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1

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach

M M Ong; M P Perkins; C G Brown; E W Crull; R D Streit

2009-01-01

2

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type facility, when the facility is struck by lightning. In the following examples we will use Dr. Merewether's calculations from a poor quality Faraday cage as the input for the RF coupling analysis. coupling of radio frequency (RF) energy to explosive components is an indirect effect of currents [1]. If HE is adequately separated from the walls of the facility that is struck by disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightning is initiation of the HE. last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or lightning. The most sensitive component is typically a detonator, and the safety concern lightning, electrons discharged from the clouds should not reach the HE components. radio receiver, the metal cable of a detonator can extract energy from the EM fields. This to the earth will create electromagnetic (EM) fields in the facility. Like an antenna in a

Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

2009-04-24

3

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightnin...

C. G. Brown E. W. Crull M. M. Ong M. P. Perkins R. D. Streit

2009-01-01

4

Trial application of the worker safety assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect

A Worker Safety Assessment Methodology has been developed to assess the risks to workers from radiological accidents at non-reactor nuclear facilities. The methodology utilizes Process Hazards Analysis, proposed risk goals, and Quantitative Risk Analysis. The first phase of a trial application of the methodology to a nuclear facility has been completed and is being reports.

Marchese, A.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Neogy, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

5

Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators.

Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

2002-02-26

6

System safety assessments combining first principles and model based safety assessment methodologies  

SciTech Connect

In performing assessments of low probability, high consequence systems, it is often preferable to use more than one methodology in order to assure that such systems undergo a thorough assessment. Hence, employing two methodologies in a complementary manner allows the analyst to bring the strongest features of each approach to bear upon the problem. The results of one methodology can be used to crosscheck or better characterize the results of another methodology, with the results being synergized in providing a comprehensive assessment of the system. This paper will briefly describe both the first principles and model based safety assessment methodologies, and will illustrate how both methods are used in a complementary manner in order to perform overall safety assessments of low probability, high consequence engineered systems at Sandia National Laboratories.

Dvorack, M.A.; Jones, T.R.; Carlson, D.D.; Wolcott, J.F.; Sanders, G.A.

1998-01-01

7

Drug safety assessment in clinical trials: methodological challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Randomized controlled trials are the principal means of establishing the efficacy of drugs. However pre-marketing trials are limited in size and duration and exclude high-risk populations. They have limited statistical power to detect rare but potentially serious adverse events in real-world patients. We summarize the principal methodological challenges in the reporting, analysis and interpretation of safety data in clinical trials using recent examples from systematic reviews. These challenges include the lack of an evidentiary gold standard, the limited statistical power of randomized controlled trials and resulting type 2 error, the lack of adequate ascertainment of adverse events and limited generalizability of trials that exclude high risk patients. We discuss potential solutions to these challenges. Evaluation of drug safety requires careful examination of data from heterogeneous sources. Meta-analyses of drug safety should include appropriate statistical methods and assess the optimal information size to avoid type 2 errors. They should evaluate outcome reporting biases and missing data to ensure reliable and accurate interpretation of findings. Regulatory and academic partnerships should be fostered to provide an independent and transparent evaluation of drug safety.

2012-01-01

8

Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety  

SciTech Connect

The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subject to analyses consisting of Failure Modes. Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications.

Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroeger, P.

1993-06-01

9

Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety  

SciTech Connect

The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subject to analyses consisting of Failure Modes. Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications.

Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroeger, P.

1993-01-01

10

Methodology for the relative risk assessment in the NIF Preliminary Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the methodology used for the relative risk assessment performed in the NIF Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The safety analysis for a facility of the hazard level of NIF (low hazard, radiological) should be mostly qualitative. This was the approach taken for the NIF risk assessment, where qualitative descriptors were assigned to event consequences and frequencies. The event consequences and frequencies were then combined using a risk matrix to obtain an assessment of the relative risk presented by each event to NIF workers and to the public. The development of the risk matrices is the main subject of this report. The matrices have been applied in the NIF PSAR (LLNL, 1996).

Brereton, S.J.

1996-08-01

11

Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents

B. Walsh; C. Fisher; G. Zigler; R. A. Clark

1990-01-01

12

Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

1993-01-01

13

Methodology for the relative risk assessment in the LDF safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the methodology used for the relative risk assessment performed in the LDF Safety Analysis Report. The safety analysis for a facility of the hazard level of the LDF Complex (Buildings 490L, 492 are low hazard) should be mostly qualitative. This was the approach taken for the LDF risk assessment, where qualitative descriptors were assigned to event consequences and frequencies. The event consequences and frequencies were then combined using a risk matrix to obtain an assessment of the relative risk presented by each event to LDF workers and to the public. The development of the risk matrices is the main subject of this report. The matrices have been applied in the LDF SAR (LLNL, 1997).

Brereton, S.J.

1997-09-03

14

Product safety risk assessment methodologies - a whole of life look at safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing utilization of third party technical services has fractured traditional safety systems through decentralized or dysfunctional information management and variable approaches to hazard identification and control. The resultant loss of the total product safety view with the added complication of legislative requirements to increase awareness of the safety and ecological impact of product has created the need for a process

P. Everitt; A. Price

2004-01-01

15

Safety Assessment for a Surface Repository in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - Methodology for Assessing Disposal under Intervention Conditions - 13476  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, RWDF Buryakovka is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Plans for enlargement of the facility exist since more than 10 years but have not been implemented yet. In the framework of an European Commission Project DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) based on the planned enlargement. Due to its history RWDF Buryakovka does not fully comply with today's best international practices and the latest Ukrainian regulations in this area. The most critical aspects are its inventory of long-lived radionuclides, and the non-existent multi-barrier waste confinement system. A significant part of the project was dedicated, therefore, to the development of a methodology for the safety assessment taking into consideration the facility's special situation and to reach an agreement with all stakeholders involved in the later review and approval procedure of the safety analysis reports. Main aspect of the agreed methodology was to analyze the safety, not strictly based on regulatory requirements but on the assessment of the actual situation of the facility including its location within the Exclusion Zone. For both safety analysis reports, SAR and PSAR, the assessment of the long-term safety led to results that were either within regulatory limits or within the limits allowing for a specific situational evaluation by the regulator. (authors)

Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Shybetskyi, I. [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ul. O. Gonchara 55 b, 01054 Kiev (Ukraine)] [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ul. O. Gonchara 55 b, 01054 Kiev (Ukraine)

2013-07-01

16

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Analytical methodology for safety validation of computer controlled subsystems. Volume 1. State-of-the-art and assessment of safety verification/validation methodologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Final Report for the Base Task (or first of two major tasks) of the program relative to the development of this methodology. The report describes work performed and results obtained on three major activities or items of work. The first (i.e., Item 1) involved the definition of terminology and acronyms relevant to the safety verification and validation of computer-controlled subsystems used in railroad and other fixed guideway applications including high-speed rail and maglev. The second (i.e,. Item 2) involved a description of the state-of-the-art in safety verification and validation methodologies and associated standards in computer-based systems worldwide. The third (i.e., Item 3) involved an assessment of the methodologies from the standpoint of their applicability and level of assured safety.

Luedeke, J.F.

1995-09-01

17

A Safety Risk Assessment Methodology for Decision Support Systems with an Application to the Expedite Departure Path Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center has developed a methodology to perform safety risk assessments for air traffic control/air traffic management decision Support systems and concepts. Changes in controller, pilot, and/or airline dispatcher tasks that are affected by the decision support system are related to associated hazards. These hazards are then assessed either qualitatively or quantitatively in terms of likelihood of occurring and the impact if they do occur. Those items that show a potential safety hazard level increase can then have research plans developed to address those safety risks areas. An application of this methodology will he demonstrated using the AATT decision support tool Expedite Departure Path.

Snyder, Phillip T.; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

18

A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic, iterative process that continually evolves with the design.

T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

2006-05-01

19

Innovative methodology and developments in US space radioisotope power safety risk assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the development of the safety information relating to the Galileo and Ulysses deep space missions, the state of safety and risk assessment technology underwent several developments which related to the use of the Space Shuttle as the launch vehicle and the changes in accident considerations which this necessitated. These changes included more detailed understanding of the close-in environments of liquid propellant explosions, analysis techniques to better consider the statistical nature of explosion severities, and to specify source terms appropriate to quantification of risk, use of preliminary risk analyses, and better understanding of explosion environments as input to the design of safety test series. They also included application of new internal dosimetry for Pu-238 dioxide and implementation of a de minimus dose concept for risk considerations. These considerations are further developed herein.

Englehart, R. W.; Bartram, B. W.; Firstenberg, H.; Jubach, R. W.; Vaughan, F. R.

20

COMPARISON OF METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SAFETY AND DEPENDABILITY ASSESSMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer based systems, which are devoted to control critical functions, may incur in safety and dependability problems. In the safety area a new standard is currently emerging, IEC 61508, which is intended to provide a unified framework which may deserve as guideline for the analysis of safety related systems. The present paper deals with the safety and dependability analysis of

Andrea Bobbio; Sandro Bologna; Ester Ciancamerla; Giuliana Franceschinis; Rossano Gaeta; Michele Minichino; Luigi Portinale

21

Pickering seismic safety margin. Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has...

A. Ghobarah A. C. Heidebrecht W. K. Tso

1992-01-01

22

A methodology for determining interactions in probabilistic safety assessment models by varying one parameter at a time.  

PubMed

In risk analysis problems, the decision-making process is supported by the utilization of quantitative models. Assessing the relevance of interactions is an essential information in the interpretation of model results. By such knowledge, analysts and decisionmakers are able to understand whether risk is apportioned by individual factor contributions or by their joint action. However, models are oftentimes large, requiring a high number of input parameters, and complex, with individual model runs being time consuming. Computational complexity leads analysts to utilize one-parameter-at-a-time sensitivity methods, which prevent one from assessing interactions. In this work, we illustrate a methodology to quantify interactions in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models by varying one parameter at a time. The method is based on a property of the functional ANOVA decomposition of a finite change that allows to exactly determine the relevance of factors when considered individually or together with their interactions with all other factors. A set of test cases illustrates the technique. We apply the methodology to the analysis of the core damage frequency of the large loss of coolant accident of a nuclear reactor. Numerical results reveal the nonadditive model structure, allow to quantify the relevance of interactions, and to identify the direction of change (increase or decrease in risk) implied by individual factor variations and by their cooperation. PMID:20199656

Borgonovo, Emanuele

2010-03-01

23

From technological acceptability to appropriation by users: Methodological steps for device assessment in road safety.  

PubMed

This article presents the methodology developed within the framework of the research project SARI (Automated Road Surveillance for Driver and Administrator Information). This methodology is based on the logic of action research. The article presents the different stages in the development of technological innovation addressing vehicle control loss when driving on a curve. The results observed in speed reduction illustrate that no matter how optimal an innovation may be technologically speaking, it is only as effective as it is acceptable from a user standpoint. This acceptability can only be obtained if the technology is developed by engineers in liaison with social science specialists. PMID:24508421

Bordel, Stéphanie; Somat, Alain; Barbeau, Hervé; Anceaux, Françoise; Greffeuille, Catherine; Menguy, Gaëlle; Pacaux, Marie-Pierre; Subirats, Peggy; Terrade, Florence; Gallenne, Marie-Line

2014-06-01

24

A methodology for Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) based on Advanced Control Room Operator Support System (ACROSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) all attention is paid to analyze a system which is a time consuming effort so there is a need to develop a system network to support the analyst and to reduce manpower. To handle the physical, operational and organizational changes and to utilize the PSA information effectively the development of living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA)

Muhammad Zubair; Zhijian Zhang; Salah Ud-din Khan

2011-01-01

25

Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic methodologies developed originally for one area of application may be applicable in another area. Therefore, it is extremely important to communicate across disciplines. Of course, a physical reinterpretation is necessary and perhaps some modification of the methodology. This seems to be the situation in applying resource assessment methodologies as environmental assessment methodologies. In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment

Robert A. Crovelli

1995-01-01

26

Supply chain assessment methodology.  

PubMed

This article describes an assessment methodology based on the supply chain proficiency model that can be used to set realistic supply chain objectives. The assessment centers on a business model that identifies the logical stages of supply chain proficiency as measured against a comprehensive set of business characteristics. For each characteristic, an enterprise evolves from one stage to the next. The magnitude of change inherent in moving forward usually prohibits skipping stages. Although it is possible to be at different stages for each characteristic, it is usually desirable to maintain balance. PMID:11183381

Topor, E

2000-08-01

27

Formal safety assessment of cruise ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the applicability of formal safety assessment to the cruise industry. Formal safety assessment and its development in the cruise shipping industry are described. Cruise ship accident statistics are studied and discussed. This is followed by an analysis of cruise ship characteristics and a proposed formal safety assessment methodology for cruise ships. A case study is carried out

P Lois; J Wang; A Wall; T Ruxton

2004-01-01

28

The assessment of food safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The concept of food safety organizational culture, whilst largely ignored in the past, is attracting increasing interest. The purpose of this paper is to examine a possible framework for assessing a business's food safety culture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature on health and safety culture and organizational culture is examined and relevant components applicable to food safety are identified

C. J. Griffith; K. M. Livesey; D. Clayton

2010-01-01

29

Methodological Questions Concerning Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants during Loss of Power and Disruption of Communications with the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabalistic analysis of the safety of power-generating units at nuclear power plants is now an integral part of all work at the design level and during equipment operation. In many countries the maximum rate of core damage as estimated according to such analysis does not exceed 10 ?4 (reactor·years) ?1 (US, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and others). The likely

R. Z. Aminov; V. I. Ignatov

2002-01-01

30

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis within the post closure Performance and Safety Assessment of the French deep geological radwaste disposal: methodology, tool and examples of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the December 30, 1991 french act, Andra submitted to the French Parliament in December 2005 a report on the feasibility of a high-level and long-lived radwaste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfodien clay layer (Meuse/Haute-Marne site). Further to 2006 french act, Andra is now involved in licensing of the reversible disposal up to 2015, which requires a great scientific and technical knowledge. Studies are based on many years of research carried out in France, in particular in Andra's Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (MHM URL), and international programs on radwastes, engineered barriers and deep clay formations. Intensive programs on hydraulic, solute transfer and radionuclides behaviour (solubility, retention) were and are carried out on Callovo-Oxfordian argilites (undisturbed and damaged), concrete materials and swelling clay based material, in order to provide a sound database. All these data allowed to perform firstly a sound description of the expected phenomenological evolution of the repository and its geological environment (including release and migration of radionuclides) from operating period to post closure period up to one million years, secondly a sound post-closure performance and safety assessment covering the different waste types (ILLW, HLW). Various safety scenarii were defined to quantify radiological impacts and to evaluate performance of the components and safety functions in post closure using specific indicators (concentration, molar rate, water flux…). According to the RFS III2.f (french safety rule related to deep geological radwaste disposad), there is no risk analysis in post closure and assessments are performed using deterministic situations, models and values. To complete analysis, propagation of uncertainties from models and input data in Performance and Safey Assessment (PA/SA) models is done using both deterministic and multiparametric probabilistic approach, with two main objectives: (i) to quantify the dispersion of results (time, maximum...); this part deals with uncertainty analysis, and (ii) to identify relevant models and input data whose uncertainty manages uncertainty of the results; this part deals with sensitivity analysis. First this paper describes Andra's methodology and numerical tool used. Then it presents results applied to Monte-Carlo probabilistic multi-parametric study on HLW (vitrified waste) disposal, in order to study propagation of uncertainties of input data (Callovo-Oxfordian, EDZ (Excavated Damaged Zone), and Engineering components) on various radionuclide pathways within the disposal. The methodology consists of (i) setting up probabilistic distribution function (pdf), according to the level of knowledge, (ii) sampling all pdf with Latin Hypercube Sampling methods, (iii) ensuring physical coherence in sets of input data, using correlations and constraints, (iv) using integrated computing tool (Alliances platform) to perform calculations. Results focus on: - uncertainty analysis: multi-parametric study shows (i) that transfer through undisturbed argillites remains the main pathway, (ii) a large dispersion (several orders of magnitude) of molar rate at the top of clay layer for the two pathways (undisturbed argillites, and repository structures), which includes reference point of altered scenario, such as seal failure one, and which is close to worst case one. - sensitivity analysis: for undisturbed argillites pathway, calculations highlight that uncertainty on some input data such as adsorption of Iodine, solubility limit of Selenium, diffusion and vertical permeability of undisturbed argillites, manages dispersion of the results. For repository structures pathway, uncertainty on hydraulic properties, such as permeabilities of EDZ, are relevant. This study is important to identify knowledge of parameters which has to be increased in order to reduce dispersion (uncertainty) of each performance assessment indicator. Lessons learnt lead Andra to be involved now in a sound work of setting up new methods and tools to treat uncert

Pepin, G.

2009-04-01

31

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (WQAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Quality Assessment Methodology (WQAM) is a screening procedure for toxic and conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters and is a collection of formulas, tables, and graphs that planners can use for preliminary assessment of surface and ground water quality in ...

32

Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.  

PubMed

Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. PMID:22617368

Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

2012-09-01

33

Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

2007-09-01

34

Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

35

Fire safety assessment technology research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire safety assessment (FSA) is a very important approach to fire safety management. To carry out FSA, its quantification methods should be first studied. One of the effective methods would be Modern Control Theory which is applied to assess fire objects, to realize dynamic and quantitative management, and to control fire safety system. This method puts forward some factors concerning

Li Jianfeng; Yao Xiaohui; Kui Qiao

2009-01-01

36

Risk Assessment and Safety Evaluation Using Probabilistic Fault Tree Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is an essential prelude to the development of accident prevention strategies in any chemical or petrochemical industry. Many techniques and methodologies such as HAZOP, failure mode effect analysis, fault tree analysis, preliminary hazard analysis, quantitative risk assessment and probabilistic safety analysis are available to conduct qualitative, quantitative, and probabilistic risk assessment. However, these methodologies are limited by: extensive

Faisal I. Khan; Tahir Husain

2001-01-01

37

Assessment of criticality safety in DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to assess nuclear criticality safety in DOE Facilities and to assess the effects of various types of possible improvements. The accident statistics in DOE operations show that the fatalities caused by Nuclear Criticality accidents are small compared to other accident categories. The data show the safety performance after 1965, compared to prior years, was considerably improved indicating that overall safety programs have been effective. Data on criticality safety violations were collected from eight major facilities. These data were categorized by severity indexes and causes were assigned. A total of 421 violations were used in the data base for analysis in a fault tree model. Calculations were made using the fault tree methodology to show expected improvement in safety (reduction in probability of a criticality accident) for a fixed reduction in the number of criticality violations. Based on this analysis, about equal emphasis should be placed on reducing mechanical failures and operator errors as efforts in these two areas will likely produce the most significant improvements in safety. A criticality safety infraction form was prepared to facilitate uniformity in recording data on infractions for subsequent analysis. Discussions with Nuclear Safety Specialists working in the field instilled confidence that criticality safety is being handled by concerned, capable, and knowledgable persons.

Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D.; Converse, W.E.; Kottwitz, D.A.

1981-05-01

38

Automating the Aviation Command Safety Assessment Survey as an Enterprise Information System (EIS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program effectiveness. This survey was a manual process first administered in the fall...

F. J. Mingo J. S. Held

1999-01-01

39

Development of LLNL Methodology for Nonnuclear Safety Bases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to introduce the process and philosophies used to develop LLNL methodology for performing nonnuclear safety bases. Our former approach needed revision in order to implement the new Work Smart Standard (WSS), 'Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard' (UCRL-ID-150214), approved in 2003 and revised January, 2004. This work relates directly to the following workshop theme: 'Improvements in Chemical, Biological, and Non-nuclear Safety analysis.' A requirements document, Environmental Safety and Health Manual, Document 3.1 provides safety bases methodology 'how-to' for LLNL personnel. This methodology document had to undergo a major revision, and essentially was completely re-written, since the nonnuclear requirements underwent a major change due to the new standard. The new methodology was based on a graded approach respective to risk level for each hazard type and facility classification. The development process included input from a cross-section of representatives of LLNL organizations at every step in the process. The initial methodology was tested in a pilot project that resulted in completed safety basis analyses and documentation for a major facility at LLNL. Feedback from the pilot was used to refine the methodology. The new methodology promotes a graded approach to classifying and analyzing the 5 nonnuclear hazard types (chemical, explosive, radiological, industrial and biohazard) so that resources are focused more on the higher risk hazards and facilities, than the lower risk hazards and facilities. Also a lot was learned from the input gleaned from the LLNL representatives involved in the development process and from the pilot study. The methodology document presents a streamlined and graded approach to analyze nonnuclear hazards. The process of involving 'user-personnel' throughout the process, and testing the initial methodology in a pilot study improved and refined the final product.

van Warmerdam, C M; Pinkston, D M

2004-04-26

40

Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements  

SciTech Connect

A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

1980-01-01

41

Prioritisation methodologies in fire safety evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many complex problems in commercial settings can be broken down into elements that can be arranged in a hierarchical network with a supreme policy level and subsequent lower levels. Several techniques can be used to quantify the relative importance of the lowest level components subject to the policy. In this paper, we compare three methodologies that have been used in

F. J. Dodd; H. A. Donegan

1994-01-01

42

Methodological assessment of HCC literature  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health problem, very few interventions are available for this disease, and only sorafenib is approved for the treatment of advanced disease. Of note, only very few interventions have been thoroughly evaluated over time for HCC patients compared with several hundreds in other, equally highly lethal, tumours. Additionally, clinical trials in HCC have often been questioned for poor design and methodological issues. As a consequence, a gap between what is measured in clinical trials and what clinicians have to face in daily practice often occurs. As a result of this scenario, even the most recent guidelines for treatment of HCC patients use low strength evidence to make recommendations. In this review, we will discuss some of the potential methodological issues hindering a rational development of new treatments for HCC patients.

Daniele, G.; Costa, N.; Lorusso, V.; Costa-Maia, J.; Pache, I.; Pirisi, M.

2013-01-01

43

Safety Evaluation Methodology for Mining Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodolgy evaluates design of proposed mining systems. Analysis tests proposed mining systems against specifications and hazards of existing similar systems, examines soundness of new design in terms of reducing or eliminating major health and safety hazards, and identifies major design weaknesses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1985-01-01

44

Methodology for Energy Solid Waste Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a methodology for the environmental assessment of solid waste related to the coal fuel cycle. The methodology requires as its key input a county level siting and energy use file. Given also a database of coal characteristics, and the...

P. M. Meier D. Guenther

1980-01-01

45

Risk assessment and laser safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic tenets of risk assessment have always been applied in laser safety during the development of safety standards. For example, statistical methods were used in the probit analysis of the threshold of ocular injury; concepts of risk analysis were employed in the development of hazard classes, where the increased risk of exposure and potential for injury from increasing laser

D. H. Sliney

1995-01-01

46

Methodology for Tornado Hazard Probability Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology for tornado hazard probability assessment is presented along with a discussion of the assumptions and rationale used in the procedure. Application of the method produces a tornado hazard probability model, which gives the probabilities of an...

J. R. McDonald

1983-01-01

47

USGS Methodology for Assessing Continuous Petroleum Resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new quantitative methodology for assessing resources in continuous (unconventional) petroleum deposits. Continuous petroleum resources include shale gas, coalbed gas, and other oil and gas deposits in low-permeability ("tight") reservoirs. The methodology is based on an approach combining geologic understanding with well productivities. The methodology is probabilistic, with both input and output variables as probability distributions, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the estimates. The new methodology is an improvement of previous USGS methodologies in that it better accommodates the uncertainties in undrilled or minimally drilled deposits that must be assessed using analogs. The publication is a collection of PowerPoint slides with accompanying comments.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

2011-01-01

48

Assessment of Organisational Culture. A Methodological Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines safety culture and organizational culture research and assessment mainly in the nuclear power industry. The report does, however, also have points of contact with and applications for other industrial sectors. The report defines the co...

T. Reiman P. Oedewald

2001-01-01

49

Safety Assessment of Probiotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

50

Consideration of Aging in Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic safety assessment is a standardised tool for assessment of safety of nuclear power plants. It is a complement to the safety analyses. Standard probabilistic models of safety equipment assume component failure rate as a constant. Ageing of systems, structures and components can theoretically be included in new age-dependent probabilistic safety assessment, which generally causes the failure rate to be

Banjac Titina

51

Audit Practices: Summary of Risk Assessment Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the DoD audit community with information relating to risk assessment methodologies. The primary objective of an audit risk assessment is to provide its users with the assurance that audit resources are focused on those areas needing g...

2002-01-01

52

Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer  

PubMed Central

This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

Simoens, Steven

2009-01-01

53

Gaseous-fuel safety assessment. Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory, in support of studies sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine Research and Development in the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a safety assessment of selected gaseous fuels for use in light automotive transportation. The purpose is to put into perspective the hazards of these fuels relative to present day fuels and delineated criteria for their safe handling. Fuels include compressed and liquified natural gas (CNG and LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and for reference gasoline and diesel. This paper is a program status report. To date, physicochemical property data and general petroleum and transportation information were compiled; basic hazards defined; alternative fuels were safety-ranked based on technical properties alone; safety data and vehicle accident statistics reviewed; and accident scenarios selected for further analysis. Methodology for such analysis is presently under consideration.

Krupka, M.C.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Bartlit, J.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

1982-01-01

54

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

55

Auditing offshore safety risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessments submitted to support proposals for offshore operations must be audited to ensure conformance with regulating authorities' safety requirements. This paper outlines the approach adopted for auditing recent submissions to the U.K. Dept. of Energy for simultaneous drilling and production (SDP) with jackup rigs cantilevered over gas production platforms. The principles are valid for risk-assessment audits of other offshore installations.

Moss, T.R. (RM Consultants Ltd. (GB))

1990-10-01

56

Methodologies for social life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose\\u000a of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA\\u000a has several similarities with other social assessment tools, although, in order to limit the expanse of the review, only claims\\u000a to address

Andreas Jørgensen; Agathe Le Bocq; Liudmila Nazarkina; Michael Hauschild

2008-01-01

57

Ecosystem Impacts of Urbanization Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dy...

D. L. Jameson

1976-01-01

58

Assessing Basic Competencies: A Practical Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Assessment of Basic Competencies (ABC), a methodology for measuring writing, arithmetic, and selected life skills that is simple, inexpensive, and easy to reproduce. Provides results of a pilot implementation of ABC among 2,100 children in Bangladesh between the ages of 11 and 12. (35 citations) (MAB)

Chowdhury, A. M. R.; And Others

1994-01-01

59

An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

2003-09-01

60

Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

2006-10-01

61

Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges.  

PubMed

For decades various pressure ulcer risk assessment scales (PURAS) have been developed and implemented into nursing practice despite uncertainty whether use of these tools helps to prevent pressure ulcers. According to current methodological standards, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are required to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy and safety of this risk assessment strategy. In these trials, PURAS-aided risk assessment has to be compared to nurses' clinical judgment alone in terms of its impact on pressure ulcer incidence and adverse outcomes. However, RCTs evaluating diagnostic procedures are prone to specific risks of bias and threats to the statistical power which may challenge their validity and feasibility. This discussion paper critically reflects on the rigour and feasibility of experimental research needed to substantiate the clinical efficacy of PURAS-aided risk assessment. Based on reflections of the methodological literature, a critical appraisal of available trials on this subject and an analysis of a protocol developed for a methodologically robust cluster-RCT, this paper arrives at the following conclusions: First, available trials do not provide reliable estimates of the impact of PURAS-aided risk assessment on pressure ulcer incidence compared to nurses' clinical judgement alone due to serious risks of bias and insufficient sample size. Second, it seems infeasible to assess this impact by means of rigorous experimental studies since sample size would become extremely high if likely threats to validity and power are properly taken into account. Third, means of evidence linkages seem to currently be the most promising approaches for evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of PURAS-aided risk assessment. With this kind of secondary research, the downstream effect of use of PURAS on pressure ulcer incidence could be modelled by combining best available evidence for single parts of this pathway. However, to yield reliable modelling results, more robust experimental research evaluating specific parts of the pressure ulcer risk assessment-prevention pathway is needed. PMID:23540571

Balzer, K; Köpke, S; Lühmann, D; Haastert, B; Kottner, J; Meyer, G

2013-08-01

62

Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1981-01-01

63

Methodology for IT Governance Assessment and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT Governance has become an increasingly important process in delivering business value from IT. A number of IT governance\\u000a frameworks have been proposed as the MIT — CISR framework and COBIT. However, there is no proposal of a systematic methodology\\u000a for IT Governance assessment and design, considering the possibility of joint usage of multiple frameworks. This paper presents\\u000a a systematic

Sérgio Clementi; Tereza Cristina M. B. Carvalho

2006-01-01

64

Challenges in Implementing Methodologies for Nonproliferation Assessments  

SciTech Connect

A handful of models for explaining and predicting States’ development of nuclear weapons programs have been proposed since the 1970s. Despite the array of techno-social variables and computational concepts employed in these models, no model has yet been established as an agreed-upon standard. Likewise, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)—one of the main institutions evaluating social, political, and technological information for assessments of States’ current nuclear capabilities—uses only a qualitative framework by which to evaluate such information to assess the correctness and completeness of a State’s declaration. In this paper, analysts familiar with both the development of techno-social modelling and the IAEA’s implementation of a safeguards system that is information driven discuss the challenges faced in the development, implementation, and evaluation of models and methodologies for nonproliferation assessments, based on experiences at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the IAEA.

Gastelum, Zoe N.; Dalton, Angela C.; Coles, Garill A.

2011-07-17

65

Assessment of football grounds for player safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional football clubs have a duty under UK health and safety legislation to carry out risk assessments of their activities; one requirement under this duty is to assess the impact of ground layout on player safety. To assist clubs in meeting this requirement, a Ground Player-safety Score (GPS) has been developed that is defined by a base-factor, determined from the

Colin W. Fuller; Richard D. Hawkins

1997-01-01

66

Safety assessment approach for decontamination and decommissioning at nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for nearly 1000 nuclear facilities that will eventually be decommissioned. To ensure that the health and safety of the workers, other personnel on site, and the public in general are maintained during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, the DOE is developing a methodology specifically for use in evaluating the safety of the associated activities. This methodology represents not so much a departure from that currently used in the DOE when conducting safety assessments of operations at nuclear facilities but rather a formalization of those methods specifically adapted to the D&D activities. As such, it is intended to provide the safety assessment personnel with a framework on which they can base their technical judgment. Formal documentation of the methodology will, in addition to enabling the adoption of a consistent approach to safety assessment, allow the facility management and operations contractors to become fully aware of the criteria by which their D&D plans and operations will be evaluated.

Worthington, P.R.; Cowgill, M.G.

1994-12-31

67

Epigenetics and chemical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Epigenetics, as it pertains to biology and toxicology, can be defined as heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve mutations and are propagated without continued stimulus. Although potentially reversible, these heritable changes may be classified as mitotic, meiotic, or transgenerational, implicating the wide-ranging impact of epigenetic control in cellular function. A number of biological responses have been classified as being caused by an "epigenetic alteration," sometimes based on sound scientific evidence and often in lieu of an identified genetic mutation. Complicating the understanding and interpretation of perceived epigenetic alterations is an incomplete understanding of the normal state and dynamic variation of the epigenome, which can differ widely between cell and tissue types and stage of development or age. This emerging field is likely to have a profound impact on the study and practice of toxicology in coming years. This document reviews the current state of the science in epigenetic modifications, techniques used to measure these changes, and evaluates the current toxicology testing battery with respect to strengths and potential weaknesses in the identification of epigenetics changes. In addition, case studies implicating transgenerational effects induced by diethylstilbestrol, vinclozolin, and bisphenol A were reviewed to illustrate the application of epigenetics in safety assessment and the strengths and limitations of the study designs. An assessment of toxicology tests currently used in safety evaluation revealed that these tests are expected to identify any potential adverse outcomes resulting from epigenetic changes. Furthermore, in order to increase our understanding of the science of epigenetics in toxicology, this review has revealed that a solid understanding of the biology and variation in the epigenome is essential to contextualize concerns about possible adverse health effects related to epigenetic changes. Finally, the fundamental principles guiding toxicology studies, including relevant doses, dose-rates, routes of exposure, and experimental models, need to be taken into consideration in the design and interpretation of studies within this emerging area of science. PMID:20399890

LeBaron, Matthew J; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Klapacz, Joanna; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Hollnagel, Heli M; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2010-10-01

68

Assessment of rural energy resources; Methodological guidelines  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11016 (IN))

1990-01-01

69

Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Analytical methodology for safety validation of computer controlled subsystems. Volume 2. Development of a safety validation methodology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The evolution in the implementations of safety critical systems in the railroad industry from simple vital relays to more complex computer-based configurations has raised many issues among users as well as the Federal Railraod Authority (FRA). Foremost among these issues is the need to assure similar or improved levels of safety those currently provided by conventional fail-safe technology. This concern is heightened in newer high-speed rail and maglev systems which operate or are being designed to operate at considerably higher speeds and levels of automation than conventional rail systems. The overall objective of this program was to develop a safety validation methodology that could be considered (by the FRA) for use as a standard for manufacturers and users to help ensure the safe operation of safety critical computer-based system.

Luedeke, J.F.

1995-09-01

70

A methodology for assessment of nuclear power plant seismic margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPRI's seismic margin methodology enables utility engineers to quantify a nuclear power plant's ability to withstand an earthquake greater than design and still safety shut down for a least 72 hours. This cost-effective, practical methodology used generic screening of systems and component seismic reggedness and does not require probabilistic calculations. The revision adds depth, detail, and more complete procedures to

J. W. Reed; R. P. Kennedy; D. R. Buttemer; I. M. Idriss; D. P. Moore; T. Barr; K. D. Wooten; J. E. Smith

1991-01-01

71

Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment: Workshop Report, Torres Strait, Australia, Annex A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risk identification and mitigation are and have been ongoing activities within the Torres Strait area. As a step toward standardizing methodology, a formal Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment (PAWSA) for Torres Strait was conducted in Cairns, Australia,...

2004-01-01

72

Improvement of Fault Tree Analysis in Formal Safety Assessment Using Binary Decision Diagram  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Maritime Organization (IMO) implements the principles of risk management through a systematic process called Formal Safety Assessment (FSA). FSA is a structured and systematic methodology, aimed at enhancing maritime safety, including protection of life, health, the marine environment and property, by using risk analysis and cost benefit assessment. One of the most widely used hazard identification and risk analysis

Yao Cai; Zhengjiang Liu; Zhaolin Wu

2009-01-01

73

Comparison of two survey methodologies to assess vaccination coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Measuring vaccination coverage permits evaluation and appropriate targeting of vaccination services. The cluster survey methodology developed by the World Health Organization, known as the 'Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) methodology', has been used worldwide to assess vaccination coverage; however, the manner in which households are selected has been criticized by survey statisticians as lacking methodological rigor and introducing bias.

Elizabeth T Luman; Alemayehu Worku; Yemane Berhane; Rebecca Martin; Lisa Cairns

74

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a

Jeffrey L. LaChance; Clifford W. Hansen

2010-01-01

75

Review Article: Update on Suicide Assessment Instruments and Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review summarizes the current status of suicide assessment and focuses on suicide-specific instrumentation and methodologies developed in the last 30 years. The purpose is to provide a brief overview and comparison of modem suicide assessment tools. ...

L. L. Hourani D. Jones K. Kennedy K. Hirsch

1999-01-01

76

45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-10-01 true Self-assessment implementation methodology...Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...ANNUAL STATE SELF-ASSESSMENT REVIEW AND REPORT...

2013-10-01

77

45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Self-assessment implementation methodology...Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...ANNUAL STATE SELF-ASSESSMENT REVIEW AND REPORT...

2010-10-01

78

45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Self-assessment implementation methodology...Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...ANNUAL STATE SELF-ASSESSMENT REVIEW AND REPORT...

2009-10-01

79

Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU (Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty) methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Zuber, N.

1988-01-01

80

An Integrated Approach to Safety-driven and ICT-enabled Process Reengineering: Methodological Advice and a Case Study.  

PubMed

Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures. PMID:24943545

Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

2014-01-01

81

Safety assessment for W82 spinner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety analysis is provided for the W82 spinners that the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant furnishes the Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, and the Bendix Corporation, Kansas City. An assessment of the containment, torsional mounting, air turbine, lid closure, explosive hazard, safety interlocks, and secondary personnel protection is evaluated using the latest available engineering data and containment experience derived from

Wavrik

1988-01-01

82

Nuclear reactor safety goals and assessment principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although regulatory requirements for the safety of nuclear reactors are still largely deterministic, two national regulatory authorities have recently introduced the use of quantitative evaluations of risks based on the probabilities of accidents. These developments are contained in the safety assessment principles promulgated in 1979 and used in licensing by the United Kingdom (UK) Nuclear Installations Inspectorate and in the

Higson

2009-01-01

83

RADIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT/IMPROVEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The office is developing improved methodologies and guidance for evaluating human health risks associated with exposure to environmental radiological contaminants. These activities involve coordination with numerous federal agencies and the development and communication of vari...

84

Safety Assessment for W82 Spinner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A safety analysis is provided for the W82 spinners that the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant furnishes the Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, and the Bendix Corporation, Kansas City. An assessment of the containment, torsional mounting, air turbine...

R. W. Wavrik

1988-01-01

85

Structural Reliability Assessment Methodology - Why Now.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior to the advent of the aging aircraft problem, the criterion for ensuring USN airframe safety was a damage index labeled FLE (Fatigue Life Expended). In retrospect, over several decades, the application of the FLE criterion has provided an exemplary, ...

P. Hoffman M. Hoffman D. Polakovics

1999-01-01

86

Integrated methodology for sabotage vulnerability assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology that provides an estimate of vulnerability to sabotage involving multiple targets in different locations is developed. The technique is a synthesis of fault tree analysis and a pathing algorithm. The fault tree is used to identify cut sets o...

T. A. Edmunds

1992-01-01

87

Comparing Functional Assessment Methodologies: A Quantitative Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much research concerning functional assessment over the past 20 years, but several important research considerations have yet to be explained. One is the comparison of different types of functional assessment (e.g., experimental functional analysis and non-experimental functional assessment). The current study aims to compare the…

Herzinger, Caitlin V.; Campbell, Jonathan M.

2007-01-01

88

A performance assessment methodology for low-level waste facilities  

SciTech Connect

A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This report provides a summary of background reports on the development of the methodology and an overview of the models and codes selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology and a sequential procedure for applying the methodology. Discussions are provided of models and associated assumptions that are appropriate for each phase of the methodology, the goals of each phase, data required to implement the models, significant sources of uncertainty associated with each phase, and the computer codes used to implement the appropriate models. In addition, a sample demonstration of the methodology is presented for a simple conceptual model. 64 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Mattingly, P.A. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

1990-07-01

89

Challenges and methodology for safety analysis of a high-level waste tank with large periodic releases of flammable gas  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 10,000 ft{sup 3} of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest-priority DOE operational safety problems. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The mitigation method selected for the tank was to install a pump that would mix the tank contents and eliminate the sludge layer believed to be responsible for the gas retention and periodic releases. This report will describe the principal analysis methodologies used to prepare the safety assessment for the installation and operation of the pump, and because this activity has been completed, it will describe the results of pump operation.

Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stewart, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-07-01

90

System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

2003-01-01

91

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and Monte-Carlo-based sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons, compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors, identifies some of their dual-use characteristics, and discusses ongoing developmental activities.

Benjamin, A.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Special Risk Assessment Projects Dept.

1994-12-31

92

QAM: A Competency Based Need Assessment Methodology and Computer Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A needs assessment methodology is described which can be used (1) to assess the competencies required for functioning in a particular position, (2) to provide data for planning inservice and preservice educational programs, (3) to assess job performance, and (4) to provide information for personnel planners. Quadrants are formed using four…

Gale, Larrie E.

93

Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

Woods, Stephen

2009-01-01

94

Process waste assessment methodology for mechanical departments. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Process waste assessments (PWAS) were performed for three pilot processes to develop methodology for performing PWAs for all the various processes used throughout the mechanical departments. A material balance and process flow diagram identifying the raw ...

R. B. Hedrick

1992-01-01

95

Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-03-01

96

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an improved methodology for estimating volumes of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources within the United States and around the world. The methodology is based on previously developed U.S. Geological Survey methodologies that rely on well-scale production data. Improvements were made primarily to how the uncertainty about estimated ultimate recoveries is incorporated in the estimates. This is particularly important when assessing areas with sparse or no production data, because the new methodology allows better use of analog data from areas with significant discovery histories.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

2010-01-01

97

Assessment of RAMONA-3B methodology with FRIGG dynamic tests  

SciTech Connect

The computer codes used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compute BWR safety parameters are the Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and RAMONA-3B/MOD1. Both codes have the same methodology for modeling thermal hydraulic phenomena: drift-flux formulation, two-phase multipliers for the wall friction and form losses calculations, and the momentum integral approach for spatial integration of the loop momentum equations. Both codes use explicit integration methods for solving ordinary differential equations. It is concluded that both the codes are capable of modelling the instability problems for a BWR. The accuracy of thermohydraulics codes predictions was assessed by modelling oscillatory FRIGG tests. Nodalizations studies showed that 24 axial nodes were sufficient for a converged solution, 12 axial nodes produced an error of 4.4% in the gain of the power to flow transfer function. The code predicted consistently the effects of power and inlet subcooling on gain and system resonance frequency. The comparisons showed that the code predicted the peak gains with a mean difference from experiments of 7% {plus minus} 30% for all the tests modeled. The uncertainty in the experimental data is {minus}11% to +12%. The mean difference in the predicted frequency at the peak gain is {minus}6% {plus minus} 14%.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Wulff, W.

1990-01-01

98

Assessment of RAMONA-3B methodology with FRIGG dynamic tests  

SciTech Connect

The computer codes used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compute BWR safety parameters are the Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and RAMONA-3B/MOD1. Both codes have the same methodology for modeling thermal hydraulic phenomena: drift-flux formulation, two-phase multipliers for the wall friction and form losses calculations, and the momentum integral approach for spatial integration of the loop momentum equations. Both codes use explicit integration methods for solving ordinary differential equations. It is concluded that both the codes are capable of modelling the instability problems for a BWR. The accuracy of thermohydraulics codes predictions was assessed by modelling oscillatory FRIGG tests. Nodalizations studies showed that 24 axial nodes were sufficient for a converged solution, 12 axial nodes produced an error of 4.4% in the gain of the power to flow transfer function. The code predicted consistently the effects of power and inlet subcooling on gain and system resonance frequency. The comparisons showed that the code predicted the peak gains with a mean difference from experiments of 7% {plus_minus} 30% for all the tests modeled. The uncertainty in the experimental data is {minus}11% to +12%. The mean difference in the predicted frequency at the peak gain is {minus}6% {plus_minus} 14%.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Wulff, W.

1990-12-31

99

SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

100

Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods

Cadwallader

1993-01-01

101

Development of a safety assessment approach for decontamination and decommissioning operations at nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for nearly 1000 nuclear facilities which will eventually be decommissioned. In order to ensure that the health and safety of the workers, other personnel on site and the public in general is maintained during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, a methodology specifically for use in evaluating the nuclear safety of the associated activities is being developed within the Department. This methodology represents not so much a departure from that currently fish in the DOE when conducting safety assessments of operations at nuclear facilities but, rather, a formalization of those methods specifically adapted to the D&D activities. As such, it is intended to provide the safety assessment personnel with a framework on which they can base their technical judgement, to assure a consistent approach to safety assessment of D&D operations and to facilitate the systematic collection of data from facilities in the post-operational part of the life cycle.

Worthington, P.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Cowgill, M.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

102

Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

Joglekar, Prafulla

2001-01-01

103

Review of Methodologies Used in Safety Analyses of Nuclear Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodologies used in safety analyses of nuclear waste disposal are reviewed. Particular reference is made to the KBS-3 proposals and to the WP-Cave concept. These methodologies are aimed mainly at reducing uncertainties in the predictions of health c...

P. C. Robinson

1984-01-01

104

Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

Smith, Mark A.

2000-03-01

105

An Assessment Methodology for Evaluating Communications Innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has never been any shortage of ideas in the communications industry, only a problem of which to choose and which to reject. Building upon the thesis that to the extent a current innovation replicates the effects that past great innovations had on their host societies, an assessment tool is developed to aid in the design and decision processes. Three

G. Thompson

1975-01-01

106

Institutional Financial Assessment: Methodology and Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

W. John Minter and Howard R. Bowen's annual report on "Financial and Educational Trends in Independent Higher Education, 1978" is examined. Problems in data reporting by college administrators that skew financial assessment reports are noted. A rating questionnaire for institutional quality is appended. (Author/LBH)

Jenny, Hans H.

1979-01-01

107

Methodology for assessing adaptive cruise control behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on nonintrusive methods for char- acterizing the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports the experimental set-up and procedures for measuring ACC system performance, followed by the modeling and simulation of the measured ACC per- formance. To further assess the interaction of ACC vehicles with human-controlled traffic, microscopic simulation involving both

Zevi Bareket; Paul S. Fancher; Huei Peng; Kangwon Lee; Charbel A. Assaf

2003-01-01

108

Safety assessment of the NET Predesign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work carried out by European Associations on Safety and Environment inside the EC Fusion Technology Programme and by NET has been concentrated on safety-related guidance and on safety assessment of the NET Predesign. Emphasis has been put on analysis of accident sequences of regulatory concern up to worst case accidents, including quantification of consequences to components, systems, and plant, and of doses to the public. Probabilistic safety studies for the most important systems and broadly for the entire plant have been performed to supplement the calculated accidental doses by expectation values for their occurrence rate, and to check the relevance of the reference accident sequences selected initially by judgment. Waste masses per year of operation and for decommissioning have been quantified. For two countries and according to the practices and regulations of these countries, volumes of radioactive waste packaged for final disposal have been determined.

Gulden, W.; Raeder, J.; Ebert, E.; Bartels, H.-W.

1994-03-01

109

Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

1998-01-01

110

Q Methodology to Assess Child-Father Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work aims to highlight the relevance of Stephenson's Q methodology (QM) for improving the assessment of child-father attachment relationships. We argue that reconceptualising the relationship can enhance the validity of assessment techniques and help in identifying the paternal behaviours that predict a secure child-father attachment pattern.…

John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.

2010-01-01

111

Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

112

Objective and quantitative assessment methodology of hand functions for rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is the study and analysis of the fundamental issues that constitute the development of a hand rehabilitation system by making use of mechanisms with systematic methodology for objective and quantitative assessment for patients with motor weakness, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) and post-stroke. The goal of the work is to use these assessment\\/measurement results

Y. Y. Huang; K. H. Low; H. B. Lim

2009-01-01

113

DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-02-01

114

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources using analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The currently used U.S. Geological Survey methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) petroleum resources of the United States was developed in the 1990s. This methodology poorly incorporates uncertainty about the estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs). This is especially problematic for hypothetical assessment units where this may be the largest source of uncertainty that needs to be reflected in the estimates. An improved methodology estimates the uncertainty of mean EUR directly. It uses analog data that have been compiled from production histories of many developed U.S. continuous assessment units. The analog databases provide a way of estimating the variability of not just EURs but other production parameters useful in assessing continuous resources.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

2010-01-01

115

Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

1996-08-01

116

Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment in Italy: A Methodological Proposal Adapted to Regulatory Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related stress is one of the major causes of occupational ill health. In line with the regulatory framework on occupational health and safety (OSH), adequate models for assessing and managing risk need to be identified so as to minimize the impact of this stress not only on workers' health, but also on productivity. Methods After close analysis of the Italian and European reference regulatory framework and work-related stress assessment and management models used in some European countries, we adopted the UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach, adapting it to the Italian context in order to provide a suitable methodological proposal for Italy. Results We have developed a work-related stress risk assessment strategy, meeting regulatory requirements, now available on a specific web platform that includes software, tutorials, and other tools to assist companies in their assessments. Conclusion This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons.

Persechino, Benedetta; Valenti, Antonio; Ronchetti, Matteo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Di Tecco, Cristina; Vitali, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio

2013-01-01

117

Safety risk assessment in industrial maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to answer the following questions: What conditions must be taken into account in order to manage maintenance-related risks? and how can the service-providing company assess and manage maintenance-related risks? Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study was based on analyses concerning: maintenance-related risks in companies; literature review; and real accident data. The development process was carried out in

Salla Lind; Sanna Nenonen; Jouni Kivistö-Rahnasto

2008-01-01

118

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

119

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

120

Methodological Concerns about the Education Value-Added Assessment System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Value-added models help to evaluate the knowledge that school districts, schools, and teachers add to student learning as students progress through school. In this article, the well-known Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is examined. The author presents a practical investigation of the methodological issues associated with the…

Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

2008-01-01

121

Methodological Issues in Curriculum-Based Reading Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies involving elementary students examined methodological issues in curriculum-based reading assessment. Results indicated that (1) whereas sample duration did not affect concurrent validity, increasing duration reduced performance instability and increased performance slopes and (2) domain size was related inversely to performance slope…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; And Others

1984-01-01

122

Risk assessment methodology for laser applications in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for laser applications in medicine that takes account of the different stages of the life cycle of the laser application, the individual components of the laser application and the different people at risk. In this way, the specific hazards can be identified and addressed to ensure that the risks associated with the use

Adam J. Lowe; John B. O'Hagan

2001-01-01

123

Critical Inquiry and Writing Centers: A Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining one writing center's role in student success, this project offers two examples of the way writing centers impact student engagement. This analysis models a methodology that writing and learning center directors can utilize in order to foster effective communication with stakeholders. By conducting data-driven assessment, directors can…

Bell, Diana Calhoun; Frost, Alanna

2012-01-01

124

Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of

Marta Herva; Ramón Hernando; Eugenio F. Carrasco; Enrique Roca

2010-01-01

125

Space Shuttle probabilistic risk assessment: methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and processes used for the probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle vehicle to systematically quantify the risk incurred during a nominal Shuttle mission and rank the risk driving components to allow for a concerted risk and cost reduction effort. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology

G. Maggio

1996-01-01

126

A Survey on the Methodology of Participatory Integrated Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A methodology that has received increasing attention in recent years is IntegratedAssessment (IA). IA can loosely be defined as a multior interdisciplinary process ofstructuring various knowledge elements in such a manner that all relevant aspects of aproblem are considered in their mutual coherence, for the benefit of decision-making.

Marleen Van De Kerkhof

2001-01-01

127

A Methodological Proposal for Learning Games Selection and Quality Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a methodological proposal elaborated in the framework of two European projects dealing with game-based learning, both of which have focused on "quality" aspects in order to create suitable tools that support European educators, practitioners and lifelong learners in selecting and assessing learning games for use in teaching and…

Dondi, Claudio; Moretti, Michela

2007-01-01

128

Validation of the YAEC (Yankee Atomic Electric Company) criticality safety methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YEAC's) criticality safety methodology has evolved over the years to analyze high-density spent fuel rack designs, new fuel vault optimum moderation, burnup credit, pin consolidation, storage rack sensitivities, and large spent fuel rack arrays. The present methodology has three calculational paths: NITAWL-S\\/ KENO V.a Monte Carlo, CASMO-3 integral transport, and CASMO-3\\/CHART-2\\/PDQ-7 diffusion theory analysis. These

D. G. Napolitano; F. L. Carpenito; P. J. Rashid

1988-01-01

129

Methodology and tools for source term assessment in case of emergency.  

PubMed

By looking at the power plant state of fission product barriers and critical safety systems, the magnitude of a potential radioactive release could be predicted in a timely manner to allow emergency response to be executed even before the occurrence of a release. This is the perspective in which the development of ASTRID methodology and tool is performed. The methodology maps out, for several reactor types as well as reactor containments, relevant process parameters and indicators, what and how to calculate and a structured way to summarise and conclude on potential source term and likely time projections. A computer tool is proposed to support the methodology, to suite different user situations, both on-site and off-site as well as size of staff, priority and work order. The output from such an assessment is intended to, first, give bases for decisions on necessary urgent protective actions pre-release, and, second, an input for the sophisticated dispersion calculation codes. PMID:15238656

Herviou, Karine; Calmtorp, Christer

2004-01-01

130

Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

NONE

1994-08-01

131

Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

2012-01-01

132

A fuzzy logic methodology for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems employing fuzzy sets for information representation is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the utilization of the extension principle for mapping crisp measurements to various degrees of membership in the fuzzy set of linguistic Truth. Criticality alarm systems are used in miscellaneous nuclear fuel processing, handling, and

A. Erbay; A. Ikonomopoulos

1993-01-01

133

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

134

Examination of change factor methodologies for climate change impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods are available to estimate values of meteorological variables at future times and at spatial scales that are appropriate for local climate change impact assessment. One commonly used method is Change Factor Methodology (CFM), sometimes referred to as delta change factor methodology. Although more sophisticated methods exist, CFM is still widely applicable and used in impact analysis studies. While there are a number of different ways by which change factors (CFs) can be calculated and used to estimate future climate scenarios, there are no clear guidelines available in the literature to decide which methodologies are most suitable for different applications. In this study several categories of CFM (additive versus multiplicative and single versus multiple) for a number of climate variables are compared and contrasted. The study employs several theoretical case studies, as well as a real example from Cannonsville watershed, which supplies water to New York City, USA. Results show that in cases when the frequency distribution of Global Climate Model (GCM) baseline climate is close to the frequency distribution of observed climate, or when the frequency distribution of GCM future climate is close to the frequency distribution of GCM baseline climate, additive and multiplicative single CFMs provide comparable results. Two options to guide the choice of CFM are suggested. The first option is a detailed methodological analysis for choosing the most appropriate CFM. The second option is a default method for use under circumstances in which a detailed methodological analysis is too cumbersome.

Anandhi, Aavudai; Frei, Allan; Pierson, Donald C.; Schneiderman, Elliot M.; Zion, Mark S.; Lounsbury, David; Matonse, Adao H.

2011-03-01

135

Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E. C.

1983-01-01

136

Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

1995-01-13

137

Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

NONE

1989-05-01

138

Research methodology for real-time stress assessment of nurses.  

PubMed

This article presents a research methodology for analysis of stress effects and allostatic load of nurses during daily activities. Stress-related health issues are critical in healthcare workers, in particular nurses. Typical causes of stress include inadequate staffing of nurses for the number and acuity of patients, dealing with difficult patients and families, and lack of autonomy in care delivery decisions. This is all compounded by lack of recovery time while on shift, variable shifts with limited recovery time between days worked, and fatigue from dealing with difficult patients, families, and healthcare workers. Under unresolved stress, the heart rate and other vital parameters may fail to return to the baseline. This study examined the physiological responses of nurses during care on a high-fidelity patient simulation to develop a research methodology and identify physiological parameters suitable for real-time assessment of allostatic load during work. Our results demonstrated that heart rate and heart rate variability can be reliably measured using wearable sensors to assess allostatic load. During this study and our previous related work, we acquired valuable experience regarding selection and deployment of commercially available sensors, system integration, recruitment of subjects, and general research methodology. The research methodology developed and presented in this article can be applied to a number of other applications and experimental protocols. PMID:24113163

Milosevic, Mladen; Jovanov, Emil; Frith, Karen H

2013-12-01

139

Risk assessment of safety violations for coal mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk

Megan Orsulak; Vladislav Kecojevic; Larry Grayson; Antonio Nieto

2010-01-01

140

Methodology for an Integrative Assessment of China's Ecological Restoration Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research projects have been conducted to examine the impacts and effectiveness of China's ecological restoration programs,\\u000a few of them represent integrated, systematic efforts. The objective of this chapter is thus to articulate and outline a methodology\\u000a for an integrative assessment, which, we believe, should embrace both the environmental and socioeconomic changes and engage\\u000a investigations at multiple scales. Further, these

Runsheng Yin; David Rothstein; Jiaguo Qi; Shuguang Liu

141

Safety culture assessment: a tool for improving patient safety in healthcare organizations  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, healthcare organizations are becoming aware of the importance of transforming organizational culture in order to improve patient safety. Growing interest in safety culture has been accompanied by the need for assessment tools focused on the cultural aspects of patient safety improvement efforts. This paper discusses the use of safety culture assessment as a tool for improving patient safety. It describes the characteristics of culture assessment tools presently available and discusses their current and potential uses, including brief examples from healthcare organizations that have undertaken such assessments. The paper also highlights critical processes that healthcare organizations need to consider when deciding to use these tools.

Nieva, V; Sorra, J

2003-01-01

142

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2012-05-31

143

Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.  

PubMed

The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. PMID:20435414

Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

2010-08-15

144

Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

Levin, H.A. [Synergy Consulting Services Corp., Great Falls, VA (United States); McGehee, R.B. [Wise Carter Child & Caraway, Jackson, MS (United States); Cottle, W.T. [Houston Lighting & Power, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

145

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Part I - Overview of Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which will extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses diffeent approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2011-07-31

146

Probabilistic safety assessment PEER review: Case study on the use of probabilistic safety assessment for safety decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this case study is to illustrate, using an actual example, the organizing and carrying out of an independent peer review of a draft full-scope (level 3) probabilistic safety assessment. The specific findings of the peer review are of less i...

1989-01-01

147

Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations  

SciTech Connect

Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

2010-08-30

148

Adversarial safety analysis: Borrowing the methods of security vulnerability assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Safety and security share numerous attributes. The author, who heads the (Security) Vulnerability Assessment Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, therefore argues that techniques used to optimize security might be useful for optimizing safety. Optimizing Security: There are three main ways to attempt to improve security—security surveys, risk assessment (or “design basis threat”), and vulnerability assessments. The latter is

Roger G Johnston

2004-01-01

149

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation  

SciTech Connect

The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-09-29

150

Assessment of a French scenario with the INPRO methodology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the French contribution to the Joint Study of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). It concerns the application of the INPRO methodology to a French scenario, on the transition from present LWRs to EPRs in a first phase and to 4. generation fast reactors in a second phase during the 21. century. The scenario also considers the renewal of the present fuel cycle facilities by the third and the fourth generation ones. Present practice of plutonium recycling in PWR is replaced by the middle of the century by a global recycling of actinides, uranium, plutonium and minor actinides in fast reactors. The status and the evolution of the INPRO criteria and the corresponding indicators during the studied period are analyzed for each of the six considered areas: economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance and infrastructure. Improvements on economic and safety are expected for both the EPR and the 4. generation systems having these improvements among their basic goals. The use of fast reactors and global recycling of actinides leads to a significant improvement on environment indicators and in particular on the natural resources utilization. The envisaged waste management policy results in significant reductions on mass, thermal loads and radiotoxicity of the final waste which only contains fission products. The use of fuels that do not relay on enriched uranium and separated plutonium increases the proliferation resistance characteristics of the future fuel cycle. The paper summarizes also some recommendations on the data, codes and methods used to support the continuous improvement of the INPRO methodology and help future assessors. (authors)

Vasile, A.; Fiorini, G.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Cazalet, J.; Linet, F.L.; Moulin, V. [CEA Saclay CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Greneche, D. [AREVA - Tour AREVA - F - 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

151

Safety assessment for W82 spinner  

SciTech Connect

A safety analysis is provided for the W82 spinners that the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant furnishes the Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, and the Bendix Corporation, Kansas City. An assessment of the containment, torsional mounting, air turbine, lid closure, explosive hazard, safety interlocks, and secondary personnel protection is evaluated using the latest available engineering data and containment experience derived from /approximately/25 years of gas centrifuge devlopment and operation. This report is revised to specifically evaluate the spin tester to contain the W-82 telemetry (TM) fixture with a moment of inertia of 4.1 in.-lb-s/sup 2/ operating at a speed of 18,000 rpm with an energy level of 7,283,768 in.-lb. The neutron detector (ND) fixture is also covered under the TM limitation because its moment of inertia is 0.33 in.-lb-s/sup 2/ with 22,000 rpm operation and an energy level of 875,762 in.-lb.

Wavrik, R.W.

1988-03-01

152

Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  

PubMed

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

2014-05-01

153

Standardization of natural pohenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Huang, J.C.; Hsu, Y.S.

1985-01-01

154

Assessment of mining area's environmental system safety by fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining area's environmental system safety assessment is the comprehensive measure for the state and development trends of mining area's environmental system, and it is the important basis to take specific measures to control the mining area's environmental system safety. In this paper, under the guidance of the pressure - state - response (Pressure-State-Response, PSR), the mining area's environmental system safety

Dachao Zhang; Xiaojun Wen

2011-01-01

155

Track train dynamics analysis and test program: Methodology development for the derailment safety analysis of six-axle locomotives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational safety of six axle locomotives is analyzed. A locomotive model with corresponding data on suspension characteristics, a method of track defect characterization, and a method of characterizing operational safety are used. A user oriented software package was developed as part of the methodology and was used to study the effect (on operational safety) of various locomotive parameters and operational conditions such as speed, tractive effort, and track curvature. The operational safety of three different locomotive designs was investigated.

Marcotte, P. P.; Mathewson, K. J. R.

1982-01-01

156

Probabilistic safety assessment of support systems on CANDU stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has performed safety and reliability assessments (otherwise known as probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs)) of support systems since 1975. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe AECL's experience in the use of PSAs on support systems and the application of PSA for a new plant design called the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) 3.

1989-01-01

157

Probabilistic safety assessment improves surveillance requirements in technical specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Safety Assessment is widely becoming the standard method for assessing, maintaining, assuring and improving the nuclear power plant safety. To achieve one of its many potential benefits, the optimization approach of surveillance requirements in technical specifications was developed. Surveillance requirements in technical specifications define the surveillance test intervals for the equipment to be tested and the testing strategy. This

M. ?epin; B. Mavko

1997-01-01

158

[Grounds for the procedure of laser projector safety assessment].  

PubMed

Grounds for the procedure of laser projector safety assessment are given. The method allows to measure maximum intensity of diffused and diffusely reflected radiation of laser projectors, irrespective of graphic effects being used. It also makes it possible to standardize the procedure of laser safety assessment, laser devices being used to produce a show. PMID:24340761

Mal'kova, N Yu; Spiridonov, P Yu; Romanenko, E I; Ushkova, I N

2013-01-01

159

Concepts of the International Programme on Chemical Safety in the Assessment of Risks to Human Health from Exposure to Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a cooperative program of the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, and the United Nations Environment Programme. The main objectives of its risk assessment work are to provide, on a global basis, consensus assessments of priority chemicals (including pesticides) and to promote the development, validation, use, and harmonization of sound methodologies

Maged Younes; Cynthia Sonich-Mullin

1997-01-01

160

Risk assessment methodologies for passive smoking-induced lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessment methodologies have been successfully applied to control societal risk from outdoor air pollutants. They are now being applied to indoor air pollutants such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and radon. Nonsmokers' exposures to ETS have been assessed based on dosimetry of nicotine, its metabolite, continine, and on exposure to the particulate phase of ETS. Lung cancer responses have been based on both the epidemiology of active and of passive smoking. Nine risk assessments of nonsmokers' lung cancer risk from exposure to ETS have been performed. Some have estimated risks for lifelong nonsmokers only; others have included ex-smokers; still others have estimated total deaths from all causes. To facilitate interstudy comparison, in some cases lung cancers had to be interpolated from a total, or the authors' original estimate had to be adjusted to include ex-smokers. Further, all estimates were adjusted to 1988. Excluding one study whose estimate differs from the mean of the others by two orders of magnitude, the remaining risk assessments are in remarkable agreement. The mean estimate is approximately 5000 +/- 2400 nonsmokers' lung cancer deaths (LCDSs) per year. This is a 25% greater risk to nonsmokers than is indoor radon, and is about 57 times greater than the combined estimated cancer risk from all the hazardous outdoor air pollutants currently regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency: airborne radionuclides, asbestos, arsenic, benzene, coke oven emissions, and vinyl chloride. 48 references.

Repace, J.L.; Lowrey, A.H. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-01

161

Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

Oswal, V. H.

2001-01-01

162

Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.  

PubMed

Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666

Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

2010-11-01

163

Handbook of five methodologies for the assessment of load management  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary description and evaluation of five methodologies that have been developed for the assessment of utility costs and benefits of load-management programs, including marginal-costing methodologies and an integrated set of utility-system planning and production costing models. Of the two basic methods, the first uses marginal-cost data to compute the cumulative reduction in utility-system costs realized in moving units of load from periods of high marginal cost to periods of low marginal cost. The present value of these cost savings may be compared directly with the costs of implementing the load-management program. The second method relies on an evaluation of future total-system costs. System planning and production-costing models are used to calculate the total fixed and variable costs of meeting baseline and alternative-load configurations. The difference between baseline system costs and the costs with load management may then be compared to the costs of implementing the program. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are summarized briefly.

Not Available

1980-02-01

164

A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

1993-07-01

165

Assessment of capillary suction time (CST) test methodologies.  

PubMed

The capillary suction time (CST) test is a commonly used method to measure the filterability and the easiness of removing moisture from slurry and sludge in numerous environmental and industrial applications. This study assessed several novel alterations of both the test methodology and the current standard capillary suction time (CST) apparatus. Twelve different papers including the standard Whatman No. 17 chromatographic paper were tested. The tests were run using four different types of sludge including a synthetic sludge, which was specifically developed for benchmarking purposes. The standard apparatus was altered by the introduction of a novel rectangular funnel instead of a standard circular one. A stirrer was also introduced to solve the problem of test inconsistency (e.g. high CST variability) particularly for heavy types of sludge. Results showed that several alternative papers, which are cheaper than the standard paper, can be used to estimate CST values accurately, and that the test repeatability can be improved in many cases and for different types of sludge. The introduction of the rectangular funnel demonstrated an obvious enhancement of test repeatability. The use of a stirrer to avoid sedimentation of heavy sludge did not have statistically significant impact on the CST values or the corresponding data variability. The application of synthetic sludge can support the testing of experimental methodologies and should be used for subsequent benchmarking purposes. PMID:18341148

Sawalha, O; Scholz, M

2007-12-01

166

Developing a Methodology for Eliciting Subjective Probability Estimates During Expert Evaluations of Safety Interventions: Application for Bayesian Belief Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has defined several products that will potentially modify airline and/or ATC operations, enhance aircraft systems, and improve the identification of potential hazardous situations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the judgments to develop Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN's) that model the potential impact that specific interventions may have. Specifically, the present report summarizes methodologies for improving the elicitation of probability estimates during expert evaluations of AvSP products for use in BBN's. The work involved joint efforts between Professor James Luxhoj from Rutgers University and researchers at the University of Illinois. The Rutgers' project to develop BBN's received funding by NASA entitled "Probabilistic Decision Support for Evaluating Technology Insertion and Assessing Aviation Safety System Risk." The proposed project was funded separately but supported the existing Rutgers' program.

Wiegmann, Douglas A.a

2005-01-01

167

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is

G. Whelan; F. L. Thompson; S. B. Yabusaki

1983-01-01

168

Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

Weiss, E.

1972-01-01

169

Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses, was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes the preliminary safety assessment results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP).

Marshall, A.C.

1993-07-01

170

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.  

PubMed

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

171

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

172

Fuzzy synthetic assessment of building fire safety system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistage assessment index set is chosen based on the analysis of building fire safety system, whereby the weight of each\\u000a index is determined through an analytic hierarchy process; a fuzzy synthetic assessment model for the building fire safety\\u000a system is constructed, and the quantified result was obtained by using hierarchy parameter judgment. This fuzzy synthetic\\u000a assessment method can quantify

Gao-shang Yang; Li-min Peng

2005-01-01

173

Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.  

PubMed

Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies. PMID:22317200

Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

2012-01-01

174

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

175

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING RISK ASSESSMENT WHEN SLUDGE IS APPLIED TO LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This project explored the feasibility of developing a risk assessment methodology that could be applied to sludge management decision making. It examined cadmium, since this substance is one of the best studied and most extensively reported contaminants. The methodology developed...

176

The selection of probabilistic safety assessment techniques for non-reactor nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology of choice is the well known event tree/fault tree inductive technique. For reactor facilities is has stood the test of time. Some non-reactor nuclear facilities have found inductive methodologies difficult to apply. The stand-alone fault tree deductive technique has been used effectively to analyze risk in nuclear chemical processing facilities and waste handling facilities. The selection between the two choices suggest benefits from use of the deductive method for non-reactor facilities.

Vail, J.

1992-06-05

177

AN ASSESSMENT OF SIMPLIFIED VS. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES FOR SSI ANALYSES OF DEEPLY EMBEDDED STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to develop a technical basis to support the safety evaluation of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) structures as proposed for advanced reactor designs. In this program, the methods and computer programs established for the assessment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects for the current generation of light water reactors are evaluated to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of DEB structures. This paper presents an assessment of the simplified vs. detailed methodologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures. In this assessment, a lump-mass beam model is used for the simplified approach and a finite element representation is employed for the detailed method. A typical containment structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized, considering various embedment depths from shallow to full burial. BNL used the CARES program for the simplified model and the SASSI2000 program for the detailed analyses. The calculated response spectra at the key locations of the DEB structure are used for the performance assessment of the applied methods for different depths of burial. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of both the simplified and detailed models for the SSI analyses of the DEB structure, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different depths of burial between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of DEB structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU,J.MILLER,C.HOFMAYER,C.GRAVES,H.

2004-03-04

178

A Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Vulnerability of Highway Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern society is totally dependent on a complex and articulated infrastructure network of vital importance for the existence of the urban settlements scattered on the territory. On these infrastructure systems, usually indicated with the term lifelines, are entrusted numerous services and indispensable functions of the normal urban and human activity. The systems of the lifelines represent an essential element in all the urbanised areas which are subject to seismic risk. It is important that, in these zones, they are planned according to opportune criteria based on two fundamental assumptions: a) determination of the best territorial localization, avoiding, within limits, the places of higher dangerousness; b) application of constructive technologies finalized to the reduction of the vulnerability. Therefore it is indispensable that in any modern process of seismic risk assessment the study of the networks is taken in the rightful consideration, to be integrated with the traditional analyses of the buildings. The present paper moves in this direction, dedicating particular attention to one kind of lifeline: the highway system, proposing a methodology of analysis finalized to the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the system.

Cirianni, Francis; Leonardi, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Francesco

2008-07-01

179

Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller  

SciTech Connect

CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

180

Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. METHODS: Fourth grade

Jason A Mendoza; Kathy Watson; Tom Baranowski; Theresa A Nicklas; Doris K Uscanga; Marcus J Hanfling

2010-01-01

181

Pharmacological Mechanism-Based Drug Safety Assessment and Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in cheminformatics, bioinformatics, and pharmacology in the context of biological systems are now at a point that these tools can be applied to mechanism-based drug safety assessment and prediction. The development of such predictive tools at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will complement ongoing efforts in drug safety that are focused on spontaneous adverse event reporting and

D R Abernethy; J Woodcock; L J Lesko; Abernethy

2011-01-01

182

Compressed Natural Gas Bus Safety: A Quantitative Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results

Samuel Chamberlain; Mohammad Modarres

2005-01-01

183

A safety assessment of the new Xiangyun phosphogypsum tailings pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphogypsum tailings are piled up to form a phosphogypsum tailings pond. In the design and operation stages of a tailings project, the stability of the tailings pond, the control capacity for flood, and the reliability of the drainage and safety monitoring facilities should be fully evaluated. Key contents of the safety assessment are analyzed in view of the new Xiangyun

T. Wang; Y. Zhou; Q. Lv; Yuanle Zhu; C. Jiang

2011-01-01

184

Alternative Approaches to the Safety Assessment of Macronutrient Substitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional toxicological procedures have only limited application to the safety assessment of macronutrient substitutes. Experience indicates that spurious effects are often encountered when macronutrients or their replacements are fed to rodents at high dietary levels. These effects may result in nutritional imbalances that lead secondarily to adverse physiological consequences including cancer, renal disease, or reproductive effects. In approaching the safety

Ian C. Munro; Larry G. McGirr; Earle R. Nestmann; John W. Kille

1996-01-01

185

Safety assessment for the passive system of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) using safety margin estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for gas-cooled nuclear power plants has been investigated where the operational data are deficient, because there is not any commercial gas-cooled nuclear power plant. Therefore, it is necessary to use the statistical data for the basic event constructions. Several estimations for the safety margin are introduced for the quantification of the failure frequency in the

Tae-Ho Woo; Un-Chul Lee

2010-01-01

186

Development and application of a methodology for vulnerability assessment of climate change in coastal cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is based on the need to develop methodology for climate change vulnerability assessment in coastal cities. While there have been some studies on the development of methodologies for vulnerability assessment on a national scale, there have been few attempts to develop a method for local vulnerability assessment with application to coastal cities. The objective of this study was

Gayoung Yoo; Jin Hwan Hwang; Choongik Choi

2011-01-01

187

Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.  

PubMed

There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared with their simple pharmaceutical counterparts. To some extent, these problems can be overcome by performing early population-level simulations, which can lead to the identification and collection of data on critical input parameters. Finally, it is important to understand that a test strategy does not necessarily lead to more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is possible that the test will lead to not only fewer QALYs but also fewer costs, which can be defined as "decremental" cost per QALYs. Different decision criteria are needed to interpret such results. PMID:24034308

Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

2013-01-01

188

Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.

Cooper, J. Arlin

1999-06-10

189

Safety Assessment of Intermodal Hazmat Containers: An Interim Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment is made of several safety issues for the transport of hazardous materials by rail in IM (intermodal) portable tanks and cargo tanks constructed to MC (motor carrier) specifications. The issues which have been considered include structural st...

M. R. Johnson

1987-01-01

190

Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.  

PubMed

In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites. PMID:23020531

Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

2013-03-01

191

Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

2012-03-01

192

Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.  

PubMed

Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments. PMID:24508155

Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

2014-07-01

193

Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1998-09-01

194

Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1998-09-01

195

Current assessments of quality and safety education in nursing.  

PubMed

Concerns about the quality and safety of health care have changed practice expectations and created a mandate for change in the preparation of health care professionals. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses project team conducted a survey to assess current levels of integration of quality and safety content in pre-licensure nursing curricula. Views of 195 nursing program leaders are presented, including information about satisfaction with faculty expertise and student competency development related to 6 domains that define quality and safety content: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. With competency definitions as the sole reference point, survey respondents indicated that quality and safety content was embedded in current curricula, and they were generally satisfied that students were developing the desired competencies. These data are contrasted with work reported elsewhere in this issue of Nursing Outlook and readers are invited to consider a variety of interpretations of the differences. PMID:17524800

Smith, Elaine L; Cronenwett, Linda; Sherwood, Gwen

2007-01-01

196

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

197

Overview of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary and an overview of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. This performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with a tool for performing confirmatory analyses in support of license reviews related to postclosure performance. The methodology allows analyses of dose to individuals from off-site releases under normal conditions as well as on-site doses to inadvertent intruders. 24 refs., 1 tab.

Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.

1991-01-01

198

Safety Performance Assessment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises with Linguistic Assessment Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety in small and medium-sized enterprises is a major problem in China, representing about 70% of serious industrial and trade accidents in 2005. By retrospective analysis of previous related research to safety performance, this paper advanced to assess safety performance in small and medium-sized enterprises by using the dasiainitiativepsila indicators together with dasiapassivepsila indicators. The research designed an indicator system

Su-xia Liu; Qiang Mei; Rui Xu; Yu-mei Lu

2009-01-01

199

Near Real Time Earthquake Loss Assessment Methodology for Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main objective of this study is to develop a methodology for real time estimation of losses after a major earthquake in the Euro-Mediterranean region. This study complements the work on ShakeMap methodologies that is being conducted within the framework of the JRA-3 component of the EU Project \\

Z. Cagnan; K. Sesetyan; C. Kariptas; C. Zulfikar; M. B. Demircioglu; E. Durukal; M. Erdik

2007-01-01

200

Methodology in business ethics research: A review and critical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 published empirical articles in academic journals as a data base, this paper provides a critical review of the methodology employed in the study of ethical beliefs and behavior of organizational members. The review revealed that full methodological detail was provided in less than one half of the articles. Further, the majority of empirical research articles expressed no concern

D. M. Randall; A. M. Gibson

1990-01-01

201

NextGen Future Safety Assessment Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful implementation of the next generation infrastructure systems requires solid understanding of their technical, social, political and economic aspects along with their interactions. The lack of historical data that relate to the long-term planning of complex systems introduces unique challenges for decision makers and involved stakeholders which in turn result in unsustainable systems. Also, the need to understand the infrastructure at the societal level and capture the interaction between multiple stakeholders becomes important. This paper proposes a methodology in order to develop a holistic approach aiming to provide an alternative subject-matter expert (SME) elicitation and data collection method for future sociotechnical systems. The methodology is adapted to Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) decision making environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of this holistic approach.

Ancel, Ersin; Gheorghe, Adian; Jones, Sharon Monica

2010-01-01

202

Safety assessment of biolistic DNA vaccination.  

PubMed

DNA-based vector systems have been widely studied as new modalities for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. As for all other medicinal products, safety is an important aspect in the evaluation of such products. In this chapter we reflect on the basic safety issues which have been raised with respect to preventive and therapeutic DNA vaccines, including insertional mutagenesis in case of chromosomal integration, possible formation of anti-DNA antibodies, induction of autoimmune responses and/or immunological tolerance. In addition, local reactions at the site of administration and adverse effects resulting from plasmid DNA spread to nontarget tissues are discussed. Most importantly, however, the benefit-risk profile of a medicinal product is crucial for a decision on providing marketing authorization or not. A product has an acceptable benefit-risk profile if the benefits of the product outweigh its risks for the treated patient. PMID:23104355

Langer, Barbara; Renner, Matthias; Scherer, Jürgen; Schüle, Silke; Cichutek, Klaus

2013-01-01

203

Methodological Issues in Evaluation of Innovative Training Approaches to Stroke Rehabilitation. Technology Assessment Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coverage and Analysis Group at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) requested this technology assessment on the methodology of studies in stroke rehabilitation therapy from The Technology Assessment Program (TAP) at the Agency for Heal...

K. Walker L. Wishart M. Oremus P. Santaguida

2008-01-01

204

Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume III. Projecting Hawaii's Energy Future: Methodology and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume describes the assumptions methodologies and models used in the Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. The HIEA modeling system is an integrated set of analytic models intended to provide data for quantitative assessment of various energy policy ...

1981-01-01

205

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a ...

1992-01-01

206

A Summary of Arc Flash Hazard Assessments and Safety Improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors and their colleagues have used the methods in IEEE 1584 ldquoGuide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculationsrdquo to complete electrical hazard assessments for over 90 industrial sites, from small warehouse and office facilities to large chemical plants. This paper provides analysis of the results of those assessments, with an emphasis on the safety improvements that were made in

Daniel R. Doan; Jennifer K. Slivka; Christopher J. Bohrer

2009-01-01

207

Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial risk assessment is a newly emerging discipline in the area of food safety. One of the difficulties associated with microbial risk assessment is in determining the number of microorganisms in food at a given time, i.e., estimating exposure of an individual to the microorganism. Numbers of bacteria in food can change at all stages of food production and processing,

Isabel Walls; Virginia N. Scott

1997-01-01

208

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

209

Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants  

SciTech Connect

Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (US). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-08-01

210

Evaluation of Assessment Methodology to Support Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We conducted a review of their current assessment methodology with the goals of making recommended improvements and develop a means to aggregate their assessment methodology in support of the J5, Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Arica, US Africa Comman...

E. Jones E. Kim G. Elgort J. V. Farr T. Mosera

2012-01-01

211

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

212

Assessment of Impac - Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Controls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the work done under a NASA sponsored contract to transition to industry technologies developed under the NASA Lewis Research Center IMPAC (Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control) program. The critical steps in IMP...

G. P. Walker E. A. Wagner D. S. Bodden

1996-01-01

213

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

214

A multicriteria methodology for the assessment of distance education trainees  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the development of a methodology for the calculation of questions’ difficulty degree and creation of exams\\u000a for distance education trainees is presented. The methodology is based on the principles of multicriteria decision analysis\\u000a and multiobjective linear programming. The UTA* method is used in order to calculate the difficulty degree of any hypothetical\\u000a question that can be described

Nikolaos F. Matsatsinis; Vassilios Chr Fortsas

2005-01-01

215

Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies.

Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

2005-01-01

216

Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

Yukawa, S.

1990-04-01

217

Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.  

PubMed

Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

2012-07-01

218

A multi-level assessment methodology for determining the potential for groundwater contamination by pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-level pesticide assessment methodology has been developed to permit regulatory personnel to undertake a variety of assessments on the potential for pesticide used in agricultural areas to contaminate the groundwater regime at an increasingly detailed geographical scale of investigation. A multi-level approach accounts for a variety of assessment objectives and detail required in the assessment, the restrictions on the

A. S. Crowe; W. G. Booty

1995-01-01

219

Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users

V. H. Oswal

2001-01-01

220

Welding mechanics for advanced component safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical methods are nowadays a useful tool for the calculation of distortion and residual stresses as a result from the welding process. Modern finite element codes not only allow for calculation of deformations and stresses due to the welding process but also take into account the change of microstructure due to different heating and cooling rates. As an extension to the pure welding simulation, the field of welding mechanics combines the mechanics and the material behaviour from the welding process with the assessment of service behaviour of welded components. In the paper, new results of experimental and numerical work in the field of welding mechanics are described. Through examples from automotive, nuclear and pipe-line applications it is demonstrated that an equilibrated treatment and a close interaction of "process", "properties" and "defects" are necessary to come up with an advanced fitness-forservice assessment of welded components.

Siegele, Dieter

2011-06-01

221

Researching Assessment as Social Practice: Implications for Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent educational journals on both sides of the Atlantic have seen a resurgence of debate about the nature of educational research. As a contribution to these debates, this paper draws on theoretical and methodological "thinking tools" of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Specifically, the paper explores what Jenkins [Jenkins, R. (2002).…

Shay, Suellen

2008-01-01

222

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology  

Cancer.gov

A-1 APPENDIX A A-2 Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology Reference Manager Database A Reference Manager 10.0 database for this literature search and review was created to ensure that all of the references from the search strings in Exhibit

223

Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes: A New Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Facing the multiplication of entrepreneurship education programmes (EEP) and the increasing resources allocated, there is a need to develop a common framework to evaluate the design of those programmes. The purpose of this article is to propose such a framework, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach:…

Fayolle, Alain; Gailly, Benoit; Lassas-Clerc, Narjisse

2006-01-01

224

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES: NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this task were to: (1) consider alternative methodologies for information collection, analysis, and presentation; (2) design a system for maintaining current awareness of the environmental implications of technology in the non-ferrous metals industry; and, (3) e...

225

A fuzzy logic methodology for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems employing fuzzy sets for information representation is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the utilization of the extension principle for mapping crisp measurements to various degrees of membership in the fuzzy set of linguistic Truth. Criticality alarm systems are used in miscellaneous nuclear fuel processing, handling, and storage facilities to reduce the risk associated with fissile material operations. Fault-tree methodologies are graphic illustrations of tile failure logic associated with the development of a particular system failure (top event) from basic subcomponent failures (primary events). The term event denotes a dynamic change of state that occurs to system elements, which may include hardware, software, human, or environmental factors. A fault-tree represents a detailed, deductive, analysis that requires extensive system information. The knowledge incorporated in a fault tree can be articulated in logical rules of the form [open quotes]IF A is true THEN B is true.[close quotes] However, it is well known that this type of syllogism fails to give an answer when the satisfaction of the antecedent clause is only partial. Zadeh suggested a new type of fuzzy conditional inference. This type of syllogism (generalized modus ponens) reads as follows: Premise: A is partially true Implication: IF A is true THEN B is true Conclusion: B is partially-true. In generalized modus ponens, the antecedent is true only to some degree; hence, it is desired to compute the grade to which the consequent is satisfied. Fuzzy sets provide a natural environment for this type of computation because fuzzy variables (e.g., B) can take fuzzy values (e.g., partially-true).

Erbay, A.; Ikonomopoulos, A. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1993-01-01

226

Methodological Quandaries in Studying Process and Outcomes in Peer Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…

Topping, Keith J.

2010-01-01

227

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

2008-01-01

228

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, B. T.; Mueller, D. E.

2008-12-01

229

Guiding principles of USGS methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last 30 years, the methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources used by the Geological Survey has undergone considerable change. This evolution has been based on five major principles. First, the U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for a wide range of U.S. and world assessments and requires a robust methodology suitable for immaturely explored as well as maturely explored areas. Second, the assessments should be based on as comprehensive a set of geological and exploration history data as possible. Third, the perils of methods that solely use statistical methods without geological analysis are recognized. Fourth, the methodology and course of the assessment should be documented as transparently as possible, within the limits imposed by the inevitable use of subjective judgement. Fifth, the multiple uses of the assessments require a continuing effort to provide the documentation in such ways as to increase utility to the many types of users. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are those recoverable volumes in undiscovered, discrete, conventional structural or stratigraphic traps. The USGS 2000 methodology for these resources is based on a framework of assessing numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations and the associated risks. The input is standardized on a form termed the Seventh Approximation Data Form for Conventional Assessment Units. Volumes of resource are then calculated using a Monte Carlo program named Emc2, but an alternative analytic (non-Monte Carlo) program named ASSESS also can be used. The resource assessment methodology continues to change. Accumulation-size distributions are being examined to determine how sensitive the results are to size-distribution assumptions. The resource assessment output is changing to provide better applicability for economic analysis. The separate methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) resources also has been evolving. Further studies of the relationship between geologic models of conventional and continuous resources will likely impact the respective resource assessment methodologies. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Charpentier, R. R.; Klett, T. R.

2005-01-01

230

A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.  

PubMed

The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

2014-02-01

231

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

232

Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

NONE

1989-05-01

233

Fire Risk Assessment Using the Building Fire Safety Engineering Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of fire risk assessment known as the Building Fire Safety Engineering Method (BFSEM).The method has mainly been developed at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the USA and is designed for use by persons with knowledge and experience of fire behavior and building construction. The main components of the method include evaluation of the probability of the

Colleen Wade; Peter Whiting

1996-01-01

234

Development of safety assessment technology for the radwaste disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is composed of three parts. In part I, an improved radwaste disposal safety assessment code named SADROCM, was developed by upgrading the existing SADROC. A numerical approach was adopted for the simulation of diffusion into rock pore and adve...

K. W. Han W. J. Cho H. S. Lee J. W. Lee C. K. Park

1989-01-01

235

Quantitative risk assessment—a place in laser safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976 the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MOD) has used quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as a tool to manage the risks involved with airborne laser rangefinders and target designators. It has done this against the background of the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the regulations made under this act. These apply equally to MOD and civilian

R. Gardner; P. A. Smith

1995-01-01

236

Vapor explosion phenomena with respect to nuclear reactor safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stringent licensing procedures for commercial nuclear reactor operation require an in-depth analysis of the phenomena associated with postulated reactor core overheating accidents. One aspect of nuclear reactor safety assessment is a prediction of the consequences of interaction between molten fuel and coolant, in which rapid heat transfer from the fuel may lead to explosive vaporization of the coolant. Some of

A. W. Cronenberg; R. Benz

1978-01-01

237

Biomarkers: Dynamic "Tools" for Health and Safety Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Today informational flow from biomarkers contributes importantly to various types of health effects research, risk assessment and risk management decisions that impact, or have the potential to impact, public health and safety. Therefore, dependent upon the nature of the health r...

238

Radiographic assessment of osteoarthritis: comparison between existing methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiographic sensitivity for quantifying the rate of change in joint space width (JSW) for DMOAD trials, is influenced by the following, which vary between methodologies for imaging hip, knee and hand.Radio-anatomical plane of measurement JSW measurement precision is improve when the (i) joint is in a normal functional position, (ii) X-ray beam is centred on the joint space and (iii)

Buckland-Wright

1999-01-01

239

An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR\\u000a (?DPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The\\u000a aim of the ?DPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously\\u000a adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation

Ana M. Nobre

2009-01-01

240

Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.  

PubMed

Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

2008-12-15

241

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

Not Available

1992-05-01

242

Assessment of bioenergy potential in Sicily: A GIS-based support methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been developed in order to assess the technical and economic potential of biomass exploitation for energy production in Sicily. The methodology was based on the use of agricultural, economic, climatic, and infrastructural data in a GIS. Data about land use, transportation facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic

Marco Beccali; Pietro Columba; Vincenzo D’Alberti; Vincenzo Franzitta

2009-01-01

243

MODEL BASED METHODOLOGY FOR REMEDIAL ACTION ASSESSMENT AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a remedial action assessment methodology for uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The model-based methodology consists of three key elements: a set of sophisticated models (one for each hydrologic zone), a data base structure and associated programs to transmit...

244

A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups,

E. R. Taylor Jr.; C. H. Eichler; P. R. Barnes

1988-01-01

245

A methodology for calculating sample size to assess localized corrosion of process components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the required sample size to assess, with a specified precision, the localized corrosion of process components. The proposed methodology uses the extreme value and bootstrap methods. The results of estimated sample size ensure that the predicted maximum localized corrosion with the extreme value method is within an acceptable margin of error at a

Mohamed Khalifa; Faisal Khan; Mahmoud Haddara

246

The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?  

PubMed

In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS. PMID:16139426

Gowland, Richard

2006-03-31

247

A methodology for developing a self-assessment tool to measure quality performance in organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a development methodology that uses the assessment criteria of the national quality award as the basis for creating a self-assessment tool to measure quality performance in organizations. The Singapore Quality Award (SQA) assessment criteria were used as the framework for developing the self-assessment tool. The SQA award criteria were translated into a multi-item questionnaire. The self-assessment tool

Pui-Mun Lee; Hesan A. Quazi

2001-01-01

248

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE PATHWAYS OF EXPOSURE TO COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared this methodology in response to the 1993 Combustion Strategy for Hazardous Waste Incinerators released by the Administrator of EPA. Among other mandates regarding the regulation of this industrial sector, the strategy ...

249

Investigation of Risk Assessment Methodology for Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with investigation of risk assessment methodologies, existing in literature, pertaining to dam gates and associated operating equipment conducted in Phase I of this research. More than 60 references have been studied in detail as part of...

C. S. Putcha R. C. Patev

2000-01-01

250

A methodology to assess performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we present a methodology to assess system performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks such as habitat construction, geological sampling, and space exploration.

Howard, Ayanna M.

2005-01-01

251

EMERGING METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPLEX MIXTURES; THE INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment of complex mixtures of environmental pollutants requires new interdisciplinary strategies. The integration of bioassay methodologies into these strategies is an important tool which provides direct evidence of the toxicity of a mixture. Short-term genetic bioassays...

252

Approaches and algorithms for groundwater flow modeling in support of site investigations and safety assessment of the Forsmark site, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has in 2011 finalized a safety assessment project, SR-Site, with the objective to assess the long term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Northern Uppland of Sweden. Prior to the safety assessment, comprehensive site investigations were conducted at the Forsmark site to build understanding and characterize the site. An essential part of the site investigations were to describe hydrological properties and characteristics of the site and use this to assess the groundwater pathway. The geological structural context of the crystalline bedrock at Forsmark implied a fracture network concept was the natural description for interpreting site data and assessing the groundwater pathway. Of primary importance to the description of the fracture system was the assignment of down-borehole flow-logging measurements to individual fractures identified by imaging techniques, providing the basis to relate hydrogeological characteristics such as anisotropy and heterogeneity to the geological structural framework. Also, the key input quantities to the assessment of long-term safety can be closely related to the derived fracture flow-rate distributions. Key success factors for this project were to develop and test strategies for modeling methodologies, as described in this paper, from an early stage, hand-in-hand with the planning and phased acquisition of site data as well as successive safety assessments.

Hartley, Lee; Joyce, Steven

2013-09-01

253

Conceptually and Methodologically Vexing Issues in Teacher Knowledge Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the vexing issues that arise as researchers try to define and assess the knowledge teachers need to teach reading and writing effectively in the primary grades. Over the past several years, the authors of this article have developed and tested an assessment system of teacher knowledge under a grant titled…

Reutzel, D. Ray; Dole, Janice A.; Read, Sylvia; Fawson, Parker; Herman, Kerry; Jones, Cindy D.; Sudweeks, Richard; Fargo, Jamison

2011-01-01

254

Methodologies for assessing performance of irrigation and drainage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework irrigation managers can use in assessing performance of irrigation, and recommends a specific set of indicators for measuring performance that the authors believe are practical, useful, and generally applicable. Although the primary focus is on the management of canal systems for agricultural production, the paper also discusses indicators that can be used for assessing longer

M. G. Bos; D. H. Murray-Rust; D. J. Merrey; H. G. Johnson; W. B. Snellen

1993-01-01

255

Perceptual Mapping: A Methodology in the Assessment of Environmental Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes perceptual mapping, a newly developed method for assessing perceptions of campus environments. Describes evaluation of a student union by students using this method. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this perceptual mapping method for assessing college environments. (Author/ABL)

Sergent, Marie T.; Sedlacek, William E.

1989-01-01

256

Application of risk assessment methodology to transborder data flow  

SciTech Connect

The formal application of risk assessment to computer systems first gained popularity in 1975. As a result, many business organizations and government agencies have established policies and regulations governing the conditions and procedures that are used in limiting their exposure to risks. This report describes the benefits that may arise from applying a formal risk assessment technique to transborder data flow (TDF) issues.

Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Lobel, J.

1985-01-01

257

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

258

Assessment of Software Safety as Applied to the Department of Defense Software Development Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research analyzed the relationships between the DOD software development process, system safety requirements, and current structured software safety analysis techniques. The current state of software safety was assessed within the aerospace industry ...

P. W. Colan R. W. Prouhet

1992-01-01

259

Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-02-01

260

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

Andrews, Nick

2012-09-01

261

A computer-based Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation - SAFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation (SAFE) system has been developed for the computerized evaluation of safety in civil Emergency Medical Service (EMS) operations. The speed of the microprocessor used to analyze data allows many individual factors to be considered, as well as the interactions among those factors. SAFE's data base is structured as if-then conditional statements. SAFE also allows the most important of the factors to be given greater weight in the final score. The questionnaire filled by EMS crews encompassed mission-, crew-, organization-, environment-, and aircraft-related factors; each of these was subdivided into as many as eight variables affecting the EMS-mission risk of that factor.

Shively, Robert J.

1988-01-01

262

SCREENING METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING LEAKING UST SITES AND CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Across the nation, treatment technologies are being applied to clean up soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from leaking underground storage tanks (UST). ite assessment (developing an accurate understanding of subsurface conditions at a site) increases t...

263

Non Invasive Diagnostic Methodology for Assessment of Perpheral Vascular Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shows a demonstration by a podiatric physician in the use and interpretation of oscillometry, pneumo and electro plethsmography, doplar ultrasound, and thermocouple. The purpose is to enable assessment of the peripheral vascular states. Primary audience: ...

1994-01-01

264

Improving timeliness and efficiency in the referral process for safety net providers: application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology.  

PubMed

Designated primary care clinics largely serve low-income and uninsured patients who present a disproportionate number of chronic illnesses and face great difficulty in obtaining the medical care they need, particularly the access to specialty physicians. With limited capacity for providing specialty care, these primary care clinics generally refer patients to safety net hospitals' specialty ambulatory care clinics. A large public safety net health system successfully improved the effectiveness and efficiency of the specialty clinic referral process through application of Lean Six Sigma, an advanced process-improvement methodology and set of tools driven by statistics and engineering concepts. PMID:20228635

Deckard, Gloria J; Borkowski, Nancy; Diaz, Deisell; Sanchez, Carlos; Boisette, Serge A

2010-01-01

265

A methodology to assess the criticality of highway transportation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the importance of transportation facilities is an increasingly growing topic of interest to federal and state transportation\\u000a agencies. In the wake of recent terrorist attacks and recurring manmade and natural disasters, significant steps are needed\\u000a to improve security at both state and metropolitan level. This paper proposes a heuristic procedure using concepts of complex\\u000a networks science to assess the

Satish V. Ukkusuri; Wilfredo F. Yushimito

2009-01-01

266

Methodological Challenges in Assessing Children's Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the reliability and validity of the service assessment for children and adolescents (SACA) for use among Spanish-speaking respondents. The test-retest reliability of the instrument was assessed in a randomly selected clinical sample of 146 Puerto Rican children and adolescents aged 4–17. Both parents and children were administered the SACA twice by independent interviewers over an average 12-day

Glorisa Canino; Partrick E. Shrout; Margarita Alegría; Maritza Rubio-Stipec; Ligia M. Chávez; Julio C. Ribera; Milagros Bravo; José. J. Bauermeister; Lizbeth M. Fábregas; Sally Horwitz; Alfonso Martínez-Taboas

2002-01-01

267

Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.  

PubMed

Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

2013-01-01

268

Solid Phase Synthesis of a Functionalized Bis-Peptide Using "Safety Catch" Methodology  

PubMed Central

In 1962, R.B. Merrifield published the first procedure using solid-phase peptide synthesis as a novel route to efficiently synthesize peptides. This technique quickly proved advantageous over its solution-phase predecessor in both time and labor. Improvements concerning the nature of solid support, the protecting groups employed and the coupling methods employed over the last five decades have only increased the usefulness of Merrifield's original system. Today, use of a Boc-based protection and base/nucleophile cleavable resin strategy or Fmoc-based protection and acidic cleavable resin strategy, pioneered by R.C. Sheppard, are most commonly used for the synthesis of peptides1. Inspired by Merrifield's solid supported strategy, we have developed a Boc/tert-butyl solid-phase synthesis strategy for the assembly of functionalized bis-peptides2, which is described herein. The use of solid-phase synthesis compared to solution-phase methodology is not only advantageous in both time and labor as described by Merrifield1, but also allows greater ease in the synthesis of bis-peptide libraries. The synthesis that we demonstrate here incorporates a final cleavage stage that uses a two-step "safety catch" mechanism to release the functionalized bis-peptide from the resin by diketopiperazine formation. Bis-peptides are rigid, spiro-ladder oligomers of bis-amino acids that are able to position functionality in a predictable and designable way, controlled by the type and stereochemistry of the monomeric units and the connectivity between each monomer. Each bis-amino acid is a stereochemically pure, cyclic scaffold that contains two amino acids (a carboxylic acid with an ?-amine)3,4. Our laboratory is currently investigating the potential of functional bis-peptides across a wide variety of fields including catalysis, protein-protein interactions and nanomaterials.

Pfeiffer, Conrad T.; Schafmeister, Christian E.

2012-01-01

269

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01

270

[Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].  

PubMed

Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p< 0.001). After the implementation of 5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on employees, and some sufficient satisfaction was observed. In addition, the non-conformity score, which was identified in the laboratory during the previous years, was significantly reduced at a rate of 69.7% after the implementation of 5S. 5S practices have successfully contributed to the establishment and to the sustainability of laboratory safety systems in the first public ISO 15189 accredited public clinical laboratory in Turkey. It is concluded that 5S methods can be used as an effective improvement tool in order to maintain a safe environment, to facilitate the job, and to encourage employees to participate in the management process. PMID:24819267

Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

2014-04-01

271

Uses and Benefits of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Nuclear Reactor Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has proven to be an important tool in the safety assessment of nuclear reactors throughout the world. Decision making with regard to many safety issues has been facilitated by both general insights from and direct appli...

R. A. Bari T. P. Speis

1989-01-01

272

Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Report. Fiscal Year 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program was established to ensure that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The ES&H Self-Assessment...

S. Robinson

2011-01-01

273

Application based reliability assessment and qualification methodology for medical ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability assessment and qualification system has strong economic implications for both manufacturers and customers. The best system should have a good balance among cost of verification, market timing requirement, and acceptable risk that meets the targeted user's application conditions and requirements. With the increasing use of innovative electronics in the medical applications, it becomes difficult to have a single reliability

Xiaowei Zhu; Karthik Vasanth; Xiaochen Xu; Charles Smyth; Brent Rhoton

2011-01-01

274

A Technology Assessment Methodology. Volume I. Some Basic Propositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one of six reports on the subject of technology assessment prepared by MITRE for the Office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President. The purpose of this project was to develop a standard, structured method for making studies d...

M. V. Jones

1971-01-01

275

METHODOLOGY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure assessments, except those based upon measured exposure levels for a probability sample of population members, rely upon a model to predict exposure. The model may be any mathematical function that estimates the population distribution of exposure or an individual's expos...

276

Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education

Michael Davis Bertz

1998-01-01

277

Applied scientometrics: An assessment methodology for developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A United Nations sponsored project is described to formulate a practicable method for assessing the impact of science and technology in the developing countries and to propose further research to improve the development of such indicators. After a discussion of the importance of the project, the aims of science and technology are summarized, followed by the elements that need to

M. J. Moravcsik

1985-01-01

278

Safety assessment of silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates.  

PubMed

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate as used in cosmetics. These silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates function in cosmetics as antifoaming agents, anticaking agents, bulking agents, binders, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, slip modifiers, suspension agents--nonsurfactant, and viscosity increasing agents--nonaqueous. The Expert Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data as well as information from a previous CIR safety assessment of amorphous silica. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate are safe as used when formulated and delivered in the final product not to be irritating or sensitizing to the respiratory tract. PMID:23696579

Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2013-01-01

279

Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

1980-03-01

280

Safety assessment of Cry1Ab\\/Ac fusion protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cry1ab\\/ac gene was fused by both the cry1ab gene (GenBank Accession No. X54939) and the cry1ac gene (GenBank Accession No. Y09787), which was widely used in genetically modified (GM) rice, cotton, maize and so on. In order to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing Cry1Ab\\/Ac protein, sufficient quantities of Cry1Ab\\/Ac protein were produced in Escherichia

Wentao Xu; Sishuo Cao; Xiaoyun He; YunBo Luo; Xing Guo; Yanfang Yuan; Kunlun Huang

2009-01-01

281

12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.  

PubMed Central

The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility.

Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

1997-01-01

282

A methodology for tsunami hazard assessment using Green functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose a methodology for fast computation of offshore wave heights of tsunamis generated by a specific initial water disturbance. The method includes the following steps: the source area is discretized into a grid of unity water sources, a linear shallow water (LSW) numerical model is used to pre-compute the corresponding Green functions, the reconstitution of the tsunami waveform is made for a set of possible earthquake sources. We compare these results with the direct LSW computation, to check for the accuracy of the method. We present a case study for the coast of Oman. The Makran subduction zone is used as potential source area, and Green summation is used to produce rapid estimations of water heights at a number of virtual tide gauges located along the shoreline. The results show the effectiveness of the method to save computation time and its use in estimations of tsunami hazard, when there is a need to compute a very large number of potential sources. This work was funded by projects: TAGUS DELTA, CONDRIBER, GEONUM of FCT Portugal, Avaliação do Risco Sísmico e de Tsunami no Concelho de Cascais (IDL-UL); and GTIMS tender no. JRC/IPR/2013/G.2/13/NC.

Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.

2013-12-01

283

Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems. These efforts have produced a generic PA methodology for the evaluation of waste management systems that has gained wide acceptance within the international community. This report documents how this methodology has been used as an effective management tool to evaluate different disposal designs and sites; inform development of regulatory requirements; identify, prioritize, and guide research aimed at reducing uncertainties for objective estimations of risk; and support safety assessments.

Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-11-01

284

Safety and immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development are indicated for treatment of patients with cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune disease and as such, are designed to directly interact with the immune system. A major hurdle for the development and early clinical investigation of many of these immunomodulatory mAbs is their inherent risk for adverse immune-mediated drug reactions in humans such as infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the immunopharmacology of a mAb in humans and animals is required to both anticipate the clinical risk of adverse immunotoxicological events and to select a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical studies. This review summarizes the most common adverse immunotoxicological events occurring in humans with immunomodulatory mAbs and outlines non-clinical strategies to define their immunopharmacology and assess their immunotoxic potential, as well as reduce the risk of immunotoxicity through rational mAb design. Tests to assess the relative risk of mAb candidates for cytokine release syndrome, innate immune system (dendritic cell) activation and immunogenicity in humans are also described. The importance of selecting a relevant and sensitive toxicity species for human safety assessment in which the immunopharmacology of the mAb is similar to that expected in humans is highlighted, as is the importance of understanding the limitations of the species selected for human safety assessment and supplementation of in vivo safety assessment with appropriate in vitro human assays. A tiered approach to assess effects on immune status, immune function and risk of infection and cancer, governed by the mechanism of action and structural features of the mAb, is described. Finally, the use of immunopharmacology and immunotoxicity data in determining a minimum anticipated biologic effect Level (MABEL) and in the selection of safe human starting dose is discussed.

Morton, Laura Dill; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Kiessling, Andrea; Allenspach, Roy; Hey, Adam; Muller, Patrick Y; Frings, Werner; Sims, Jennifer

2010-01-01

285

Site specific health risk assessment: discussion of application of methodologies at coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Release of hazardous chemicals into the environment is an issue of growing concern. The primary impetus behind increased attention to this problem has been concern over the potential for development of adverse human health effects from exposure to such chemicals. Health risk assessment is one technique available to address this complex problem in a structured way. The use of health risk assessment methodologies for analysis of the potential for and effects from ground water contamination is discussed in this report. A risk assessment methodology developed for application at coal-fired power plants is used as an example methodology. The preliminary steps and problems with application of the methodology at a specific coal-fired power plant are presented. The report includes: an introduction to the problem of ground water contamination and the use of risk assessment to address that problem; description of the regional and site characteristics of the coal-fired power plant under study; description of the risk assessment; description of the current activities to characterize the subsurface region under the plant; and a discussion of the impetus behind development of site-specific health risk assessment methodologies.

Bailey, D.A.

1985-01-01

286

Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education was completed, with connections and applications to civil engineering education highlighted. The experimental work of the thesis is organized into three parts: an assessment of civil engineering undergraduates' fundamental structural engineering knowledge and abilities; the development and testing of a software support environment for situated learning, the Civil Engineering Learning Library (CELL); and, the implementation and evaluation of the design studio, a pedagogical model for situated learning in the classroom. The results of the assessment study indicate that civil engineering seniors (and also students earlier in the curriculum) have difficulty retaining and applying basic knowledge of structural behavior, especially doing so in a flexible fashion in design situations. The survey also suggests that visualization plays an important role in understanding structural behavior. Tests with the CELL system show that a cognitively-flexible multimedia environment can support structural learning, but were inconclusive about whether the computer-based system helped the students to learn better than conventional classroom lecture. Two trial implementations of the design studio indicate that the studio model can serve as a powerful situated learning environment, and that it can be scaled up to reasonable class sizes. Significant requirements are associated with this model, however, primarily in faculty involvement, but also in physical resources and student time. In addition to these conclusions about the specific research efforts of this thesis, other more general observations of the difficulty of educational research (and particularly assessment) are discussed, especially in measuring the long-term effects of the desired learning influence. Finally, suggestions for improving these studies are offered, both for software environments and implementing other design studios, along with implications for future work.

Bertz, Michael Davis

287

Assessing the costs of measuring biodiversity: Methodological and empirical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic and low-input farming practices are considered keystones for the conservation of biodiversity in semi-natural systems. Accordingly, attention to the assessment of the benefits stemming from these activities is increasing in order to provide a solid base for the adoption of agro-environmental incentives and to support their monitoring and evaluation. The evaluation of the positive effects of organic and low-input

Stefano Targetti; Davide Viaggi; David Cuming; Jean-Pierre Sarthou; Jean-Philippe Choisis

2012-01-01

288

Assessment of Digital Image Correlation Measurement Errors: Methodology and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical full-field measurement methods such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC) are increasingly used in the field of experimental\\u000a mechanics, but they still suffer from a lack of information about their metrological performances. To assess the performance\\u000a of DIC techniques and give some practical rules for users, a collaborative work has been carried out by the Workgroup “Metrology”\\u000a of the French

M. Bornert; F. Brémand; P. Doumalin; J.-C. Dupré; M. Fazzini; M. Grédiac; F. Hild; S. Mistou; J. Molimard; J.-J. OrteuL; L. Robert; Y. Surrel; P. Vacher; B. Wattrisse

2009-01-01

289

Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-19

290

Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a “dirty bomb”. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

2007-07-09

291

Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four cornerstones of microbial food safety risk assessment are hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, and risk characterization. These steps represent a systematic process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probabilities arising from consumption of foods that may be contaminated with microbial pathogens and\\/or microbial toxins. This paper presents a discussion of the first two steps: hazard identification

Anna M. Lammerding; Aamir Fazil

2000-01-01

292

Assessment of ductile fracture methodology based on applications to large-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the present status of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiment (FALSIRE) is given. Fracture assessments compiled from Project FALSIRE for five pressurized-thermal-shock experiments are compared. Some observations are made concerning predictive capabilities of the fracture methodologies used in these assessments. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. (Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany, F.R.))

1991-01-01

293

Methodology for retinal photography and assessment of diabetic retinopathy: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We present the methodology for 45 retinal photography and detail the development, application and validation of a new system of 45 field grading standards for the assessment of diabetic retinopathy. The systems were developed for the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study, part of a European Community funded Concerted Action Programme into the epidemiology and prevention of diabetes (EURODIAB). Assessment of diabetic

S. J. Aldington; E. M. Kohner; S. Meuer; R. Klein; A. K. SjØlie

1995-01-01

294

METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS COSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for systematic assessment of the resource costs in a water resources system is presented. It is based on the development of integrated hydro-economic simulation and optimization models at the river basin scale. These models can be also used for some other aspects of the economic analysis required by the WFD, as assessment of the opportunity cost of some

Joaquín Andreu Álvarez; Manuel Pulido Velázquez; Guillermo Collazos

295

Background information for the development of a low-level waste performance assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the identification, evaluation, and selection of models required to assess the effects of radionuclide releases from low-level waste facilities. The document also demonstrates how these models can be integrated into a performance assessment methodology for use by the NRC in evaluating license applications for disposal of low-level waste. 85 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Kozak, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; O'Neal, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Updegraff, C.D. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Mattingly, P.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-12-01

296

Background information for the development of a low-level waste performance assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies computer codes that can be used to implement a performance assessment methodology for low-level waste disposal. Existing computer codes in the following areas are reviewed and assessed: water budget, container degradation and leaching, ground-water flow and transport, surface-water transport, air transport, food-chain transport, and dosimetry. 70 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Harlan, C.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Mattingly, P.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-12-01

297

Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

Craig, Robert J.

2005-01-01

298

SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200). Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

299

An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

Janic, Milan

2003-01-01

300

Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, D.; Turner, F.

2012-01-01

301

An ecological and economic assessment methodology for coastal ecosystem management.  

PubMed

An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (DeltaDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the DeltaDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of DeltaDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity. PMID:19471999

Nobre, Ana M

2009-07-01

302

Methodology for estimating extreme winds for probabilistic risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Reguulatory Commission (NRC) assesses the risks associated with nuclear faciliies using techniques that fall under a generic name of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. In these assessments, potential accident sequences are traced from initiating event to final outcome. At each step of the sequence, a probability of occurrence is assigned to each available alternative. Ultimately, the probability of occurrence of each possible outcome is determined from the probabilities assigned to the initiating events and the alternative paths. Extreme winds are considered in these sequences. As a result, it is necessary to estimate extreme wind probabilities as low as 10/sup -7/yr/sup -1/. When the NRC staff is called on to provide extreme wind estimates, the staff is likely to be subjected to external time and funding constraints. These constraints dictate that the estimates be based on readily available wind data. In general, readily available data will be limited to the data provided by the facility applicant or licensee and the data archived at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. This report describes readily available data that can be used in estimating extreme wind probabilities, procedures of screening the data to eliminate erroneous values and for adjusting data to compensate for differences in data collection methods, and statistical methods for making extreme wind estimates. Supporting technical details are presented in several appendices. Estimation of extreme wind probabilities at a given location involves many subjective decisions. The procedures described do not eliminate all of the subjectivity, but they do increase the reproducibility of the analysis. They provide consistent methods for determining probabilities given a set of subjective decisions. By following these procedures, subjective decisions can be identified and documented.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.; Hubbe, J.M.

1986-10-01

303

Uncertainty of short-term wind power forecasts a methodology for on-line assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces a new methodology for assessing on-line the prediction risk of short-term wind power forecasts. The first part of this methodology consists in computing confidence intervals with a confidence level defined by the end-user. The resampling approach is used for this purpose since it permits to avoid a restrictive hypothesis on the distribution of the errors. It has

George N. Kariniotakis; Pierre Pinson

2004-01-01

304

Assessing cardiovascular drug safety for clinical decision-making.  

PubMed

Optimal therapeutic decision-making requires integration of patient-specific and therapy-specific information at the point of care, particularly when treating patients with complex cardiovascular conditions. The formidable task for the prescriber is to synthesize information about all therapeutic options and match the best treatment with the characteristics of the individual patient. Computerized decision support systems have been developed with the goal of integrating such information and presenting the acceptable therapeutic options on the basis of their effectiveness, often with limited consideration of their safety for a specific patient. Assessing the safety of therapies relative to each patient is difficult, and sometimes impossible, because the evidence required to make such an assessment is either imperfect or does not exist. In addition, many of the alerts sent to prescribers by decision-support systems are not perceived as credible, and 'alert fatigue' causes warnings to be ignored putting patients at risk of harm. The CredibleMeds.org and BrugadaDrugs.org websites are prototypes for evidence-based sources of safety information that rank drugs for their risk of a specific form of drug toxicity-in these cases, drug-induced arrhythmias. Broad incorporation of this type of information in electronic prescribing algorithms and clinical decision support could speed the evolution of safe personalized medicine. PMID:23591268

Woosley, Raymond L; Romero, Klaus

2013-06-01

305

[Safety assessment of nanomaterials for development of nano-cosmetics].  

PubMed

A diverse array of nanomaterials (NMs), such as amorphous nanosilica (nSP), carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide, has become widespread in use due to the development of nanotechnology. NMs are already being applied in universal fields because they have unique physicochemical properties. On the other hands, the safety of NMs has not been well assessed, because NMs have been considered as safe as common larger sized materials which are known not to be absorbed by the body. Because NMs have the potential to improve the quality of human life, it is essential to ensure the safety of NMs and provide information for designing safer NMs. In this regard, we studied the biological distribution and hazard identification of nSP following dermal administration, because nSP is used NMs in the cosmetics field. In the future, our study would help to set the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI), and be useful information for the safety/hazard assessment and evaluation. PMID:23123712

Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

2012-01-01

306

A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

Quintana, Rolando

2003-01-01

307

Methodology study on event-tree analysis for ULOF sequences considering passive safety features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to establish a method of probabilistic safety analysis for passive safety features, the event-tree (E/T) of ULOF accident sequences in the early stage of accident progression was constructed for an 600 MWe LMFBR model plant equipped with passive ...

T. Mihara H. Niwa

1998-01-01

308

Application of a Safety-Driven Design Methodology to an Outer Planet Exploration Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional requirements specification and hazard analysis techniques have not kept pace with the increasing complexity and constraints of modern space systems development. These techniques are incomplete and often consider safety late in the development cycle when the most significant design decisions have already been made. The lack of an integrated approach to perform safety-driven system development from the beginning of

Brandon D. Owens; Margaret Stringfellow Herring; Nicolas Dulac; Nancy G. Leveson; Michel D. Ingham; Kathryn Anne Weiss

2008-01-01

309

Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments  

PubMed Central

Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either “the more, the better” or “not too much and not too little.” This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between “maximum performance” and “typical performance” is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

Patry, Jean-Luc

2011-01-01

310

Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders  

SciTech Connect

The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

2008-03-01

311

Dioxin bioaccumulation: key to a sound risk assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect

Human exposure to many pollutants occurs primarily through the ingestion of contaminated fish. In order to protect human health, regulatory agencies set limits on the levels of pollutants entering water bodies from point sources, thereby limiting the amount of pollutants that may be accumulated by fish. The limits, in the form of water quality criteria, are designed to correlate the concentration of a pollutant in a water body (and therefore the concentration accumulated by a fish) to the risks to humans. This type of model provides a reasonable way of controlling pollutants from point sources if the assumptions used in the model are realistic. However, the risk assessment formula currently used for developing water quality criteria only considers those pollutants in the water column available to fish through bioconcentration across the gills (freely dissolved pollutants). For strongly hydrophobic pollutants like dioxin, an extremely small fraction of the total amount is freely dissolved; most dioxin is sorbed to organic matter and is ingested by fish. A new model for developing criteria is presented here that takes into account the environmental fate of dioxin (predominantly in the sorbed state in the environment) and that fish accumulate dioxin by ingestion, rather than bioconcentration.

Rifkin, E.; LaKind, J. (Rifkin and Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (USA))

1991-05-01

312

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

1992-01-01

313

Safety Management in Coal Mines--Risk Assessment.  

PubMed

The present state of accident hazard at work in the Polish mining industry is presented. A comparison is made of the accident indices in relation to other countries. A reference is made to the work safety management system implemented in the mines. Safety management is discussed in terms of risk management. On the basis of the natural death index and that of accidents at work, numerical scales are presented defining the limits of the inadmissable, tolerable, and acceptable risk. The course of variation of risk indices for fatal, serious, and minor accidents is evaluated. The results of the assessment for all kinds of accidents at work in the mining industry are presented. PMID:10602589

Niczyporuk

1996-01-01

314

Reducing attrition in drug development: smart loading preclinical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Entry into the crucial preclinical good laboratory practice (GLP) stage of toxicology testing triggers significant R&D investment yet >20% of AstraZeneca's potential new medicines have been stopped for safety reasons in this GLP phase alone. How could we avoid at least some of these costly failures? An analysis of historical toxicities that caused stopping ('stopping toxicities') showed that >50% were attributable to target organ toxicities emerging within 2 weeks of repeat dosing or to acute cardiovascular risks. By frontloading 2-week repeat-dose toxicity studies and a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular safety, we anticipate a potential 50% reduction in attrition in the GLP phase. This will reduce animal use overall, save significant R&D costs and improve drug pipeline quality. PMID:24269835

Roberts, Ruth A; Kavanagh, Stefan L; Mellor, Howard R; Pollard, Christopher E; Robinson, Sally; Platz, Stefan J

2014-03-01

315

Methodology for assessing population and ecosystem level effects related to intake of cooling waters: methodology application to Cayuga Lake. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Methodology for Assessing Population and Ecosystem Level Effects Related to Intake of Cooling Waters was used to estimate the potential effects due to postulated power plant development on Cayuga Lake, New York. This demonstration of the methodology used existing data and information on the biotic community of Cayuga Lake. Initial analyses indicated that major development would result in substantial

R. A. Alevras; D. T. Logan; C. B. Dew

1981-01-01

316

Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.  

PubMed

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping. PMID:15876211

Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

2005-04-01

317

Patient safety culture assessment in the nursing home  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess patient safety culture (PSC) in the nursing home setting, to determine whether nursing home professionals differ in their PSC ratings, and to compare PSC scores of nursing homes with those of hospitals. Methods The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was modified for use in nursing homes (PSC?NH) and distributed to 151 professionals in four non?profit nursing homes. Mean scores on each PSC?NH dimension were compared across professions (doctors, pharmacists, advanced practitioners and nurses) and with published benchmark scores from 21 hospitals. Results Response rates were 68.9% overall and 52–100% for different professions. Most respondents (76%) were women and had worked in nursing homes for an average of 9.8?years, and at their current facility for 5.4?years. Professions agreed on 11 of 12 dimensions of the survey and differed significantly (p<0.05) only in ratings for one PSC dimension (attitudes about staffing issues), where nurses and pharmacists believed that they had enough employees to handle the workload. Nursing homes scored significantly lower (ie, worse) than hospitals (p<0.05) in five PSC dimensions (non?punitive response to error, teamwork within units, communication openness, feedback and communication about error, and organisational learning). Conclusions Professionals in nursing homes generally agree about safety characteristics of their facilities, and the PSC in nursing homes is significantly lower than that in hospitals. PSC assessment may be helpful in fostering comparisons across nursing home settings and professions, and identifying targets for interventions to improve patient safety.

Handler, S M; Castle, N G; Studenski, S A; Perera, S; Fridsma, D B; Nace, D A; Hanlon, J T

2006-01-01

318

A rapid usability assessment methodology to support the choice of clinical information systems: a case study.  

PubMed Central

We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment.

Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.; Watbled, L.; Carpentier, A. M.; Degroisse, M.; Alao, O.

2002-01-01

319

Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

Guarro, Sergio B.

2010-01-01

320

Quantitative assessment of building fire risk to life safety.  

PubMed

This article presents a quantitative risk assessment framework for evaluating fire risk to life safety. Fire risk is divided into two parts: probability and corresponding consequence of every fire scenario. The time-dependent event tree technique is used to analyze probable fire scenarios based on the effect of fire protection systems on fire spread and smoke movement. To obtain the variation of occurrence probability with time, Markov chain is combined with a time-dependent event tree for stochastic analysis on the occurrence probability of fire scenarios. To obtain consequences of every fire scenario, some uncertainties are considered in the risk analysis process. When calculating the onset time to untenable conditions, a range of fires are designed based on different fire growth rates, after which uncertainty of onset time to untenable conditions can be characterized by probability distribution. When calculating occupant evacuation time, occupant premovement time is considered as a probability distribution. Consequences of a fire scenario can be evaluated according to probability distribution of evacuation time and onset time of untenable conditions. Then, fire risk to life safety can be evaluated based on occurrence probability and consequences of every fire scenario. To express the risk assessment method in detail, a commercial building is presented as a case study. A discussion compares the assessment result of the case study with fire statistics. PMID:18643819

Guanquan, Chu; Jinhua, Sun

2008-06-01

321

Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Huang, Y. -N.; Whittaker, A. S.; Luco, N.

2010-01-01

322

Human Performance Modeling: A Cooperative and Necessary Methodology for Studying Occupational Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a human-out-of-the- loop (HOOTL) methodology for studying complex human-system performance. The U.S. and international military forces have used HOOTL methodologies for years to study complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns in battlefield management simulations. More recent application of HOOTL technologies has been in complex work environments such as aviation, medical and nuclear power

Brian F. Gore; Kevin M. Corker

323

SCI Hazard Report Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

Mitchell, Michael S.

2010-01-01

324

Safety assessment of cyclomethicone, cyclotetrasiloxane, cyclopentasiloxane, cyclohexasiloxane, and cycloheptasiloxane.  

PubMed

Cyclomethicone (mixture) and the specific chain length cyclic siloxanes (n = 4-7) reviewed in this safety assessment are cyclic dimethyl polysiloxane compounds. These ingredients have the skin/hair conditioning agent function in common. Minimal percutaneous absorption was associated with these ingredients and the available data do not suggest skin irritation or sensitization potential. Also, it is not likely that dermal exposure to these ingredients from cosmetics would cause significant systemic exposure. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. PMID:22247236

Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2011-12-01

325

A method for assessing health and safety management systems from the resilience engineering perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a method for assessing health and safety management systems (MAHS) that has two innovative characteristics: (a) it brings together the three main auditing approaches to health and safety (HS) – the structural approach (which assesses the system prescribed), the operational approach (which assesses what is really happening on the shop-floor) and the performance approach (which assesses the

Marcelo Fabiano Costella; Tarcisio Abreu Saurin; Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimarães

2009-01-01

326

Analysis of Existing Data: Prospective Views on Methodological Paradigms. SHRP 2 Safety Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large component of the safety research undertaken in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) is aimed at reducing the injuries and fatalities that result from highway crashes. Through a naturalistic driving study (NDS) involving more than...

A. Greenstein J. Aguero-Valverde K. F. Wu P. P. Jovanis V. Shankar

2012-01-01

327

Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

1994-06-01

328

A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: identification of environmental pathways, ranking the significance of the pathways, identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. This paper summarizes the NRC approach for conducting evaluations of license applications for low-level radioactive waste facilities. 23 refs.

Derring, L.R. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of Low-Level Waste Management and Decommissioning); Kozak, M.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

329

Development of a portable closed-loop atracurium infusion system: systems methodology and safety issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety of closed-loop drug infusion systems is an issue often raised as a matter of concern. As a result, many closed-loop\\u000a control systems are reported in the literature merely as computer simulation studies and few ever reach the stage of physical\\u000a realisation and formal clinical evaluation. We address the safety issues involved with such systems by describing the development\\u000a of

David G. Mason; Derek A. Linkens; Neal D. Edwards; Charles S. Reilly

1996-01-01

330

An experience of dependability assessment of a typical industrial safety critical Programmable Logic Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an experience of dependability assessment of a typical industrial Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The PLC is based on a two out of three voting policy and it is intended to be used for safety functions. Safety assessment of computer based systems performing safety functions is regulated by standards and guidelines. In all of them there

Michele Minichino; Ester Ciancamerla; ENEA CRE; Roma Casaccia; Silvano Chiaradonna; Andrea Bondavalli

331

Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43  

SciTech Connect

The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

1982-09-01

332

Blood Cytokines as Biomarkers of In Vivo Toxicity in Preclinical Safety Assessment: Considerations for Their Use  

PubMed Central

In the drive to develop drugs with well-characterized and clinically monitorable safety profiles, there is incentive to expand the repertoire of safety biomarkers for toxicities without routine markers or premonitory detection. Biomarkers in blood are pursued because of specimen accessibility, opportunity for serial monitoring, quantitative measurement, and the availability of assay platforms. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (here referred to collectively as cytokines) show robust modulation in proximal events of inflammation, immune response, and repair. These are key general processes in many toxicities; therefore, cytokines are commonly identified during biomarker discovery studies. In addition, multiplexed cytokine immunoassays are easily applied to biomarker discovery and routine toxicity studies to measure blood cytokines. However, cytokines pose several challenges as safety biomarkers because of a short serum half-life; low to undetectable baseline levels; lack of tissue-specific or toxicity-specific expression; complexities related to cytokine expression with multiorgan involvement; and species, strain, and interindividual differences. Additional challenges to their application are caused by analytical, methodological, and study design–related variables. A final consideration is the strength of the relationship between changes in cytokine levels and the development of phenotypic or functional manifestations of toxicity. These factors should inform the integrated judgment-based qualification of novel biomarkers in preclinical, and potentially clinical, risk assessment. The dearth of robust, predictive cytokine biomarkers for specific toxicities is an indication of the significant complexity of these challenges. This review will consider the current state of the science and recommendations for appropriate application of cytokines in preclinical safety assessment.

Tarrant, Jacqueline M.

2010-01-01

333

Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

Jaeger, Calvin D.; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

2008-12-01

334

Final report on the safety assessment of Octyidodecyl Stearoyl Stearate.  

PubMed

Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate functions as an occlusive skin-conditioning agent and as a nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent in many cosmetic formulations. Current concentrations of use are between 0.7% and 23%, although historically higher concentrations were used. The chemical is formed by a high-temperature, acid-catalyzed esterification reaction of long-chain alcohols (primarily C-20) and a mixture of primarily C-18 fatty acids. Levels of stearic acid, octyldodecanol, and octylydocecyl hydroxystearate in the final product are 5% or less--no other residual compounds are reported. Only limited safety test data were available on Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate, but previous safety assessments of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids found these precursors to be safe for use in cosmetic formulations. Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate produced no adverse effects in acute exposures in rats. The chemical was mostly nonirritating to animal skin at concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 10%; one study did find moderate irritation in rabbit skin at a concentration of 7.5%. Clinical tests at a concentration of 10.4% confirmed the absence of significant irritation in humans. An ocular toxicity study in rabbits found no toxicity. No evidence of genotoxicity was found in either a mammalian test system or in the Ames test system, with or without metabolic activation. The available data on Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate and the previously considered data on long-chain alcohols and fatty acids, however, did not provide a sufficient basis to make a determination of safety. Additional data needs include (1) chemical properties, including the octanol/water partition coefficient; and (2) if there is significant dermal absorption or if significant quantities of the ingredient may contact mucous membranes or be ingested, then reproductive and developmental toxicity data may be needed. Until such time as these data are received, the available data do not support the safety of Octyldodecyl Stearoyl Stearate as used in cosmetic formulations. PMID:11766132

Lanigan, R S

2001-01-01

335

Displacement-Based Earthquake Loss Assessment Methodology Adopting Two-Dimensional Equivalent Linearization Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified displacement-based earthquake loss assessment model (DBELA) on an urban scale is re-investigated by adopting two-dimensional equivalent linearization approach. Taken the reinforced concrete beam-sway frames as example, nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses are carried out to investigate the validity of DBELA methodology. Numerical comparison indicates that DBELA with two-dimensional equivalent linearization approach can give a precise vulnerability assessment of beam-sway

Liang Su; Jitao Shi

2012-01-01

336

Assessing Student Perceptions of School Victimization and School Safety: A Psychometric Assessment of Relevant Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to assess students' perceptions of victimization in their schools, as well as their schools' safety, over 1,900 students from elementary, middle, high, and alternative schools were administered a 154-item questionnaire. The responses on the items were used to establish the psychometric properties of 19 theoretically driven scales and…

Soderstrom, Irina R.; Elrod, Preston

2006-01-01

337

1995 Perceptions of Wellness and Readiness Assessment (POWR '95) Methodology Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the methodology for the assessment of Perceptions of Wellness and Readiness (POWR) among active-duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel. Supported by the Defense Women's Health Research Program, the purpose of this study was to obtain b...

L. L. Hourani W. F. Graham D. Sorenson H. Yuan R. M. Bray

1996-01-01

338

Methodology for Assessing Disruptions (MAD) Game Part I: Report and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The memorandum reports on the Methodology for Assessing Disruptions (MAD) game played at DRDC Ottawa on 5-6 October 2010. This event was Part I of a two-part seminar wargame. In Part I, scientists and CF members participated in a two-step brainstorming an...

G. Adlakha-Hutcheon K. Sprague M. Hazen P. Hubbard S. McLelland

2012-01-01

339

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION OF COAL: METHODOLOGY AND INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), aimed at complete environmental assessment (EA) of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal. It reviews the EA methodology being developed by EPA: identification of current technolo...

340

A methodology for multi-objective design assessment and flight control synthesis tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight control law design is a multi-variable control problem where various strict requirements from multiple disciplines have to be satisfied. This paper describes quality function deployment and its use in multi-objective control synthesis tuning and design assessment, with application to flight control design. The main feature of this methodology is that the various kinds of design objectives can be taken

Hans-dieter Joos

1999-01-01

341

Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

342

A methodology for the assessment of short duration voltage variations in electric power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new methodology for the assessment of power quality indices in electric power distribution systems. Power quality indices concerning short duration voltage variations, i.e. voltage sags and swells, are particularly introduced taking into account the needs for establishing power quality standards. The paper also presents a new proposal for a measurement protocol, a testing procedure to

N. Kagan; E. L. Ferrari; N. M. Matsuo; S. X. Duarte; J. L. Cavaretti; A. Tenorio; L. R. Souza

2002-01-01

343

Methodology for Assessing Technology Trade-Offs of Space-Based Radar Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology is developed to aid a decision maker in assessing the technology trade-offs for space system concepts. A review of systems engineering and the tools of operations research shows that the analytic hierarchy process provides a suitable basis f...

J. E. Puffenbarger

1985-01-01

344

Developing a Customized Program Assessment Methodology for Assurance of Learning: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most academic institutions, selecting and/or designing a Program Assessment methodology for Assurance of Learning is a challenging task. This paper describes the steps taken to establish goals, values and criteria driving this process for a College of Business. In this case analysis, we document the options we explored in finding the right…

Baker, Hope; Brawley, Dorothy; Campbell, Jane; Capozzoli, Ernest; Malgeri, Linda; Roberts, Gary

2007-01-01

345

Assessment and Accountability in Reference Work. Part I: Requirements and Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes three articles: the first presents rules and regulations from the "Federal Register" that focus on educational effectiveness in postsecondary institutions; the second discusses the appropriateness of various research methodologies for assessment and accountability of reference services; and the third examines data collection techniques…

Whitlatch, Jo Bell; Walsh, Anthony

1992-01-01

346

Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in basalt formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration of a performance assessment methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in the analysis of high-level radioactive waste disposal in deep basalts. Seven scenarios that could affect the performance of a repository in basalts were analyzed. One of these scenarios, normal ground-water flow, was

E. J. Bonano; P. A. Davis

1988-01-01

347

A study on the reliability assessment methodology for pipelines with active corrosion defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the probabilistic methodology for the estimation of the remaining life of pressurized pipelines containing active corrosion defects is presented. This reliability assessment is carried out using several already published failure pressure models. A steady state corrosion rate is assumed to estimate the growth in the dimensions of corrosion defects. The first-order second-moment iterative reliability method, the Monte

F. Caleyo; J. L. González; J. M. Hallen

2002-01-01

348

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASES OF AND EXPOSURE TO MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMBUSTOR RESIDUALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to provide users with a methodology to assess the potential exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) residuals. his document does so by: 1) summarizing existing information on MSW combustor design, types, and location of MSW facilities nationally; b...

349

Couple Attachment and Relationship Duration in Psychotherapy Patients: Exploring a New Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief…

Sochos, Antigonos

2014-01-01

350

Methodology for assessing population and ecosystem level effects related to intake of cooling waters: methodology application to Cayuga Lake. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Methodology for Assessing Population and Ecosystem Level Effects Related to Intake of Cooling Waters was used to estimate the potential effects due to postulated power plant development on Cayuga Lake, New York. This demonstration of the methodology used existing data and information on the biotic community of Cayuga Lake. Initial analyses indicated that major development would result in substantial direct effects on important fish populations and indirect effects on other components of the biotic community. Comprehensive analyses of population and community-level effects could not be demonstrated because the methods require more data than were available. The methodology was found to be adequate as the beginning step in a quantitative impact assessment. Further applications are needed to test the methodology as a useful tool in quantitative impact assessment.

Alevras, R.A.; Logan, D.T.; Dew, C.B.

1981-04-01

351

Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-09-01

352

Development of Safety Assessment Code for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A safety assessment code, DecDose, for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been developed, based on the experiences of the decommissioning project of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (currently JAEA). DecDose evaluates the annual exposure dose of the public and workers according to the progress of decommissioning, and also evaluates the public dose at accidental situations including fire and explosion. As for the public, both the internal and the external doses are calculated by considering inhalation, ingestion, direct radiation from radioactive aerosols and radioactive depositions, and skyshine radiation from waste containers. For external dose for workers, the dose rate from contaminated components and structures to be dismantled is calculated. Internal dose for workers is calculated by considering dismantling conditions, e.g. cutting speed, cutting length of the components and exhaust velocity. Estimation models for dose rate and staying time were verified by comparison with the actual external dose of workers which were acquired during JPDR decommissioning project. DecDose code is expected to contribute the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

Shimada, Taro; Ohshima, Soichiro; Sukegawa, Takenori

353

Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

2013-01-01

354

NASA Aviation Safety Program Systems Analysis/Program Assessment Metrics Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to evaluate the metrics and processes used by NASA's Aviation Safety Program in assessing technologies that contribute to NASA's aviation safety goals. There were three objectives for reaching this goal. First, NASA's main obje...

G. E. Louis, K. Anderson, T. Ahmad, A. Bouabid, M. Siriwardana, P. Guilbaud

2003-01-01

355

Ymparistoturvallisuus: Ymparistoriskien Arvioinnin Osaaminen ja Haasteet (Environmental Safety: Challenges and Trends of Environmental Risk Assessment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VTT has prepared a roadmap of 'Environmental safety--challenges and trends of environmental risk assessment', the aim of which was to: (1) define the content of environmental risk assessment, (2) clarify the knowledge of environmental risk assessment in V...

N. Wessberg

2007-01-01

356

Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

Burruss, Robert C.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, Philip A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

358

The Evaluation of the North Carolina K-9 Traffic Safety Curriculum: Methodology, Findings, and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluation of the traffic safety curriculum as presented to K-9 students in North Carolina focused on three areas: (1) the extent to which students acquired the information included in the curriculum, (2) the extent to which students showed a change in their actual pedestrian and bicyclist behavior, and (3) the extent to which teachers made…

Padgett, Susan S.

359

Evaluating methodologies for assessing the value of information: sifting the evidence.  

PubMed

The article evaluates methodologies for studying the clinical benefits of information provision and use, particularly the impact on clinical decision making (and hence on patient care). The problems of replication of research are discussed, and the ways in which the Value Project consolidated and extended previous studies are considered. Comparisons among studies demonstrate that some of the impact findings are qualitatively and quantitatively similar, but there are also some contradictory findings. Methodological variations and differences in health care cultures account for some of the differences. Implications for the reliability and validity of these methods for assessing the value of information to clinicians are considered. PMID:10162540

Urquhart, C J; Hepworth, J B

1996-11-01

360

Safety assessment of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals: ICH and beyond.  

PubMed

Many scientific discussions, especially in the past 8 yr, have focused on definition of criteria for the optimal assessment of the preclinical toxicity of pharmaceuticals. With the current overlap of responsibility among centers within the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), uniformity of testing standards, when appropriate, would be desirable. These discussions have extended beyond the boundaries of the FDA and have culminated in the acceptance of formalized, internationally recognized guidances. The work of the International Committee on Harmonisation (ICH) and the initiatives developed by the FDA are important because they (a) represent a consensus scientific opinion, (b) promote consistency, (c) improve the quality of the studies performed, (d) assist the public sector in determining what may be generally acceptable to prepare product development plans, and (e) provide guidance for the sponsors in the design of preclinical toxicity studies. Disadvantages associated with such initiatives include (a) the establishment of a historical database that is difficult to relinquish, (b) the promotion of a check-the-box approach, i.e., a tendancy to perform only the minimum evaluation required by the guidelines, (c) the creation of a disincentive for industry to develop and validate new models, and (d) the creation of state-of-the-art guidances that may not allow for appropriate evaluation of novel therapies. The introduction of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals for clinical use has often required the application of unique approaches to assessing their safety in preclinical studies. There is much diversity among these products, which include the gene and cellular therapies, monoclonal antibodies, human-derived recombinant regulatory proteins, blood products, and vaccines. For many of the biological therapies, there will be unique product issues that may require specific modifications to protocol design and may raise additional safety concerns (e.g., immunogenicity). Guidances concerning the design of preclinical studies for such therapies are generally based on the clinical indication. Risk versus benefit decisions are made with an understanding of the nature of the patient population, the severity of disease, and the availability of alternative therapies. Key components of protocol design for preclinical studies addressing the risks of these agents include (a) a safe starting dose in humans, (b) identification of potential target organs, (c) identification of clinical parameters that should be monitored in humans, and (d) identification of at-risk populations. One of the distinct aspects of the safety evaluation of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals is the use of relevant and often nontraditional species and the use of animal models of disease in preclinical safety evaluation. Extensive contributions were made by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research to the ICH document on the safety of biotherapeutics, which is intended to provide worldwide guidance for a framework approach to the design and review of preclinical programs. Rational, scientifically sound study design and early identification of the potential safety concerns that may be anticipated in the clinical trial can result in preclinical data that facilitate use of these novel therapies for use in humans without duplication of effort or the unnecessary use of animals. PMID:10367669

Serabian, M A; Pilaro, A M

1999-01-01

361

Safety risk assessment technology of Chemical Industrial Park based on grid partition and information diffusion theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the analysis to the research actuality and its problems to regional safety risk assessment at home and abroad, a method of regional safety risk assessment for Urban Chemical Industrial Park with multi-danger source is put forward. Firstly, the assessed region is carved up into series of two dimensional square grids in equal Stride length mesh based on grid partition

Hongde Wang; Yundong Ma

2009-01-01

362

Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.  

PubMed

I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

2013-12-01

363

Safety climate and self-reported injury: Assessing the mediating role of employee safety control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further reduce injuries in the workplace, companies have begun focusing on organizational factors which may contribute to workplace safety. Safety climate is an organizational factor commonly cited as a predictor of injury occurrence. Characterized by the shared perceptions of employees, safety climate can be viewed as a snapshot of the prevailing state of safety in the organization at a

Yueng-Hsiang Huang; Michael Ho; Gordon S. Smith; Peter Y. Chen

2006-01-01

364

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics\\/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents

Dmitri Nickolaevich Ziabletsev

2002-01-01

365

A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures.  

PubMed

The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose-response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several "what if" scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1·10(-5) compared to 23.4·10(-5) for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10-20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support. PMID:23220388

Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis ?; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

2013-01-15

366

Earthquake safety assessment of concrete arch and gravity dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on research studies currently being carried out at Dalian University of Technology, some important aspects for the earthquake safety assessment of concrete dams are reviewed and discussed. First, the rate-dependent behavior of concrete subjected to earthquake loading is examined, emphasizing the properties of concrete under cyclic and biaxial loading conditions. Second, a modified four-parameter Hsieh-Ting-Chen viscoplastic consistency model is developed to simulate the rate-dependent behavior of concrete. The earthquake response of a 278m high arch dam is analyzed, and the results show that the strain-rate effects become noticeable in the inelastic range. Third, a more accurate non-smooth Newton algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional frictional contact problems is developed to study the joint opening effects of arch dams during strong earthquakes. Such effects on two nearly 300m high arch dams have been studied. It was found that the canyon shape has great influence on the magnitude and distribution of the joint opening along the dam axis. Fourth, the scaled boundary finite element method presented by Song and Wolf is employed to study the dam-reservoir-foundation interaction effects of concrete dams. Particular emphases were placed on the variation of foundation stiffness and the anisotropic behavior of the foundation material on the dynamic response of concrete dams. Finally, nonlinear modeling of concrete to study the damage evolution of concrete dams during strong earthquakes is discussed. An elastic-damage mechanics approach for damage prediction of concrete gravity dams is described as an example. These findings are helpful in understanding the dynamic behavior of concrete dams and promoting the improvement of seismic safety assessment methods.

Lin, Gao; Hu, Zhiqiang

2005-12-01

367

Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. PMID:23769621

Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

2013-11-01

368

Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and medium-sized mines. The accident rates (NDL IR, NFDL IR, SM/100) of very small and small mines in 2008 and 2009 were less than those of medium and large mines. The data indicates a heavy occurrence of very severe injuries in a number of very small and small mines. In another application which is a part of this research, the six normalized safety measures and the SPI are used to evaluate the risk that existed at mines in the two years preceding the occurrence of a fatality. This mine safety performance tracking method could have been helpful to the companies, state agency, or MSHA in recognizing and addressing emerging problems with actions that may have been able to prevent high-risk conditions, the fatality, and/or other serious injuries. The approach would have given scrutiny to the risk of mines that encompassed 74% of the fatalities during 2007-2010. In order to assess the SPI as a comparable risk measurement tool, a traditional risk approach is also developed using data embracing frequency and severity in the final equation to analyze the relative risk for all underground coal mines for the years 2007--2010. Then, the SPI is compared with this traditional risk analysis method to demonstrate that the results attained by either method provide the relative safety-related risk of underground coal mines regarding injuries and citations for violations of regulations. The comparison reveals that the SPI does emulate a traditional approach to risk analysis. A correlation coefficient of --0.89 or more was observed between the results of these two methodologies and either can be used to assist companies, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), or state agencies in target-ing mines with high risk for serious injuries and elevated citations for remediation of their injury and/or violation experience. The SPI, however, provides a more understandable approach for mine operators to apply using measures compatible with MSHA's enforcement tools. These methodologies form an all-encompassing approach that can be used to assist companies, the MSHA, or state agencies in t

Kinilakodi, Harisha

369

The damage assessment methodology in cooperation with smart sensors and inspection robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a damage assessment methodology for the non-structural elements, especially the ceiling, in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot with the Wi-Fi camera. The developed smart sensors use the infrared LEDs in sending the measured data to the inspection blimp robot. The inspection blimp robot integrated in the proposed system has a Wi-Fi camera and an infrared remote control receiver for receiving the data from the smart sensor. In the proposed methodology, the distributed smart sensors firstly detect the damage occurrence. Next, the inspection blimp robots can gather the data from the smart sensors, which transmit the measured data by using an infrared remote control receiver and LED signals. The inspection blimp robot also can inspect the damage location and captures the photographic image of the damage condition. The inspection blimp robot will be able to estimate the damage condition without any process of engineers' on-site-inspection involved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the inspection blimp robot, the blimp robot is utilized to estimate the aging ceiling of a real structure. For demonstrating the feasibility or possibility of the proposed damage assessment methodology in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot, the conceptual laboratory experiment is conducted. The proposed methodology will provide valuable information for the repair and maintenance decision making of a damaged structure.

Nitta, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Masami; Onai, Toshio; Watakabe, Morimasa; Nishitani, Akira; Matsui, Chisa

2014-03-01

370

A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Huang, Y. -N.; Whittaker, A. S.; Luco, N.

2011-01-01

371

Systematic assessment of core assurance activities in a company specific food safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic environment wherein agri-food companies operate and the high requirements on food safety force companies to critically judge and improve their food safety management system (FSMS) and its performance. The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic instrument enabling a systematic assessment of a company's food safety management system. This paper discusses core assurance activities, their contribution

P. A. Luning; W. J. Marcelis; J. Rovira; M. Van der Spiegel; M. Uyttendaele; L. Jacxsens

2009-01-01

372

A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the most emerging challenges is to assess the performance of a present FSMS. The objective of

L. Jacxsens; J. Kussaga; P. A. Luning; M. Van der Spiegel; F. Devlieghere; M. Uyttendaele

2009-01-01

373

Methodological proposals for improved assessments of the impact of traffic noise upon human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Several methodological shortcomings still hinder the inclusion of transport noise as an established impact category within\\u000a life cycle assessment (LCA). Earlier attempts to quantify the health damages caused by traffic noise yielded valuable results\\u000a from an academic point of view, but these were of limited use in the context of everyday LCA practice. An enhanced understanding\\u000a of

Vicente Franco; Daniel Garraín; Rosario Vidal

2010-01-01

374

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RfD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. This paper presents

J. H. Jr. Overton; F. J. Miller

1990-01-01

375

Methodology for the Assessment of the Macroeconomic Impacts of Stricter CAFE Standards - Addendum  

EIA Publications

This assessment of the economic impacts of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standards marks the first time the Energy Information Administration has used the new direct linkage of the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) in a policy setting. This methodology assures an internally consistent solution between the energy market concepts forecast by NEMS and the aggregate economy as forecast by the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy.

Information Center

2002-03-01

376

Proposal for a risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization based on sensitization potency data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a quantitative risk assessment methodology for skin sensitization aiming at the derivation of ‘safe’ exposure levels for sensitizing chemicals, used e.g., as ingredients in consumer products. Given the limited number of sensitizers tested in human sensitization tests, such as the human repeat-insult patch test (HRIPT) or the human maximization test (HMT), we used EC3 values

Peter Griem; Carsten Goebel; Heike Scheffler

2003-01-01

377

A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems.

Taylor, E. R., Jr.; Eichler, C. H.; Barnes, P. R.

378

Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

379

No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose.

Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Madler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

2014-01-01

380

Amended final report of the safety assessment of cocamidopropylamine oxide.  

PubMed

Cocamidopropylamine Oxide is a tertiary amine oxide which functions as a hair-conditioning agent and as a surfactant, currently used in 60 cosmetic formulations at concentrations between 0.07% and 4.0%. In an earlier safety assessment, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel had determined that the available data were insufficient to support the safety of this ingredient in cosmetic products. Additional data have now been provided and reviewed. Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was determined to have an acute oral LD(50) between 500 and 1000 mg/kg day(-1) using rats. The acute dermal LD(50) in rats was > 2174 mg/kg day(-1). A 28-day repeated oral dose toxicity study in rats found hemolytic anemia at 150 and 1000 mg/kg day(- 1), with a no observed effect level (NOEL) of 15 mg/kg day(- 1). At 5%, Cocamidopropylamine Oxide solution was not a primary dermal irritant. Application of 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide to rabbit skin caused moderate irritation under Draize classification scale, but 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide in rabbit eyes caused severe irritation. A maximization study classified Cocamidopropylamine Oxide as a nonsensitizer to guinea pig skin. Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was not mutagenic in an Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. No evidence of increased chromosomal aberrations were noted in human lymphocytes treated with 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide. In a clinical study, 7.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was not a sensitizer, although it did produce some reactions typical of mild irritation. Although the impurities, amidoamine and dimethylaminopropylamine, have been implicated in contact allergy reactions to products containing cocamidopropylamine betaine, clinical testing of a product with cocamidopropylamine betaine containing these impurities, at levels comparable to those found in Cocamidopropylamine Oxide, failed to produce a reaction in 10 individuals known to be sensitive to cocamidopropylamine betaine. Two repeat-insult patch tests using a facial wash with 1% raw material containing 35% to 36.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide did not find evidence of dermal sensitization. Tests for dermal phototoxicity and photoallergenicity with the same facial wash product also did not produce evidence of effect. The CIR Expert Panel recognizes that there are data gaps regarding the use and concentration of this ingredient. However, the overall information available on types of products in which this ingredient is used and at what concentration indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety. Overall, these data demonstrate that Cocamidopropylamine Oxide has low toxicity in animal and in vitro tests. Although there are no available carcinogenicity data, the available genotoxicity data, combined with the absence of any structural alerts, suggest no carcinogenic potential. The Panel noted the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data. Because this ingredient has a highly polarized molecular structure, the Panel considered that it would be, at most, slowly absorbed. Given that most of the uses and the highest use concentration of 4% is found in rinse-off products, the Panel determined that the available data suggest that Cocamidopropylamine Oxide is safe as used in rinse-off products. Although dermal penetration may be slow, data on the extent of dermal penetration of Cocamidopropylamine Oxide are needed to support the safety of leave-on uses. If there is significant dermal absorption, dermal reproductive and developmental toxicity data may be needed. PMID:18569162

2008-01-01

381

Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.  

PubMed

The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure. In a recent study it was shown that variability in exposure measurements given a certain Stoffenmanager score is still substantial. This article discusses an extension to the tool that uses a Bayesian methodology for quantitative workplace/scenario-specific exposure assessment. This methodology allows for real exposure data observed in the company of interest to be combined with the prior estimate (based on the Stoffenmanager model). The output of the tool is a company-specific assessment of exposure levels for a scenario for which data is available. The Bayesian approach provides a transparent way of synthesizing different types of information and is especially preferred in situations where available data is sparse, as is often the case in small- and medium sized-enterprises. Real-world examples as well as simulation studies were used to assess how different parameters such as sample size, difference between prior and data, uncertainty in prior, and variance in the data affect the eventual posterior distribution of a Bayesian exposure assessment. PMID:20146134

van de Ven, Peter; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody; Rubingh, Carina; Warren, Nicholas; Tielemans, Erik

2010-04-01

382

Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

Gunn, Jill, E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.c [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada); Noble, Bram F. [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, Kirk Hall, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

2011-03-15

383

A methodology for the quantitative risk assessment of major accidents triggered by seismic events.  

PubMed

A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of accidents triggered by seismic events in industrial facilities was developed. The starting point of the procedure was the use of available historical data to assess the expected frequencies and the severity of seismic events. Available equipment-dependant failure probability models (vulnerability or fragility curves) were used to assess the damage probability of equipment items due to a seismic event. An analytic procedure was subsequently developed to identify, evaluate the credibility and finally assess the expected consequences of all the possible scenarios that may follow the seismic events. The procedure was implemented in a GIS-based software tool in order to manage the high number of event sequences that are likely to be generated in large industrial facilities. The developed methodology requires a limited amount of additional data with respect to those used in a conventional QRA, and yields with a limited effort a preliminary quantitative assessment of the contribution of the scenarios triggered by earthquakes to the individual and societal risk indexes. The application of the methodology to several case-studies evidenced that the scenarios initiated by seismic events may have a relevant influence on industrial risk, both raising the overall expected frequency of single scenarios and causing specific severe scenarios simultaneously involving several plant units. PMID:17276591

Antonioni, Giacomo; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

2007-08-17

384

Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854  

SciTech Connect

A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

1981-12-11

385

Methodology for validation of safety parameters and fault detection and isolation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a methodology for instrument data validation as well as fault detection and isolation, based on analytic redundancy, is presented. This work differs from previously reported work on analytic redundancy in that validation of all the main parameters of the plant heat transport loops is sought by using plant-wide instrument information. An LMFBR plant is used as a reference, and validation of the following plant parameters is considered: reactor power (Q), reactor inlet (T/sub IC/) and reactor outlet (T/sub OC/) coolant temperatures, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) inlet (T/sub IS/) and outlet (T/sub OS/) secondary coolant temperatures, steam generator feedwater temperature (T/sub w/), steam temperature (T/sub s/) and pressure (P/sub s/), as well as primary (G/sub p/), intermediate (G/sub I/), and feedwater (G/sub w/) flow. In this paper, only validation at steady state conditions will be discussed.

Tzanos, C.P.

1984-01-01

386

Safety and Offshore Oil: Background Papers of the Committee on Assessment of Safety of OCS Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: A Public Perspective of Ensuring the Adequacy of OCS Safety, An Industry Perspective on the Regulation of Oil and Gas Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf, The International Regime for Offshore Safety, Insurance in the Offshore Oil Industry...

1981-01-01

387

Safety and Health Program Assessment in Relation to the Number and Type of Safety and Health Violations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ohio Bureau of Employment Services (OBES), through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration On-Site Consultation Program, provides safety and health (S&H) consultation services to small high-hazard companies. During a full-service consultation, the S&H Program Assessment Worksheet (Form 33) is completed and the S&H violations are determined. Form 33 consists of 25 indicators, each with a score of 0 (lowest)

Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh; Owen D. Wagner

2001-01-01

388

Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening  

PubMed Central

Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening.

2012-01-01

389

Fire safety assessment in oil depot based on Comprehensive Grey Relational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several serious fire and explosion accidents occurred in Chinese oil depots in recent years, thus an increasing number of people pay attention to its security work. Fire safety assessment acting as a measurement to the security of an oil depot becomes more and more important to the modern management. This paper describes several methods of fire safety assessment at home

Xiaogang Zhao; Yi Zhou; Jianyu Zhao

2011-01-01

390

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

391

A Quantitative Assessment of Organizational Factors Affecting Safety using a System Dynamics Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a system dynamics model for the assessment of the organizational and human factors in a nuclear power plant which contribute to nuclear safety. Previous studies can be classified into two major approaches. One is the engineering approach using tools such as ergonomics and Probability Safety Assessment (PSA). The other is the socio

Moosung Jae; Jaekook Yu; Namsung Ahn

392

Review of R&D activities in Level1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment and aging studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the research and development activities in Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and aging studies . Earlier, PSA models have been successfully employed during design evaluation in order to assess weak links and carry out design modifications to improve system reliability and safety. Now,studies are directed towards applying PSA in various decision making issues concerned with plant

V. V. S. S. Rao; V. Gopika; P. K. Ramteke; M. H. Prasad; Santhosh; K. K. Vaze; A. K. Ghosh

2010-01-01

393

The uses and benefits of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has proven to be an important tool in the safety assessment of nuclear reactors throughout the world. Decision making with regard to many safety issues has been facilitated by both general insights from and direct application of this technology. Key uses of PRA are discussed and some examples of successful applications are cited. The benefits and

R. A. Bari; T. P. Speis

1989-01-01

394

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

2010-03-01

395

An Assessment Methodology to Evaluate In-Flight Engine Health Management Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

flight effectiveness of candidate engine health management system concepts. A next generation engine health management system will be required to be both reliable and robust in terms of anomaly detection capability. The system must be able to operate successfully in the hostile, high-stress engine system environment. This implies that its system components, such as the instrumentation, process and control, and vehicle interface and support subsystems, must be highly reliable. Additionally, the system must be able to address a vast range of possible engine operation anomalies through a host of different types of measurements supported by a fast algorithm/architecture processing capability that can identify "true" (real) engine operation anomalies. False anomaly condition reports for such a system must be essentially eliminated. The accuracy of identifying only real anomaly conditions has been an issue with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in the past. Much improvement in many of the technologies to address these areas is required. The objectives of this study were to identify and demonstrate a consistent assessment methodology that can evaluate the capability of next generation engine health management system concepts to respond in a correct, timely manner to alleviate an operational engine anomaly condition during flight. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), with support from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, identified a probabilistic modeling approach to assess engine health management system concept effectiveness using a deterministic anomaly-time event assessment modeling approach that can be applied in the engine preliminary design stage of development to assess engine health management system concept effectiveness. Much discussion in this paper focuses on the formulation and application approach in performing this assessment. This includes detailed discussion of key modeling assumptions, the overall assessment methodology approach identified, and the identification of key supporting engine health management system concept design/operation and fault mode information required to utilize this methodology. At the paper's conclusion, discussion focuses on a demonstration benchmark study that applied this methodology to the current SSME health management system. A summary of study results and lessons learned are provided. Recommendations for future work in this area are also identified at the conclusion of the paper. * Please direct all correspondence/communication pertaining to this paper to Dennis G. Pelaccio, Science

Maggio, Gaspare; Belyeu, Rebecca; Pelaccio, Dennis G.

2002-01-01

396

RIVER BASIN VALIDATION OF THE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SCREENING NONDESIGNATED 208 AREAS. VOLUME II: CHESAPEAKE-SANDUSKY NONDESIGNATED 208 SCREENING METHODOLOGY DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In earlier work under the sponsorship of EPA, a screening methodology was produced by Tetra Tech, Inc., for assessing water quality problems in areas not covered under Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and loading functions were developed ...

397

Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, phase I: System design and test methodology  

SciTech Connect

A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALNWS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBNW) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALNWS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

1995-02-01

398

Medication Safety of Five Oral Chemotherapies: A Proactive Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Oral chemotherapies represent an emerging risk area in ambulatory oncology practice. To examine the hazards associated with five oral chemotherapies, we performed a proactive risk assessment. Methods: We convened interdisciplinary teams and conducted failure mode and effects analyses (FMEAs) for five oral chemotherapy agents: capecitabine, imatinib, temozolomide, 6-mercaptopurine, and an investigational agent. This involved the creation of process maps for each medication, identification of failure modes, selection of high-risk failure modes, and development of recommendations to mitigate these risks. We analyzed the number of steps and types of failure modes and compared this information across the study drugs. Results: Key vulnerabilities include patient education about drug handling and adverse effects, prescription writing, patient self-administration and medication adherence, and failure to monitor and manage toxicities. Many of these failure modes were common across the five oral chemotherapies, suggesting the presence of common targets for improvement. Streamlining the FMEA itself may promote the dissemination of this method. Conclusion: Each stage of the medication process poses risks to the safe use of oral chemotherapies. FMEAs may identify opportunities to improve medication safety and reduce the risk of patient harm.

Weingart, Saul N.; Spencer, Justin; Buia, Stephanie; Duncombe, Deborah; Singh, Prabhjyot; Gadkari, Mrinalini; Connor, Maureen

2011-01-01

399

Effectiveness and safety assessment of Mist Tonica, a herbal haematinic.  

PubMed

Anaemia is a widespread public health problem, and in Ghana it is the fourth leading cause of hospital admissions and the second factor contributing to death. Mist Tonica, an herbal haematinic produced by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Ghana, was assessed for its effectiveness and safety in humans after Ethics Committee approval. Clinically established anaemic-patients aged, 13 years and above, with haemoglobin levels less than 11.5 g/dl and 13.5 g/dl for females and males respectively were treated with Mist Tonica, 8.96 g/40 mls three times daily for two weeks. The mean haemoglobin rise per week caused by Mist Tonica was 1.92 (0.76) g/dl, range (1.66-2.55) g/dl/week and over 88% of the patients on Mist Tonica had their appetite for food improved. Haematological profile, liver and kidney functions were not adversely affected by Mist Tonica. Results of the study suggest that Mist Tonica is an effective and safe herbal haematinic. PMID:20161926

Adusi-Poku, Yaw; Sittie, Archibald; Mensah, Merlin L K; Sarpong, Kwame; Fleischer, Theophilus C; Ankrah, Theophilus C; Nsiah, Dominic

2008-01-01

400

Safety assessment of the MARS tandem mirror reactor  

SciTech Connect

The safety of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) tandem mirror reactor is assessed. Only prompt consequences to the public at the plant boundary, which is taken to be 1000m, are considered. The major radioactive inventories in MARS reside in the first-wall/blanket structure, coolant, and tritium. The greatest radioactivity resides in the HT-9 first-wall/ blanket structure. The only accident scenario identified that could lead to a first-wall meltdown was a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) accompanied by the inability to shut off the plasma. However, since only oxides of molybdenum are expected to be volatized from the hot HT-9 structure, the public consequences are found to be low. A LOCA can result in large doses if the activity in the activated corrosion products and LiPb coolant can be transported outside the reactor containment building. However, most of the LiPb would be expected to solidify, and any aerosols that are produced will likely plate out on surfaces or settle. Various tritium accident scenarios were considered. Release of all the tritium in the reactor building (51 g) leads to a dose of 21 rem. A much more likely accident involves partial leakage due to some reactor containment damage.

Guroi, H.; Dabiri, A.E.

1984-11-01

401

U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

Zhu, Zhiliang; Stackpoole, S. M.

2009-01-01

402

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2013-06-01

403

A multi-level assessment methodology for determining the potential for groundwater contamination by pesticides.  

PubMed

A multi-level pesticide assessment methodology has been developed to permit regulatory personnel to undertake a variety of assessments on the potential for pesticide used in agricultural areas to contaminate the groundwater regime at an increasingly detailed geographical scale of investigation. A multi-level approach accounts for a variety of assessment objectives and detail required in the assessment, the restrictions on the availability and accuracy of data, the time available to undertake the assessment, and the expertise of the decision maker. The level 1: regional scale is designed to prioritize districts having a potentially high risk for groundwater contamination from the application of a specific pesticide for a particular crop. The level 2: local scale is used to identify critical areas for groundwater contamination, at a soil polygon scale, within a district. A level 3: soil profile scale allows the user to evaluate specific factors influencing pesticide leaching and persistence, and to determine the extent and timing of leaching, through the simulation of the migration of a pesticide within a soil profile. Because of the scale of investigation, limited amount of data required, and qualitative nature of the assessment results, the level 1 and level 2 assessment are designed primarily for quick and broad guidance related to management practices. A level 3 assessment is more complex, requires considerably more data and expertise on the part of the user, and hence is designed to verify the potential for contamination identified during the level 1 or 2 assessment. The system combines environmental modelling, geographical information systems, extensive databases, data management systems, expert systems, and pesticide assessment models, to form an environmental information system for assessing the potential for pesticides to contaminate groundwater. PMID:24202345

Crowe, A S; Booty, W G

1995-05-01

404

Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

2013-09-01

405

A new methodology for deterministic landslide risk assessment at the local scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper discusses the formulation of a methodology that is being developed for regional landslide risk assessment within geologically complex areas and some preliminary results of its application at the intermediate scale (i.e. between the regional and the slope scale). In particular, the methodology is the subject of an on-going multidisciplinary research project, which aims at the assessment of the landslide hazard, of the corresponding vulnerability of structures and of their exposition, involving different expertises. As such, both the landslide hazard and the structure vulnerability assessments are meant to be based upon the knowledge of the failure mechanisms and to benefit from scientific knowledge in the fields of both geotechnical engineering and structural mechanics. At the same time, the exposure of the elements at risk is to be investigated according to analyses of the socio-economical context where the risk is being evaluated. In the present paper only the work relating to landslide hazard is presented. This work aims at the further development of Quantitative Landslide Hazard Assessment, QHA, following a deterministic approach. As such, it is aimed at exporting the geo-mechanical interpretation of slope stability and landslide mechanisms from the slope scale (site-specific) to the regional scale. The results of such a methodology will be implemented in a GIS system and reported in guidelines. As concerns the landslide hazard assessment, the proposed methodology involves two interconnected working phases, the first one at regional scale and the second one at town scale. During the first phase, an analytical database of all the factors affecting the slope equilibrium is created and a geo-hydro-mechanical classification of the soil masses is defined together with the definition of the main landslide typologies present in the region. Thereafter, the connections existing among the sets of internal factors of landslides, which characterise the geo-hydro-mechanical classes, the external factors and the landslide typologies are recognised and formulated. These connections may be recognized as result of phenomenological studies, limit equilibrium analyses of the slopes, in-situ monitoring and numerical modelling of the landslide processes. The application of the procedure to the hazard assessment within a given portion of the region represents the second phase of the methodology. The research work is developed with reference to a test-site area, the Daunia region, located at the eastern margin of the southern Apennines, which is a portion of the chain belt along the subduction zone between the African and the Euro-Asiatic plates, where slopes are made up of tectonised and fissured soils and rocks. Here, frequent and intense landsliding involve the slopes extensively and repeatedly, restraining urban development. The research is currently investigating the applicability of the deterministic methodology to the landslide hazard assessment of the urban territories in the region.

Cotecchia, F.; Santaloia, F.; Lollino, P.; Vitone, C.; Mitaritonna, G.; Parise, M.

2009-04-01

406

Application of a Comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis Method on the Safety Assessment of TRU Waste Disposal in Japan  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive sensitivity analysis method has been developed with the aim of providing quantitative information in an efficient manner. This methodology is composed of the following two components: (1) a statistical method with random sampling of independent parameters, which identifies important parameters and extracts threshold values of parameters and/or combinations yielding a 'successful condition' where maximum dose does not exceed a target value, (2) A nuclide migration model that as far as possible incorporates a comprehensive set of phenomena occurring within the repository. This approach was applied as part of a safety assessment of the geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in Japan (TRU-2). It was shown that the concept of TRU waste disposal is robust from the point of view of safety. (authors)

Takao Ohi; Manabu Inagaki; Tomoyuki Sone; Morihiro Mihara; Takeshi Ebashi [JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Hiroyasu Takase [Quintessa K. K, Queen's Tower A 7-707, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawaken, 220-6007 (Japan); Kiyoshi Oyamada [JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa-ken, 220-6001 (Japan); Kunihiko Nakajima [NESI Inc., 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1112 (Japan)

2007-07-01

407

Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

Gautier, D. L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F. G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K. J.; Charpentier, R. R.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Klett, T. R.; Schenk, C. J.; Tennyson, M. E.

2011-01-01

408

Assessing Factors of Safety, Margins of Safety, and Reliability of Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides formally derived definitions for Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) factors of safety and margins of safety borrowing from machine design approaches. The new factors of safety and margins of safety definitions are quite simple and easy to use, and should provide improved comparison of design safety and margins of past, present and future vehicles, These definitions are then applied to several entry vehicles, including Apollo, the Space Shuttle, the Mars Viking and Pathfinder vehicles, and the Pioneer Venus entry vehicle for example and clarity, and to aid in developing a database of previous TPS design experience. In addition to the factors and margins of safety, definitions of computed reliabilities incorporation the reliability index used in machine design are also developed and presented. Adoption and use of the reliability index will hopefully considerably aid the optimization of TPS design for future vehicles.

Rasky, Daniel J.; Arnold, Jim O. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

409

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

410

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

PubMed Central

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.

Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

2011-01-01

411

Landscape modeling for dose calculations in the safety assessment of a repository for spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,(SKB), pursues site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at two sites in the south eastern part of Sweden, the Forsmark- and the Laxemar site. Data from the two site investigations are used to build site descriptive models of the areas. These models describe the bedrock and surface system properties important for designing the repository, the environmental impact assessment, and the long-term safety, i.e. up to 100,000 years, in a safety assessment. In this paper we discuss the methodology, and the interim results for, the landscape model, used in the safety assessment to populate the Forsmark site in the numerical dose models. The landscape model is built upon ecosystem types, e.g. a lake or a mire, (Biosphere Objects) that are connected in the landscape via surface hydrology. Each of the objects have a unique set of properties derived from the site description. The objects are identified by flow transport modeling, giving discharge points at the surface for all possible flow paths from the hypothetical repository in the bedrock. The landscape development is followed through time by using long-term processes e.g. shoreline displacement and sedimentation. The final landscape model consists of a number of maps for each chosen time period and a table of properties that describe the individual objects which constitutes the landscape. The results show a landscape that change over time during 20,000 years. The time period used in the model equals the present interglacial and can be used as an analogue for a future interglacial. Historically, the model area was covered by sea, and then gradually changes into a coastal area and, in the future, into a terrestrial inland landscape. Different ecosystem types are present during the landscape development, e.g. sea, lakes, agricultural areas, forest and wetlands (mire). The biosphere objects may switch from one ecosystem type to another during the modeled time period, from sea to lake, and from lake to mire and finally, some objects are transformed into agricultural area due to favorable farming characteristics. (authors)

Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), PO Box 5864, 102 40 Stockholm (Sweden); Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)

2007-07-01

412

Application of an integrated methodology for eutrophication assessment: a case study in the Bohai Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated methodology for eutrophication assessment, which integrates both water quality indicators (causative factors) and ecological response indicators (effect factors), is described. It is then applied to rank the eutrophication status of the years 2007 and 2008 in the southwest Bohai Sea. The assessment model identified that north Bohai Bay and west Laizhou Bay were the two areas with the most serious eutrophication problems in the southwest Bohai Sea. In addition, compared to that in the west Laizhou Bay, the eutrophication conditions in the north Bohai Bay was more serious in both years. Eutrophication problems such as harmful algal blooms (HABs) and low dissolved oxygen (DO) events in north Bohai Bay were frequent. The integrated method outmatched the currently used Chinese nutrient index method by definitely identifying areas with the most serious eutrophication problems, while the nutrient index method gave ambiguous results between the two years. Inclusion of both causative factors and effect factors, combining concentration, spatial coverage and frequency of indicators, as well as use of multi-season monitoring datasets in the methodology result in a more accurate, representative and useful assessment.

Wu, Zaixing; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Yuan, Yongquan; Cao, Xihua; Liang, Yubo

2013-09-01

413

Execution of a self-directed risk assessment methodology to address HIPAA data security requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the method and training of a self directed risk assessment methodology entitled OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat Asset and Vulnerability Evaluation) at over 170 DOD medical treatment facilities. It focuses specifically on how OCTAVE built interdisciplinary, inter-hierarchical consensus and enhanced local capabilities to perform Health Information Assurance. The Risk Assessment Methodology was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University as part of the Defense Health Information Assurance Program (DHIAP). The basis for its success is the combination of analysis of organizational practices and technological vulnerabilities. Together, these areas address the core implications behind the HIPAA Security Rule and can be used to develop Organizational Protection Strategies and Technological Mitigation Plans. A key component of OCTAVE is the inter-disciplinary composition of the analysis team (Patient Administration, IT staff and Clinician). It is this unique composition of analysis team members, along with organizational and technical analysis of business practices, assets and threats, which enables facilities to create sound and effective security policies. The Risk Assessment is conducted in-house, and therefore the process, results and knowledge remain within the organization, helping to build consensus in an environment of differing organizational and disciplinary perspectives on Health Information Assurance.

Coleman, Johnathan

2003-05-01

414

Assessing the safety of influenza immunization during pregnancy: the Vaccine Safety Datalink.  

PubMed

The influenza vaccine can reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and thus is recommended for all pregnant women. However, concerns regarding safety of influenza vaccine remain a barrier to vaccination. We describe ongoing analyses of influenza vaccine safety during pregnancy within the Vaccine Safety Datalink that includes the evaluation of acute events, adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, and congenital anomalies. In addition, we highlight unique challenges and strategies for the study of vaccine safety among pregnant women with the use of large linked databases. PMID:22920059

Kharbanda, Elyse O; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Shi, Wei X; Lipkind, Heather; Naleway, Allison; Molitor, Beth; Kuckler, Leslie; Olsen, Avalow; Nordin, James D

2012-09-01

415

A New Methodology for Assessing Social Work Practice: The Adaptation of the Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (SW-OSCE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) methodology was originally developed to assess medical students. OSCE is a carefully scripted, standardized, simulated interview, in which students’ interactional skills are observed and assessed. Here it is examined for its potential use in assessing social work practice skills. The development of the Social Work OSCE (SW-OSCE) and the Clinical Competence-based Behavioural Checklist (CCBC)

Yuhwa Eva Lu; Eileen Ain; Charissa Chamorro; Chiung-Yun Chang; Joyce Yen Feng; Rowena Fong; Betty Garcia; Robert Leibson Hawkins; Muriel Yu

2011-01-01

416

Stream Transport and Agricultural Runoff of Pesticides for Exposure Assessment: A Methodology. Part B. Appendices G through K.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To predict the potential environmental or human health risk posed by agricultural pesticides, exposure assessments require the estimation of chemical concentrations in field runoff and in associated streams. In the report, a methodology is described for e...

A. S. Donigian D. W. Meier P. P. Jowise

1986-01-01

417

Stream Transport and Agricultural Runoff of Pesticides for Exposure Assessment: A Methodology. Part A. Text and Appendices A through F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To predict the potential environmental or human health risk posed by agricultural pesticides, exposure assessments require the estimation of chemical concentrations in field runoff and in associated streams. In the report, a methodology is described for e...

A. S. Donigian D. W. Meier P. P. Jowise

1986-01-01

418

A brief review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies in sport.  

PubMed

An athletic profile should encompass the physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric and performance measures pertinent to the athlete's sport and discipline. The measurement systems and procedures used to create these profiles are constantly evolving and becoming more precise and practical. This is a review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies used in sport, a critique of current maximum strength [one-repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric strength] and ballistic performance (bench throw and jump capabilities) assessments for the purpose of informing practitioners and evolving current assessment methodologies. The reliability of the various maximum strength and ballistic assessment methodologies were reported in the form of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (%CV). Mean percent differences (Mdiff = [/Xmethod1 - Xmethod2/ / (Xmethod1 + Xmethod2)] x 100) and effect size (ES = [Xmethod2 - Xmethod1] ÷ SDmethod1) calculations were used to assess the magnitude and spread of methodological differences for a given performance measure of the included studies. Studies were grouped and compared according to their respective performance measure and movement pattern. The various measurement systems (e.g., force plates, position transducers, accelerometers, jump mats, optical motion sensors and jump-and-reach apparatuses) and assessment procedures (i.e., warm-up strategies, loading schemes and rest periods) currently used to assess maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull strength (ICC > 0.95; CV < 2.0%), 1RM bench press, back squat and clean strength (ICC > 0.91; CV < 4.3%), and ballistic (vertical jump and bench throw) capabilities (ICC > 0.82; CV < 6.5%) were deemed highly reliable. The measurement systems and assessment procedures employed to assess maximum isometric strength [M(Diff) = 2-71%; effect size (ES) = 0.13-4.37], 1RM strength (M(Diff) = 1-58%; ES = 0.01-5.43), vertical jump capabilities (M(Diff) = 2-57%; ES = 0.02-4.67) and bench throw capabilities (M(Diff) = 7-27%; ES = 0.49-2.77) varied greatly, producing trivial to very large effects on these respective measures. Recreational to highly trained athletes produced maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull forces of 1,000-4,000 N; and 1RM bench press, back squat and power clean values of 80-180 kg, 100-260 kg and 70-140 kg, respectively. Mean and peak power production across the various loads (body mass to 60% 1RM) were between 300 and 1,500 W during the bench throw and between 1,500 and 9,000 W during the vertical jump. The large variations in maximum strength and power can be attributed to the wide range in physical characteristics between different sports and athletic disciplines, training and chronological age as well as the different measurement systems of the included studies. The reliability and validity outcomes suggest that a number of measurement systems and testing procedures can be implemented to accurately assess maximum strength and ballistic performance in recreational and elite athletes, alike. However, the reader needs to be cognisant of the inherent differences between measurement systems, as selection will inevitably affect the outcome measure. The strength and conditioning practitioner should also carefully consider the benefits and limitations of the different measurement systems, testing apparatuses, attachment sites, movement patterns (e.g., direction of movement, contraction type, depth), loading parameters (e.g., no load, single load, absolute load, relative load, incremental loading), warm-up strategies, inter-trial rest periods, dependent variables of interest (i.e., mean, peak and rate dependent variables) and data collection and processing techniques (i.e., sampling frequency, filtering and smoothing options). PMID:24497158

McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

2014-05-01

419

The use of environmental risk assessment methodologies for an indoor air quality investigation.  

PubMed

The authors of this paper chose several target compounds that have been found in average US homes, applied the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund risk assessment methodologies to indoor air quality, and produced risk numbers for hazard quotients and predicted increases in incidence of cancer which would be unacceptable at US hazardous waste sites. The calculations were made for the average child and adult with USEPA default exposure values. Calculations were also made for a worst case scenario using maximum concentrations and exposure estimates defined by the USEPA as describing the reasonable exposure (RME). Significant cancer risks and non-cancer hazard quotients were predicted. PMID:10819182

Hoddinott, K B; Lee, A P

2000-07-01

420

Security Assessments of Safety Critical Systems Using HAZOPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerned with serious problems regarding security as a safety issue, a HAZOP specifically suited for identifying security threats has been developed. Unfortunately, the emphasis placed on security is- sues when developing safety critical systems is to often inadequate, pos- sibly due to the lack of \\

Rune Winther; Ole-arnt Johnsen; Bjørn Axel Gran

2001-01-01

421

Assessment of safety culture at a nuclear reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a detailed survey of attitudes towards safety at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels in Cumbria. Focus groups were held to elicit safety-relevant beliefs, attitudes and values, and the material was incorporated into a 172-item questionnaire administered as part of the monthly team briefings, and preceded by an explanatory video. Data were collected in this survey

Terence Lee

1998-01-01

422

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

2011-02-03

423

A methodology to assess design uncertainty in selecting affordable gas turbine technology  

SciTech Connect

A design consideration that typically has not been addressed in propulsion technology advancements is a systematic accounting of risk and uncertainty. Although this probabilistic concept of design was suggested by Timson 25 years ago, no widespread evidence of usage has been noted to date. Failure to account for uncertainty can result in significant shortcomings in performance when the engine is initially tested. Assessment of risk should consider typical performance issues such as specific fuel consumption (sfc) but also account for cost and weight. Addressing uncertainty will require a culture change for most propulsion component designers and technologists, who typically address component performance improvement as a discrete value or level, rather than a distribution of possible performance outcomes. A methodology is discussed that allows quantification of uncertainty in the gas turbine design and analysis process. The methodology can be employed to rank order the cost effectiveness of advanced component technologies or alternatively can be used to determine probable performance (sfc and thrust) of engines that have component performance uncertainties. Execution of the methodology requires a desktop computer and commercially available software.

Younghans, J.L.; Johnson, J.E.; Csonka, S.J. [General Electric Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States). General Electric Aircraft Engines

1995-10-01

424

A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems  

PubMed Central

Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations.

Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

2013-01-01

425

Extended time-to-collision measures for road traffic safety assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes two new safety indicators based on the time-to-collision notion suitable for comparative road traffic safety analyses. Such safety indicators can be applied in the comparison of a do-nothing case with an adapted situation, e.g. the introduction of intelligent driver support systems. In contrast to the classical time-to-collision value, measured at a cross section, the improved safety indicators use vehicle trajectories collected over a specific time horizon for a certain roadway segment to calculate the overall safety indicator value. Vehicle-specific indicator values as well as safety-critical probabilities can easily be determined from the developed safety measures. Application of the derived safety indicators is demonstrated for the assessment of the potential safety impacts of driver support systems from which it appears that some Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) designs are more safety-critical than the reference case without these systems. It is suggested that the indicator threshold value to be applied in the safety assessment has to be adapted when advanced AICC-systems with safe characteristics are introduced. PMID:11189125

Minderhoud, M M; Bovy, P H

2001-01-01

426

Assessment of Safety Culture in Isfahan Hospitals (2010)  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Many internal and external risk factors in health care organizations make safety important and it has caused the management to consider safety in their mission statement. One of the most important tools is to establish the appropriate organizational structure and safety culture. The goal: The goal of this research is to inform managers and staff about current safety culture status in hospitals in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health services. Methods: This is a descriptive-survey research. The research population was selected hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Research tool was a questionnaire (Cronbach alpha 0.75). The questionnaire including 93 questions (Likert scale) classified in 12 categories: Demographic questions, Individual attitude, management attitude, Safety Training, Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, Consultation and participation, Communications, Monitoring and control, work environment, Reporting, safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that distributed among 45 technicians, 208 Nurses and 62 Physicians. All data collected from the serve was analysis with statistical package of social science (SPSS). In this survey Friedman test, Spearman correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis have been used for data analyzing. Results: The score of safety culture dimensions was 2.90 for Individual attitude, 3.12 for management attitude, 3.32 for Safety Training, 3.14 for Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, 3.31 for Consultation and participation, 2.93 for Communications, 3.28 for Monitoring and control, 3.19 for work environment, 3.36 for Reporting, 3.59 safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that Communication and individual attitude were in bad condition. Safety culture among different hospitals: governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental and different functional groups (physicians, nurses, diagnostic) of studied hospitals showed no significant differences. There was no relationship between safety culture and demographic data. Conclusion: It was concluded that is no different among governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental in level of safety culture, all of them were on intermediate level so it is essential to attention to the safety culture in hospitals and planning to improve it.

Raeisi, Ahmed Reza; Nazari, Maryam; Bahmanziari, Najme

2013-01-01

427

A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover, population density, economic activities) of several case studies in order to develop risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk at the regional scale. The main outputs of the RRA are receptor-based maps of risks useful to communicate the potential implications of floods in non-monetary terms to stakeholders and administrations. These maps can be a basis for the management of flood risks as they can provide information about the indicative number of inhabitants, the type of economic activities, natural systems and cultural heritages potentially affected by flooding. Moreover, they can provide suitable information about flood risk in the considered area in order to define priorities for prevention measures, for land use planning and management. Finally, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used as data input in the Socio- Economic Regional Risk Assessment methodology for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity). Within the KULTURisk project, the methodology has been applied and validated in several European case studies. Moreover, its generalization to address other types of natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, forest fires) will be evaluated. The preliminary results of the RRA application in the KULTURisk project will be here presented and discussed.

Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

2013-04-01

428

An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

1992-01-01

429

An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

1992-01-01

430

Plant functional modelling as a basis for assessing the impact of management on plant safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of the present work is to provide means for representing a chemical process plant as a socio-technical system, so as to allow hazard identification at a high level in order to identify major targets for safety development. The main phases of the methodology are: (1) preparation of a plant functional model where a set of plant functions

Birgitte Rasmussen; Kurt E Petersen

1999-01-01

431

Assessment of a stochastic downscaling methodology in generating an ensemble of hourly future climate time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study extends a stochastic downscaling methodology to generation of an ensemble of hourly time series of meteorological variables that express possible future climate conditions at a point-scale. The stochastic downscaling uses general circulation model (GCM) realizations and an hourly weather generator, the Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN). Marginal distributions of factors of change are computed for several climate statistics using a Bayesian methodology that can weight GCM realizations based on the model relative performance with respect to a historical climate and a degree of disagreement in projecting future conditions. A Monte Carlo technique is used to sample the factors of change from their respective marginal distributions. As a comparison with traditional approaches, factors of change are also estimated by averaging GCM realizations. With either approach, the derived factors of change are applied to the climate statistics inferred from historical observations to re-evaluate parameters of the weather generator. The re-parameterized generator yields hourly time series of meteorological variables that can be considered to be representative of future climate conditions. In this study, the time series are generated in an ensemble mode to fully reflect the uncertainty of GCM projections, climate stochasticity, as well as uncertainties of the downscaling procedure. Applications of the methodology in reproducing future climate conditions for the periods of 2000-2009, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100, using the period of 1962-1992 as the historical baseline are discussed for the location of Firenze (Italy). The inferences of the methodology for the period of 2000-2009 are tested against observations to assess reliability of the stochastic downscaling procedure in reproducing statistics of meteorological variables at different time scales.

Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Caporali, E.

2013-04-01

432

A Probabilistic-Micro-mechanical Methodology for Assessing Zirconium Alloy Cladding Failure  

SciTech Connect

Cladding failure of fuel rods caused by hydride-induced embrittlement is a reliability concern for spent nuclear fuel after extended burnup. Uncertainties in the cladding temperature, cladding stress, oxide layer thickness, and the critical stress value for hydride reorientation preclude an assessment of the cladding failure risk. A set of micro-mechanical models for treating oxide cracking, blister cracking, delayed hydride cracking, and cladding fracture was developed and incorporated in a computer model. Results obtained from the preliminary model calculations indicate that at temperatures below a critical temperature of 318.5 deg. C [605.3 deg. F], the time to failure by delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5%Nb decreased with increasing cladding temperature. The overall goal of this project is to develop a probabilistic-micro-mechanical methodology for assessing the probability of hydride-induced failure in Zircaloy cladding and thereby establish performance criteria. (authors)

Pan, Y.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States); Chan, K.S.; Riha, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States)

2007-07-01

433

Wildlife Strike Risk Assessment in Several Italian Airports: Lessons from BRI and a New Methodology Implementation  

PubMed Central

The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

2011-01-01

434

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

1980-01-01

435

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This revision responds to RL comments and increases the discussion of the ``effective hazard categorization`` and the readiness review basis. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-10-10

436

Ex-ante assessment of the safety effects of intelligent transport systems.  

PubMed

There is a need to develop a comprehensive framework for the safety assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). This framework should: (1) cover all three dimensions of road safety-exposure, crash risk and consequence, (2) cover, in addition to the engineering effect, also the effects due to behavioural adaptation and (3) be compatible with the other aspects of state of the art road safety theories. A framework based on nine ITS safety mechanisms is proposed and discussed with regard to the requirements set to the framework. In order to illustrate the application of the framework in practice, the paper presents a method based on the framework and the results from applying that method for twelve intelligent vehicle systems in Europe. The framework is also compared to two recent frameworks applied in the safety assessment of intelligent vehicle safety systems. PMID:20441853

Kulmala, Risto

2010-07-01

437

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

438

Multi-criteria decision assessments using Subjective Logic: Methodology and the case of urban water strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPlanning of regional and urban water resources, and in particular with Integrated Urban Water Management approaches, often considers inter-relationships between human uses of water, the health of the natural environment as well as the cost of various management strategies. Decision makers hence typically need to consider a combination of social, environmental and economic goals. The types of strategies employed can include water efficiency measures, water sensitive urban design, stormwater management, or catchment management. Therefore, decision makers need to choose between different scenarios and to evaluate them against a number of criteria. This type of problem has a discipline devoted to it, i.e. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, which has often been applied in water management contexts. This paper describes the application of Subjective Logic in a basic Bayesian Network to a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis problem. By doing this, it outlines a novel methodology that explicitly incorporates uncertainty and information reliability. The application of the methodology to a known case study context allows for exploration. By making uncertainty and reliability of assessments explicit, it allows for assessing risks of various options, and this may help in alleviating cognitive biases and move towards a well formulated risk management policy.

Moglia, Magnus; Sharma, Ashok K.; Maheepala, Shiroma

2012-07-01

439

49 CFR Appendix F to Part 236 - Minimum Requirements of FRA Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Directed Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation...Independent Third-Party Assessment of PTC System Safety Verification and Validation...independent third-party assessment of PTC system safety verification and...

2010-10-01

440

Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. As the lead Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for thi