production of bacanora. Restriction analysis of the amplified region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes (RFLPr) were used to confirm the genus, and 182 strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These strains displayed high genomic variability in their chromosomes profiles by karyotyping. Electrophoretic profiles of the strains evaluated showed a large number of chromosomes the size of which ranged between 225 and 2200 kpb approximately. PMID:25561061

  16. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  17. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is necessary for proper function of VDAC in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Karachitos, Andonis; Galganska, Hanna; Wojtkowska, Malgorzata; Budzinska, Malgorzata; Stobienia, Olgierd; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Kmita, Hanna

    2009-01-22

    Available data suggest that a copper-and zinc-containing dismutase (CuZnSOD) plays a significant role in protecting eukaryotic cells against oxidative modifications which may contribute to cell aging. Here we demonstrated that depletion of CuZnSOD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (Deltasod1 cells) affected distinctly channel activity of VDAC (voltage dependent anion selective channel) and resulted in a moderate reduction in VDAC levels as well as in levels of protein crucial for VDAC import into mitochondria, namely Tob55/Sam50 and Tom40. The observed alterations may result in mitochondriopathy and subsequently in the shortening of the replicative life span observed for S. cerevisiaeDeltasod1 cells. PMID:19116152

  18. [Relationship between rhodamine 6G accumulation and fluconazole resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c].

    PubMed

    Stella, C A; Burgos, H I; Costanzo, R

    2000-01-01

    Severe mycotic infections are a source of concern in immunocompromised patients or in those who receive chemotherapy for hematological malignant diseases. One of the causes is referred to the appearance of antimycotic resistant microorganisms. Fluconazole is one of the antimycotic used for invasive mycoses treatment. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the factors that originate this resistance. In the present report the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c was used as a model system. In resistant strains the accumulation of the lipophilic cation Rhodamine 6G, L-leucine uptake and growth inhibition by crystal violet dye were determined. The results presented herein demonstrate the correlation between the membrane potential and the resistance to fluconazole presented by S. cerevisiae strain S288c. PMID:11008709

  19. Reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-03-20

    Functionally reversing the ?-oxidation cycle represents an efficient and versatile strategy for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, due to the compartmentalization of cellular metabolisms, reversing the ?-oxidation cycle in eukaryotic systems remains elusive. Here, we report the first successful reversal of the ?-oxidation cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an important cell factory for large-scale production of fuels and chemicals. After extensive gene cloning and enzyme activity assays, a reversed ?-oxidation pathway was functionally constructed in the yeast cytosol, which led to the synthesis of n-butanol, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters (MCFAEEs). The resultant recombinant strain provides a new broadly applicable platform for synthesis of fuels and chemicals in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24959659

  20. In vivo analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HO nuclease recognition site by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nickoloff, J A; Singer, J D; Heffron, F

    1990-01-01

    HO nuclease introduces a specific double-strand break in the mating-type locus (MAT) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, initiating mating-type interconversion. To define the sequence recognized by HO nuclease, random mutations were produced in a 30-base-pair region homologous to either MAT alpha or MATa by a chemical synthesis procedure. The mutant sites were introduced into S. cerevisiae on a shuttle vector and tested for the ability to stimulate recombination in an assay that mimics mating-type interconversion. The results suggest that a core of 8 noncontiguous bases near the Y-Z junction of MAT is essential for HO nuclease to bind and cleave its recognition site. Other contacts must be required because substrates that contain several mutations outside an intact core reduce or eliminate cleavage in vivo. The results show that HO site recognition is a complex phenomenon, similar to promoter-polymerase interactions. Images PMID:2406563

  1. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  2. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol strains PE-2 and CAT-1 for efficient lignocellulosic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Romaní, Aloia; Pereira, Filipa; Johansson, Björn; Domingues, Lucília

    2015-03-01

    In this work, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains PE-2 and CAT-1, commonly used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, were engineered for xylose fermentation, where the first fermented xylose faster than the latter, but also produced considerable amounts of xylitol. An engineered PE-2 strain (MEC1121) efficiently consumed xylose in presence of inhibitors both in synthetic and corn-cob hydrolysates. Interestingly, the S. cerevisiae MEC1121 consumed xylose and glucose simultaneously, while a CEN.PK based strain consumed glucose and xylose sequentially. Deletion of the aldose reductase GRE3 lowered xylitol production to undetectable levels and increased xylose consumption rate which led to higher final ethanol concentrations. Fermentation of corn-cob hydrolysate using this strain, MEC1133, resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.47 g/g of total sugars which is 92% of the theoretical yield. PMID:25536512

  3. Co-inoculation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and influence on volatile composition of wines.

    PubMed

    Barrajón, N; Capece, A; Arévalo-Villena, M; Briones, A; Romano, P

    2011-08-01

    Wine is the result of the performance of different yeast strains throughout the fermentation in both spontaneous and inoculated processes. 22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were characterized by microsatellite fingerprinting, selecting 6 of them to formulate S. cerevisiae mixed cultures. The aim of this study was to ascertain a potential benefit to use mixed cultures to improve wine quality. For this purpose yeasts behavior was studied during co-inoculated fermentations. Aromatic composition of the wines obtained was analyzed, and despite the fact that only one strain dominated at the end of the process, co-cultures released different concentrations of major volatile compounds than single strains, especially higher alcohols and acetaldehydes. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the type and quantity of the amino acids assimilated. This study demonstrates that the final wine composition may be modulated and enhanced by using suitable combinations of yeast strains. PMID:21569955

  4. Acetaldehyde stimulates ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown on various carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Hucker, B; Vriesekoop, F

    2008-01-01

    The ability of added acetaldehyde to stimulate growth in ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae while grown on non-fermentable substrates (ethanol, glycerol) is reported. The addition of acetaldehyde to ethanol-stressed yeast grown on either ethanol or glycerol led to a significant decrease in lag time of 67 and 45 %, respectively (p = 0.000) and an increase in the specific growth rate (0.008-0.038/h and 0.060-0.074/h, respectively). The stimulatory effect of acetaldehyde could be mimicked by the addition of propionaldehyde. Results, following metabolic tracing of the added stimulants, question the previously held notion that the acetaldehyde effect in S. cerevisiae is fully redox related. PMID:19381475

  5. Effect of acetaldehyde on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis subjected to environmental shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, G.A.; Hobley, T.J.; Pamment, N.B. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-01-05

    The lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a step increase in temperature or ethanol concentration was reduced by as much as 60% when acetaldehyde was added to the medium at concentrations less than 0.1 g/L. Maximum specific growth rates were also substantially increased. Even greater proportional reductions in lag time due to acetaldehyde addition were observed for ethanol-shocked cultures of Zymomonas mobilis. Acetaldehyde had no effect on S. cerevisiae cultures started from stationary phase inocula in the absence of environmental shock and its lag-reducing effects were greater in complex medium than in a defined synthetic medium. Acetaldehyde reacted strongly with the ingredients of complex culture media. It is proposed that the effect of added acetaldehyde may be to compensate for the inability of cells to maintain transmembrane acetaldehyde gradients following an environmental shock.

  6. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found. PMID:24491750

  7. Effects of aeration on formation and localization of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.; Jahnke, L.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that two different forms of the enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) are present, depending on the conditions under which the cells are grown. The paper evaluates the usefulness of a method designed to assay both synthetases simultaneously in yeast homogenates. The data presented confirm the possibility of simultaneous detection and estimation of the amount of both ACSs of S. cerevisiae in crude homogenates of this strain, making possible the study of physiological factors involved in the formation of these isoenzymes. One important factor for specifying which of the two enzymes is found in these yeast cells is the presence or absence of oxygen in their environment. Aeration not only affects the ratio of the two ACSs but also appears to affect the cellular distribution of these enzymes. Most of the data presented suggest the possibility that the nonaerobic ACS may serve as a precursor to the aerobic form.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 cooperates with MRX-Sae2 in promoting DNA-end resection

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marina; Bonetti, Diego; Villa, Matteo; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Diverse roles in DNA metabolism have been envisaged for budding yeast and mammalian Rif1. In particular, yeast Rif1 is involved in telomere homeostasis, while its mammalian counterpart participates in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rif1 supports cell survival to DNA lesions in the absence of MRX or Sae2. Furthermore, it contributes to the nucleolytic processing (resection) of DSBs. This Rif1-dependent control of DSB resection becomes important for DSB repair by homologous recombination when resection activities are suboptimal. PMID:24692507

  9. Newly identified protein Imi1 affects mitochondrial integrity and glutathione homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kowalec, Piotr; Grynberg, Marcin; Paj?k, Beata; Socha, Anna; Winiarska, Katarzyna; Fronk, Jan; Kurlandzka, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Glutathione homeostasis is crucial for cell functioning. We describe a novel Imi1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting mitochondrial integrity and involved in controlling glutathione level. Imi1 is cytoplasmic and, except for its N-terminal Flo11 domain, has a distinct solenoid structure. A lack of Imi1 leads to mitochondrial lesions comprising aberrant morphology of cristae and multifarious mtDNA rearrangements and impaired respiration. The mitochondrial malfunctioning is coupled to significantly decrease the level of intracellular reduced glutathione without affecting oxidized glutathione, which decreases the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. These defects are accompanied by decreased cadmium sensitivity and increased phytochelatin-2 level. PMID:26091838

  10. Role of hydrosulfide ions (HS-) in methylmercury resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Ishii, N; Fujino, S; Aoyama, I

    1991-11-01

    Methylmercury-resistant mutants were obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They were divided into two complementation groups, met2 (homoserine O-acetyltransferase deficiency) and met15 (enzyme deficiency unknown), as reported previously. It was found that met15 was allelic to met17 (O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase deficiency). Methylmercury toxicity was counteracted by exogenously added HS-, and both met2 and met17 (met15) mutants overproduced H2S. On the basis of these results, we conclude that met2 and met17 (met15) cause accumulation of hydrosulfide ions in the cell and that the increased level of hydrosulfide is responsible for detoxification of methylmercury. PMID:1781681

  11. Mitochondrial Lon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a ring-shaped protease with seven flexible subunits

    PubMed Central

    Stahlberg, Henning; Kutejová, Eva; Suda, Kitaru; Wolpensinger, Bettina; Lustig, Ariel; Schatz, Gottfried; Engel, Andreas; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    1999-01-01

    Lon (or La) is a soluble, homooligomeric ATP-dependent protease. Mass determination and cryoelectron microscopy of pure mitochondrial Lon from Saccharomyces cerevisiae identify Lon as a flexible ring-shaped heptamer. In the presence of ATP or 5?-adenylylimidodiphosphate, most of the rings are symmetric and resemble other ATP-driven machines that mediate folding and degradation of proteins. In the absence of nucleotides, most of the rings are distorted, with two adjacent subunits forming leg-like protrusions. These results suggest that asymmetric conformational changes serve to power processive unfolding and translocation of substrates to the active site of the Lon protease. PMID:10359790

  12. Synergistic temperature and ethanol effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae dynamic behaviour in ethanol bio-fuel production.

    PubMed

    Aldiguier, A S; Alfenore, S; Cameleyre, X; Goma, G; Uribelarrea, J L; Guillouet, S E; Molina-Jouve, C

    2004-07-01

    The impact of ethanol and temperature on the dynamic behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol biofuel production was studied using an isothermal fed-batch process at five different temperatures. Fermentation parameters and kinetics were quantified. The best performances were found at 30 and 33 degrees C around 120 g l(-1) ethanol produced in 30 h with a slight benefit for growth at 30 degrees C and for ethanol production at 33 degrees C. Glycerol formation, enhanced with increasing temperatures, was coupled with growth for all fermentations; whereas, a decoupling phenomenon occurred at 36 and 39 degrees C pointing out a possible role of glycerol in yeast thermal protection. PMID:15098119

  13. The essential helicase gene RAD3 suppresses short-sequence recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bailis, A M; Maines, S; Negritto, M T

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated an allele of the essential DNA repair and transcription gene RAD3 that relaxes the restriction against recombination between short DNA sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Double-strand break repair and gene replacement events requiring recombination between short identical or mismatched sequences were stimulated in the rad3-G595R mutant cells. We also observed an increase in the physical stability of double-strand breaks in the rad3-G595R mutant cells. These results suggest that the RAD3 gene suppresses recombination involving short homologous sequences by promoting the degradation of the ends of broken DNA molecules. PMID:7623796

  14. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Cuprous-Thiolate Clusters in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Pickering, I.J.; Winge, D.R.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    Copper (Cu) metallothioneins are cuprous-thiolate proteins that contain multimetallic clusters, and are thought to have dual functions of Cu storage and Cu detoxification. We have used a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density-functional theory (DFT) to investigate the nature of Cu binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae metallothionein. We found that the XAS of metallothionein prepared, containing a full complement of Cu, was quantitatively consistent with the crystal structure, and that reconstitution of the apo-metallothionein with stoichiometric Cu results in the formation of a tetracopper cluster, indicating cooperative binding of the Cu ions by the metallothionein.

  15. Production of Soluble and Active Transferrin Receptor-Targeting Single-Chain Antibody using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Hackel; Dagang Huang; Jennifer C. Bubolz; Xin X. Wang; Eric V. Shusta

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Purpose  This study describes the soluble production, purification, and functional testing of an anti-transferrin receptor single-chain\\u000a antibody (OX26 scFv) using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The yeast secretion apparatus was optimized by modulating expression temperature, the folding environment of the endoplasmic\\u000a reticulum, and gene dosage. Secreted scFv was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and tested for binding\\u000a and internalization into the

  16. Transport-limited fermentation and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its competitive inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1967-01-01

    The anaerobic glucose uptake (at 20°, pH 3.5) by resting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae followed unidirectional Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-sorbose; Km and Ki were respectively 5.6×10-4m and 1.8×10-1m; Vmax was 6.5×10-8 moles mg-1 min-1. The aerobic uptake of glucose by resting yeast was also inhibited by l-sorbose but did not follow unidirectional Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Glucose-limited growth

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction data of ?-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Leiro, Rafael; Pereira-Rodríguez, Ángel; Cerdán, M. Esperanza; Becerra, Manuel; Sanz-Aparicio, Juliana

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-galactosidase is a highly glycosylated extracellular protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ?-galactosidic linkages in various glucids. Its enzymatic activity is of interest in many food-related industries and has biotechnological applications. Glycosylated and in vitro deglycosylated protein samples were both assayed for crystallization, but only the latter gave good-quality crystals that were suitable for X-ray crystallography. The crystals belonged to space group P4212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.24, c = 111.52?Å. A complete diffraction data set was collected to 1.95?Å resolution using a synchrotron source. PMID:20057068

  18. Transcriptional control of the sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, I; Fukui, S

    1985-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucoamylase activity appears specifically in sporulating cells heterozygous for the mating-type locus (MAT). We identified a sporulation-specific glucoamylase gene (SGA) and show that expression of SGA is positively regulated by the mating-type genes, both MATa1 and MAT alpha 2. Northern blot analysis revealed that control of SGA is exerted at the level of RNA production. Expression of SGA or the consequent degradation of glycogen to glucose in cells is not required for meiosis or sporulation, since MATa/MAT alpha diploid cells homozygous for an insertion mutation at SGA still formed four viable ascospores. Images PMID:3939312

  19. Oxygen requirements for formation and activity of the squalene expoxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, L.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on squalene epoxidase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. In cells grown in standing cultures, the epoxidase was localized mainly in the 'mitochondrial' fraction. Upon aeration, enzyme activity increased and the newly formed enzyme was associated with the 'microsomal' fraction. At 0.03 percent (vol/vol) oxygen, epoxidase levels doubled, whereas the ergosterol level was only slightly increased. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase in epoxidase under these conditions. An apparent K sub m for oxygen of 0.38 percent (vol/vol) was determined from a crude particulate preparation for the epoxidase.

  20. Sol-gel immobilisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances viability in organic media.

    PubMed

    Desimone, Martín F; Degrossi, José; D'Aquino, Miguel; Diaz, Luis E

    2003-05-01

    The polyhydroxylated silane network of a sol-gel protected immobilised Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the effects of five organic solvents. The viability of immobilised yeast directly correlated with the logarithm of the partition coefficient of the solvent in an octanol/water two phase system increasing the decimal reduction time (D) and reaching the maximum with octanol, the most hydrophobic solvent assayed. The D value increased from 0.16 min for free yeast to 1.9 and to 22 min for immobilised yeast exposed to ethanol and 1-octanol respectively. PMID:12882164

  1. Engineering of carbon catabolite repression in recombinant xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Roca, C; Haack, M B; Olsson, L

    2004-02-01

    Two xylose-fermenting glucose-derepressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed in order to investigate the influence of carbon catabolite repression on xylose metabolism. S. cerevisiae CPB.CR2 (Delta mig1, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) and CPB.MBH2 (Delta mig1, Delta mig2, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) were analysed for changes in xylose consumption rate and ethanol production rate during anaerobic batch and chemostat cultivations on a mixture of 20 g l(-1) glucose and 50 g l(-1) xylose, and their characteristics were compared to the parental strain S. cerevisiae TMB3001 ( XYL1, XYL2, XKS1). Improvement of xylose utilisation was limited during batch cultivations for the constructed strains compared to the parental strain. However, a 25% and 12% increased xylose consumption rate during chemostat cultivation was achieved for CPB.CR2 and CPB.MBH2, respectively. Furthermore, during chemostat cultivations of CPB.CR2, where the cells are assumed to grow under non-repressive conditions as they sense almost no glucose, invertase activity was lower during growth on xylose and glucose than on glucose only. The 3-fold reduction in invertase activity could only be attributed to the presence of xylose, suggesting that xylose is a repressive sugar for S. cerevisiae. PMID:12925863

  2. Xylan catabolism is improved by blending bioprospecting and metabolic pathway engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2015-04-01

    Complete utilization of all available carbon sources in lignocellulosic biomass still remains a challenge in engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even with efficient heterologous xylose catabolic pathways, S. cerevisiae is unable to utilize xylose in lignocellulosic biomass unless xylan is depolymerized to xylose. Here we demonstrate that a blended bioprospecting approach along with pathway engineering and evolutionary engineering can be used to improve xylan catabolism in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, we perform whole genome sequencing-based bioprospecting of a strain with remarkable pentose catabolic potential that we isolated and named Ustilago bevomyces. The heterologous expression of xylan catabolic genes enabled S. cerevisiae to grow on xylan as a single carbon source in minimal medium. A combination of bioprospecting and metabolic pathway evolution demonstrated that the xylan catabolic pathway could be further improved. Ultimately, engineering efforts were able to achieve xylan conversion into ethanol of up to 0.22 g/L on minimal medium compositions with xylan. This pathway provides a novel starting point for improving lignocellulosic conversion by yeast. PMID:25651533

  3. Cloning and characterization of the CYS3 (CYI1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Tanaka, K; Naito, K; Heike, C; Shinoda, S; Yamamoto, S; Ohmori, S; Oshima, T; Toh-e, A

    1992-01-01

    A DNA fragment containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYS3 (CYI1) gene was cloned. The clone had a single open reading frame of 1,182 bp (394 amino acid residues). By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cystathionine gamma-lyase, CYS3 (CYI1) was concluded to be the structural gene for this enzyme. In addition, the deduced sequence showed homology with the following enzymes: rat cystathionine gamma-lyase (41%), Escherichia coli cystathionine gamma-synthase (36%), and cystathionine beta-lyase (25%). The N-terminal half of it was homologous (39%) with the N-terminal half of S. cerevisiae O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The cloned CYS3 (CYI1) gene marginally complemented the E. coli metB mutation (cystathionine gamma-synthase deficiency) and conferred cystathionine gamma-synthase activity as well as cystathionine gamma-lyase activity to E. coli; cystathionine gamma-synthase activity was detected when O-succinylhomoserine but not O-acetylhomoserine was used as substrate. We therefore conclude that S. cerevisiae cystathionine gamma-lyase and E. coli cystathionine gamma-synthase are homologous in both structure and in vitro function and propose that their different in vivo functions are due to the unavailability of O-succinylhomoserine in S. cerevisiae and the scarceness of cystathionine in E. coli. Images PMID:1577698

  4. Cloning and characterization of the CYS3 (CYI1) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ono, B; Tanaka, K; Naito, K; Heike, C; Shinoda, S; Yamamoto, S; Ohmori, S; Oshima, T; Toh-e, A

    1992-05-01

    A DNA fragment containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYS3 (CYI1) gene was cloned. The clone had a single open reading frame of 1,182 bp (394 amino acid residues). By comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of cystathionine gamma-lyase, CYS3 (CYI1) was concluded to be the structural gene for this enzyme. In addition, the deduced sequence showed homology with the following enzymes: rat cystathionine gamma-lyase (41%), Escherichia coli cystathionine gamma-synthase (36%), and cystathionine beta-lyase (25%). The N-terminal half of it was homologous (39%) with the N-terminal half of S. cerevisiae O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The cloned CYS3 (CYI1) gene marginally complemented the E. coli metB mutation (cystathionine gamma-synthase deficiency) and conferred cystathionine gamma-synthase activity as well as cystathionine gamma-lyase activity to E. coli; cystathionine gamma-synthase activity was detected when O-succinylhomoserine but not O-acetylhomoserine was used as substrate. We therefore conclude that S. cerevisiae cystathionine gamma-lyase and E. coli cystathionine gamma-synthase are homologous in both structure and in vitro function and propose that their different in vivo functions are due to the unavailability of O-succinylhomoserine in S. cerevisiae and the scarceness of cystathionine in E. coli. PMID:1577698

  5. High-yield production and characterization of biologically active recombinant aprotinin expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Meta, Akihiro; Nakatake, Hiroshi; Imamura, Takayuki; Nozaki, Chikateru; Sugimura, Kazuhisa

    2009-07-01

    Aprotinin is a polypeptide composed of 58 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 6512Da. The 58 amino acid residues are arranged in a single polypeptide chain, which is cross-linked by three disulfide bridges and folded to form a pear-shaped molecule. To express recombinant aprotinin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a synthetic gene encoding aprotinin was constructed and fused in frame with the pre-sequence of the S. cerevisiae MATalpha1 gene at the cleavage site of signal peptidase. The expression of aprotinin in S. cerevisiae was carried out using the PRB1 promoter. Aprotinin was secreted as a biologically active protein at a concentration of 426 mg/L into high cell density fermentation medium of 70.9 g/L cell dry weight. The purification process consisted of only three major steps and provided consistent yields of recombinant aprotinin using gel filtration high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) with a purity level higher than 99% and was free of non-aprotinin-related impurities. The recombinant aprotinin had the same characteristics as bovine aprotinin in a number of analytical methods, including alpha2-plasmin inhibition assay, amino acid composition, N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, and mass spectrum analysis. With further optimization of the purification process and culture conditions for high-yield production by S. cerevisiae, this source of recombinant aprotinin may be a promising approach for the commercial manufacture of aprotinin for pharmaceutical use instead of bovine aprotinin. PMID:19233283

  6. Probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as biotherapeutic tools: is there room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Palma, Mariana L; Zamith-Miranda, Daniel; Martins, Flaviano S; Bozza, Fernando A; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Montero-Lomeli, Mônica; Marques, Ernesto T A; Douradinha, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var boulardii is widely used as a low cost and efficient adjuvant against gastrointestinal tract disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and treatment of several types of diarrhea, both in humans and animals. S. boulardii exerts its protective mechanisms by binding and neutralizing enteric pathogens or their toxins, by reducing inflammation and by inducing the secretion of sIgA. Although several S. cerevisiae strains have proven probiotic potential in both humans and animals, only S. boulardii is currently licensed for use in humans. Recently, some researchers started using S. boulardii as heterologous protein expression systems. Combined with their probiotic activity, the use of these strains as prophylactic and therapeutic proteins carriers might result in a positive combined effort to fight specific diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the current use of S. cerevisiae strains as probiotics and their mechanisms of action. We also discuss their potential to produce molecules with biotherapeutic application and the advantages and hurdles of this approach. Finally, we suggest future directions and alternatives for which the combined effort of specific immunomodulatory effects of probiotic S. cerevisiae strains and ability to express desired foreign genes would find a practical application. PMID:26142388

  7. Biosynthesis of isoprenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and flavonoids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chemler, Joseph A; Yan, Yajun; Koffas, Mattheos AG

    2006-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology employs the controlled use of microorganisms for the production of synthetic chemicals or simple biomass that can further be used in a diverse array of applications that span the pharmaceutical, chemical and nutraceutical industries. Recent advances in metagenomics and in the incorporation of entire biosynthetic pathways into Saccharomyces cerevisiae have greatly expanded both the fitness and the repertoire of biochemicals that can be synthesized from this popular microorganism. Further, the availability of the S. cerevisiae entire genome sequence allows the application of systems biology approaches for improving its enormous biosynthetic potential. In this review, we will describe some of the efforts on using S. cerevisiae as a cell factory for the biosynthesis of high-value natural products that belong to the families of isoprenoids, flavonoids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. As natural products are increasingly becoming the center of attention of the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries, the use of S. cerevisiae for their production is only expected to expand in the future, further allowing the biosynthesis of novel molecular structures with unique properties. PMID:16719921

  8. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for astaxanthin production and oxidative stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ukibe, Ken; Hashida, Keisuke; Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product) and bifunctional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB product) resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of beta-carotene in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae (the BTS1 gene product) increased the intracellular beta-carotene levels due to the accelerated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to GGPP. Introduction of the X. dendrorhous crtS gene, encoding astaxanthin synthase, assumed to be the cytochrome P450 enzyme, did not lead to astaxanthin production. However, coexpression of CrtS with X. dendrorhous CrtR, a cytochrome P450 reductase, resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of astaxanthin. In addition, the beta-carotene-producing yeast cells transformed by the bacterial genes crtW and crtZ, encoding beta-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, respectively, also accumulated astaxanthin and its intermediates, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Interestingly, we found that these ketocarotenoids conferred oxidative stress tolerance on S. cerevisiae cells. This metabolic engineering has potential for overproduction of astaxanthin and breeding of novel oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:19801484

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenotypes can be predicted by using constraint-based analysis of a genome-scale reconstructed metabolic network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iman Famili; Jochen Förster; Jens Nielsen; Bernhard O. Palsson

    2003-01-01

    Full genome sequences of prokaryotic organisms have led to reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks and in silico computation of their integrated functions. The first genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for a eukaryotic cell, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, consisting of 1,175 metabolic reactions and 733 metabolites, has appeared. A constraint-based in silico analysis procedure was used to compute properties of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network.

  10. Screening of optimal cellulases from symbiotic protists of termites through expression in the secretory pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Nemuri; Nakamura, Risa; Moriya, Sigeharu; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Haruo; Ishida, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    For direct and efficient ethanol production from cellulosic materials, we screened optimal cellulases from symbiotic protists of termites through heterologous expression with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 11 cellulases, belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 5, 7, and 45 endoglucanases (EGs), were confirmed to produce with S. cerevisiae for the first time. A recombinant yeast expressing SM2042B24 EG I was more efficient at degrading carboxylmethyl cellulose than was Trichoderma reesei EG I, a major EG with high cellulolytic activity. PMID:22056456

  11. Secretory expression and purification of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in PMR1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyun Ko; Moon Sun Hahm; Hyun Ah Kang; Soo Wan Nam; Bong Hyun Chung

    2002-01-01

    The gene encoding glucose oxidase (GOD) from Aspergillus niger was expressed as a secretory product in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Six consecutive histidine residues were fused to the C-terminus of GOD to facilitate purification. The recombinant GOD-His6 secreted by S. cerevisiae migrated as a broad diffuse band on SDS–PAGE, with an apparent molecular weight higher than that in natural A.

  12. Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a liver transplant patient: case report and review of infection in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Popiel, K Y; Wong, P; Lee, M J; Langelier, M; Sheppard, D C; Vinh, D C

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an ascosporogenous yeast commonly used in the production of food, is an emerging infection in immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a 60-year-old man whose orthotopic liver transplant was complicated by S. cerevisiae fungemia and peritoneal abscess, successfully treated with caspofungin and drainage. We also review the literature of invasive saccharomycoses in recipients of hematologic and solid organ transplants. PMID:25827213

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements as a major mechanism in the onset of reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Friedrich, Anne; de Montigny, Jacky; Schacherer, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Summary Understanding the molecular basis of how reproductive isolation evolves between individuals from the same species offers valuable insight into patterns of genetic differentiation as well as the onset of speciation [1, 2]. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutes an ideal model partly due to its vast ecological range, high level of genetic diversity [3–6] and laboratory amendable sexual reproduction. Between S. cerevisiae and its sibling species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex, reproductive isolation acts post-zygotically and could be attributed to chromosomal rearrangements [7], cyto-nuclear incompatibility [8, 9] and anti-recombination [10, 11]; although the implication of these mechanisms at the incipient stage of speciation remains unclear due to further divergence in the nascent species. Recently, several studies assessed the onset of intraspecific reproductive isolation in S. cerevisiae by evaluating the effect of the mismatch repair system [12–14] or by fostering incipient speciation using the same initial genetic background [15–18]. Nevertheless, the overall genetic diversity within this species was largely overlooked and no systematic evaluation has been performed. Here, we carried out the first species-wide survey for post-zygotic reproductive isolation in S. cerevisiae. We crossed 60 natural isolates sampled from diverse niches with the reference strain S288c, and identified 16 cases of reproductive isolation with reduced offspring viabilities ranging from 44% to 86%. Using different mapping strategies, we identified reciprocal translocations in a large fraction of all isolates surveyed, indicating that large-scale chromosomal rearrangements might play a major role to the onset of reproductive isolation in this species. PMID:24814147

  14. Impact of acute metal stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hosiner, Dagmar; Gerber, Susanne; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Glaser, Walter; Schüller, Christoph; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Although considered as essential cofactors for a variety of enzymatic reactions and for important structural and functional roles in cell metabolism, metals at high concentrations are potent toxic pollutants and pose complex biochemical problems for cells. We report results of single dose acute toxicity testing in the model organism S. cerevisiae. The effects of moderate toxic concentrations of 10 different human health relevant metals, Ag(+), Al(3+), As(3+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), V(3+), and Zn(2+), following short-term exposure were analyzed by transcription profiling to provide the identification of early-on target genes or pathways. In contrast to common acute toxicity tests where defined endpoints are monitored we focused on the entire genomic response. We provide evidence that the induction of central elements of the oxidative stress response by the majority of investigated metals is the basic detoxification process against short-term metal exposure. General detoxification mechanisms also comprised the induction of genes coding for chaperones and those for chelation of metal ions via siderophores and amino acids. Hierarchical clustering, transcription factor analyses, and gene ontology data further revealed activation of genes involved in metal-specific protein catabolism along with repression of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis. Metal ion group specific differences in the expression responses with shared transcriptional regulators for both, up-regulation and repression were also observed. Additionally, some processes unique for individual metals were evident as well. In view of current concerns regarding environmental pollution our results may support ongoing attempts to develop methods to monitor potentially hazardous areas or liquids and to establish standardized tests using suitable eukaryotic a model organism. PMID:24416162

  15. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in repeated-batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on corncob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pattana Laopaiboon

    Ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice containing 240 g\\/l of total sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5048 and S. cerevisiae NP 01 immobilized on low-cost support materials, corncob pieces, was investigated. In batch fermentation, S. cerevisiae TISTR 5048 immobilized on 6 × 6 × 6 mm3 corncobs gave higher ethanol production than those immobilized on 12 × 12 × 12 mm3 corncobs in terms of ethanol concentration (P), yield (Y\\u000a \\u000a p\\/s

  16. The peroxisomal lumen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is alkaline.

    PubMed

    van Roermund, Carlo W T; de Jong, Mark; IJlst, Lodewijk; van Marle, Jan; Dansen, Tobias B; Wanders, Ronald J A; Waterham, Hans R

    2004-08-15

    Peroxisomes have a central function in lipid metabolism, including the beta-oxidation of various fatty acids. The products and substrates involved in the beta-oxidation have to cross the peroxisomal membrane, which previously has been demonstrated to constitute a closed barrier, implying the existence of specific transport mechanisms. Fatty acid transport across the yeast peroxisomal membrane may follow two routes: one for activated fatty acids, dependent on the peroxisomal ABC half transporter proteins Pxa1p and Pxa2p, and one for free fatty acids, which depends on the peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase Faa2p and the ATP transporter Ant1p. A proton gradient across the peroxisomal membrane as part of a proton motive force has been proposed to be required for proper peroxisomal function, but the nature of the peroxisomal pH has remained inconclusive and little is known about its generation. To determine the pH of Sacharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomes in vivo, we have used two different pH-sensitive yellow fluorescent proteins targeted to the peroxisome by virtue of a C-terminal SKL and found the peroxisomal matrix in wild-type cells to be alkaline (pH(per) 8.2), while the cytosolic pH was neutral (pH(cyt) 7.0). No Delta pH was present in ant1 Delta cells, indicating that the peroxisomal pH is regulated in an ATP-dependent way and suggesting that Ant1p activity is directly involved in maintenance of the peroxisomal pH. Moreover, we found a high peroxisomal pH of >8.6 in faa2 Delta cells, while the peroxisomal pH remained 8.1+/-0.2 in pxa2 Delta cells. Our combined results suggest that the proton gradient across the peroxisomal membrane is dependent on Ant1p activity and required for the beta-oxidation of medium chain fatty acids. PMID:15316083

  17. Transcriptome response to alkane biofuels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of efflux pumps involved in alkane tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrocarbon alkanes have been recently considered as important next-generation biofuels because microbial production of alkane biofuels was demonstrated. However, the toxicity of alkanes to microbial hosts can possibly be a bottleneck for high productivity of alkane biofuels. To tackle this toxicity issue, it is essential to understand molecular mechanisms of interactions between alkanes and microbial hosts, and to harness these mechanisms to develop microbial host strains with improved tolerance against alkanes. In this study, we aimed to improve the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic host of industrial significance, to alkane biofuels by exploiting cellular mechanisms underlying alkane response. Results To this end, we first confirmed that nonane (C9), decane (C10), and undecane (C11) were significantly toxic and accumulated in S. cerevisiae. Transcriptome analyses suggested that C9 and C10 induced a range of cellular mechanisms such as efflux pumps, membrane modification, radical detoxification, and energy supply. Since efflux pumps could possibly aid in alkane secretion, thereby reducing the cytotoxicity, we formed the hypothesis that those induced efflux pumps could contribute to alkane export and tolerance. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated the roles of the efflux pumps Snq2p and Pdr5p in reducing intracellular levels of C10 and C11, as well as enhancing tolerance levels against C10 and C11. This result provided the evidence that Snq2p and Pdr5p were associated with alkane export and tolerance in S. cerevisiae. Conclusions Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms of S. cerevisiae response to alkane biofuels at a systems level through transcriptome analyses. Based on these mechanisms, we identified efflux pumps involved in alkane export and tolerance in S. cerevisiae. We believe that the results here provide valuable insights into designing microbial engineering strategies to improve cellular tolerance for highly efficient alkane biofuel production. PMID:23826995

  18. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional ?-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. PMID:24318365

  19. Determination of biological activity from fluorescence-lifetime measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, C.; Hartmann, P.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of fluorescence lifetime measurement as an optical analysis tool is growing. Many applications already exist in order to determine the fluorescence lifetime, but the majority of these require the addition of fluorescence-active substances to enable measurements. Every usage of such foreign materials has an associated risk. This paper investigates the use of auto-fluorescing substances in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) as a risk free alternative to fluorescence-active substance enabled measurements. The experimental setup uses a nitrogen laser with a pulse length of 350 ps and a wavelength of 337 nm. The excited sample emits light due to fluorescence of NADH/NADPH and collagen. A fast photodiode collects the light at the output of an appropriate high-pass edge-filter at 400 nm. Fluorescence lifetimes can be determined from the decay of the measurement signals, which in turn characterizes the individual materials and their surrounding environment. Information about the quantity of the fluorescence active substances can also be measured based on the received signal intensity. The correlation between the fluorescence lifetime and the metabolic state of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and is presented here.

  20. Feasibility of brewing makgeolli using Pichia anomala Y197-13, a non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Ahn, ByungHak

    2012-12-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional rice wine favored by the general public in Korea. This study investigated the fermentation and sensory characteristics of using wild yeast strains for brewing makgeolli. A non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was isolated from nuruk and termed Y197-13. It showed 98% similarity to Pichia anomala and had an optimal growth temperature of 25 degrees C. Makgeolli was manufactured using koji, jinju nuruk, and improved nuruk as fermentation agents. Y197-13 makgeolli brewed with koji had alcohol and solids contents of 11.1% and 13.9%, respectively. Sweet sensory characteristics were attributed to residual sugars in makgeolli with 6% alcohol. The makgeolli had a fresh sour taste and carbonated taste. Volatile component analysis showed the isoamyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, and fatty acid, including ethyl oleate and ethyl linoleate, relative peak area was higher in Y197-13 makgeolli than in makgeolli with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These results suggest the wild yeast, Y197-13, as a candidate for brewing makgeolli. PMID:23221539

  1. Harnessing Genetic Diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysates of Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide-Pretreated Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjun; Parreiras, Lucas S.; Williams, Daniel L.; Wohlbach, Dana J.; Bice, Benjamin D.; Ong, Irene M.; Breuer, Rebecca J.; Qin, Li; Busalacchi, Donald; Deshpande, Shweta; Daum, Chris; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-01-01

    The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na+, acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production. PMID:24212571

  2. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses to High Concentrations of Lactic Acid in Anaerobic Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the high acid tolerance and the simple nutritional requirements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, engineered strains of this yeast are considered biocatalysts for industrial production of high-purity undissociated lactic acid. However, high concentrations of lactic acid are toxic to S. cerevisiae, thus limiting its growth and product formation. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high concentrations of lactic acid were studied in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at different pH values and lactic acid concentrations, resulting in a 50% decrease in the biomass yield. At pH 5, the yield decrease was caused mostly by osmotically induced glycerol production and not by the classic weak-acid action, as was observed at pH 3. Cultures grown at pH 5 with 900 mM lactic acid revealed an upregulation of many genes involved in iron homeostasis, indicating that iron chelation occurred at high concentrations of dissociated lactic acid. Chemostat cultivation at pH 3 with 500 mM lactate, resulting in lower anion concentrations, showed an alleviation of this iron homeostasis response. Six of the 10 known targets of the transcriptional regulator Haa1p were strongly upregulated in lactate-challenged cultures at pH 3 but showed only moderate induction by high lactate concentrations at pH 5. Moreover, the haa1? mutant exhibited a growth defect at high lactic acid concentrations at pH 3. These results indicate that iron homeostasis plays a major role in the response of S. cerevisiae to high lactate concentrations, whereas the Haa1p regulon is involved primarily in the response to high concentrations of undissociated lactic acid. PMID:18676708

  3. [Cloning and expression of delta6-desaturase gene from Thamnidium elegans in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-pei; Li, Ming-chun; Wei, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Ying-hui; Xing, Lai-jun

    2006-02-01

    A 459 bp DNA fragment was amplified from Thamnidium elegans As3.2806 with degenerate oligonucleotides primers designed based on the sequences information from the conserved histidine-rich motifs II and near III of fungal delta6-fatty acid desaturases genes by RT-PCR and sequenced. Gene specific primers designed according to this partial sequence were used for the amplification of the 3'- and 5'- end of this cDNA by RACE method, and sequence information coming from these two ends were used to design two GSPs to clone the 1504bp full-length cDNA. Sequence analysis showed this cDNA sequence had an open reading frame (ORF) of 1377bp encoding 458 amino acids of 52.4kD. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF showed similarity to those of the above delta6-fatty acid desaturases which comprise the characteristics of membrane-bound desaturases, including three conserved histidine-rich boxes and hydropathy profile. A cytochrome b5-like domain was observed at the N-terminus. To elucidate the function of the protein, two specific primers corresponding to the nucleotide sequences of start and stop codons were used to amplify the coding sequence. The amplified cDNA TED6 was subcloned into the expression vector pYES2.0 to generate a recombinant plasmid pYTED6, which was subsequently transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScl for heterologous expression by lithium acetate method. Grown to logarithmic phase at 30 degrees C, the transformed cells were supplemented with 0.5 mmol/L Linoleic acid and induced by 2% galactose for a further 48 h of cultivation at 20 degrees C. Total fatty acids were extracted from the induced cell and subjected to methyl-esterification. The resultant fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). A novel peak corresponding to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) methyl ester standards was detected with the same retention time, which was absent in the cell transformed with empty vector. The percentage of this new fatty acid to total fatty acids was 7.5%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of this fatty acid methyl derivative demonstrated that the novel peak was GLA methyl ester. These results showed that the coding product of this sequence exhibited the activity of converting linoleic acid (LA) to gamma-linolenic (GLA), and indicated that amino-acid sequence exhibited delta6-fatty acid desaturase activity. PMID:16579469

  4. Engineering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ?-Oxidation Pathway to Increase Medium Chain Fatty Acid Production as Potential Biofuel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Wei Ning

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels and biochemicals can be produced in microbes using ?-oxidation pathway engineering. In this study, the ?-oxidation pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to accumulate a higher ratio of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) when cells were grown on fatty acid-rich feedstock. For this purpose, the haploid deletion strain ?pox1 was obtained, in which the sole acyl-CoA oxidase encoded by POX1 was deleted. Next, the POX2 gene from Yarrowia lipolytica, which encodes an acyl-CoA oxidase with a preference for long chain acyl-CoAs, was expressed in the ?pox1 strain. The resulting ?pox1 [pox2+] strain exhibited a growth defect because the ?-oxidation pathway was blocked in peroxisomes. To unblock the ?-oxidation pathway, the gene CROT, which encodes carnitine O-octanoyltransferase, was expressed in the ?pox1 [pox2+] strain to transport the accumulated medium chain acyl-coAs out of the peroxisomes. The obtained ?pox1 [pox2+, crot+] strain grew at a normal rate. The effect of these genetic modifications on fatty acid accumulation and profile was investigated when the strains were grown on oleic acids-containing medium. It was determined that the engineered strains ?pox1 [pox2+] and ?pox1 [pox2+, crot+] had increased fatty acid accumulation and an increased ratio of MCFAs. Compared to the wild-type (WT) strain, the total fatty acid production of the strains ?pox1 [pox2+] and ?pox1 [pox2+, crot+] were increased 29.5% and 15.6%, respectively. The intracellular level of MCFAs in ?pox1 [pox2+] and ?pox1 [pox2+, crot+] increased 2.26- and 1.87-fold compared to the WT strain, respectively. In addition, MCFAs in the culture medium increased 3.29-fold and 3.34-fold compared to the WT strain. These results suggested that fatty acids with an increased MCFAs ratio accumulate in the engineered strains with a modified ?-oxidation pathway. Our approach exhibits great potential for transforming low value fatty acid-rich feedstock into high value fatty acid-derived products. PMID:24465440

  5. Re-evaluation of glycerol utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of an isolate that grows on glycerol without supporting supplements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycerol has attracted attention as a carbon source for microbial production processes due to the large amounts of crude glycerol waste resulting from biodiesel production. The current knowledge about the genetics and physiology of glycerol uptake and catabolism in the versatile industrial biotechnology production host Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been mainly based on auxotrophic laboratory strains, and carried out in the presence of growth-supporting supplements such as amino acids and nucleic bases. The latter may have resulted in ambiguous conclusions concerning glycerol growth in this species. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate growth of S. cerevisiae in synthetic glycerol medium without the addition of supplements. Results Initial experiments showed that prototrophic versions of the laboratory strains CEN.PK, W303, and S288c did not exhibit any growth in synthetic glycerol medium without supporting supplements. However, a screening of 52?S. cerevisiae isolates for growth in the same medium revealed a high intraspecies diversity. Within this group significant variation with respect to the lag phase and maximum specific growth rate was observed. A haploid segregant of one good glycerol grower (CBS 6412-13A) was selected for detailed analysis. Single deletions of the genes encoding for the glycerol/H+ symporter (STL1), the glycerol kinase (GUT1), and the mitochondrial FAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GUT2) abolished glycerol growth in this strain, implying that it uses the same glycerol utilization pathway as previously identified in auxotrophic laboratory strains. Segregant analysis of a cross between CBS 6412-13A and CEN.PK113-1A revealed that the glycerol growth phenotype is a quantitative trait. Genetic linkage and reciprocal hemizygosity analysis demonstrated that GUT1 CBS 6412-13A is one of the multiple genetic loci contributing to the glycerol growth phenotype. Conclusion The S. cerevisiae intraspecies diversity with regard to glycerol growth is a valuable starting point to identify the genetic and molecular basis of this phenotype. This knowledge can be applied for further rational strain improvement with the goal of using glycerol as a carbon source in industrial biotechnology processes based on S. cerevisiae as a production organism. PMID:24209984

  6. Karyotypes of Saccharomyces sensu lato species.

    PubMed

    Petersen, R F; Nilsson-Tillgren, T; Piskur, J

    1999-10-01

    An improved pulsed-field electrophoresis program was developed to study differently sized chromosomes within the genus Saccharomyces. The number of chromosomes in the type strains was shown to be nine in Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces dairenensis, 12 in Saccharomyces servazzii and Saccharomyces unisporus, 16 in Saccharomyces exiguus and seven in Saccharomyces kluyveri. The sizes of individual chromosomes were resolved and the approximate genome sizes were determined by the addition of individual chromosomes of the karyotypes. Apparently, the genome of S. exiguus, which is the only Saccharomyces sensu lato yeast to contain small chromosomes, is larger than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, other species exhibited genome sizes that were 10-25% smaller than that of S. cerevisiae. Well-defined karyotypes represent the basis for future genome mapping and sequencing projects, as well as studies of the origin of the modern genomes. PMID:10555377

  7. Insights into the Role of Histone H3 and Histone H4 Core Modifiable Residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edel M. Hyland; Michael S. Cosgrove; Henrik Molina; Dongxia Wang; Akhilesh Pandey; Robert J. Cottee; Jef D. Boeke

    2005-01-01

    The biological significance of recently described modifiable residues in the globular core of the bovine nucleosome remains elusive. We have mapped these modification sites onto the Saccharomyces cerevisiae histones and used a genetic approach to probe their potential roles both in heterochromatic regions of the genome and in the DNA repair response. By mutating these residues to mimic their modified

  8. Isolation and characterization of DNA sequences from Triticum aestivum which function as origins of replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    André, D; Jacquemin, J M; Masson, P

    1983-08-01

    Recombinant YIp5 plasmids with the DNA from Triticum aestivum are capable of autonomous replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The URA transformants are unstable without selection pressure, and transformation of yeast cells with these plasmids occurs at high frequency. The cloned sequences were characterized and analyzed to state their belonging to Triticum tribe. PMID:24258044

  9. Nuclear oscillations and nuclear filament formation accompany single-strand annealing repair of a dicentric chromosome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Thrower; Jennifer Stemple; Elaine Yeh; Kerry Bloom

    2003-01-01

    Dicentric chromosomes undergo breakage during mitosis as a result of the attachment of two centromeres on one sister chromatid to opposite spindle poles. Studies utilizing a conditional dicentric chromosome III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that dicentric chromosome repair occurs primarily by deletion of one centromere via a RAD52-dependent recombination pathway. We report that dicentric chromosome resolution requires RAD1, a

  10. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  11. Antifungal effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and its components on Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hammer; C. F. Carson; T. V. Riley; Microbiology Discipline

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of tea tree oil and its com- ponents against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methods: Yeast cells were treated with tea tree oil or components, at one or more concentrations, for up to 6 h. During this time, alterations in permeability were assessed by measuring

  12. Isolation of intact RNA from cytometrically sorted Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the analysis of intrapopulation diversity of gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette Achilles; Frank Stahl; Hauke Harms; Susann Müller

    2007-01-01

    Characterizing and understanding the functional heterogeneity in a given population on the cellular and molecular level is a great challenge in microbiology. Each microorganism contributes differently to the overall performance of the community and responds differently to changing microenvironmental conditions. Here, we present a method for isolation of intact RNA out of small subpopulations of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for

  13. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for improved xylose utilization with a three-plasmid SUMO yeast expression system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-plasmid yeast expression system utilizing the portable small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) vector set combined with the efficient endogenous yeast protease Ulp1 was developed for production of large amounts of soluble functional protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each vector has a differ...

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Esc2p Interacts with Sir2p through a Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)-binding

    E-print Network

    Bi, Xin

    at telomeric, rDNA, and HM loci. Specifically, ESC2 is required for efficient telomeric silencing and Sir2p at rDNA. On the other hand, ESC2 negatively regulates silencing at HML and HMR and destabilizes HML silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at telomeric, rDNA, HML (homothallic mating locus left

  15. Direct observation of oxidative stress on the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo de Souza Pereira; John Geibel

    1999-01-01

    We imaged pores on the surface of the cell wall of three different industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using atomic force microscopy. The pores could be enlarged using 10 mM diamide, an SH residue oxidant that attacks surface proteins. We found that two strains showed signs of oxidative damage via changes in density and diameter of the surface pores. We

  16. Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay in situ with Blue Tetrazolium Salt in Crabtree-Positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Kregiel; Joanna Berlowska; Wojciech Ambroziak

    Summary A spectrophotometric method for determining succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) acti- vity assay in azide-sensitive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed. The perme- abilization of yeast cells by 0.05 % digitonin permitted to study yeast enzymatic activity in situ. The reduction of blue tetrazolium salt (BT) to blue tetrazolium formazan (BTf) was conducted in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS) as

  17. Expression of a lipid-inducible, self-regulating form of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase LIP2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 gene (YlLIP2) was cloned into galactose- and fatty acid-inducible Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression vectors and used to generate yeast strains that secrete active LIP2 enzyme activity, as evidenced by results from gene expression analysis and tributyrin turbidity c...

  18. Deletion of New Covalently Linked Cell Wall Glycoproteins Alters the Electrophoretic Mobility of Phosphorylated Wall Components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VLADIMIR MRSA; MARGIT ECKER; SABINE STRAHL-BOLSINGER; MANFRED NIMTZ; LUDWIG LEHLE; WIDMAR TANNER

    The incorporation of radioactive orthophosphate into the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. 33 P-labeled cell walls were extensively extracted with hot sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Of the remaining insoluble radioactivity more than 90% could be released by laminarinase. This radioactive material stayed in the stacking gel during SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but entered the separating gel upon treatment with

  19. Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing glucose and galactose to produce enantiopure

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    Metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of simultaneously utilizing Zhao a,b,c,n a Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-utilization Metabolic engineering Pyruvate decarboxylase a b s t r a c t 2,3-Butanediol (BDO) is an important chemical

  20. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. his was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. dentit...

  1. Comparative Roles of the Cell Wall and Cell Membrane in Limiting Uptake of Xenobiotic Molecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Aouida, Mustapha; Tounekti, Omar; Belhadj, Omrane; Mir, Lluis M.

    2003-01-01

    Using reversible electropermeabilization of cells and spheroplasts, we show that the cell wall and plasma membrane partly account for bleomycin resistance by acting as two independent barriers. We also report on the presence of a membrane protein that may be responsible for bleomycin internalization and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:12760888

  2. GMAX-L Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Strains for Profitable Sustainable Cellulosic Ethanol and Biodiesel Production Concurrently using Engineered Workcell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stable GMAX-L strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being constructed using pSUMO expression cassettes that are extremely high expression level plasmids designed for use on automated workcell. This strain expresses xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, XIB1, and XIG1 for anaerobic cellulosic ethanol pr...

  3. Investigating the Qn Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Mutants Resistant to Ilicicolin

    E-print Network

    Trumpower, Bernard L.

    Investigating the Qn Site of the Cytochrome bc1 Complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Mutants The cytochrome bc1 complex resides in the inner membrane of mitochondria and transfers electrons from ubiquinol site), respectively. Both are located on cytochrome b, a transmembrane protein of the bc1 complex

  4. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONANZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-Cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14a-demethylase. esistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  5. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONAZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  6. Effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing: (1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g fermen...

  7. Effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-two sows (Camborough-22, PIC) were used to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XPC) in gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary tr...

  8. Ethanol-induced alterations in lipid composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of exogenous fatty acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Mizoguchi; Shodo Hara

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol-induced alterations in the lipid composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in the presence of exogenous fatty acids were studied. The addition of both palmitic acid and ethanol (4–8%) to the basal medium resulted in a striking increase in the palmitic acid content and decreases in the content of myristoleic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids in the phospholipid fatty acid composition, compared

  9. Molecular characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFR1).

    PubMed Central

    Lagosky, P A; Taylor, G R; Haynes, R H

    1987-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 1957 bp DNA fragment containing the dihydrofolate reductase gene (DFR1) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. Within this region a single open reading frame of 633 base pairs was found which is capable of encoding a 211 amino acid residue protein with a calculated Mr of 24,233. The amino acid sequence derived from the yeast DFR1 gene shows limited homology with sequences from both eukaryotic and non-eukaryotic DHFR enzymes. Northern blot hybridization reveals that the mRNA from this gene is a 900 base polyadenylated transcript. Yeast strains containing the cloned DFR1 gene on multicopy number shuttle vector plasmids show dramatically enhanced methotrexate resistance. Consensus DNA sequences responsible for RNA polymerase II interaction and general amino acid control in S. cerevisiae are located within the 5'-noncoding region with respect to the open reading frame. The DNA fragment containing these sequences has been shown to be necessary for DFR1 gene expression in both S. cerevisiae and E. coli. Images PMID:2827121

  10. Hxt-carrier-mediated glucose efflux upon exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to excess maltose.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Mickel L A; De Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T

    2002-09-01

    When wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains pregrown in maltose-limited chemostat cultures were exposed to excess maltose, release of glucose into the external medium was observed. Control experiments confirmed that glucose release was not caused by cell lysis or extracellular maltose hydrolysis. To test the hypothesis that glucose efflux involved plasma membrane glucose transporters, experiments were performed with an S. cerevisiae strain in which all members of the hexose transporter (HXT) gene family had been eliminated and with an isogenic reference strain. Glucose efflux was virtually eliminated in the hexose-transport-deficient strain. This constitutes experimental proof that Hxt transporters facilitate export of glucose from S. cerevisiae cells. After exposure of the hexose-transport-deficient strain to excess maltose, an increase in the intracellular glucose level was observed, while the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and ATP remained relatively low. These results demonstrate that glucose efflux can occur as a result of uncoordinated expression of the initial steps of maltose metabolism and the subsequent reactions in glucose dissimilation. This is a relevant phenomenon for selection of maltose-constitutive strains for baking and brewing. PMID:12200274

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A novel and efficient biological control agent for Colletotrichum acutatum during pre-harvest.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marcos Roberto; Klein, Mariana Nadjara; Ferraz, Luriany Pompeo; da Silva, Aline Caroline; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of six isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in controlling Colletotrichum acutatum, the causal agent of postbloom fruit drop that occur in pre-harvest citrus. We analyzed the mechanisms of action involved in biological control such as: production of antifungal compounds, nutrient competition, detection of killer activity, and production of hydrolytic enzymes of the isolates of S. cerevisiae on C. acutatum and their efficiency in controlling postbloom fruit drop on detached citrus flowers. Our results showed that all six S. cerevisiae isolates produced antifungal compounds, competed for nutrients, inhibited pathogen germination, and produced killer activity and hydrolytic enzymes when in contact with the fungus wall. The isolates were able to control the disease when detached flowers were artificially inoculated, both preventively and curatively. In this work we identified a novel potential biological control agent for C. acutatum during pre-harvest. This is the first report of yeast efficiency for the biocontrol of postbloom fruit drop, which represents an important contribution to the field of biocontrol of diseases affecting citrus populations worldwide. PMID:25960430

  12. Cysteine biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: mutation that confers cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Shirahige, Y; Nanjoh, A; Andou, N; Ohue, H; Ishino-Arao, Y

    1988-01-01

    The cys2-1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was originally thought to confer cysteine dependence through a serine O-acetyltransferase deficiency. In this study, we show that cys2-1 strains lack not only serine O-acetyltransferase but also cystathionine beta-synthase. However, a prototrophic strain was found to be serine O-acetyltransferase deficient because of a mutation allelic to cys2-1. Moreover, revertants obtained from cys2-1 strains had serine O-acetyltransferase but not cystathionine beta-synthase, whereas transformants obtained by treating a cys2-1 strain with an S. cerevisiae genomic library had cystathionine beta-synthase but not serine O-acetyltransferase. From these observations, we conclude that cys2-1 (serine O-acetyltransferase deficiency) accompanies a very closely linked mutation that causes cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency and that these mutations together confer cysteine dependence. This newly identified mutation is named cys4-1. These results not only support our previous hypothesis that S. cerevisiae has two functional cysteine biosynthetic pathways but also reveal an interesting gene arrangement of the cysteine biosynthetic system. PMID:3056921

  13. Expression of an Aspergillus niger Phytase Gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yanming; Wilson, David B.; Lei, Xin gen

    1999-01-01

    Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase’s activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an active, extracellular phytase. The yield of total extracellular phytase activity was affected by the signal peptide and the medium composition. The expressed phytase had two pH optima (2 to 2.5 and 5 to 5.5) and a temperature optimum between 55 and 60°C, and it cross-reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the wild-type enzyme. Due to the heavy glycosylation, the expressed phytase had a molecular size of approximately 120 kDa and appeared to be more thermostable than the commercial enzyme. Deglycosylation of the phytase resulted in losses of 9% of its activity and 40% of its thermostability. The recombinant phytase was effective in hydrolyzing phytate phosphorus from corn or soybean meal in vitro. In conclusion, the phyA gene was expressed as an active, extracellular phytase in S. cerevisiae, and its thermostability was affected by glycosylation. PMID:10223979

  14. Physiological and genomic characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids with improved fermentation performance and mannoprotein release capacity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; González, Ramón; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Yeast mannoproteins contribute to several aspects of wine quality by protecting wine against protein haze, reducing astringency, retaining aroma compounds and stimulating lactic-acid bacteria growth. The selection of a yeast strain that simultaneously overproduces mannoproteins and presents good fermentative characteristics is a difficult task. In this work, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae×S. cerevisiae hybrid bearing the two oenologically relevant features was constructed. According to the genomic characterisation of the hybrids, different copy numbers of some genes probably related with these physiological features were detected. The hybrid shared not only a similar copy number of genes SPR1, SWP1, MNN10 and YPS7 related to cell wall integrity with parental Sc1, but also a similar copy number of some glycolytic genes with parental Sc2, such as GPM1 and HXK1, as well as the genes involved in hexose transport, such as HXT9, HXT11 and HXT12. This work demonstrates that hybridisation and stabilisation under winemaking conditions constitute an effective approach to obtain yeast strains with desirable physiological features, like mannoprotein overproducing capacity and improved fermentation performance, which genetically depend of the expression of numerous genes (multigenic characters). PMID:25879876

  15. Molecular Cloning and Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Laccase Gene from the Ascomycete Melanocarpus albomyces

    PubMed Central

    Kiiskinen, Laura-Leena; Saloheimo, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The lac1 gene encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Melanocarpus albomyces. This gene has five introns, and it encodes a protein consisting of 623 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the laccase was shown to have high homology with laccases from other ascomycetes. In addition to removal of a putative 22-amino-acid signal sequence and a 28-residue propeptide, maturation of the translation product of lac1 was shown to involve cleavage of a C-terminal 14-amino-acid extension. M. albomyces lac1 cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the inducible GAL1 promoter. Extremely low production was obtained with the expression construct containing laccase cDNA with its own signal and propeptide sequences. The activity levels were significantly improved by replacing these sequences with the prepro sequence of the S. cerevisiae ?-factor gene. The role of the C-terminal extension in laccase production in S. cerevisiae was also studied. Laccase production was increased sixfold with the modified cDNA that had a stop codon after the native processing site at the C terminus. PMID:14711635

  16. Catalase Overexpression Reduces Lactic Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; Duong, Giang-Huong; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial production of lactic acid with the current pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains requires aeration to allow for respiratory generation of ATP to facilitate growth and, even under nongrowing conditions, cellular maintenance. In the current study, we observed an inhibition of aerobic growth in the presence of lactic acid. Unexpectedly, the cyb2? reference strain, used to avoid aerobic consumption of lactic acid, had a specific growth rate of 0.25 h?1 in anaerobic batch cultures containing lactic acid but only 0.16 h?1 in identical aerobic cultures. Measurements of aerobic cultures of S. cerevisiae showed that the addition of lactic acid to the growth medium resulted in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reduce the accumulation of lactic acid-induced ROS, cytosolic catalase (CTT1) was overexpressed by replacing the native promoter with the strong constitutive TPI1 promoter. Increased activity of catalase was confirmed and later correlated with decreased levels of ROS and increased specific growth rates in the presence of high lactic acid concentrations. The increased fitness of this genetically modified strain demonstrates the successful attenuation of additional stress that is derived from aerobic metabolism and may provide the basis for enhanced (micro)aerobic production of organic acids in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19251894

  17. Hxt-Carrier-Mediated Glucose Efflux upon Exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Excess Maltose

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Mickel L. A.; De Winde, Johannes H.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2002-01-01

    When wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains pregrown in maltose-limited chemostat cultures were exposed to excess maltose, release of glucose into the external medium was observed. Control experiments confirmed that glucose release was not caused by cell lysis or extracellular maltose hydrolysis. To test the hypothesis that glucose efflux involved plasma membrane glucose transporters, experiments were performed with an S. cerevisiae strain in which all members of the hexose transporter (HXT) gene family had been eliminated and with an isogenic reference strain. Glucose efflux was virtually eliminated in the hexose-transport-deficient strain. This constitutes experimental proof that Hxt transporters facilitate export of glucose from S. cerevisiae cells. After exposure of the hexose-transport-deficient strain to excess maltose, an increase in the intracellular glucose level was observed, while the concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate and ATP remained relatively low. These results demonstrate that glucose efflux can occur as a result of uncoordinated expression of the initial steps of maltose metabolism and the subsequent reactions in glucose dissimilation. This is a relevant phenomenon for selection of maltose-constitutive strains for baking and brewing. PMID:12200274

  18. Optimization of pretreatment and saccharification for the production of bioethanol from water hyacinth by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Deuk Joo; Kim, Se Kyung; Yun, Hyun Shik

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline-oxidative (A/O) pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were optimized for bioethanol fermentation from water hyacinth by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Water hyacinth was subjected to A/O pretreatment at various NaOH and H(2)O(2) concentrations and reaction temperatures for the optimization of bioethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae. The most effective condition for A/O pretreatment was 7% (w/v) NaOH at 100 °C and 2% (w/v) H(2)O(2). The carbohydrate content was analyzed after reaction at various enzyme concentrations and enzyme ratios using Celluclast 1.5 L and Viscozyme L to determine the effective conditions for enzymatic saccharification. After ethanol fermentation using S. cerevisiae KCTC 7928, the concentration of glucose, ethanol and glycerol was analyzed by HPLC using a RI detector. The yield of ethanol in batch fermentation was 0.35 g ethanol/g biomass. Continuous fermentation was carried out at a dilution rate of 0.11 (per h) and the ethanol productivity was 0.77 [g/(l h)]. PMID:21909939

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals. PMID:23899824

  20. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  1. Functional expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Na+/H+ antiporter gene, sod2, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hahnenberger, K M; Jia, Z; Young, P G

    1996-01-01

    In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, tolerance to high sodium and lithium concentrations requires the functioning of the sod2, Na+/H+ antiporter. We have directly measured the activity of this antiporter and demonstrated reconstitution of the activity in gene deletion strains. In addition, we have shown that it can be transferred to, and its antiporter activity detected in, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where it also confers sodium and lithium tolerance. Proton flux through the S. pombe Na+/H+ antiporter was directly measured using microphysiometry. The direction of transmembrane proton flux mediated by this antiporter was reversible, with protons being imported or exported in response to the external concentration of sodium. This bidirectional activity was also detected in S. cerevisiae strains expressing sod2 and expression of this gene complemented the sodium and lithium sensitivity resulting from inactivation of the ENA1/PMR2 encoded Na+-exporting ATPases. This suggests that antiporters or sodium pumps can be utilized interchangeably by S. cerevisiae to regulate internal sodium concentration. Potent inhibitors of mammalian Na+/H+ exchangers were found to have no effect on sod2 activity. The proton flux mediated by sod2 was also found to be unaffected by perturbation of membrane potential or the plasma membrane proton gradient. PMID:8643524

  2. Identification of a gene, FMP21, whose expression levels are involved in thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature tolerance in yeasts is important for the molecular breeding of high temperature-tolerant yeasts that can be used in bioethanol production. We identified genes whose expression is correlated with the degree of thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by DNA microarray analysis. Gene expression profiles of three S. cerevisiae strains showing different levels of thermotolerance were compared, and we chose three of them as candidate genes. Among these genes, FMP21 was investigated as a thermotolerance-related gene in S. cerevisiae by comparing the growth at high temperature with the gene expression in eight strains. The expression ratio of FMP21 at 37°C was correlated with the doubling time ratio at a coefficient of determination of 0.787. The potential involvement of the Fmp21 in the thermotolerance of yeasts was evaluated. The FMP21 deletion variant showed a decreased respiratory growth rate and increased thermosensitivity. Furthermore, the overexpression of FMP21 improved thermotolerance in yeasts. In conclusion, the function of Fmp21 is important for thermotolerance in yeasts. PMID:25177541

  3. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes regulated by vanillin.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2015-01-28

    During pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, a variety of fermentation inhibitors, including acetic acid and vanillin, are released. Using DNA microarray analysis, this study explored genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that respond to vanillin-induced stress. The expression of 273 genes was upregulated and that of 205 genes was downregulated under vanillin stress. Significantly induced genes included MCH2, SNG1, GPH1, and TMA10, whereas NOP2, UTP18, FUR1, and SPR1 were down regulated. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of upregulated genes suggested that vanillin might regulate gene expression in a stress response element (STRE)-dependent manner, in addition to a pathway that involved the transcription factor Yap1p. Retardation in the cell growth of mutant strains indicated that MCH2, SNG1, and GPH1 are intimately involved in vanillin stress response. Deletion of the genes whose expression levels were decreased under vanillin stress did not result in a notable change in S. cerevisiae growth under vanillin stress. This study will provide the basis for a better understanding of the stress response of the yeast S. cerevisiae to fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25269814

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 Stress Response during High-Temperature Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Sup; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Hyun; Jin, Ingnyol; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production is far more costly to produce than fossil fuels. There are a number of approaches to cost-effective fuel ethanol production from biomass. We characterized stress response of thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae KNU5377 during glucose-based batch fermentation at high temperature (40°C). S. cerevisiae KNU5377 (KNU5377) transcription factors (Hsf1, Msn2/4, and Yap1), metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase), antioxidant enzymes (thioredoxin 3, thioredoxin reductase, and porin), and molecular chaperones and its cofactors (Hsp104, Hsp82, Hsp60, Hsp42, Hsp30, Hsp26, Cpr1, Sti1, and Zpr1) are upregulated during fermentation, in comparison to S. cerevisiae S288C (S288C). Expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase increased significantly in KNU5377 cells. In addition, cellular hydroperoxide and protein oxidation, particularly lipid peroxidation of triosephosphate isomerase, was lower in KNU5377 than in S288C. Thus, KNU5377 activates various cell rescue proteins through transcription activators, improving tolerance and increasing alcohol yield by rapidly responding to fermentation stress through redox homeostasis and proteostasis. PMID:23512334

  5. (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a reduced Crabtree effect.

    PubMed

    Kajihata, Shuichi; Matsuda, Fumio; Yoshimi, Mika; Hayakawa, Kenshi; Furusawa, Chikara; Kanda, Akihisa; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows a Crabtree effect that produces ethanol in a high glucose concentration even under fully aerobic condition. For efficient production of cake yeast or compressed yeast for baking, ethanol by-production is not desired since glucose limited chemostat or fed-batch cultivations are performed to suppress the Crabtree effect. In this study, the (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) was performed for the S288C derived S. cerevisiae strain to characterize a metabolic state under the reduced Crabtree effect. S. cerevisiae cells were cultured at a low dilution rate (0.1 h(-1)) under the glucose-limited chemostat condition. The estimated metabolic flux distribution showed that the acetyl-CoA in mitochondria was mainly produced from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) reaction and that the level of the metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway was much higher than that of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, which contributes to high biomass yield at low dilution rate by supplying NADPH required for cell growth. PMID:25634548

  6. Metabolic Response to Iron Deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Shakoury-Elizeh, Minoo; Protchenko, Olga; Berger, Alvin; Cox, James; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa M.; Prinz, William A.; Bard, Martin; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron is an essential cofactor for enzymes involved in numerous cellular processes, yet little is known about the impact of iron deficiency on cellular metabolism or iron proteins. Previous studies have focused on changes in transcript and proteins levels in iron-deficient cells, yet these changes may not reflect changes in transport activity or flux through a metabolic pathway. We analyzed the metabolomes and transcriptomes of yeast grown in iron-rich and iron-poor media to determine which biosynthetic processes are altered when iron availability falls. Iron deficiency led to changes in glucose metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthesis that were due to deficiencies in specific iron-dependent enzymes. Iron-sulfur proteins exhibited loss of iron cofactors, yet amino acid synthesis was maintained. Ergosterol and sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways had blocks at points where heme and diiron enzymes function, whereas Ole1, the essential fatty acid desaturase, was resistant to iron depletion. Iron-deficient cells exhibited depletion of most iron enzyme activities, but loss of activity during iron deficiency did not consistently disrupt metabolism. Amino acid homeostasis was robust, but iron deficiency impaired lipid synthesis, altering the properties and functions of cellular membranes. PMID:20231268

  7. Molecular dissection of mitotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aylon, Yael; Liefshitz, Batia; Bitan-Banin, Gili; Kupiec, Martin

    2003-02-01

    Recombination plays a central role in the repair of broken chromosomes in all eukaryotes. We carried out a systematic study of mitotic recombination. Using several assays, we established the chronological sequence of events necessary to repair a single double-strand break. Once a chromosome is broken, yeast cells become immediately committed to recombinational repair. Recombination is completed within an hour and exhibits two kinetic gaps. By using this kinetic framework we also characterized the role played by several proteins in the recombinational process. In the absence of Rad52, the broken chromosome ends, both 5' and 3', are rapidly degraded. This is not due to the inability to recombine, since the 3' single-stranded DNA ends are stable in a strain lacking donor sequences. Rad57 is required for two consecutive strand exchange reactions. Surprisingly, we found that the Srs2 helicase also plays an early positive role in the recombination process. PMID:12556499

  8. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and copper deprivation and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Greco, M A; Hrab, D I; Magner, W; Kosman, D J

    1990-01-01

    A wild-type strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown at a medium [Cu] of less than or equal to 50 nM contained less Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA (60%), protein (50%), and activity (50%) in comparison with control cultures grown in normal synthetic dextrose medium ([Cu] approximately 150 nM). A compensating increase in the activity of MnSOD was observed, as well as a smaller increase in MnSOD mRNA. These medium [Cu]-dependent differences were observed in cultures under N2 as well. Addition of Cu2+ (100 microM) to Cu-depleted cultures resulted in a rapid (30 min) increase in Cu,ZnSOD mRNA (2.5-fold), protein (3.5-fold), and activity (4-fold). Ethidium bromide (200 micrograms/ml of culture) inhibited by 50% the increase in Cu,ZnSOD mRNA, while cycloheximide (100 micrograms/ml of culture) inhibited completely the increase in protein and activity. Addition of Cu2+ to greater than or equal to 100 microM caused no further increase in these parameters but did result in a loss of total cellular RNA and translatable RNA, a decline in the population of specific mRNAs, a decrease in total soluble protein and the activity of specific enzymes, and an inhibition of incorporation of [3H]uracil and [3H]leucine into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. Cu,ZnSOD mRNA, protein, and activity appeared relatively more resistant to these effects of Cu toxicity than did the other cellular constituents examined. When evaluated in cultures under N2, the cellular response to [Cu] of greater than or equal to 100 microM was limited to the inhibition of radiolabel incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. All other effects were absent in the absence of O2. The data indicated that medium (cellular) Cu alters the steady-state level of Cu, ZnSOD. This regulation may be at the level of transcription. In addition, Cu,ZnSOD exhibits the characteristics of Cu-stress protein in that it and its mRNA are enhanced relative to other cellular species under conditions of Cu excess. This observation and the O2-dependence of some of the manifestations of Cu excess suggest that one mechanism of Cu toxicity involves the superoxide radical anion O2-. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 6 PMID:2403543

  9. Simultaneously improving xylose fermentation and tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors through evolutionary engineering of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbouring xylose isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Yeasts tolerant to toxic inhibitors from steam-pretreated lignocellulose with xylose co-fermentation capability represent an appealing approach for 2nd generation ethanol production. Whereas rational engineering, mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering are established techniques for either improved xylose utilisation or enhancing yeast tolerance, this report focuses on the simultaneous enhancement of these attributes through mutagenesis and evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbouring xylose isomerase in anoxic chemostat culture using non-detoxified pretreatment liquor from triticale straw. Results Following ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5A+ (ATCC 200062 strain platform), harbouring the xylose isomerase (XI) gene for pentose co-fermentation was grown in anoxic chemostat culture for 100 generations at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1 in a medium consisting of 60% (v/v) non-detoxified hydrolysate liquor from steam-pretreated triticale straw, supplemented with 20 g/L xylose as carbon source. In semi-aerobic batch cultures in the same medium, the isolated strain D5A+H exhibited a slightly lower maximum specific growth rate (?max?=?0.12?±?0.01 h-1) than strain TMB3400, with no ethanol production observed by the latter strain. Strain D5A+H also exhibited a shorter lag phase (4 h vs. 30 h) and complete removal of HMF, furfural and acetic acid from the fermentation broth within 24 h, reaching an ethanol concentration of 1.54 g/L at a yield (Yp/s) of 0.06 g/g xylose and a specific productivity of 2.08 g/gh. Evolutionary engineering profoundly affected the yeast metabolism, given that parental strain D5A+ exhibited an oxidative metabolism on xylose prior to strain development. Conclusions Physiological adaptations confirm improvements in the resistance to and conversion of inhibitors from pretreatment liquor with simultaneous enhancement of xylose to ethanol fermentation. These data support the sequential application of random mutagenesis followed by continuous culture under simultaneous selective pressure from inhibitors and xylose as primary carbon source. PMID:24884721

  10. Characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Malate Permease by Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Camarasa, Carole; Bidard, Frédérique; Bony, Muriel; Barre, Pierre; Dequin, Sylvie

    2001-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, l-malic acid transport is not carrier mediated and is limited to slow, simple diffusion of the undissociated acid. Expression in S. cerevisiae of the MAE1 gene, encoding Schizosaccharomyces pombe malate permease, markedly increased l-malic acid uptake in this yeast. In this strain, at pH 3.5 (encountered in industrial processes), l-malic acid uptake involves Mae1p-mediated transport of the monoanionic form of the acid (apparent kinetic parameters: Vmax = 8.7 nmol/mg/min; Km = 1.6 mM) and some simple diffusion of the undissociated l-malic acid (Kd = 0.057 min?1). As total l-malic acid transport involved only low levels of diffusion, the Mae1p permease was further characterized in the recombinant strain. l-Malic acid transport was reversible and accumulative and depended on both the transmembrane gradient of the monoanionic acid form and the ?pH component of the proton motive force. Dicarboxylic acids with stearic occupation closely related to l-malic acid, such as maleic, oxaloacetic, malonic, succinic and fumaric acids, inhibited l-malic acid uptake, suggesting that these compounds use the same carrier. We found that increasing external pH directly inhibited malate uptake, resulting in a lower initial rate of uptake and a lower level of substrate accumulation. In S. pombe, proton movements, as shown by internal acidification, accompanied malate uptake, consistent with the proton/dicarboxylate mechanism previously proposed. Surprisingly, no proton fluxes were observed during Mae1p-mediated l-malic acid import in S. cerevisiae, and intracellular pH remained constant. This suggests that, in S. cerevisiae, either there is a proton counterflow or the Mae1p permease functions differently from a proton/dicarboxylate symport. PMID:11526017

  11. AGAPE (Automated Genome Analysis PipelinE) for Pan-Genome Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Song, Giltae; Dickins, Benjamin J. A.; Demeter, Janos; Engel, Stacia; Dunn, Barbara; Cherry, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The characterization and public release of genome sequences from thousands of organisms is expanding the scope for genetic variation studies. However, understanding the phenotypic consequences of genetic variation remains a challenge in eukaryotes due to the complexity of the genotype-phenotype map. One approach to this is the intensive study of model systems for which diverse sources of information can be accumulated and integrated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an extensively studied model organism, with well-known protein functions and thoroughly curated phenotype data. To develop and expand the available resources linking genomic variation with function in yeast, we aim to model the pan-genome of S. cerevisiae. To initiate the yeast pan-genome, we newly sequenced or re-sequenced the genomes of 25 strains that are commonly used in the yeast research community using advanced sequencing technology at high quality. We also developed a pipeline for automated pan-genome analysis, which integrates the steps of assembly, annotation, and variation calling. To assign strain-specific functional annotations, we identified genes that were not present in the reference genome. We classified these according to their presence or absence across strains and characterized each group of genes with known functional and phenotypic features. The functional roles of novel genes not found in the reference genome and associated with strains or groups of strains appear to be consistent with anticipated adaptations in specific lineages. As more S. cerevisiae strain genomes are released, our analysis can be used to collate genome data and relate it to lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution. Our new tool set will enhance our understanding of genomic and functional evolution in S. cerevisiae, and will be available to the yeast genetics and molecular biology community. PMID:25781462

  12. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1?, are2?, dga1? and lro1?) and ?-oxidation (pox1?) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  13. Synthesis of Novel Lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of an Unspecific Bacterial Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Luftmann, Heinrich; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) is the key enzyme in storage lipid accumulation in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1, mediating wax ester, and to a lesser extent, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulates TAGs and steryl esters as storage lipids. Four genes encoding a DGAT (Dga1p), a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Lro1p) and two acyl-coenzyme A:sterol acyltransferases (ASATs) (Are1p and Are2p) are involved in the final esterification steps in TAG and steryl ester biosynthesis in this yeast. In the quadruple mutant strain S. cerevisiae H1246, the disruption of DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2 leads to an inability to synthesize storage lipids. Heterologous expression of WS/DGAT from A. calcoaceticus ADP1 in S. cerevisiae H1246 restored TAG but not steryl ester biosynthesis, although high levels of ASAT activity could be demonstrated for WS/DGAT expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue in radiometric in vitro assays with cholesterol and ergosterol as substrates. In addition to TAG synthesis, heterologous expression of WS/DGAT in S. cerevisiae H1246 resulted also in the accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters as well as fatty acid isoamyl esters. In vitro studies confirmed that WS/DGAT is capable of utilizing a broad range of alcohols as substrates comprising long-chain fatty alcohols like hexadecanol as well as short-chain alcohols like ethanol or isoamyl alcohol. This study demonstrated the highly unspecific acyltransferase activity of WS/DGAT from A. calcoaceticus ADP1, indicating the broad biocatalytic potential of this enzyme for biotechnological production of a large variety of lipids in vivo in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic expression hosts. PMID:15574908

  14. Glycolic acid production in the engineered yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glycolic acid is a C2 hydroxy acid that is a widely used chemical compound. It can be polymerised to produce biodegradable polymers with excellent gas barrier properties. Currently, glycolic acid is produced in a chemical process using fossil resources and toxic chemicals. Biotechnological production of glycolic acid using renewable resources is a desirable alternative. Results The yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis are suitable organisms for glycolic acid production since they are acid tolerant and can grow in the presence of up to 50 g l-1 glycolic acid. We engineered S. cerevisiae and K. lactis for glycolic acid production using the reactions of the glyoxylate cycle to produce glyoxylic acid and then reducing it to glycolic acid. The expression of a high affinity glyoxylate reductase alone already led to glycolic acid production. The production was further improved by deleting genes encoding malate synthase and the cytosolic form of isocitrate dehydrogenase. The engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced up to about 1 g l-1 of glycolic acid in a medium containing d-xylose and ethanol. Similar modifications in K. lactis resulted in a much higher glycolic acid titer. In a bioreactor cultivation with d-xylose and ethanol up to 15 g l-1 of glycolic acid was obtained. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of engineering yeast to produce glycolic acid. Prior to this work glycolic acid production through the glyoxylate cycle has only been reported in bacteria. The benefit of a yeast host is the possibility for glycolic acid production also at low pH, which was demonstrated in flask cultivations. Production of glycolic acid was first shown in S. cerevisiae. To test whether a Crabtree negative yeast would be better suited for glycolic acid production we engineered K. lactis in the same way and demonstrated it to be a better host for glycolic acid production. PMID:24053654

  15. Elevated Proteasome Capacity Extends Replicative Lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dange, Thomas; Kahlert, Günther; Delaney, Joe R.; Kotireddy, Soumya; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Murakami, Christopher J.; Schleit, Jennifer; Sutphin, George; Carr, Daniel; Tar, Krisztina; Dittmar, Gunnar; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K.; Schmidt, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the accumulation of damaged cellular macromolecules caused by declining repair and elimination pathways. An integral component employed by cells to counter toxic protein aggregates is the conserved ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS). Previous studies have described an age-dependent decline of proteasomal function and increased longevity correlates with sustained proteasome capacity in centenarians and in naked mole rats, a long-lived rodent. Proof for a direct impact of enhanced proteasome function on longevity, however, is still lacking. To determine the importance of proteasome function in yeast aging, we established a method to modulate UPS capacity by manipulating levels of the UPS–related transcription factor Rpn4. While cells lacking RPN4 exhibit a decreased non-adaptable proteasome pool, loss of UBR2, an ubiquitin ligase that regulates Rpn4 turnover, results in elevated Rpn4 levels, which upregulates UPS components. Increased UPS capacity significantly enhances replicative lifespan (RLS) and resistance to proteotoxic stress, while reduced UPS capacity has opposing consequences. Despite tight transcriptional co-regulation of the UPS and oxidative detoxification systems, the impact of proteasome capacity on lifespan is independent of the latter, since elimination of Yap1, a key regulator of the oxidative stress response, does not affect lifespan extension of cells with higher proteasome capacity. Moreover, since elevated proteasome capacity results in improved clearance of toxic huntingtin fragments in a yeast model for neurodegenerative diseases, we speculate that the observed lifespan extension originates from prolonged elimination of damaged proteins in old mother cells. Epistasis analyses indicate that proteasome-mediated modulation of lifespan is at least partially distinct from dietary restriction, Tor1, and Sir2. These findings demonstrate that UPS capacity determines yeast RLS by a mechanism that is distinct from known longevity pathways and raise the possibility that interventions to promote enhanced proteasome function will have beneficial effects on longevity and age-related disease in humans. PMID:21931558

  16. Investigation of the dominance behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Benedetta; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2013-07-15

    During wine fermentation, different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae compete in the same fermenting must and dominance takes place when one strain overcomes all the others. The purpose of this study was to investigate this phenomenon by identifying S. cerevisiae strains endowed with this feature and to test them in laboratory fermentations. First, autochthonous S. cerevisiae from Nebbiolo fermentations were isolated, molecularly identified and characterized. Genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains were subsequently subjected to physiological characterization and to micro-scale fermentation, the weight loss kinetics was measured and HPLC analysis was performed at the end of the fermentation. Then, the strains that presented good fermentation characteristics were chosen for further analysis and to determine the dominance feature. For this purpose, couples of strains were co-inoculated in Nebbiolo must and the fermentations were monitored by microbiological and chemical analysis. Two different inoculation approaches were used: co-fermentations in flasks with mixed cells and reactor co-fermentations, in which the cells from the two different strains were kept separate by means of a 0.45 ?m filter membrane, which allowed the fermenting must to move freely between the two compartments. During the flask co-fermentations, a minisatellite PCR protocol was applied, in order to differentiate the two strains and determine which one was able to dominate. The protocol included a culture-dependent approach and an independent one. In the first case, DNA extraction was performed on all the colonies scraped off the plates after sampling. In the second case, DNA extraction was performed directly on the fermenting must. The strains that were able to dominate were tested against several S. cerevisiae in order to confirm this dominance behavior. Dominance was observed in the early stages of fermentation, as early as 3days. Combinations of dominant and not-dominant strains were subjected to further tests in a co-fermentation reactor system, in order to perform single-strain analysis so as to obtain a better understanding of the dominance behavior. Surprisingly, the results obtained in the flask co-fermentations were not confirmed. In fact, the two strains, one which was hypothesized to be dominant and the other not-dominant, coexisted throughout the fermentation period. The results of this study suggest that the dominant behavior of S. cerevisiae is only expressed when they sense other yeasts in the same environment. PMID:23728432

  17. Natural Populations of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii in Portugal Are Associated with Oak Bark and Are Sympatric with S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus?

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the isolation of four Saccharomyces species (former Saccharomyces sensu stricto group) from tree bark. The employment of two temperatures (10°C in addition to the more commonly used 30°C) resulted in the isolation of S. kudriavzevii and S. uvarum, two species that grow at low temperatures, in addition to S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. A clear bias was found toward the bark of certain trees, particularly certain oak species. Very often, more than one Saccharomyces species was found in one locality and occasionally even in the same bark sample. Our evidence strongly suggests that (markedly) different growth temperature preferences play a fundamental role in the sympatric associations of Saccharomyces species uncovered in this survey. S. kudriavzevii was isolated at most of the sites sampled in Portugal, indicating that the geographic distribution of this species is wider than the distribution assumed thus far. However, the Portuguese S. kudriavzevii population exhibited important genetic differences compared to the type strain of the species that represents a Japanese population. In this study, S. kudriavzevii stands out as the species that copes better with low temperatures. PMID:18281431

  18. Regulation of initiation of division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization of the role of DCR2, GID8, and KEM1 in completion of START 

    E-print Network

    Pathak, Ritu

    2007-04-25

    The decision to initiate division is very important, as once cells have initiated division they are committed to complete it. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commitment to a new round of cell division occurs at a regulatory ...

  19. The G1 cyclin Cln3p regulates vacuole homeostasis through phosphorylation of a scaffold protein, Bem1p, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    E-print Network

    Han, Bong Kwan

    2007-04-25

    How proliferating cells maintain the copy number and overall size of their organelles is not clear. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the G1 cyclins Cln1,2,3p control initiation of cell division by regulating ...

  20. The Glc7 type 1 protein phosphatase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for cell cycle progression in G2/M.

    PubMed Central

    Hisamoto, N; Sugimoto, K; Matsumoto, K

    1994-01-01

    We isolated a mutant carrying a conditional mutation in the GLC7 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of a type 1 protein phosphatase, by selection of suppressors that restored the growth defect of cdc24 mutants at high temperature and simultaneously conferred cold-sensitive growth. This cold sensitivity for growth is caused by a single mutation (glc7Y-170) at position 170 of the Glc7 protein, resulting in replacement of cysteine with tyrosine. Genetic analysis suggested that the glc7Y-170 allele is associated with a recessive negative phenotype, reducing the activity of Glc7 in the cell. The glc7Y-170 mutant missegregated chromosome III at the permissive temperature, arrested growth as large-budded cells at the restrictive temperature, exhibited a significant increase in the number of nuclei at or in the neck, and had a short spindle. Furthermore, the glc7Y-170 mutant exhibited a high level of CDC28-dependent protein kinase activity when incubated at the restrictive temperature. These findings suggest that the glc7Y-170 mutation is defective in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Thus, type 1 protein phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for the G2/M transition. Images PMID:8164671

  1. Permeabilization of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls using nanosecond high power electrical pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirke, A.; Zimkus, A.; Balevicius, S.; Stankevic, V.; Ramanaviciene, A.; Ramanavicius, A.; Zurauskiene, N.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical field-induced changes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells permeabilization to tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) ions were studied using square-shaped, nanosecond duration high power electrical pulses. It was obtained that pulses having durations ranging from 10 ns to 60 ns, and generating electric field strengths up to 190 kV/cm significantly (up to 65 times) increase the absorption rate of TPP+ ions without any detectible influence on the yeast cell viability. The modelling of the TPP+ absorption process using a second order rate equation demonstrates that depending on the duration of the pulses, yeast cell clusters of different sizes are homogeniously permeabilized. It was concluded, that nanosecond pulse-induced permeabilization can be applied to increase the operational speed of whole cell biosensors.

  2. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  3. Evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: identification of mutations increasing fitness in laboratory populations.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Victoria M; Adams, Julian

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of the complete sequence of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of comprehensive investigations have been initiated to gain insight into cellular function. The focus of these studies has been to identify genes essential for survival in specific environments or those that when mutated cause gross phenotypic defects in growth. Here we describe Ty1-based mutational approaches designed to identify genes, which when mutated generate evolutionarily significant phenotypes causing small but positive increments on fitness. As expected, Ty1 mutations with a positive fitness effect were in the minority. However, mutations in two loci, one inactivating FAR3 and one upstream of CYR1, identified in evolving populations, were shown to have small but significantly positive fitness effects. PMID:14668358

  4. The fluxes through glycolytic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predominantly regulated at posttranscriptional levels

    PubMed Central

    Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Rossell, Sergio; van Gulik, Walter M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; de Groot, Marco J. L.; Slijper, Monique; Heck, Albert J. R.; Daran, Jean-Marc; de Winde, Johannes H.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Pronk, Jack T.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes may be regulated “hierarchically,” e.g., by changes of gene expression that adjust enzyme capacities (Vmax) and/or “metabolically” by interactions of enzymes with substrates, products, or allosteric effectors. In the present study, a method is developed to dissect the hierarchical regulation into contributions by transcription, translation, protein degradation, and posttranslational modification. The method was applied to the regulation of fluxes through individual glycolytic enzymes when the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was confronted with the absence of oxygen and the presence of benzoic acid depleting its ATP. Metabolic regulation largely contributed to the ?10-fold change in flux through the glycolytic enzymes. This contribution varied from 50 to 80%, depending on the glycolytic step and the cultivation condition tested. Within the 50–20% hierarchical regulation of fluxes, transcription played a minor role, whereas regulation of protein synthesis or degradation was the most important. These also contributed to 75–100% of the regulation of protein levels. PMID:17898166

  5. Micromolar HgCl2 concentrations transitorily duplicate the ATP level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Silles, Eduardo; Osorio, Hugo; Maia, Rita; Günther Sillero, María A; Sillero, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    Low concentrations of HgCl2 elicited, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a transitory increase in the ATP level followed by a decrease of its concentration, until almost disappearance. At 1 microM HgCl2, the increase in ATP lasted for about 30 min, while at 10 microM the increase was only observed in the first 5 min of treatment. The initial burst of ATP was accompanied by a decrease in the level of hexose phosphates, whereas during the decrease of ATP an increase in the inosine and hexose phosphates levels took place. The treatment with HgCl2 inhibited the plasma membrane proton ATPase but not the activities of hexokinase or 6-phosphofructokinase. PMID:16023109

  6. Role of hydrosulfide ions (HS-) in methylmercury resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B; Ishii, N; Fujino, S; Aoyama, I

    1991-01-01

    Methylmercury-resistant mutants were obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They were divided into two complementation groups, met2 (homoserine O-acetyltransferase deficiency) and met15 (enzyme deficiency unknown), as reported previously. It was found that met15 was allelic to met17 (O-acetylserine and O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase deficiency). Methylmercury toxicity was counteracted by exogenously added HS-, and both met2 and met17 (met15) mutants overproduced H2S. On the basis of these results, we conclude that met2 and met17 (met15) cause accumulation of hydrosulfide ions in the cell and that the increased level of hydrosulfide is responsible for detoxification of methylmercury. Images PMID:1781681

  7. Occurrence of low molecular weight O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, S

    1980-11-01

    Studies with crude preparations obtained from a cysteine auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase could be separated from O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. On the basis of sedimentation distance, the molecular weights of these enzymes were calculated to be about 99,000 and 182,000, respectively. The former did not react with the amino acid substrate of the latter, and vice versa. The wild-type strain was also demonstrated to possess O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (molecular weight: about 96,000), in addition to a large amount of O-acetylserine-O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (Yamagata et al. (1974) J. Biochem. 75, 1221). PMID:7007360

  8. Expression in Escherichia coli of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCT gene encoding cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Y; Nikawa, J; Hosaka, K; Yamashita, S

    1991-01-01

    The coding region of the CCT gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned into the pUC18 expression vector. The plasmid directed the synthesis of an active cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase in Escherichia coli, confirming that CCT is the structural gene for this enzyme. The enzyme produced in E. coli efficiently utilized cholinephosphate and N,N-dimethylethanolaminephosphate, but N-methylethanolamine-phosphate and ethanolaminephosphate were poor substrates. Consistently, disruption of the CCT locus in the wild-type yeast cells resulted in a drastic decrease in activities with respect to the former two substrates. When activity was expressed in E. coli, over 90% was recovered in the cytosol, whereas most of the activity of yeast cells was associated with membranes, suggesting that yeast cells possess a mechanism that promotes membrane association of cytidylyltransferase. Images PMID:1848222

  9. Role of NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1990-01-01

    We cloned GDH2, the gene that encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by purifying the enzyme, making polyclonal antibodies to it, and using the antibodies to screen a lambda gt11 yeast genomic library. A yeast strain with a deletion-disruption allele of GDH2 which replaced the wild-type gene grew very poorly with glutamate as a nitrogen source, but growth improved significantly when the strain was also provided with adenine or other nitrogenous compounds whose biosynthesis requires glutamine. Our results indicate that the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the major, but not sole, pathway for generation of ammonia from glutamate. We also isolated yeast mutants that lacked glutamate synthase activity and present evidence which shows that normally NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase is not involved in glutamate biosynthesis, but that if the enzyme is overexpressed, it may function reversibly in intact cells. PMID:1975578

  10. Synthetic interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, F P; Novick, P

    2000-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, synthetic lethality has been extensively used both to characterize interactions between genes previously identified as likely to be involved in similar processes as well as to uncover new interactions. We have performed a large study of the synthetic lethal interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations. Included in this study are the interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations with each other, with mutations affecting earlier stages of the secretory pathway, with selected mutations affecting the actin cytoskeleton, and with selected cell division cycle (cdc) mutations affecting processes thought to be important for or involving secretion, such as polarity establishment and cytokinesis. Synthetic negative interactions of the post-Golgi sec mutations appear (as predicted) to be largely stage specific, although there are some notable exceptions. The significance of these results is discussed in the context of both secretory pathway function and the utility of synthetic lethality studies and their interpretation. PMID:11063675

  11. Inactivation of expression of two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the external guide sequence methodology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xudong; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2011-03-01

    The artificial inhibition of expression of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not a widespread, useful phenomenon. The external guide sequence (EGS) technology, which is well-proven in bacteria and mammalian cells in tissue culture and in mice, can also be utilized in yeast. The TOP2 and SRG1 genes can be inhibited by ?30% with EGSs in vivo. Results in vitro also show convenient cleavage of the relevant transcripts by RNase P and appropriate EGSs. The feasible constructs shown to date have an EGS covalently linked to M1 RNA, the RNA subunit of RNase P from Escherichia coli. Greater efficiency in cleavage of transcripts can be fashioned using more than one EGS targeted to different sites in a transcript and stronger promoters controlling the EGS constructs. PMID:21233222

  12. Physical Map of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genome at 110-Kilobase Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Link, A. J.; Olson, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    A physical map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome is presented. It was derived by mapping the sites for two restriction endonucleases, SfiI and NotI, each of which recognizes an 8-bp sequence. DNA-DNA hybridization probes for genetically mapped genes and probes that span particular SfiI and NotI sites were used to construct a map that contains 131 physical landmarks--32 chromosome ends, 61 SfiI sites and 38 NotI sites. These landmarks are distributed throughout the non-rDNA component of the yeast genome, which comprises 12.5 Mbp of DNA. The physical map suggests that those genes that can be detected and mapped by standard genetic methods are distributed rather uniformly over the full physical extent of the yeast genome. The map has immediate applications to the mapping of genes for which single-copy DNA-DNA hybridization probes are available. PMID:2029969

  13. Localization of dolichyl phosphate- and pyrophosphate-dependent glycosyl transfer reactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, M; Tanner, W

    1979-01-01

    Membranes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae protoplasts were fractionated on a continuous sucrose gradient. Six bands were obtained, which contained altogether about 15% of the total cell protein. From their densitites, their behavior in the presence and absence of Mg2+ ions, and the distribution of marker enzymes, it was possible to identify fractions enriched in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria. All glycosyl transfer reactions investigated where dolichyl phosphates served as glycosyl acceptors or where dolichyl phosphate- and pyrophosphate-activated sugars served as glycosyl donors showed the highest specific activity and up to 75% of the total activity in the endoplasmic reticulum. This was the case for the reactions involved in the formation of O-glycosidic as well as N-glycosidic linkages in yeast glycoprotein biosynthesis. Membrane fractions enriched in plasmalemma contained less than 3% of the corresponding activities. PMID:222737

  14. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cell Wall Components as Tools for Ochratoxin A Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata; Masek, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall preparations in the adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA). The study involved the use of a brewer’s yeast cell wall devoid of protein substances, glucans obtained by water and alkaline extraction, a glucan commercially available as a dietary supplement for animals and, additionally, dried brewer’s yeast for comparison. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis of the obtained preparations showed bands characteristic for glucans in the resulting spectra. The yeast cell wall preparation, water-extracted glucan and the commercial glucan bound the highest amount of ochratoxin A, above 55% of the initial concentration, and the alkaline-extracted glucan adsorbed the lowest amount of this toxin. It has been shown that adsorption is most effective at a close-to-neutral pH, while being considerably limited in alkaline conditions. PMID:25848694

  15. Chromosomal attachments set length and microtubule number in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitotic spindle

    PubMed Central

    Nannas, Natalie J.; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Winey, Mark; Murray, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    The length of the mitotic spindle varies among different cell types. A simple model for spindle length regulation requires balancing two forces: pulling, due to micro­tubules that attach to the chromosomes at their kinetochores, and pushing, due to interactions between microtubules that emanate from opposite spindle poles. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that spindle length scales with kinetochore number, increasing when kinetochores are inactivated and shortening on addition of synthetic or natural kinetochores, showing that kinetochore–microtubule interactions generate an inward force to balance forces that elongate the spindle. Electron microscopy shows that manipulating kinetochore number alters the number of spindle microtubules: adding extra kinetochores increases the number of spindle microtubules, suggesting kinetochore-based regulation of microtubule number. PMID:25318669

  16. Characterization and expression of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Piwu; Su, Jing; Wu, Xiangkun; Liang, Rongrong

    2014-10-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P) synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168 GIVING maximum activity of 96 U ml(-1) for the enzyme in the culture medium. By SDS-PAGE, the enzyme, a glycosylated protein, had an apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa. The enzyme was purified by gel exclusion chromatography to near homogeneity, with a 90 % yield and its properties were characterized. Optimal activities were at pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively, at which the highest specific activity was 6.8 U mg protein (-1). The enzyme was stable from pH 4.5 to 5.5 and from 45 to 60 °C. The Km and Vmax of the GlcN-6-P synthase towards D-fructose 6-phosphate were 2.8 mM and 6.9 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. PMID:24930098

  17. Very early acetaldehyde production by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: a new intrinsic character.

    PubMed

    Cheraiti, Naoufel; Guezenec, Stéphane; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2010-03-01

    During a general survey of the acetaldehyde-producing properties of commercially available wine yeast strains, we discovered that, although final acetaldehyde production cannot be used as a discriminating factor between yeast strains, initial specific acetaldehyde production rates were of highly interest for classifying yeast strains. This parameter is very closely related to the growth- and fermentation-lag phase durations. We also found that this acetaldehyde early production occurs with very different extent between commercial active dry yeast strains during the rehydration phase and could partially explain the known variable resistance of yeast strains to sulfites. Acetaldehyde production appeared, therefore, as very precocious, strain-dependent, and biomass-independent character. These various findings suggest that this new intrinsic characteristic of industrial fermenting yeast may be likely considered as an early marker of the general fermenting activity of industrial fermenting yeasts. This phenomenon could be particularly important for understanding the ecology of colonization of complex fermentation media by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19921176

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall components as tools for ochratoxin a decontamination.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata; Masek, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall preparations in the adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA). The study involved the use of a brewer's yeast cell wall devoid of protein substances, glucans obtained by water and alkaline extraction, a glucan commercially available as a dietary supplement for animals and, additionally, dried brewer's yeast for comparison. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis of the obtained preparations showed bands characteristic for glucans in the resulting spectra. The yeast cell wall preparation, water-extracted glucan and the commercial glucan bound the highest amount of ochratoxin A, above 55% of the initial concentration, and the alkaline-extracted glucan adsorbed the lowest amount of this toxin. It has been shown that adsorption is most effective at a close-to-neutral pH, while being considerably limited in alkaline conditions. PMID:25848694

  19. Infrequent Co-conversion of Markers Flanking a Meiotic Recombination Initiation Site in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Lea; Allers, Thorsten; Lichten, Michael

    2005-01-01

    To study the mechanism of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we examined recombination in an interval where the majority of events are initiated at a single hotspot for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), with little or no expected contribution by outside initiation events. This interval contained infrequently corrected palindromic markers 300 bp to the left and 600 bp to the right of the DSB hotspot. Conversion of single markers occurred frequently, while conversion of both markers occurred rarely, and many of the tetrads in which both markers converted were the products of multiple events. These data indicate that most meiotic recombination intermediates are asymmetrically positioned around the initiating DSB, with a short (<300 bp) tract of heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) to one side and hDNA on the other side frequently extending 600 bp or more. One consequence of this asymmetry is the preferential concentration of crossovers in the vicinity of the initiating DSB. PMID:15654098

  20. Toward sub-second correlative light and electron microscopy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buser, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism widely used to study cell biological processes because of its easy genomic manipulation and its close relatedness to higher eukaryotes. For electron microscopy, the good freezing properties and the small size of yeast cells make it a nearly ideal specimen for the development of cryopreparation techniques. Here we report on the development of a method to correlate yeast cells by live-fluorescence and electron microscopy with the potential to achieve sub-second correlation times. This is possible by plunge-freezing of an optically transparent sample sandwich, so that the temporal resolution is only determined by the transfer speed from the fluorescence microscope to the freezing device. While direct correlation was not yet achieved, the system already offers the possibility to verify the state of the identical population of cells by fluorescence microscopy immediately before freezing and processing for transmission electron microscopy. PMID:20869525