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1

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightnin...

C. G. Brown E. W. Crull M. M. Ong M. P. Perkins R. D. Streit

2009-01-01

2

A methodology to assess pedestrian crossing safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The safety level of a pedestrian crossing is affected by infrastructure characteristics and vehicular and pedestrian traffic\\u000a level. This paper presents a methodology that allows assessing the safety level of a pedestrian crossing, regulated or not\\u000a by traffic light, in an urban area according to the features of the crossing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A hierarchical structure representing factors influencing crossing safety has been

Olga Basile; Luca Persia; Davide Shingo Usami

2010-01-01

3

A qualitative assessment methodology for road safety policy strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a qualitative assessment methodology that is comprised of a cluster analysis and an autoregression analysis that assess the effects of various road safety strategies implemented in Hong Kong over the last 10 years. The cluster analysis is first used to group over a hundred road safety projects and programs into a smaller set of meaningful road safety

S. C Wong; B. S. Y Leung; Becky P. Y Loo; W. T Hung; Hong K Lo

2004-01-01

4

System safety assessments combining first principles and model based safety assessment methodologies  

SciTech Connect

In performing assessments of low probability, high consequence systems, it is often preferable to use more than one methodology in order to assure that such systems undergo a thorough assessment. Hence, employing two methodologies in a complementary manner allows the analyst to bring the strongest features of each approach to bear upon the problem. The results of one methodology can be used to crosscheck or better characterize the results of another methodology, with the results being synergized in providing a comprehensive assessment of the system. This paper will briefly describe both the first principles and model based safety assessment methodologies, and will illustrate how both methods are used in a complementary manner in order to perform overall safety assessments of low probability, high consequence engineered systems at Sandia National Laboratories.

Dvorack, M.A.; Jones, T.R.; Carlson, D.D.; Wolcott, J.F.; Sanders, G.A.

1998-01-01

5

Safety assessment methodology in management of spent sealed sources.  

PubMed

Environmental hazards can be caused from radioactive waste after their disposal. It was therefore important that safety assessment methodologies be developed and established to study and estimate the possible hazards, and institute certain safety methodologies that lead and prevent the evolution of these hazards. Spent sealed sources are specific type of radioactive waste. According to IAEA definition, spent sealed sources are unused sources because of activity decay, damage, misuse, loss, or theft. Accidental exposure of humans from spent sealed sources can occur at the moment they become spent and before their disposal. Because of that reason, safety assessment methodologies were tailored to suit the management of spent sealed sources. To provide understanding and confidence of this study, validation analysis was undertaken by considering the scenario of an accident that occurred in Egypt, June 2000 (the Meet-Halfa accident from an iridium-192 source). The text of this work includes consideration related to the safety assessment approaches of spent sealed sources which constitutes assessment context, processes leading an active source to be spent, accident scenarios, mathematical models for dose calculations, and radiological consequences and regulatory criteria. The text also includes a validation study, which was carried out by evaluating a theoretical scenario compared to the real scenario of Meet-Halfa accident depending on the clinical assessment of affected individuals. PMID:15721523

Mahmoud, Narmine Salah

2005-02-14

6

Drug safety assessment in clinical trials: methodological challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Randomized controlled trials are the principal means of establishing the efficacy of drugs. However pre-marketing trials are limited in size and duration and exclude high-risk populations. They have limited statistical power to detect rare but potentially serious adverse events in real-world patients. We summarize the principal methodological challenges in the reporting, analysis and interpretation of safety data in clinical trials using recent examples from systematic reviews. These challenges include the lack of an evidentiary gold standard, the limited statistical power of randomized controlled trials and resulting type 2 error, the lack of adequate ascertainment of adverse events and limited generalizability of trials that exclude high risk patients. We discuss potential solutions to these challenges. Evaluation of drug safety requires careful examination of data from heterogeneous sources. Meta-analyses of drug safety should include appropriate statistical methods and assess the optimal information size to avoid type 2 errors. They should evaluate outcome reporting biases and missing data to ensure reliable and accurate interpretation of findings. Regulatory and academic partnerships should be fostered to provide an independent and transparent evaluation of drug safety.

2012-01-01

7

BOREHOLE DISPOSAL OF SPENT SOURCES: IMPROVING SAFETY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES THROUGH INTERNATIONAL EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency undertook a Coordinated Research Programme to review and enhance postclosure safety assessment approaches and tools for near-surface waste disposal facilities. The new Programme was appropriately called Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies (ISAM). One objective of the ISAM Programme is international application of the elements of the safety assessment approach to three test cases.

B. A. Moore; V. Yucel; J. J. P. Vivier; J. J. van Blerk

8

Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety  

SciTech Connect

The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subject to analyses consisting of Failure Modes. Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications.

Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroeger, P.

1993-01-01

9

Safety class methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in

E. B. Donner; J. M. Low; C. R. Lux

1992-01-01

10

Safety class methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ``safety class items.`` Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in

E. B. Donner; J. M. Low; C. R. Lux

1992-01-01

11

Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project  

SciTech Connect

Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years.

Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

2003-02-25

12

Assessment of the methodological strategies adopted by food safety training programmes for food service workers: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a systematic review conducted to identify and assess the methodological strategies used in training programmes designed to enhance food safety in food services. Fourteen original articles were selected from the Scopus, Scielo and Medline digital databases. The topics most dealt with in the educational programmes were personal hygiene, food safety and best practices. The resources most widely used

Caroline Opolski Medeiros; Suzi Barletto Cavalli; Elisabete Salay; Rossana Pacheco C. Proença

2011-01-01

13

Safety class methodology  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ``safety class items.`` Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the `safety function` level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ``Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,`` at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above.

Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

1992-11-01

14

A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic, iterative process that continually evolves with the design.

T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

2006-05-01

15

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2006-09-01

16

Innovative methodology and developments in US space radioisotope power safety risk assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the development of the safety information relating to the Galileo and Ulysses deep space missions, the state of safety and risk assessment technology underwent several developments which related to the use of the Space Shuttle as the launch vehicle and the changes in accident considerations which this necessitated. These changes included more detailed understanding of the close-in environments of liquid propellant explosions, analysis techniques to better consider the statistical nature of explosion severities, and to specify source terms appropriate to quantification of risk, use of preliminary risk analyses, and better understanding of explosion environments as input to the design of safety test series. They also included application of new internal dosimetry for Pu-238 dioxide and implementation of a de minimus dose concept for risk considerations. These considerations are further developed herein.

Englehart, R. W.; Bartram, B. W.; Firstenberg, H.; Jubach, R. W.; Vaughan, F. R.

17

A probabilistic methodology for the assessment of safety from dropped loads in offshore engineering  

PubMed

Pipeline damage by dropped objects from crane activities is a significant hazard for offshore platform installations. In this paper a probabilistic methodology is utilized for the estimation of the pipeline impact and rupture frequencies; this information is obtained both for the overall pipeline section exposed to the hazard and for a number of critical locations along the pipeline route. The presented algorithm has been implemented in a computer program that allows the analysis of a large number of possible drop points and pipeline target point locations. This methodology may be used in common risk analysis studies for evaluating the risk for platform personnel from dropped objects; however, the proposed technique may also be useful for other applications where engineering judgment has so far been the main driving criterion. In particular, two sample cases have been analyzed. The first one is the problem of selecting the best approaching route to a platform. By analyzing different route alternatives, a reduction of the impact frequency and therefore of the risk for the platform personnel may be achieved. The second application deals with the selection of the location for a safety valve at the riser base. The analysis may give useful information, such as the highest impact frequency location and the rupture frequencies upstream and downstream of the valve as a function of the valve position; this information, together with the transported medium inventory upstream of the valve, may give the designer a documented and justifiable rationale for selecting the best location for the valve from a safety point of view. PMID:10949412

Mazzola

2000-06-01

18

Pickering seismic safety margin. Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has...

A. Ghobarah A. C. Heidebrecht W. K. Tso

1992-01-01

19

Evaluation of replacement tritium facility (RTF) compliance with DOE safety goals using probabilistic consequence assessment methodology. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), is a major center for the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, deep-space exploration, and medical treatment applications in the United States. As an integral part of the DOE`s effort to modernize facilities, implement improved handling and processing technology, and reduce operational risk to the general public and onsite workers, transition of tritium processing at SRS from the Consolidated Tritium Facility to the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) began in 1993. To ensure that operation of new DOE facilities such as RTF present minimum involuntary and voluntary risks to the neighboring public and workers, indices of risk have been established to serve as target levels or safety goals of performance for assessing nuclear safety. These goals are discussed from a historical perspective in the initial part of this paper. Secondly, methodologies to quantify risk indices are briefly described. Lastly, accident, abnormal event, and normal operation source terms from RTF are evaluated for consequence assessment purposes relative to the safety targets.

O`Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.; Moore, M.L.

1993-12-31

20

A methodology for determining interactions in probabilistic safety assessment models by varying one parameter at a time.  

PubMed

In risk analysis problems, the decision-making process is supported by the utilization of quantitative models. Assessing the relevance of interactions is an essential information in the interpretation of model results. By such knowledge, analysts and decisionmakers are able to understand whether risk is apportioned by individual factor contributions or by their joint action. However, models are oftentimes large, requiring a high number of input parameters, and complex, with individual model runs being time consuming. Computational complexity leads analysts to utilize one-parameter-at-a-time sensitivity methods, which prevent one from assessing interactions. In this work, we illustrate a methodology to quantify interactions in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) models by varying one parameter at a time. The method is based on a property of the functional ANOVA decomposition of a finite change that allows to exactly determine the relevance of factors when considered individually or together with their interactions with all other factors. A set of test cases illustrates the technique. We apply the methodology to the analysis of the core damage frequency of the large loss of coolant accident of a nuclear reactor. Numerical results reveal the nonadditive model structure, allow to quantify the relevance of interactions, and to identify the direction of change (increase or decrease in risk) implied by individual factor variations and by their cooperation. PMID:20199656

Borgonovo, Emanuele

2010-02-25

21

Methodology Assessment and Recommendations for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch Safety Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Ma...

B. R. Sturgis B. W. Dodson C. D. Atcitty D. A. Powers D. G. Robinson D. L. Potter G. C. Bessette H. J. MacLean J. C. Hewson J. E. Kelly K. E. Metzinger N. E. Bixler R. J. Lipinski

2006-01-01

22

Methodology for System Safety Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This standard tailors and interprets certain requirements of MIL-STD-1574 and defines the methodology to be used to satisfy the analytical requirements imposed by that MIL Standard. The system safety analyses required by MIL-STD-1574 normally take the for...

1977-01-01

23

Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Products: An Evaluation of Developed Approaches and Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modifications of food products are gaining more and more interest, since they represent an effective and promising way to improve a wide range of food characteristics, including production, nutritive value, and shelf life. On the other hand, concern has been raised about the safety aspects of food derived through genetically modified products. Since 1990 continuously evolving guidelines and recommendations

M. Miraglia; R. Onori; C. Brera; E. Cava

1998-01-01

24

Methodology for the reliability evaluation of a passive system and its integration into a Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology has been developed to evaluate the reliability of passive systems characterised by a moving fluid and whose operation is based on thermal–hydraulic (T-H) principles. The methodology includes:•identification and quantification of the sources of uncertainties and determination of the important variables;•propagation of the uncertainties through T-H models and assessment of T-H passive system unreliability;•introduction of passive system unreliability in

Michel Marquès; J. F. Pignatel; P. Saignes; F. D’Auria; L. Burgazzi; C. Müller; R. Bolado-Lavin; C. Kirchsteiger; V. La Lumia; I. Ivanov

2005-01-01

25

Methodology of independent software nuclear safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent software nuclear safety analysis provides a methodology to ensure that software does not cause or contribute to a violation of the nuclear safety standards established by the Department of Defense, and that nuclear safety-critical software is not adversely affected by interfacing software or by operator action. This methodology is a systematic approach to examine a specific aspect of software

Edward A. Addy

1994-01-01

26

Safety assessment methodology and analysis of production during plutonium recycling at the State Science Center of the Russian Federation—Scientific-Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology and criteria for safety assessment of nuclear fuel cycle technological processes are proposed, substantiated,\\u000a and checked in large-scale recycling of plutonium (500 kg). The results of comprehensive investigations of the radiation-ecological\\u000a conditions during the experimental production of mixed uranium-plutonium fuel and fuel assemblies at the State Science Center\\u000a of the Russian Federation— Scientific-Research Institute of Nuclear Reactors are

A. P. Kirillovich

1999-01-01

27

An airport vulnerability assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights a general vulnerability assessment methodology and procedural tools that have been developed, refined, and applied to more than one hundred facilities over a 20-year period. The methodology and tools were adapted to conduct assessments of two major airports in the United States. The methodology is applied in a logical, sequenced fashion that considers the threat, target identification,

J. D. Veatch; J. W. James; T. T. May; T. M. Wood; E. M. Kruse

1999-01-01

28

Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced for the first time heat transfer and thermal-hydraulics calculations as part of a state-of-the-art set of codes and libraries in order to establish an updated methodology for IFE safety analysis. We have focused our efforts primarily on two IFE power plant conceptual designs: HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO. To some degree, these designs represent the extremes in IFE power plant designs. Also, a preliminary safety assessment has been performed for a generic target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production techniques. Although this study cannot address all issues and hazards posed by an IFE power plant, it advances our understanding of radiological safety of such facilities. This will enable better comparisons between IFE designs and competing technologies from the safety point of view.

Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Gomez del Rio, J.

2001-06-01

29

Test Reactor Risk Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplifie...

R. H. Jennings J. K. Rawlins M. E. Stewart

1976-01-01

30

Methods for probabilistic safety assessments of ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 62nd MSC conference (MSC62) in 1993, the UK proposed a new methodology for the consideration of safety regulations.\\u000a This method is called formal safety assessment (FSA). FSA is an application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Risk\\u000a is used as an index of safety. One of the most important parts of FSA is to evaluate the risk to a

Fujio Kaneko

2002-01-01

31

Methodological Questions Concerning Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants during Loss of Power and Disruption of Communications with the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabalistic analysis of the safety of power-generating units at nuclear power plants is now an integral part of all work at the design level and during equipment operation. In many countries the maximum rate of core damage as estimated according to such analysis does not exceed 10 ?4 (reactor·years) ?1 (US, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and others). The likely

R. Z. Aminov; V. I. Ignatov

2002-01-01

32

Risk-based airport selection for runway safety assessments through the development and application of systems-driven prioritization methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A runway incursion is the erroneous presence of an aircraft or other object on the runway. Runway incursions are rare precursors to aviation accidents and result from a variety of complex factors. Current quantitative methods are inadequate for analysis, forecasting, and understanding the risk profiles of airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) biennially employs runway safety action teams (RSATs) to

Kyle M. Galle; John C. Ale; Mohammad M. Hossain; Michael J. Moliterno; Maureen K. Rowell; Nikita V. Revenko; Ellen C. Rogerson; Scott F. Tucker; Kenneth G. Crowther; J. H. Lambert; Y. Y. Haimes

2010-01-01

33

Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.  

PubMed

Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. PMID:22617368

Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

2012-05-20

34

Formal Safety Assessment: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is the premier scientific method that is currently being used for the analysis of maritime safety and for the formulation of related regulatory policy. This paper conducts a critical review of the FSA methodology and proposes ways to improve it. All steps of the FSA approach are looked at, and possible pitfalls or other deficiencies are

Christos A. Kontovas; Harilaos N. Psaraftis

2009-01-01

35

Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation

T. F. Bott; D. R. Mac Farlane; D. W. Stack; J. Kindinger

1992-01-01

36

Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy`s Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation

T. F. Bott; D. R. Mac Farlane; D. W. Stack; J. Kindinger

1992-01-01

37

AIMQ: a methodology for information quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information quality (IQ) is critical in organizations. Yet, despite a decade of active research and practice, the field lacks comprehensive methodologies for its assessment and improvement. Here, we develop such a methodology, which we call AIM quality (AIMQ) to form a basis for IQ assessment and benchmarking. The methodology is illustrated through its application to five major organizations. The methodology

Yang W. Lee; Diane M. Strong; Beverly K. Kahn; Richard Y. Wang

2002-01-01

38

Methodology to determine a Safety Management Efficiency Index - Deliverable D.3.B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This report is ,a deliverable in the ARAMIS project. It described the background,of the safety management concept,and the methodology to assess the quality of safety management. A detailed audit manual and the Safety Culture Questionnaire are attached as ,annexes to ,this report. Preliminary responses,from ,the test cases suggest ,that the methodology works, but especially the audit process needs improvement

Nijs Jan Duijm; Henning Boje Andersen; Andrew Hale; Louis Goossens; Frank Guldenmund

2004-01-01

39

Risk assessment for safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of probabilistic risk-assessment techniques to space missions is discussed, with a focus on the International Space Station. The types of hazards likely to be caused by random events; design, operational, and management errors; and intentional intervention are examined along with their secondary effects; and the top-level safety requirements defined by NASA are considered. It is suggested that such qualitative stipulations be supplemented with more quantitative measures such as used in the nuclear-power industry; the major features of such quantitative methods are reviewed.

Hadlock, Charles R.; Glaser, Peter E.

40

Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns the Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS), the overall approach being tested for use by the US Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center. Although the RAMSS is not a mature methodology, elements of the methodology have been used since 1979. The derived baseline database of maintenance actions across 80 systems and more than 300 block releases is

D. E. Peercy

1988-01-01

41

Safety-Related Operator Actions: Methodology for Developing Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. The operator performance data were developed from training simulato...

E. J. Kozinsky L. H. Gray A. N. Beare D. B. Barks F. E. Gomer

1984-01-01

42

Quantitative analysis methodology in safety-critical microprocessor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a quantitative methodology to be considered in safety-critical microprocessor applications is proposed. Some important aspects that must be considered in safety analysis work are discussed. We discuss how to evaluate the dangerous detectable and undetectable system failure rates in a single microprocessor board and the mean time to unsafe failure (MTTUF) of a critical system. The proposed

J. B Camargo; E Canzian; J. R Almeida; S. M Paz; B. A Basseto

2001-01-01

43

Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents

R. J. Beyma

1986-01-01

44

IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

Spitalnik, J.

2004-10-06

45

HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

EVANS, C.B.

2004-12-21

46

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

47

Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements  

SciTech Connect

A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

1980-01-01

48

Automating the Aviation Command Safety Assessment Survey as an Enterprise Information System (EIS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program effectiveness. This survey was a manual process first administered in the fall...

F. J. Mingo J. S. Held

1999-01-01

49

Probabilistic safety assessment for the Savannah River Site K reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic study of the overall safety of the special materials production reactors located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) has been performed. Assessments of the risk associated with reactor operation that is posed to the work force at SRS and to the surrounding population are among the results obtained. Safety assessment methodology that has evolved

M. D. Brandyberry; N. D. Woody; W. H. Baker; D. P. Kearnaghan; R. S. Wittman

1991-01-01

50

Airport vulnerability assessment-a methodology evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of several different approaches to conducting quantitative airport vulnerability and risk assessment. Field tests of seven methodologies applied to a total of thirteen major US domestic airports provided the results and reports used to evaluate the various methodologies. The process of evaluation used a rigorous decision technology approach, which involves evaluation criteria,

R. Lazarick

1999-01-01

51

A first approach to the safety analysis of a tokamak test reactor by a system study methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety analysis and risk assessment of a Tokamak Test Reactor is approached by an iterative, probabilistic, system study methodology, jointly developed by ENEA and CEA. The first part of this methodology consists of a safety related functional analysis of the plant. That is developed in a quite systematic and exhaustive way, aiming at the identification of all the process

A. Boschi; T. Palma; S. Sarto; G. Cambi; G. Zappellini; H. Djerassi; J. Rouillard

1989-01-01

52

Assessment of Organisational Culture. A Methodological Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines safety culture and organizational culture research and assessment mainly in the nuclear power industry. The report does, however, also have points of contact with and applications for other industrial sectors. The report defines the co...

T. Reiman P. Oedewald

2001-01-01

53

Probabilistic safety assessment in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original basis for licensing power reactors in Canada was probabilistic, from which deterministic requirements were derived and developed. The AECB currently regulates in part by imposing unavailability targets on four special safety systems. In recent years, a number of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies have been performed in Canada, although a PSA is not yet formally required yet in

Y Zeng; P Webster; P Hessel

1998-01-01

54

Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer  

PubMed Central

This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

Simoens, Steven

2009-01-01

55

Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced

S. Reyes; J. F. Latkowski; J. Sanz; J. Gomez del Rio

2001-01-01

56

Methodologic Challenges to Studying Patient Safety and Comparative Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of patient safety and comparative effectiveness entail unique methodologic challenges. These studies may be sus- ceptible to systematic error, including selection bias, exposure misclassification, and outcome misclassification. They may also be vulnerable to random error, or confounding by a variable such as another drug, a disease, or the drug indication itself. Finally, special logistical issues can arise, including data

Brian L. Strom

2007-01-01

57

Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant availability and safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interim report summarizes the progress, as of February 1983, of a joint TVA- and EPRI-sponsored demonstration study, Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant Availability and Safety Assessment. The study is intended to demonstrate the applicability of using EPRI-developed GO methodology to analyze plant availability and safety. The Unit I of TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Generation Station has been chosen to be

Mulvihill

1983-01-01

58

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

59

Safety Assessments of Air Traffic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is essentially a case study of a safety assessment of an air traffic system. Key issues concerning safety management system essentials; safety requirements derivation and safety assurance provision are discussed. The study is based on many safety assessments of air traffic systems recently undertaken for medium-sized UK airports. The impact of the EU directive on interoperability is also reviewed.

May, Rodney

60

A safety assessment approach using safety enablers and results.  

PubMed

Industrial safety is an important issue in Thailand, and attempts have been made to improve safety performance and accident records. This paper examines key criteria influencing safety improvement. Exploratory factor analysis confirms 9 safety criteria, including 5 "enablers" and 4 "results", with a total of 47 associated attributes. A safety assessment approach is developed, using those 9 key criteria, to measure an organization's current safety maturity level. Organizations can use the assessment approach to plan its safety improvement, and progress through to higher maturity levels by focusing on the weakest criteria shown in the assessment results with the lowest scores. PMID:22995133

Chinda, Thanwadee

2012-01-01

61

A Proven Methodology for Assessing School Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the methodology and benefits of the Building Condition Assessment Survey (BCAS) approach for evaluating school building conditions for long-range capital planning. The level of survey detail needed and its scope are examined as is BCAS preplanning tips. (GR)|

Nair, Prakash; Chin-Santos, Nadine

2000-01-01

62

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

63

A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

2010-05-01

64

Alternative gaseous-fuels safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

A relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings. Limitations of this type of assessment are discussed. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate dependency upon the specific application or scenario. Gaseous fuels have increased relative risks in certain situations and are relatively safe in others. The results suggest that alternative gaseous fuels are not disqualified for public usage. The assessment also provides rationale for the development of selected safe handling criteria and recommendations.

Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Laquer, H.L.

1983-01-01

65

Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

2006-10-01

66

Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy`s Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY.

Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1992-12-01

67

Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY.

Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kindinger, J. (PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

68

Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges.  

PubMed

For decades various pressure ulcer risk assessment scales (PURAS) have been developed and implemented into nursing practice despite uncertainty whether use of these tools helps to prevent pressure ulcers. According to current methodological standards, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are required to conclusively determine the clinical efficacy and safety of this risk assessment strategy. In these trials, PURAS-aided risk assessment has to be compared to nurses' clinical judgment alone in terms of its impact on pressure ulcer incidence and adverse outcomes. However, RCTs evaluating diagnostic procedures are prone to specific risks of bias and threats to the statistical power which may challenge their validity and feasibility. This discussion paper critically reflects on the rigour and feasibility of experimental research needed to substantiate the clinical efficacy of PURAS-aided risk assessment. Based on reflections of the methodological literature, a critical appraisal of available trials on this subject and an analysis of a protocol developed for a methodologically robust cluster-RCT, this paper arrives at the following conclusions: First, available trials do not provide reliable estimates of the impact of PURAS-aided risk assessment on pressure ulcer incidence compared to nurses' clinical judgement alone due to serious risks of bias and insufficient sample size. Second, it seems infeasible to assess this impact by means of rigorous experimental studies since sample size would become extremely high if likely threats to validity and power are properly taken into account. Third, means of evidence linkages seem to currently be the most promising approaches for evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of PURAS-aided risk assessment. With this kind of secondary research, the downstream effect of use of PURAS on pressure ulcer incidence could be modelled by combining best available evidence for single parts of this pathway. However, to yield reliable modelling results, more robust experimental research evaluating specific parts of the pressure ulcer risk assessment-prevention pathway is needed. PMID:23540571

Balzer, K; Köpke, S; Lühmann, D; Haastert, B; Kottner, J; Meyer, G

2013-03-27

69

SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.  

PubMed

As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study. PMID:11566400

Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

2001-10-12

70

Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

1997-09-01

71

Tamiflu® (Oseltamivir) Safety Assessment, Vaccine Safety ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 4 Page 5. Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Project • Established in 1990 ... 5 Page 6. Participating VSD MCOs Group Health Cooperative ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

72

Measuring the Impacts of Food Safety Regulations: A Methodological Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with a call for more effective and efficient regulations in the EU, there is a growing demand for transparency in the evaluation methods used to assess their effects. This paper proposes a classification of the impacts that food safety regulations can produce and discusses the quantitative methods that are used in the literature to measure those impacts. Along with

Maddalena Ragona; Mario Mazzocchi

2008-01-01

73

Using video vignettes to evaluate children’s personal safety knowledge: methodological and ethical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study aimed to assess children’s personal safety knowledge by seeking their responses to video-delivered simulations of child maltreatment.Method: In seeking to do this, methodological and ethical difficulties were encountered. These arose during several phases of consultation, the refinement of an interview protocol to be used with the vignettes, and during discussions over the ethical integrity of the research.Results:

Bruce Johnson

2000-01-01

74

Assessing digital control system dependability using the dynamic flowgraph methodology  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a methodological approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for the purpose of reliability/safety assessment and verification. The methodology has two fundamental goals: (a) to identify how certain postulated events may occur in a system and (b) to identify an appropriate testing strategy based on an analysis of system functional behavior. To achieve these goals, the methodology employs a modeling framework in which system models are developed in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of the execution of software modules. These models are then analyzed to determine how a certain state (desirable or undesirable) can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees, which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating system parameters at different points in time. The prime implicants (multistate analog of minimal cut sets) of the fault trees can be used to identify and eliminate system faults resulting from unanticipated combinations of software logic errors, hardware failures, and adverse environmental conditions and to direct testing activity to more efficiently eliminate implementation errors by focusing on the neighborhood of potential failure modes arising from these combinations of system conditions.

Garrett, C.J.; Guarro, S.B.; Apostolakis, G.E. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-01-01

75

Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating

Seyed Mohammad Hadi Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Nematollahi; Kamran Sepanloo

2004-01-01

76

Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

1984-03-01

77

Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Research Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing interest in using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods for research reactor safety is being observed in many countries throughout the world. This is mainly because of the great ability of this approach in achieving safe and reliable op...

1986-01-01

78

Comparative safety assessment for biotech crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first discussions on strategies to assess the food safety of genetically modified (GM) crop plants, assessment of GM plants and derived tissues has been based on comparisons with their traditionally bred counterparts. This was termed the Principle of Substantial Equivalence. However, implementation of the principle led to controversy and hampered the precision of the actual safety assessment. Here,

Esther J Kok; Harry A Kuiper

2003-01-01

79

Handbook of Five Methodologies for the Assessment of Load Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a summary description and evaluation of five methodologies that have been developed for the assessment of utility costs and benefits of load-management programs, including marginal-costing methodologies and an integrated set of utilit...

1980-01-01

80

Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites  

SciTech Connect

Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

NONE

1997-06-01

81

QAM: A Competency Based Need Assessment Methodology and Computer Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A needs assessment methodology is described which can be used (1) to assess the competencies required for functioning in a particular position, (2) to provide data for planning inservice and preservice educational programs, (3) to assess job performance, ...

L. E. Gale

1977-01-01

82

Model-based safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories performs systems analysis of high risk, high consequence systems. In particular, Sandia is responsible for the engineering of nuclear weapons, exclusive of the explosive physics package. In meeting this responsibility, Sandia has developed fundamental approaches to safety and a process for evaluating safety based on modeling and simulation. These approaches provide confidence in the safety of our nuclear weapons. Similar concepts may be applied to improve the safety of other high consequence systems.

Carlson, D.D.; Jones, T.R.

1998-04-01

83

Report on the International Symposium on the Use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Operational Safety - PSA '91  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Symposium on the Use of Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Operational Safety, also known as PSA 91, was held at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria, on June 3-7, 1991. During the symposium, 61 papers and 27 posters were presented in 13 sessions on subjects including PSA methodology, PSA use and applications, aging, common-cause events, human

S. Chakraborty; M. Khatib-Rahbar

2009-01-01

84

A proposed methodology of cancer risk assessment modeling using biomarkers.  

PubMed

A methodology for cancer risk assessment modeling was developed using a biomarker of DNA adduct, exposure dose, and tumor response. DNA adducts in the blood and lung were measured after single or multiple administration of [3H]benzo[a]pyrene (1 x BaP) in ICR mice. Making the assumption that DNA adducts are formed in a dose-dependent manner as observed in 1 x BaP treatment, kinetics patterns of DNA adducts were predicted at two other hypothetical BaP doses (2 x BaP, 1/2 x BaP) for single and continuous BaP treatments because the difference between the simulated and the experimental kinetic responses only amounted to 5.49-5.86% in terms of the integrated area under the curve. Correlations between the formation of DNA adducts and exposure doses or between blood DNA and lung DNA adducts were determined to be linear. The dose-response relationship between biomarker and exposure dose was further incorporated into a dose-tumor response equation, obtained from 2-yr bioassay, to predict cancer risk. The interrelationships between exposure dose, biomarker, and tumor response allowed the prediction of cancer risk in animals, once the information on biomarker levels was obtained. Moreover, this methodology could be further applied to human cancer risk assessment after appropriate safety factors were employed. PMID:11936215

Lee, Byung Mu; Yoo, Sun Dong; Kim, Seki

2002-03-01

85

ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. (BNL); GRAVES, H. (US NRC).

2005-07-01

86

SCAIS (Simulation Code System for Integrated Safety Assessment): Current status and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the current status of Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) work made to establish an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) methodology, supported by a simulation framework called SCAIS, to independently check the validity and consistency of many assumptions used by the licensees in their safety assessments. This diagnostic method is based on advanced dynamic reliability techniques on top of

J. M. Izquierdo; J. Hortal; M. Sánchez; E. Meléndez; R. Herrero; J. Gil; L. Gamo; I. Fernández; P. González; C. Queral; A. Expósito; G. Rodríguez

87

Q Methodology in Assessment and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this seminar is to introduce statistical and methodological principles associated with the use of Q method in the study of subjectivity—with primary emphasis on its applicability to problems of public policy—and to locate Q methodology within the framework of contempo- rary science. Q methodology evolved from factor-analytic theory in the 1930s, and since that time has been

Steven R. Brown

88

Probabilistic risk assessment in reactor safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of probabilistic risk assessment to guide the allocation of resources for reactor safety research is illustrated. Areas examined include the value-impact assessment of alternate containment concepts, the research plan for improved safety systems, and the seismic research program.

Wall

1978-01-01

89

Probabilistic safety assessment for the Savannah River Site K reactor  

SciTech Connect

A probabilistic study of the overall safety of the special materials production reactors located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) has been performed. Assessments of the risk associated with reactor operation that is posed to the work force at SRS and to the surrounding population are among the results obtained. Safety assessment methodology that has evolved from applications in the commercials nuclear power industry over the past 20 yr, and has recently been employed in two other major studies was used for the analysis. The results of the study indicate that risks from severe reactor accidents to individuals in the neighboring populace are within levels that have been found to be acceptable for commercial nuclear power plants. The objectives of the SRS probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were as follows: (1) to assess the margin of safety of the reactor system design; (2) to calculate risk measures as a means of assessment of safety in terms of levels of risk to socity; (3) to identify the equipment, human actions, and plant design features that contribute in greatest measure to assurance of overall safety by exercising the analytical models that constitute the PSA.

Brandyberry, M.D.; Woody, N.D.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; Wittman, R.S. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

90

A cost-effective methodology to internalize nuclear safety in nuclear reactor conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new methodology to perform nuclear reactor design, balancing safety and economics at the conceptual engineering stage, is presented in this work. The goal of this integral methodology is to take into account safety aspects in an optimization design process where the design variables are balanced in order to obtain a better figure of merit related with reactor economic performance.

M. Giménez; P. Grinblat; M. Schlamp

2003-01-01

91

DAM SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT WITH UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of uncertainty analysis in conjunction with risk assessment provides enhanced information for decision makers. Uncertainties in risk analysis inputs are propagated through the risk analysis and evaluation steps of risk assessment to obtain estimates of the level of confidence in the risk assessment outcomes. This paper presents a framework for uncertainty analysis in dam safety risk assessment, including

Sanjay S. Chauhan; David S. Bowles

2003-01-01

92

Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The inherent safety aspect of TPSS reactor blankets has been investigated. The idea is to design the blanket so safe that cost savings can be realized such as through non-nuclear grading construction. If the blanket materials are carefully selected, inherent safety is feasible for fusion reactor blankets up to 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading.

Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

1986-01-01

93

Selection of probabilistic safety assessment techniques for non-reactor nuclear facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically, the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology of choice is the well known event tree/fault tree inductive technique. For reactor facilities is has stood the test of time. Some non-reactor nuclear facilities have found inductive metho...

J. Vail

1992-01-01

94

Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment: Workshop Report, Torres Strait, Australia, Annex A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Risk identification and mitigation are and have been ongoing activities within the Torres Strait area. As a step toward standardizing methodology, a formal Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment (PAWSA) for Torres Strait was conducted in Cairns, Australia,...

2004-01-01

95

Reducing redesign of safety critical control systems by early risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tightening legislation on machine safety, such as the new European Machine Directive that became applicable in Dec 2009, requires that the machine manufacturer has to perform a risk assessment to determine safety requirements. These requirements will result in partial redesign of the control system. In order to reduce this redesign, a risk assessment process utilizing several methodologies for early risk

Nikolaos Papakonstantinou; Seppo Sierla; Jarmo Alanen; Kari Koskinen

2010-01-01

96

Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU (Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty) methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Zuber, N.

1988-01-01

97

RADIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT/IMPROVEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The office is developing improved methodologies and guidance for evaluating human health risks associated with exposure to environmental radiological contaminants. These activities involve coordination with numerous federal agencies and the development and communication of vari...

98

Performance and review of safety assessment for decommissioning  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Safety assessment is required by national and international safety standards to be performed for all stages of life cycle of facilities that are using radioactive material. It is required to be performed by operators and reviewed by regulators in support of a decommissioning plan for every facility before decommissioning commences. With the growing amount of decommissioning activities world-wide, the need for assistance to Member States in development and review of such assessments was highlighted in the Berlin Conference in 2002 and reflected in the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors in 2004. In order to respond to this need, the IAEA initiated an international project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (DeSa Project) in the same year. More than fifty experts from over thirty Member States have been working over the last three years on (i) the establishment of a harmonized safety assessment methodology for decommissioning; (ii) development of recommendations for a regulatory approach and procedure for review of such assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on the application of the graded approach to development and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology, the regulatory review procedure and graded approach recommendations to three test cases - safety assessment for decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP), a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory. This paper presents the current status of the DeSa project work, the consensus achieved, the main preliminary outcomes and lessons learned. The project results are envisaged to be presented and discussed at the 4. Joint DeSa meeting in October 2007 in Vienna, where the scope and objectives of a follow- up project will be also discussed. (authors)

Percival, K. [Consultant (Austria); Thierfeldt, S. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Heider-Hof-Weg 23, 52080 Aachen (Germany); Joubert, A. [National Nuclear Regulator - NNR, P.O. Box 7106, ZA-0046 Centurion (South Africa); Kaulard, J. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit GmbH, Schwertner Gasse 1 D-50667 Koeln (Germany); Manson, P. [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd. (United Kingdom); Ferch, R. [Consultant CNSC (Canada); Batandjieva, B. [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100 - 1400 Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

99

A Technology Assessment Methodology. Volume III. Computers-Communications Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a pilot computer technology assessment study. The study has as its goal the development and illustration of technological assessment methodology and in addition, as a secondary objective, the investigation of certain salient segments o...

H. V. O'Neill

1971-01-01

100

Methodology for the Comparison of Risk Assessment Results from Different Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology that is the basis of the ERMON (Energy Risks Monitor) project launched by the JRC's Nuclear Safety Unit - Risk Assessment Sector - as a contribution to JRC's SETRIS (Sustainable Energy Technologies Reference and Information System) project coordinated by JRC's Clean Energy Unit. It proposes the development of a general scheme for fuel and life

A. Colli; C. Kirchsteiger; A. L. Vetere Arellano; B. Ale

101

Structural Reliability Assessment Methodology - Why Now.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prior to the advent of the aging aircraft problem, the criterion for ensuring USN airframe safety was a damage index labeled FLE (Fatigue Life Expended). In retrospect, over several decades, the application of the FLE criterion has provided an exemplary, ...

P. Hoffman M. Hoffman D. Polakovics

1999-01-01

102

The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide

R. Niall; M. Hunt; T. E. Wierman

1990-01-01

103

A Review: Advancement in Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increasing demand of Electricity, every country in the world wants to construct more and more nuclear power plants and apply different advance techniques for accident prevention, safety and reliability. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA) are two of them, which are presented in this review paper. The paper consists of four parts, in first

M. Zubair; Zhijian Zhang; M. Aamir

2010-01-01

104

Safety assessment of the tape processing facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of specific processes performed in the Mound tape processing facility was done to determine the potential risk to the operator. A fault tree methodology was used, with quantitative aspects obtained from risk matrices and histograms derived f...

P. W. Seabaugh M. D. Prisc C. D. Barklay

1991-01-01

105

Probabilistic Safety Assessment - Risk Informed approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years NPCIL has performed comprehensive Level-l Probabilistic Safety Assessment for all the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors and Boiling Water Reactor. The results are extensively used for the Risk Informed approach whereby risk insights derived from these PSA's are considered together with information obtained from Deterministic safety analysis, for modifying the existsing operator training, testing and maintenance

R. K. Guptan; S. P. Dharne; S. G. Ghadge

2010-01-01

106

Developing Methodologies for Evaluating the Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains four papers written during an investigation of methods for evaluating the safety of existing school buildings under Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) grants. In "Evaluation of Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings," by B. Bresler, preliminary ideas on the evaluation of the earthquake safety of existing buildings are…

Bresler, B.; And Others

107

Methodology for maintainability-based risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software product spends more than 65% of its lifecycle in maintenance. Software systems with good maintainability can be easily modified to fix faults or to adapt to changing environment. We define maintainability-based risk as a product of two factors: the probability of performing maintenance tasks and the impact of performing these tasks. In this paper, we present a methodology

Walid M. Abdelmoez; K. Goseva-Popstojanova; H. H. Ammar

2006-01-01

108

Methodological Issues in Assessing AIDS Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has chal lenged the ingenuity of behavioral researchers to develop effective AIDS prevention programs that extend beyond the transmission of factual knowledge alone. Four potential methodological barriers to program de velopment and evaluation were identified during the pilot stages of pro ducing a comprehensive AIDS prevention program for adolescents. These include: (a) the

David E. Sandberg; Mary J. Rotheram-Borus; Jon Bradley; Jacqueline Martin

1988-01-01

109

Assessment of Elementary School Safety Restraint Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research was to identify elementary school (K-6) safety belt education programs in use in the United States, to review their development, and to make administrative and impact assessments of their use in selected States.

W. D. Cushman R. F. Pain K. McPherson A. J. McKnight

1985-01-01

110

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

111

Integrating Safety Critical Software System in Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent times, computer-based systems are frequently used for protection and control of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In the conventional Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the contribution from software in these computer-based systems was not given necessary attention. However, from operating experience, it has been found failures in such systems can also result in initiating events that have the potential

Gopika Vinod; T. V. Santosh; R. K. Saraf; A. K. Ghosh

2008-01-01

112

Systematic Model-Based Safety Assessment via Probabilistic Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment is a well-established process for assuring the safety and reliability of critical (aeronautical) systems. It uses probabilistic (quantitative) analysis to provide precise measures about the safety requirements of a system. Traditionally, quantitative safety assessment uses fault-tree analysis, but certification authorities also allow the use of Markov models. In this paper we propose a strategy for quantitative safety assessment

Adriano Gomes; Alexandre Mota; Augusto Sampaio; Felipe Ferri; Julio Buzzi

2010-01-01

113

Challenges and methodology for safety analysis of a high-level waste tank with large periodic releases of flammable gas  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 10,000 ft{sup 3} of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest-priority DOE operational safety problems. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The mitigation method selected for the tank was to install a pump that would mix the tank contents and eliminate the sludge layer believed to be responsible for the gas retention and periodic releases. This report will describe the principal analysis methodologies used to prepare the safety assessment for the installation and operation of the pump, and because this activity has been completed, it will describe the results of pump operation.

Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stewart, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-07-01

114

QAM: A Competency Based Need Assessment Methodology and Computer Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A needs assessment methodology is described which can be used (1) to assess the competencies required for functioning in a particular position, (2) to provide data for planning inservice and preservice educational programs, (3) to assess job performance, and (4) to provide information for personnel planners. Quadrants are formed using four…

Gale, Larrie E.

115

DRAFT METHODOLOGY FOR CONDUCTING RISK ASSESSMENTS AT ASBESTOS SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The document will be an updated draft metholodogy for cancer risk assessment of asbestos. The draft methodology will address potential differences in cancer potency of different fiber types and different fiber dimensions of asbestos....

116

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an improved methodology for estimating volumes of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources within the United States and around the world. The methodology is based on previously developed U.S. Geological Survey methodologies that rely on well-scale production data. Improvements were made primarily to how the uncertainty about estimated ultimate recoveries is incorporated in the estimates. This is particularly important when assessing areas with sparse or no production data, because the new methodology allows better use of analog data from areas with significant discovery histories.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

2010-01-01

117

Insights into PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessments) Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for six nuclear power plants were examined to gain insight into how the choice of analytical methods can affect the results of PRAs. The PRA scope considered was limited to internally initiated accident sequences thro...

D. Gallagher E. Lofgren B. Atefi R. Liner R. Blond

1984-01-01

118

Engineering methodologies for assessing crack front constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic aspects of a tractable two-parameter fracture mechanics network for describing mode I elastic-plastic crack front fields are reviewed. One of the parameters, the J-integral, essentially measures the scale of track tip deformation. The second parameter, which strongly correlates with the triaxiality of the crack tip stress state, is the normalized T-stress. Novel computational procedures for reliably calculating T based on domain interaction integrals and on the simple line-spring model are developed. Correlation of T with elastic-plastic crack tip triaxiality is rigorously precise at sufficiently low loads, and formal extensions of the methodology to large-scale yielding, though evidently ad hoc in nature, have provided excellent qualitative and very good quantitative descriptions of local fields in a wide range of crack configuration.

Parks, D. M.

119

Assessment of RAMONA-3B methodology with FRIGG dynamic tests  

SciTech Connect

The computer codes used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compute BWR safety parameters are the Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and RAMONA-3B/MOD1. Both codes have the same methodology for modeling thermal hydraulic phenomena: drift-flux formulation, two-phase multipliers for the wall friction and form losses calculations, and the momentum integral approach for spatial integration of the loop momentum equations. Both codes use explicit integration methods for solving ordinary differential equations. It is concluded that both the codes are capable of modelling the instability problems for a BWR. The accuracy of thermohydraulics codes predictions was assessed by modelling oscillatory FRIGG tests. Nodalizations studies showed that 24 axial nodes were sufficient for a converged solution, 12 axial nodes produced an error of 4.4% in the gain of the power to flow transfer function. The code predicted consistently the effects of power and inlet subcooling on gain and system resonance frequency. The comparisons showed that the code predicted the peak gains with a mean difference from experiments of 7% {plus minus} 30% for all the tests modeled. The uncertainty in the experimental data is {minus}11% to +12%. The mean difference in the predicted frequency at the peak gain is {minus}6% {plus minus} 14%.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Wulff, W.

1990-01-01

120

Assessment of RAMONA-3B methodology with FRIGG dynamic tests  

SciTech Connect

The computer codes used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compute BWR safety parameters are the Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and RAMONA-3B/MOD1. Both codes have the same methodology for modeling thermal hydraulic phenomena: drift-flux formulation, two-phase multipliers for the wall friction and form losses calculations, and the momentum integral approach for spatial integration of the loop momentum equations. Both codes use explicit integration methods for solving ordinary differential equations. It is concluded that both the codes are capable of modelling the instability problems for a BWR. The accuracy of thermohydraulics codes predictions was assessed by modelling oscillatory FRIGG tests. Nodalizations studies showed that 24 axial nodes were sufficient for a converged solution, 12 axial nodes produced an error of 4.4% in the gain of the power to flow transfer function. The code predicted consistently the effects of power and inlet subcooling on gain and system resonance frequency. The comparisons showed that the code predicted the peak gains with a mean difference from experiments of 7% {plus_minus} 30% for all the tests modeled. The uncertainty in the experimental data is {minus}11% to +12%. The mean difference in the predicted frequency at the peak gain is {minus}6% {plus_minus} 14%.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Wulff, W.

1990-12-31

121

Risk follow-up by probabilistic safety assessment—experience from a Finnish pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk follow-up by probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) provides a systematic method to analyze incidents. Events can be evaluated from the safety point of view to get feedback from operating experience, for the identification of risk contributors and for the verification of PSA models. This paper is concerned with the risk follow-up methodology, which is based on a marked point process

Jan Holmberg

1996-01-01

122

Formal Safety Assessment: a critical review and ways to strengthen it and make it more transparent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) is the premier scientific method that is being currently used for the analysis of maritime safety and for the formulation of related regulatory policy. This paper conducts a critical review of the FSA methodology and proposes ways to improve it. All steps of the FSA approach are looked at and possible pitfalls or other deficiencies are

Christos A. Kontovas; Harilaos N. Psaraftis

2006-01-01

123

New Methodology for Rapid Seismic Risk Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic risk is growing worldwide and is, increasingly, a problem of developing countries. Along with growing urbanization future earthquakes will have more disastrous social and economic consequences. Seismic risk assessment and reduction are important goals for each country located in seismically active zone. For Armenia these goals are of primary importance because the results of studies carried out by Armenian NSSP for assessment of the losses caused by various types of disasters in Armenia had shown that earthquakes are the most disastrous hazard for Armenia. The strategy for seismic risk reduction in 1999 was adopted by the Government of Armenia as a high priority state program. The world experience demonstrates that for efficient response the rapid assessment of seismic losses is necessary. There are several state-of-the-art approaches for seismic risk assessment (Radius, Hazus, etc.). All of them required large amount of various input data, which is impossible to collect in many developing countries, in particular in Armenia. Taking into account this very serious problem existing for developing countries, as well as rapid seismic risk assessment need immediately after strong earthquake the author undertake the attempt to contribute into a new approach for rapid seismic risk assessment under the supervision of Prof. S. Balassanian. The analysis of numerous factors influencing seismic risk in Armenia shows that the following elements contribute most significantly to the possible losses: seismic hazard; density of population; vulnerability of structures. Proposed approach for rapid seismic risk assessment based on these three factors has been tested for several seismic events. These tests have shown that such approach might represent from 80 to 90 percent of real losses.

Melikyan, A. E.; Balassanian, S. Y.

2002-05-01

124

Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi [Shiraz University, No. 23, Bistoon no 9, Bistoon St., Sajjad Blvd, Mashad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza [Shiraz University, Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, End of North Amirabad St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2004-07-01

125

SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

126

The role of risk assessment and safety analysis in integrated safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

To ensure that the design and operation of both nuclear and non- nuclear hazardous facilities is acceptable, and meets all societal safety expectations, a rigorous deterministic and probabilistic assessment is necessary. An approach is introduced, founded on the concept of an Integrated Safety Assessment.'' It merges the commonly performed safety and risk analyses and uses them in concert to provide decision makers with the necessary depth of understanding to achieve adequacy.'' 3 refs., 1 fig.

Niall, R.; Hunt, M.; Wierman, T.E.

1990-01-01

127

DEVELOPMENT OF EARTHQUAKE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY IN NCREE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote researches in seismic hazard analysis, engineering structural damage assessment, and socio-economic loss estimation in Taiwan, the National Science Council started the HAZ-Taiwan project in 1998. The National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering also develops the associated application software \\

Chin-Hsun Yeh; Chin-Hsiung Loh; Keh-Chyuan Tsai

128

Training Effectiveness Assessment: Methodological Problems and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their tr...

K. D. Cross

1992-01-01

129

A life-cycle maintenance methodology with environmental, health and safety considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An excellent way to bring environmental concerns into account in the process activities of a manufacturing facility is to consider them as part of the scope of maintenance engineering. This paper presents a methodology for incorporating environmental considerations, human health and safety issues in maintenance engineering in each of the process life cycles using an overall reliability analysis. This methodology

Nydia Suppen; Masahiko Onosato; Kazuaki Iwata

1999-01-01

130

An integrated safety-analysis methodology for emerging air-transport technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate an approach to integrating reliability, performance, and operational procedures modeling into a system safety analysis. Our methodology is distinguished by its ability to merge system design information with the dynamic parameterization of a system's situation in order to measure accident statistics and reliable system operation. As an application of this methodology, we have considered the problem of simultaneous,

Deborah F. Allinger; G. Rosch; J. K. Kuchar

1998-01-01

131

Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

Heimdahl, Olaf E. R. (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA); LaHoud, Paul (Athens, AL); Chapman, Leon Darrel

2004-08-01

132

Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the

M. C. Krupka; H. L. Laquer; A. T. Peaslee

1983-01-01

133

Application of value-impact methodology in the design analysis of a nuclear safety system  

SciTech Connect

The application of a value-impact methodology to a nuclear safety system design analysis has been investigated. The theoretical framework of multi-attribute decision theory and cost-benefit analysis is combined with reliability, availability, and probabilistic risk assessment techniques to analyze three design alternatives for the auxiliary feedwater system of a pressurized water reactor. Selected attributes pertaining to financial impact, investment risk, health risk, and licensability are used to rank the alternatives. External factors--such as the effect on the schedule of other plants, impact on property value, and emotional effects on population--that are potentially large were not considered. Standard reference tables were developed as a user's guide for value-impact calculations.

Stamatelatos, M.G.; Adamantiades, A.G.; Ligon, D.M.

1984-03-01

134

Using lean methodology to teach quality improvement to internal medicine residents at a safety net hospital.  

PubMed

The overall objective of this initiative was to develop a quality improvement (QI) curriculum using Lean methodology for internal medicine residents at Boston Medical Center, a safety net academic hospital. A total of 90 residents and 8 School of Public Health students participated in a series of four, 60- to 90-minute interactive and hands-on QI sessions. Seventeen QI project plans were created and conducted over a 4-month period. The curriculum facilitated internal medicine residents' learning about QI and development of positive attitudes toward QI (assessed using pre- and post-attitude surveys) and exposed them to an interprofessional team structure that duplicates future working relationships. This QI curriculum can be an educational model of how health care trainees can work collaboratively to improve health care quality. PMID:23382452

Weigel, Charlene; Suen, Winnie; Gupte, Gouri

2013-02-04

135

Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods

Cadwallader

1993-01-01

136

User's reference manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories annually compares the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191. To assist the analyst in these comparisons the PA Department developed CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology Controller, which

Rechard

1992-01-01

137

Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

138

Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

139

Impact Assessment Methodologies for Microfinance: Theory, Experience and Better Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfinance programs and institutions are increasingly important in development strategies but knowledge about their impacts is partial and contested. This paper reviews the methodological options for the impact assessment (IA) of microfinance. Following a discussion of the varying objectives of IA it examines the choice of conceptual frameworks and presents three paradigms of impact assessment: the scientific method, the humanities

David Hulme

2000-01-01

140

Q Methodology to Assess Child-Father Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work aims to highlight the relevance of Stephenson's Q methodology (QM) for improving the assessment of child-father attachment relationships. We argue that reconceptualising the relationship can enhance the validity of assessment techniques and help in identifying the paternal behaviours that predict a secure child-father attachment pattern.…

John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.

2010-01-01

141

Q Methodology to Assess Child-Father Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work aims to highlight the relevance of Stephenson's Q methodology (QM) for improving the assessment of child-father attachment relationships. We argue that reconceptualising the relationship can enhance the validity of assessment techniques and help in identifying the paternal behaviours that predict a secure child-father attachment…

John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.

2010-01-01

142

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources using analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The currently used U.S. Geological Survey methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) petroleum resources of the United States was developed in the 1990s. This methodology poorly incorporates uncertainty about the estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs). This is especially problematic for hypothetical assessment units where this may be the largest source of uncertainty that needs to be reflected in the estimates. An improved methodology estimates the uncertainty of mean EUR directly. It uses analog data that have been compiled from production histories of many developed U.S. continuous assessment units. The analog databases provide a way of estimating the variability of not just EURs but other production parameters useful in assessing continuous resources.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

2010-01-01

143

Review of physics methodology of ATR safety analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of EG&G Idaho, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed a brief review of the physics methods employed in the safety analyses for the Advanced Test Reactor. PNL determined that the general approach used by EG&G was sound. Comparison...

W. W. Little S. W. Heaberlin

1991-01-01

144

DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM fissionable material operations. In addition, the report includes projections of future EM needs and associted recommendations.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

2011-02-01

145

HYDROGEN SAFETY, TRAINING AND RISK ASSESSMENT SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid evolution of information related to hydrogen safety is multidimensional ranging from developing codes and standards to CFD simulations and experimental studies of hydrogen releases to a variety of risk assessment approaches. This information needs to be transformed into system design, risk decision-making and first responder tools for use by hydrogen community stakeholders. The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance

D. Robert Hay; Andrei V. Tchouvelev; Pierre Benard; Joe Wong; Ian MacIntyre

146

Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials

Rose

1983-01-01

147

Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

1996-08-01

148

Architecting the Safety Assessment of Large-scale Systems Integration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research identifies the information/data required to perform a safety assessment for large-scale systems integration. From these required safety-related information/data, and the utilization of system engineering processes and practices, a safety ass...

T. C. Yin

2009-01-01

149

76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 [Docket No. NHTSA 2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2011-12-01

150

Review of physics methodology of ATR safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

At the request of EG G Idaho, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed a brief review of the physics methods employed in the safety analyses for the Advanced Test Reactor. PNL determined that the general approach used by EG G was sound. Comparisons were made between the EG G results and a simplified PBL model. These demonstrated good agreement. However, the lack of spacial treatment of the moderator density reactivity coefficient and exclusion of the test loops from the reactivity model were identified as potential problems. In addition to these two concerns, a series of more minor observations were offered to assist EG G in their analyses. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Little, W.W.; Heaberlin, S.W.

1991-09-01

151

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

152

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

153

A Methodological Proposal for Learning Games Selection and Quality Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a methodological proposal elaborated in the framework of two European projects dealing with game-based learning, both of which have focused on "quality" aspects in order to create suitable tools that support European educators, practitioners and lifelong learners in selecting and assessing learning games for use in teaching…

Dondi, Claudio; Moretti, Michela

2007-01-01

154

Space Shuttle probabilistic risk assessment: methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and processes used for the probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle vehicle to systematically quantify the risk incurred during a nominal Shuttle mission and rank the risk driving components to allow for a concerted risk and cost reduction effort. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology

G. Maggio

1996-01-01

155

Q methodology to assess child–father attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to highlight the relevance of Stephenson’s Q methodology (QM) for improving the assessment of child–father attachment relationships. We argue that reconceptualising the relationship can enhance the validity of assessment techniques and help in identifying the paternal behaviours that predict a secure child–father attachment pattern. To this end, we first review the inconclusive and sometimes contradictory findings about

Aesha John; Amy L. Halliburton

2010-01-01

156

Methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has witnessed a number of significant methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist—Revised and the two-factor model of psychopathy have facilitated the assessment of psychopathy and clarified the differential correlates of the personality- and behavior-based operationalizations of this syndrome. Although preliminary evidence suggests that certain features of psychopathy may be underpinned by

Scott O Lilienfeld

1998-01-01

157

Safety assessment of probiotics for human use  

PubMed Central

The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods.

Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hormannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

2010-01-01

158

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of

1994-01-01

159

Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects With Life Cycle Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As governments elaborate strategies to counter climate change, there is a need to compare the different options available on an environmental basis. This study proposes a life cycle assessment framework integrating the Lashof accounting methodology, which enables the assessment and comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g., biofuel use, a sequestering plant, an afforestation project). The Lashof accounting methodology is

Alexandre Courchesne; Valérie Bécaert; Ralph K. Rosenbaum; Louise Deschênes; Réjean Samson

2010-01-01

160

Using the Lashof Accounting Methodology to Assess Carbon Mitigation Projects With Life Cycle Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryAs governments elaborate strategies to counter climate change, there is a need to compare the different options available on an environmental basis. This study proposes a life cycle assessment framework integrating the Lashof accounting methodology, which enables the assessment and comparison of different carbon mitigation projects (e.g., biofuel use, a sequestering plant, an afforestation project). The Lashof accounting methodology is

Alexandre Courchesne; Valrie Bcaert; Ralph K. Rosenbaum; Louise Deschnes; Rjean Samson

161

76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA-2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety...SUMMARY: New passenger vehicles manufactured on or after...Safety Administration (NHTSA) under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). This...

2011-07-29

162

Ongoing research on seismic safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on seismic safety assessment has been the centre of great interest among the scientific community in recent years.\\u000a Although the devastating impact of earthquakes on current society should be incentive enough to increase research, the development\\u000a of more realistic mechanical behaviour models and the continuous enhancement of computation capabilities are paramount factors\\u000a contributing a great deal to the increase

Raimundo Delgado; Aníbal Costa; António Arêde; Nelson Vila Pouca; João Guedes; Xavier Romão; Pedro Delgado; Patrício Rocha

2010-01-01

163

Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

2012-01-01

164

Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

NONE

1994-08-01

165

Detecting adverse events for patient safety research: a review of current methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoting patient safety is a national priority. To evaluate interventions for reducing medical errors and adverse event, effective methods for detecting such events are required. This paper reviews the current methodologies for detection of adverse events and discusses their relative advantages and limitations. It also presents a cognitive framework for error monitoring and detection. While manual chart review has been

Harvey J. Murff; Vimla L. Patel; George Hripcsak; David W. Bates

2003-01-01

166

Evaluation methodology for federal motor vehicle safety standards. Volume 1: Executive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a six month study to determine feasibility and appropriate evaluation schemes in a real world environment for four Federal motor vehicle safety standards are summarized: (1) fuel integrity; (2) occupant protection; (3) side door strength; and (4) exterior protection. Based on a review of the literature, background material, specifications, compliance tests, and available evaluation methodologies, feasibility was

R. L. Braun; R. H. Cronin; N. A. David; A. V. Fend; J. R. Norman

1977-01-01

167

Using Video Vignettes To Evaluate Children's Personal Safety Knowledge: Methodological and Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the use of video-delivered simulations of child maltreatment as a mean of probing the personal safety knowledge of young children. It was concluded that such an approach is methodologically difficult and ethically problematic and controversial. Concerns about possible harm to participants and difficulties in obtaining…

Johnson, Bruce

2000-01-01

168

Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems: Heavy-Truck Field Operational Test Methodology and Results Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the methodology and results from the heavy-truck field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Tran...

A. D. Blankespoor C. B. Winkler D. J. LaBlanc D. S. Funkhouser J. R. Sayer M. L. Buonarosa S. Bao S. E. Bogard

2010-01-01

169

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

170

Safety Assessment of Design Patterns for Safety-Critical Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

System safety is considered as one of the most important non-functional requirements for safety-critical embedded systems. Several safety assessment methods have been proposed to evaluate safety-critical systems. However, most of them cannot be used to assess safety-critical design patterns due to the fact that these patterns do not address real systems but present abstract solutions to commonly recurring design problems.

Ashraf Armoush; Eva Beckschulze; Stefan Kowalewski

2009-01-01

171

Assessment methodology for computer-based instructional simulations.  

PubMed

Computer-based instructional simulations are becoming more and more ubiquitous, particularly in military and medical domains. As the technology that drives these simulations grows ever more sophisticated, the underlying pedagogical models for how instruction, assessment, and feedback are implemented within these systems must evolve accordingly. In this article, we review some of the existing educational approaches to medical simulations, and present pedagogical methodologies that have been used in the design and development of games and simulations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. In particular, we present a methodology for how automated assessments of computer-based simulations can be implemented using ontologies and Bayesian networks, and discuss their advantages and design considerations for pedagogical use. PMID:24084305

Koenig, Alan; Iseli, Markus; Wainess, Richard; Lee, John J

2013-10-01

172

The selection of probabilistic safety assessment techniques for non-reactor nuclear facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology of choice is the well known event tree\\/fault tree inductive technique. For reactor facilities is has stood the test of time. Some non-reactor nuclear facilities have found inductive methodologies difficult to apply. The stand-alone fault tree deductive technique has been used effectively to analyze risk in nuclear chemical processing facilities and waste handling

Vail

1992-01-01

173

International Peer Review of FSANZ GM Food Safety Assessment Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

FSANZ has established itself internationally as one of the leading regulatory authorities to regulate and conduct safety assessment of Genetically Modified (GM) foods. A small but knowledgeable, dedicated team of scientists in the Risk Assessment Chemical Safety Section and Product Safety Standards Section of FSANZ routinely conduct robust, risk-based and evidence-based pre-market safety assessment of GM foods. FSANZ has also

William Yan

174

Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

1988-01-01

175

Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making  

SciTech Connect

Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems.

Erickson, L. E.; Litchfield, J. W.; Currie, J. W.; McDonald, C. L.; Adams, R. C.

1978-07-01

176

Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

NONE

1989-05-01

177

Assessment the safety performance of nuclear power plants using Global Safety Index (GSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety performance of the nuclear power plant is a very important factor enhancing the nuclear energy option. It is vague to evaluate the nuclear power plant performance but it can be measured through measuring the safety performance of the plant.In this work, the safety of nuclear power plants is assessed by developing a “Global Safety Index” (GSI).The GSI is

Ayah E. Abouelnaga; Abdelmohsen Metwally; Naguib Aly; Mohammad Nagy; Saeed Agamy

2010-01-01

178

Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.  

PubMed

Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well. PMID:18241983

Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

2007-11-28

179

A Review of Vulnerability Assessment Methodologies for Alpine Hazards: The need for a new methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain hazards such as landslides, floods and avalanches pose a serious threat to human lives and development and can cause considerable damage to lifelines, critical infrastructure, agricultural lands, housing, public and private infrastructure and assets. The assessment of the vulnerability of the built environment to these hazards is a topic that is growing in importance due to climate change impacts. A proper understanding of vulnerability can lead to more effective emergency management and in the development of mitigation and preparedness activities all of which are designed to reduce the loss of life and economic costs. However, most studies regarding mountain hazards focus on hazard mapping, simulation, modeling and monitoring and only a limited number of studies concerning vulnerability have been carried out. In this study we are reviewing existing methods for vulnerability assessment related to mountain hazards. We identify existing gaps and we analyse the applicability of existing approaches. Finally, we propose a new methodology for vulnerability assessment to mountain hazards (landslides, floods and avalanches), which takes into consideration their impact on the built environment and it is based on the construction of vulnerability curves for the specific mountain hazards. The methodology is being tested in South Tirol and some preliminary results are presented.

Papathoma-Koehle, M.; Keiler, M.

2009-04-01

180

Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.  

PubMed

The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. PMID:20435414

Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

2010-04-14

181

Radiological safety assessment of Brazilian industrial facilities with electron accelerators.  

PubMed

Industrial electron accelerators are used by eight installations in Brazil, with a total of 14 machines generating electron beams. These facilities are classified into categories I or II, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system. In category I are included the facilities with an integrally shielded unit with interlocks, where human access during operation is not physically possible owing to the configuration of the shielding. In category II are included the facilities with a unit housed in a shielded room that is kept inaccessible during operation by an entry control system. Of the 14 accelerators operational in Brazil, 11 belong to category I and three to category II. In the present work a methodology for the assessment of the radiological safety of these accelerator facilities was developed and applied, mainly on the basis of specific recommendations from the IAEA. The main safety items were evaluated at those eight installations. According to the results obtained here, no inadequacies were observed at the three installations in category II, from the radiological safety and radioprotection points of view. Nevertheless, two out of the five installations in category I showed several deficiencies. Most of these inadequacies have been corrected during this work, and the rest are in the course of being corrected. PMID:15942060

Lourenço, M J M; Ramalho, A T; Da Silva, F C A; Godoy, J M O

2005-06-07

182

Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations  

SciTech Connect

Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

2010-08-30

183

Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

184

Assessment of a French scenario with the INPRO methodology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the French contribution to the Joint Study of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). It concerns the application of the INPRO methodology to a French scenario, on the transition from present LWRs to EPRs in a first phase and to 4. generation fast reactors in a second phase during the 21. century. The scenario also considers the renewal of the present fuel cycle facilities by the third and the fourth generation ones. Present practice of plutonium recycling in PWR is replaced by the middle of the century by a global recycling of actinides, uranium, plutonium and minor actinides in fast reactors. The status and the evolution of the INPRO criteria and the corresponding indicators during the studied period are analyzed for each of the six considered areas: economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance and infrastructure. Improvements on economic and safety are expected for both the EPR and the 4. generation systems having these improvements among their basic goals. The use of fast reactors and global recycling of actinides leads to a significant improvement on environment indicators and in particular on the natural resources utilization. The envisaged waste management policy results in significant reductions on mass, thermal loads and radiotoxicity of the final waste which only contains fission products. The use of fuels that do not relay on enriched uranium and separated plutonium increases the proliferation resistance characteristics of the future fuel cycle. The paper summarizes also some recommendations on the data, codes and methods used to support the continuous improvement of the INPRO methodology and help future assessors. (authors)

Vasile, A.; Fiorini, G.L. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Cazalet, J.; Linet, F.L.; Moulin, V. [CEA Saclay CEA Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Greneche, D. [AREVA - Tour AREVA - F - 92084 Paris La Defense Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

185

Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. Setting: The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. Methods: In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. Results: For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%–21%. Rates for infants (71%–80%) far exceeded rates for 1–4 year old children (5%–14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. Conclusions: A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

Smith, M; Berger, L

2002-01-01

186

Worker Health and Safety in Solar Thermal Power Systems. I. Overview of Safety Assessments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some aspects of safety in solar thermal power systems (STPS) have been studied to ascertain ways in which worker health and safety may be protected. Unique STPS hazards are also examined. A data base and methodology for quantitative predictions of injury ...

A. Z. Ullman B. B. Sokolow

1979-01-01

187

Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

Brooker, Peter

2004-05-01

188

Methodology for Determination of the Upper Safety Limit for Criticality Calculations for Criticality Safety Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the methods for determination of an upper safety limit, and incorporating uncertainty and margin into the safety limit, provides comparisons, and recommends a preferred method for determining the Upper Safety Limit (USL). A USL is developed for CSAS25 from SCALE4.4a. The USL is applicable for the CSAS25 control module from the SCALE 4.4a computer code system for use in evaluating nuclear criticality safety of enriched uranium systems. The benchmark calculation results used for this report are documented in Y/DD-896. The statistical evaluation is documented in CCG-380. The 27-group ENDF/B-IV, 44-group ENDF/B-V, and 238-group ENDF/B-V cross-section libraries were used. Numerical methods for applying margins are described, but the determination of appropriate correlating parameters and values for additional margin, applicable to a particular analysis, must be determined as part of a process analysis. As such, this document does not specify final upper subcritical limits as has been done in the past. No correlation between calculation results and neutron energy causing fission was found for the critical experiment results. Analysts using these results are responsible for exercising sound engineering judgment using strong technical arguments to develop ''a margin in k{sub eff} or other correlating parameter that is sufficiently large to ensure that conditions (calculated by this method to be subcritical by this margin) will actually be subcritical.'' Documentation of area of applicability and determination and justification of the appropriate margin in the analyst's evaluation, in conjunction with this report, will constitute the complete Validation Report in accordance with ANSI/ANS-8.1-1998, Section 4.3.6(4).

Smith, R.H.; Keener, H.J.; DeClue, J.F.; Krass, A.W.

2001-04-01

189

ASSESSMENT OF TOXICANT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN OVARIAN STEROIDOGENESIS: A METHODOLOGICAL OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

RTD-03-035 Assessment of Toxicant-induced Alterations in Ovarian Steroidogenesis: A Methodological Overview Jerome M. Goldman, Susan C. Laws and Ralph L. Cooper Abstract A variety of methodological approaches have been used for the assessment of tox...

190

Development of test methodologies for determining the safety of wheelchair headrest systems during vehicle transport.  

PubMed

For wheelchair users unable to transfer to a vehicle seat, the wheelchair serves as a means of mobility and postural support during activities of daily living and as a seating support in a vehicle. The performance of commercially available adaptive seating components in a dynamic or impact situation, as well as their effect on the safety of the user, is unknown and should be determined. The main objective of the project was to develop a test methodology to statically determine the crashworthiness of wheelchair headrest systems and show the efficacy of that methodology by applying it to several commercially available headrest systems. The methodology was based on Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) test conditions, which use static test procedures to ensure that vehicle head restraints will perform adequately during actual crash conditions. The procedure developed to evaluate the headrests gave informative and repeatable results. The tests performed calculated the energy associated with a critical deformation of the headrest under quasi-static conditions. The results were used to determine the level of safety provided by the devices and to recommend design improvements. The headrests tested exhibited similar modes of deformation due to bending of a vertical adjustment bar, and several devices were determined to be capable of providing adequate restraint in an impact situation. PMID:8823676

Karg, P; Sprigle, S

1996-07-01

191

Development of risk assessment methodology for municipal sludge incineration  

SciTech Connect

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by the series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, surface disposal, incineration and ocean disposal. In particular, these reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with incineration of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The procedures are structured to allow calculation of technical criteria for sludge disposal/reuse options based on the potential for adverse health or environmental impacts. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

Not Available

1990-10-01

192

Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance.

Wendland, W.G. (American Nuclear Insurers, Farmington, CT (United States))

1992-01-01

193

User's manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology Controller  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes the use of and computer programs used by CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller. CAMCON is a group of menu driven procedural files that assist an analyst in controlling the flow of data and linkage of computer programs for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with Subpart B, Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191. Although many of the main computer programs used in CAMCON were developed elsewhere, several main computer programs and numerous support programs and input and output translators where developed specifically for CAMCON. Hence, besides describing the tools and procedures used to link computer programs, this manual also describes use of these newly developed computer programs. 44 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs.

Rechard, R.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Iuzzolino, H.J. (Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rath, J.S.; Gilkey, A.P.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. (New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-10-01

194

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

195

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment (MCEA) methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. R. Cole; W. E. Davis; G. Whelan

1982-01-01

196

Environmental assessment methodology: Solar power plant applications. Volume 3. Environmental impact assessment application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental impact assessment methodology described in another volume is applied to a problem of site selection for solar thermal power plants. Environmental impact assessment of selected solar-thermal sites are compared. Certain potential impacts of solar-thermal and wind energy central systems are examined. In appendix A a data base system that was used to organize the literature on selected data

K. Nair; A. Sicherman

1979-01-01

197

Environmental impact assessment of agricultural production systems using the life cycle assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new life cycle assessment (LCA) method is presented, which is specifically tailored to plant nutrition in arable crop production. Generally, LCA is a methodology to assess all environmental impacts associated with a product or a process by accounting and evaluating its resource consumption and emissions. In LCA studies the entire production system should be considered, i.e. for crop production

F. Brentrup; J. Küsters; H. Kuhlmann; J. Lammel

2004-01-01

198

Novel risk assessment techniques for maritime safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a brief review of the current status of offshore safety regulations in the UK, several issues pertaining to the problems encountered in applying the existing reliability and safety analysis methods in quantitative safety appraisal studies, especially in the early concept design stage of maritime engineering products, are discussed. Presents three novel risk assessment and decision support frameworks. These include

How Sing Sii; Jin Wang; Tom Ruxton

2001-01-01

199

Clinical Safety Assessment for Rotavirus Vaccines  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionMonitoring Safety of Rotavirus Vaccines. ... Two post licensure safety signals: Increased risk posed by rotavirus vaccines to infants with SCID; ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

200

Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1993-04-01

201

Failure rate data for fusion safety and risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) conducts safety research in materials, chemical reactions, safety analysis, risk assessment, and in component research and development to support existing magnetic fusion experiments and also to promote safety in the design of future experiments. One of the areas of safety research is applying probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods to fusion experiments. To apply PRA, we need a fusion-relevant radiological dose code and a component failure rate data base. This paper describes the FSP effort to develop a failure rate data base for fusion-specific components.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1993-01-01

202

Assessment of food safety in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Public concern about food safety in Europe has grown in response to the BSE scan- dal and problems with Salmonella and Campylobacter, etc. Such health and safety considera- tions are among the most important incentives for buying organic food, and have helped to promote rapid growth in the organic sector. Against this background the present article reviews food safety

Birgitte Hansen; Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen; Mette Wier

203

A methodology to quantitatively evaluate the safety of a glazing robot.  

PubMed

A new construction method using robots is spreading widely among construction sites in order to overcome labour shortages and frequent construction accidents. Along with economical efficiency, safety is a very important factor for evaluating the use of construction robots in construction sites. However, the quantitative evaluation of safety is difficult compared with that of economical efficiency. In this study, we suggested a safety evaluation methodology by defining the 'worker' and 'work conditions' as two risk factors, defining the 'worker' factor as posture load and the 'work conditions' factor as the work environment and the risk exposure time. The posture load evaluation reflects the risk of musculoskeletal disorders which can be caused by work posture and the risk of accidents which can be caused by reduced concentration. We evaluated the risk factors that may cause various accidents such as falling, colliding, capsizing, and squeezing in work environments, and evaluated the operational risk by considering worker exposure time to risky work environments. With the results of the evaluations for each factor, we calculated the general operational risk and deduced the improvement ratio in operational safety by introducing a construction robot. To verify these results, we compared the safety of the existing human manual labour and the proposed robotic labour construction methods for manipulating large glass panels. PMID:20870215

Lee, Seungyeol; Yu, Seungnam; Choi, Junho; Han, Changsoo

2010-09-25

204

Comparing and assessing programming languages: basis for a qualitative methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manyatudies havecumpared andassemed pgmming languages. Unfortunately, a comprehemive methodology fm comparison and ~~t of ~ @Pll~ ~ @ been developed. lle main reason behind the absence of such a methodology is that previous studies have Concentrated on comparing languages rather than M developing such a methodology. This paper lays the ground work fm establishing a comprehemive qualitative methodology to compare

Jarallah AlGhamdi; Joseph E. Urban

1993-01-01

205

Global scale flood exposure assessment - Methodologies and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood damage modelling has traditionally been limited to the local, regional or national scale. Recent flood events, population growth and climate change concerns have increased the need for global methods with both spatial and temporal dynamics. In this study we present a first estimate of economic exposure to both river and coastal flooding on a global scale from 1970 - 2050, using two different methods for economic exposure calculation. One methodology is based on population densities and GDP, while the other method uses land-use and maximum damage figures to calculate economic exposure. Both methods show very similar upward trends in economic exposure over the period 1970-2050. However, the absolute exposure values resulting from the two methods show different magnitudes, reflecting variation in urbanisation and income. Furthermore we found that growth of population and economic assets in flood prone areas is higher than average national growth, especially in developing countries. As a next step, we propose a methodology for assessing total flood vulnerability that goes beyond economic impact, using a welfare-based approach based on a broad range of development indicators. The results are interesting for academics and practitioners working on international environmental, economic and development issues at the regional and global scales.

Jongman, B.; Ward, P. J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2012-04-01

206

Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued

M. D. Brandyberry; R. T. Bailey; W. H. Baker; D. P. Kearnaghan; R. S. Wittman; N. D. Woody; C. N. Amos; J. J. Weingardt

1992-01-01

207

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Cocamide MEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocamide MEA is a mixture of ethanolamines of fatty acids derived from coconut oil. This cosmetic ingredient functions as a surfactant—foam booster and an aqueous viscosity-increasing agent. To supplement the available data on Cocamide MEA, data from previous safety assessments of Coconut Oil and its derivatives, Monoethanolamine (MEA), and Cocamide DEA (Diethanolamine) were included in this safety assessment. These data

F. Alan Andersen

1999-01-01

208

Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Methodology for Homeland Security  

SciTech Connect

In response to increased interest in risk-informed decision making regarding terrorism, EPRI was selected by U.S. DHS and ASME to develop and demonstrate a nuclear sector specific methodology for owner / operators to utilize in performing a Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP) assessment for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The objective is to characterize SNF transportation risk for risk management opportunities and to provide consistent information for DHS decision making. The method uses a characterization of risk as a function of Consequence, Vulnerability, and Threat. Worst reasonable case scenarios characterize risk for a benchmark set of threats and consequence types. A trial application was successfully performed and implementation is underway by one utility. (authors)

Teagarden, Grant A. [ERIN Engineering and Research (United States); Canavan, Kenneth T. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Nickell, Robert E. [Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA 92064 (United States)

2006-07-01

209

Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

Oswal, V. H.

2001-01-01

210

Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E.C.

1983-10-15

211

Determining a cost/effectiveness/safety tradeoff methodology for strategic nuclear warheads  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy national laboratories are charged with anticipating with a long leadtime which technologies for nuclear warheads should be developed. The Safe Warhead System Study was constituted to provide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory management with information and suggestions for making such decisions for enhanced safety warheads. The Minuteman III replacement warheads were analyzed as a test case and that information was used to identify and describe the dominant issues, to develop a methodology and to make initial recommendations. The test case work resulted in several insights into how ongoing design and engineering interacts with the technology ranking and on how to cope with the ubiquitous uncertainties relating to our current ICBM force.

Erickson, S.A. Jr.; Hall, C.H.

1992-04-27

212

Flood risk model for probabilistic safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes a methodology developed for treating internal flooding. The goal of the methodology is to quantitatively estimate the frequency of flooding and the conditional probability of reactor core damage given that flooding occurs. The method models leak size, component height, watertight volumes, the potential volume of flood sources, water removal systems and recovery of faulted systems, isolation procedures,

Bott

1992-01-01

213

The quantified process approach: an emerging methodology to neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

An important development in the field of neuropsychological assessment is the quantification of the process by which individuals solve common neuropsychological tasks. The present article outlines the history leading to this development, the Quantified Process Approach, and suggests that this line of applied research bridges the gap between the clinical and statistical approaches to neuropsychological assessment. It is argued that the enterprise of quantifying the process approach proceeds via three major methodologies: (1) the "Satellite" Testing Paradigm: an approach by which new tasks are developed to complement existing tests so as to clarify a given test performance; (2) the Composition Paradigm: an approach by which data on a given test that have been largely overlooked are compiled and subsequently analyzed, resulting in new indices that are believed to reflect underlying constructs accounting for test performance; and (3) the Decomposition Paradigm: an approach which investigates the relationship between test items of a given measure according to underlying facets, resulting in the development of new subscores. The article illustrates each of the above paradigms, offers a critique of this new field according to prevailing professional standards for psychological measures, and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:10916196

Poreh, A M

2000-05-01

214

Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller  

SciTech Connect

CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

215

Assessing safety culture in nuclear power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of safety culture abound, but they variously refer to the safety-related values, attitudes, beliefs, risk perceptions and behaviours of all employees. This assembly may seem too inclusive to be meaningful, but each represents a different level of processing and the choice for measurement (or intervention) is more pragmatic than theoretical. The present study addresses mainly attitudes, but also reported

T Lee; K Harrison

2000-01-01

216

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING RISK ASSESSMENT WHEN SLUDGE IS APPLIED TO LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This project explored the feasibility of developing a risk assessment methodology that could be applied to sludge management decision making. It examined cadmium, since this substance is one of the best studied and most extensively reported contaminants. The methodology developed...

217

The English Standard Spending Assessment system: an assessment of the methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical examination is undertaken of the methodology underlying the controversial Standard Spending Assessments (SSAs), which became a key feature of the local government finance system in England in 1990. Brief evaluations are made of statistical versus judgmental methods of estimating spending needs, and of the use of past outturn expenditures and client numbers to measure local authorities' need to

M L Senior

1994-01-01

218

Environmental assessment methodology: solar power plant applications. Volume 3. Environmental impact assessment application. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Volume II of the four-volume series the environmental impact assessment methodology described in Volume I is applied to a problem of site selection for solar-thermal power plants. Environmental impact assessments of selected solar-thermal sites are compared. Certain potential impacts of solar-thermal and wind energy central systems are examined. In appendix A a data base system that was used to

K. Nair; A. Sicherman

1979-01-01

219

AN ASSESSMENT OF SIMPLIFIED VS. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES FOR SSI ANALYSES OF DEEPLY EMBEDDED STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to develop a technical basis to support the safety evaluation of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) structures as proposed for advanced reactor designs. In this program, the methods and computer programs established for the assessment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects for the current generation of light water reactors are evaluated to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of DEB structures. This paper presents an assessment of the simplified vs. detailed methodologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures. In this assessment, a lump-mass beam model is used for the simplified approach and a finite element representation is employed for the detailed method. A typical containment structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized, considering various embedment depths from shallow to full burial. BNL used the CARES program for the simplified model and the SASSI2000 program for the detailed analyses. The calculated response spectra at the key locations of the DEB structure are used for the performance assessment of the applied methods for different depths of burial. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of both the simplified and detailed models for the SSI analyses of the DEB structure, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different depths of burial between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of DEB structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU,J.MILLER,C.HOFMAYER,C.GRAVES,H.

2004-03-04

220

Safety\\/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety\\/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety\\/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions

K. R. Byers; P. J. Brown; L. R. Norderhaug

1985-01-01

221

Chemical footprint: A methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.  

PubMed

The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In this article, we present a case study at the macroscale for the European Union, in which the chemical footprint according to step 1 is calculated for the year 2005. A proposal for extending this approach toward step 2 is presented and discussed, complemented by a discussion on the challenges and the use of appropriate methodologies for assessing chemical footprints to stimulate further research and discussion on the topic. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013;9:623-632. © 2013 SETAC. PMID:23907984

Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

2013-10-01

222

Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.  

PubMed

There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared with their simple pharmaceutical counterparts. To some extent, these problems can be overcome by performing early population-level simulations, which can lead to the identification and collection of data on critical input parameters. Finally, it is important to understand that a test strategy does not necessarily lead to more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is possible that the test will lead to not only fewer QALYs but also fewer costs, which can be defined as "decremental" cost per QALYs. Different decision criteria are needed to interpret such results. PMID:24034308

Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

223

Flood risk model for probabilistic safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The report describes a methodology developed for treating internal flooding. The goal of the methodology is to quantitatively estimate the frequency of flooding and the conditional probability of reactor core damage given that flooding occurs. The method models leak size, component height, watertight volumes, the potential volume of flood sources, water removal systems and recovery of faulted systems, isolation procedures, and the time dependence of all these quantities.

Bott, T.F.

1992-06-01

224

Safety Assessment of Fuel Rods via Generalized Bernoulli Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic safety assessed to N fuel rods assembled in one core of a nuclear reactor is commonly modelled by the sum of N independent Bernoulli random variables, i.e. 1 or 0, with individual safety probability pi that the i-th rod shows no failure during one cycle, coded by 1. The requirement set by the German Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission (Reactor Safety Commission)

Michael Falk; Lothar Heins; Andreas Wensauer

2006-01-01

225

Probabilistic assessment of financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags-part I: the methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized methodology for stochastic\\/probabilistic assessment of the annual financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags. The costs of interruptions and voltage sags are treated separately and then combined in order to estimate the total financial losses in the network per annum. The methodology proposed is applicable to both assessment of individual customer losses and assessment

Jovica V. Milanovic ´; Chandra P. Gupta

2006-01-01

226

Pharmacological Mechanism-Based Drug Safety Assessment and Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in cheminformatics, bioinformatics, and pharmacology in the context of biological systems are now at a point that these tools can be applied to mechanism-based drug safety assessment and prediction. The development of such predictive tools at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will complement ongoing efforts in drug safety that are focused on spontaneous adverse event reporting and

D R Abernethy; J Woodcock; L J Lesko; Abernethy

2011-01-01

227

Performance and review of safety assessment for decommissioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Safety assessment is required by national and international safety standards to be performed for all stages of life cycle of facilities that are using radioactive material. It is required to be performed by operators and reviewed by regulators in support of a decommissioning plan for every facility before decommissioning commences.

K. Percival; S. Thierfeldt; A. Joubert; J. Kaulard; P. Manson; R. Ferch; B. Batandjieva

2007-01-01

228

Compressed Natural Gas Bus Safety: A Quantitative Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results

Samuel Chamberlain; Mohammad Modarres

2005-01-01

229

R&D on support to ITER safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

After performing its first ITER safety assessment in 2002 on behalf of the French “Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire (ASN)”, the French “Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN)” is now analysing the new ITER Fusion facility safety file. The operator delivered this file to the ASN as part of its request for a creation decree, legally necessary before building

J. P. Van Dorsselaere; D. Perrault; M. Barrachin; A. Bentaib; J. Bez; P. Cortès; C. Seropian; N. Trégourès; J. Vendel

2009-01-01

230

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: Methods and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and

Nick Andrews

231

The BDD-based assessment method of project safety risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess project safety risk, this paper proposes a quantitative method based on BDD(Binary Decision Diagram). After constructing the BDD with fault tree of safety risk event, the method traverses the BDD and computes the occurrence probability of risk event. For the convenient implementation with computer program, it can get analysis results efficiently and accurately. So it is very suitable

Liqiong Yang; Shirong Li; Yufeng Xiao

2011-01-01

232

Instruments for assessing risk of bias and other methodological criteria of published animal studies: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Background: Results from animal toxicology studies are critical to evaluating the potential harm from exposure to environmental chemicals or the safety of drugs prior to human testing. However, there is significant debate about how to evaluate the methodology and potential biases of the animal studies. There is no agreed-upon approach, and a systematic evaluation of current best practices is lacking.Objective: We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate instruments for assessing the risk of bias and/or other methodological criteria of animal studies.Method: We searched Medline (January 1966-November 2011) to identify all relevant articles. We extracted data on risk of bias criteria (e.g., randomization, blinding, allocation concealment) and other study design features included in each assessment instrument.Discussion: Thirty distinct instruments were identified, with the total number of assessed risk of bias, methodological, and/or reporting criteria ranging from 2 to 25. The most common criteria assessed were randomization (25/30, 83%), investigator blinding (23/30, 77%), and sample size calculation (18/30, 60%). In general, authors failed to empirically justify why these or other criteria were included. Nearly all (28/30, 93%) of the instruments have not been rigorously tested for validity or reliability.Conclusion: Our review highlights a number of risk of bias assessment criteria that have been empirically tested for animal research, including randomization, concealment of allocation, blinding, and accounting for all animals. In addition, there is a need for empirically testing additional methodological criteria and assessing the validity and reliability of a standard risk of bias assessment instrument.Citation: Krauth D, Woodruff TJ, Bero L. 2013. Instruments for assessing risk of bias and other methodological criteria of published animal studies: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 121:985-992 (2013);?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206389. PMID:23771496

Krauth, David; Woodruff, Tracey J; Bero, Lisa

2013-06-10

233

Instruments for Assessing Risk of Bias and Other Methodological Criteria of Published Animal Studies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Results from animal toxicology studies are critical to evaluating the potential harm from exposure to environmental chemicals or the safety of drugs prior to human testing. However, there is significant debate about how to evaluate the methodology and potential biases of the animal studies. There is no agreed-upon approach, and a systematic evaluation of current best practices is lacking. Objective: We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate instruments for assessing the risk of bias and/or other methodological criteria of animal studies. Method: We searched Medline (January 1966–November 2011) to identify all relevant articles. We extracted data on risk of bias criteria (e.g., randomization, blinding, allocation concealment) and other study design features included in each assessment instrument. Discussion: Thirty distinct instruments were identified, with the total number of assessed risk of bias, methodological, and/or reporting criteria ranging from 2 to 25. The most common criteria assessed were randomization (25/30, 83%), investigator blinding (23/30, 77%), and sample size calculation (18/30, 60%). In general, authors failed to empirically justify why these or other criteria were included. Nearly all (28/30, 93%) of the instruments have not been rigorously tested for validity or reliability. Conclusion: Our review highlights a number of risk of bias assessment criteria that have been empirically tested for animal research, including randomization, concealment of allocation, blinding, and accounting for all animals. In addition, there is a need for empirically testing additional methodological criteria and assessing the validity and reliability of a standard risk of bias assessment instrument. Citation: Krauth D, Woodruff TJ, Bero L. 2013. Instruments for assessing risk of bias and other methodological criteria of published animal studies: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 121:985–992 (2013);?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206389

Krauth, David; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2013-01-01

234

A Mechanistic, Model-Based Approach to Safety Assessment in Clinical Development  

PubMed Central

Assessing the safety of pharmacotherapies is a primary goal of clinical trials in drug development. The low frequency of relevant side effects, however, often poses a significant challenge for risk assessment. Methodologies allowing robust extrapolation of safety statistics based on preclinical data and information from clinical trials with limited numbers of patients are hence needed to further improve safety and efficacy in the drug development process. Here, we present a generic systems pharmacology approach integrating prior physiological and pharmacological knowledge, preclinical data, and clinical trial results, which allows predicting adverse event rates related to drug exposure. Possible fields of application involve high-risk populations, novel drug candidates, and different dosing scenarios. As an example, the approach is applied to simvastatin and pravastatin and the prediction of myopathy rates in a population with a genotype leading to a significantly increased myopathy risk.

Lippert, J; Brosch, M; von Kampen, O; Meyer, M; Siegmund, H.-U; Schafmayer, C; Becker, T; Laffert, B; Gorlitz, L; Schreiber, S; Neuvonen, P J; Niemi, M; Hampe, J; Kuepfer, L

2012-01-01

235

Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.

Cooper, J. Arlin

1999-06-10

236

From research to practical tools—developing assessment tools for safety management and safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates how the findings from research work have been used to develop practical tools for the assessment of safety management systems and attitudes to safety at Major Hazard sites. In describing the process of developing such tools some mention is made of the research work itself, although this is mainly by reference to published material, and some reference

Nick Hurst

1997-01-01

237

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

238

Use of Quantitative Risk Assessments in Blood Safety ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionUse of Quantitative Risk Assessments in Blood Safety Regulation. Jay S. Epstein, MD. Director, OBRR, CBER. FDA Workshop ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents

239

Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may...

J. A. Cooper

1999-01-01

240

Update: Interim Safety and Risk Assessment of Melamine and ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The October 2008 interim safety and risk assessment considered the potential public health concerns from food, including infant formula, containing ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants

241

Methodology in business ethics research: A review and critical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 published empirical articles in academic journals as a data base, this paper provides a critical review of the methodology employed in the study of ethical beliefs and behavior of organizational members. The review revealed that full methodological detail was provided in less than one half of the articles. Further, the majority of empirical research articles expressed no concern

D. M. Randall; A. M. Gibson

1990-01-01

242

Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1998-09-01

243

Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1998-09-01

244

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

245

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable

Keith T. Atherton

2002-01-01

246

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

247

Safety assessment of probiotics for human use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of the potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are living organisms when administ...

248

Review of quality assessment tools for the evaluation of pharmacoepidemiological safety studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives Pharmacoepidemiological studies are an important hypothesis-testing tool in the evaluation of postmarketing drug safety. Despite the potential to produce robust value-added data, interpretation of findings can be hindered due to well-recognised methodological limitations of these studies. Therefore, assessment of their quality is essential to evaluating their credibility. The objective of this review was to evaluate the suitability and relevance of available tools for the assessment of pharmacoepidemiological safety studies. Design We created an a priori assessment framework consisting of reporting elements (REs) and quality assessment attributes (QAAs). A comprehensive literature search identified distinct assessment tools and the prespecified elements and attributes were evaluated. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the percentage representation of each domain, RE and QAA for the quality assessment tools. Results A total of 61 tools were reviewed. Most tools were not designed to evaluate pharmacoepidemiological safety studies. More than 50% of the reviewed tools considered REs under the research aims, analytical approach, outcome definition and ascertainment, study population and exposure definition and ascertainment domains. REs under the discussion and interpretation, results and study team domains were considered in less than 40% of the tools. Except for the data source domain, quality attributes were considered in less than 50% of the tools. Conclusions Many tools failed to include critical assessment elements relevant to observational pharmacoepidemiological safety studies and did not distinguish between REs and QAAs. Further, there is a lack of considerations on the relative weights of different domains and elements. The development of a quality assessment tool would facilitate consistent, objective and evidence-based assessments of pharmacoepidemiological safety studies.

Neyarapally, George A; Hammad, Tarek A; Pinheiro, Simone P; Iyasu, Solomon

2012-01-01

249

RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION FROM LANDFILL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminant concentration criteria are required to prevent contaminant infiltration from leading to conditions which exceed health criteria. A methodology of groundwater has been described which may be used to select those criteria and quantify concentrations associated with plac...

250

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

251

Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for Coal-Fired Power Plants. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA)...

Y. Onishi S. B. Yabusaki C. R. Cole W. E. Davis G. Whelan

1982-01-01

252

Performance Assessment Methodology for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Unsaturated, Fractured Tuff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories, under contract ot the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodol...

D. P. Gallegos

1991-01-01

253

Guiding Principles of USGS Methodology for Assessment of Undiscovered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 years, the methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources used by the Geological Survey has undergone considerable change. This evolution has been based on five major principles. First, the U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for a wide range of U.S. and world assessments and requires a robust methodology suitable for immaturely explored as

Ronald R. Charpentier; T. R. Klett

2005-01-01

254

Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that mitigation measures are not conducted. The effects of long-term climate change are considered. The potential for seismically induced geological changes is considered, but is not being actively evaluated during this iteration of the safety assessment. Drilling intrusion and post-intrusion resident scenarios are included. Conceptual models to represent the behavior of the repository under these scenarios have been implemented. A characteristic feature of the Vaalputs repository is its extreme aridity. Observations at the site suggest that recharge at the site is extremely low, and that the predominant moisture movement is upwards in the first few meters below the ground surface, following infrequent episodic precipitation. This means that waste packages in the upper few meters experience different release and transport mechanisms than deeper waste packages. The paper describes the Vaalputs repository, and approaches taken for the safety assessment. The paper also presents results of the safety assessment, and describes the implications of those results on waste management activities at Vaalputs. References IAEA, Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities, Results of a Coordinated Research Project, Volume 1: Review and Enhancement of Safety Assessment Approaches and Tools, IAEA- ISAM, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2004.

Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

2006-12-01

255

Leveraging Existing Assessments of Risk Now (LEARN) Safety Analysis: A Method for Extending Patient Safety Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective risk assessments are being conducted at health care institutions across the country in response to the Joint Commission requirement. However, an opportunity is being missed to combine these risk assessments to identify generic risks and risk contributors across institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) applies a successful methodology, known as \\

Donna M. Woods; Jane L. Holl; Jon Young; Sally Reynolds; Ellen Schwalenstocker; Robert Wears; Julia Barnathan; Laura Amsden

256

Process waste assessment plan: Environmental safety and health programs. Revision C  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish a procedure and schedule for conducting process waste assessments (PWAS) at the Pinellas Plant. The plan specifies those activities and methods that will be employed to characterize all waste streams and to identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The plan also includes a methodology for evaluating proposed modifications to site processes and other options to minimize waste. The plan is intended to satisfy the requirement of the Pinellas Plant Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan to conduct PWAS. The plan will also include an assessment of safety, hazards and ergonomics associated with each waste stream.

Poole, R.L.; Hall, R.L.

1992-06-18

257

Safety assessment of platform loadout procedures based on unascertained measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment of offshore platforms is an urgent task. Such assessments are now focusing on the structure, maintenance, and retirement of a platform. Some methods employed have many shortcomings. For example, they cannot make the reliability adequately explicable. Therefore, a mathematical tool, the unascertained measure, was introduced. First, the basic knowledge of the unascertained sets was introduced briefly. Second, the unascertained measure was defined and credible identification was set up. The method has been introduced into the fields for safety assessment of a jacket loadout procedure. Engineering practices showed that it can complete the safety assessment systematically and scientifically without any assumption. The work should have significance in theory and practice for offshore engineering.

Li, Yancang; Suo, Juanjuan

2007-10-01

258

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

259

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M.

2008-07-01

260

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

261

Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

Yukawa, S.

1990-04-01

262

Risk assessments: From reactor safety to health care  

SciTech Connect

The Laboratory`s Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program (FESSP) performs engineering risk assessments to study and assess the safety, reliability, and effectiveness of various products, processes, and facilities. Evolving methods and techniques are discussed in the context of four cases: an analysis to develop seismic criteria for siting and design of nuclear power plants, risk analysis of reactor coolant piping systems to establish new piping design objectives and increase nuclear power plant safety, study of risks involved in the transport of spent reactor fuel to determine the level of safety provided during transport and the adequacy of existing transport regulations for such material, and development of an approach to identify human-initiated risks in the use of nuclear medical devices such as the Gamma Knife.

NONE

1995-08-01

263

Strategic environmental assessment methodologies—applications within the energy sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical tools can be used in the assessment. Several analytical tools are presented and their relation to SEA is discussed including methods for future studies, Life Cycle Assessment, Risk Assessment, Economic Valuation and Multi-Attribute Approaches. A framework for the integration of some

Goeran Finnveden; Maans Nilsson; Jessica Johansson; Åsa Persson; Åsa Moberg; Tomas Carlsson

2003-01-01

264

The current status and future aspects in formal ship safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal ship safety assessment is a new approach that has attracted great attention in the marine industry over the last several years. In this paper, following a brief review of the current status of maritime safety assessment, a formal ship safety assessment framework is presented. The five steps in formal ship safety assessment are then briefly discussed. This is followed

J. Wang

2001-01-01

265

Study of the Safety Assessment Model of Coal Mine Based on BP Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the complexity of coal mine safety assessment and BP neural network's ability to handle complex problem and auto-adaptive ability, the application of BP neural network in the coal mine safety assessment is necessary and feasible. This paper proposes the principle of safety assessment index system establishment and establishs coal mine safety assessment index system, introduces neural network and

Yongjian Fan; Jianying Mai; Yanguang Shen

2009-01-01

266

Assessment of a French scenario with the INPRO methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the French contribution to the Joint Study of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). It concerns the application of the INPRO methodology to a French scenario, on the transition from present LWRs to EPRs in a first phase and to 4. generation fast reactors in a second phase during the 21.

A. Vasile; G. L. Fiorini; J. Cazalet; F. L. Linet; V. Moulin; D. Greneche

2006-01-01

267

Empirical assessment of languages for teaching concurrency: Methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concurrency has been rapidly gaining importance in computing, and correspondingly in computing curricula. Concurrent programming is, however, notoriously hard even for expert programmers. New language designs promise to make it easier, but such claims call for empirical validation. We present a methodology for comparing concurrent languages for teaching purposes. A critical challenge is to avoid bias, especially when (as in

Sebastian Nanz; Faraz Torshizi; Michela Pedroni; Bertrand Meyer

2011-01-01

268

A Time-Based Methodology for Assessment of Individual Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is pointed out that education should be geared to the individual student; yet implementation of individualized programs has been slow. A set step in the area of individualized instruction should be the development of an appropriate methodology for recording and analyzing a student's performance. This paper is an attempt to provide the recording…

Alba, Enrique

269

Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: a new methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Facing the multiplication of entrepreneurship education programmes (EEP) and the increasing resources allocated, there is a need to develop a common framework to evaluate the design of those programmes. The purpose of this article is to propose such a framework, based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – TPB is a relevant tool to model the

Alain Fayolle; Benoît Gailly; Narjisse Lassas-Clerc

2006-01-01

270

Assessment of safety culture maturity in a hospital setting.  

PubMed

The Manchester Patient Safety Culture Assessment Tool (MaPSCAT) was used to examine the levels of safety culture maturity in four programs across one large healthcare organization. The MaPSCAT is based on a theoretical framework that was developed in the United Kingdom through extensive literature reviews and expert input. It provides a view of safety culture on 10 dimensions (continuous improvement, priority given to safety, system errors and individual responsibility, recording incidents, evaluating incidents, learning and effecting change, communication, personnel management, staff education and teamwork) at five progressive levels of safety maturity. These levels are pathological ("Why waste our time on safety?"), reactive ("We do something when we have an incident"), bureaucratic ("We have systems in place to manage safety"), proactive ("We are always on alert for risks") and generative ("Risk management is an integral part of everything we do"). This article highlights the use of a new tool, the results of a study completed with this tool and how the results can be used to advance safety culture. PMID:20959739

Law, Madelyn P; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Baker, G Ross; Smith, Teresa

2010-09-01

271

[Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].  

PubMed

The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants. PMID:20449554

Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

2010-06-01

272

A fuzzy logic methodology for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems  

SciTech Connect

A new approach for fault-tree analysis in critical safety systems employing fuzzy sets for information representation is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on the utilization of the extension principle for mapping crisp measurements to various degrees of membership in the fuzzy set of linguistic Truth. Criticality alarm systems are used in miscellaneous nuclear fuel processing, handling, and storage facilities to reduce the risk associated with fissile material operations. Fault-tree methodologies are graphic illustrations of tile failure logic associated with the development of a particular system failure (top event) from basic subcomponent failures (primary events). The term event denotes a dynamic change of state that occurs to system elements, which may include hardware, software, human, or environmental factors. A fault-tree represents a detailed, deductive, analysis that requires extensive system information. The knowledge incorporated in a fault tree can be articulated in logical rules of the form [open quotes]IF A is true THEN B is true.[close quotes] However, it is well known that this type of syllogism fails to give an answer when the satisfaction of the antecedent clause is only partial. Zadeh suggested a new type of fuzzy conditional inference. This type of syllogism (generalized modus ponens) reads as follows: Premise: A is partially true Implication: IF A is true THEN B is true Conclusion: B is partially-true. In generalized modus ponens, the antecedent is true only to some degree; hence, it is desired to compute the grade to which the consequent is satisfied. Fuzzy sets provide a natural environment for this type of computation because fuzzy variables (e.g., B) can take fuzzy values (e.g., partially-true).

Erbay, A.; Ikonomopoulos, A. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1993-01-01

273

Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users

V. H. Oswal

2001-01-01

274

Exploration on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in China  

PubMed Central

More and more applications of nanomaterials have been achieved in the biomedicine field. Numerous nanomedical devices, such as bone grafts with nano-hydroxyapatite and the silver-based anti-bacteria products, have been developed and have been trying to enter into the Chinese market. The State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) is facing a critical challenge of how to explore and supervise the safety assessment of the nanomedical products. This paper briefly introduces the approval status of nanomedical products and the current advances of the safety assessment of nanomaterials in China.

Shi, Xin-Li; Wang, Qiangbin; Hu, Kun; Wang, Xiu-Mei

2012-01-01

275

Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Methodology  

PubMed Central

Background: More than 90% of visual impairment can either be treated or avoided. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology provides valid estimates in short time to assess magnitude and causes of blindness. Aims: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in persons above 50 years in Kolar, South India, using the above methodology. Materials and Methods: Sixty one clusters of 50 people aged above 50 years were selected by probability-proportionate to size sampling. Participants were evaluated using a standardized survey form. Persons with vision <20/60 were dilated and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results: Of the 3050 people listed 2907 were examined (95.3%). Prevalence of bilateral blindness in persons was 3.9%; severe visual impairment 3.5%, and visual impairment 10.4%. Untreated cataract was the leading cause of blindness (74.6%) and severe visual impairment (73.3%). Avoidable causes of blindness accounted for 91.2% of all blindness and 95.0% of severe visual impairment. ‘Waiting for maturity’ and ‘No one to accompany’ were the most common barriers to uptake of cataract surgery. Conclusion: Untreated cataract continues to be the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Modified strategies need to be implemented to tackle the burden of cataract blindness.

Bettadapura, Guruprasad S; Donthi, Krishnamurthy; Datti, Narendra P; Ranganath, Bommanahalli G; Ramaswamy, Shamanna B; Jayaram, Tejal S

2012-01-01

276

Assessing the Assessments: Improving Methodologies for Impact Assessment in Transboundary Watercourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transboundary impact assessment (TIA) has become an important environmental management tool, particularly where a project may have transboundary impacts. With the growing practice of TIA, it becomes important to consider the accuracy of the transboundary impact assessments that are being conducted. If TIA is a planning tool designed to provide a basis for making an informed decision, does it actually

CARL BRUCH; MIKIYASU NAKAYAMA; JESSICA TROELL; LISA GOLDMAN; ELIZABETH MARUMA MREMA

2007-01-01

277

A Review of Vulnerability Assessment Methodologies for Alpine Hazards: The need for a new methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain hazards such as landslides, floods and avalanches pose a serious threat to human lives and development and can cause considerable damage to lifelines, critical infrastructure, agricultural lands, housing, public and private infrastructure and assets. The assessment of the vulnerability of the built environment to these hazards is a topic that is growing in importance due to climate change impacts.

M. Papathoma-Koehle; M. Keiler

2009-01-01

278

Streamlined life cycle assessment of carbon footprint of a tourist food menu using probabilistic underspecification methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a methodology based on life cycle assessment streamlining techniques to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of a meal. The methodology was applied to estimate the meal CF of twenty-four people on a 4-days Galapagos Island tour using over three hundred existing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) results in the food industry. In spite of the abundance of food LCA

Yin Jin Lee; Xu Yang; Edgar Blanco

2012-01-01

279

Using PBPK modeling and comprehensive realism methodology for the quantitative cancer risk assessment of butadiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Academy of Sciences and many others have noted the need for quantitative health risk assessment methodology that goes beyond a simple screening analysis based on upper bounds on risk. The Academy recommended adoption of methodologies which provide a higher-tier analysis based on realistic estimates of risk which reflect more of the available biological information. In recent years, scientists

Robert L. Sielken; Richard H. Reitz; Scan M. Hays

1996-01-01

280

A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups,

E. R. Taylor Jr.; C. H. Eichler; P. R. Barnes

1988-01-01

281

MODEL BASED METHODOLOGY FOR REMEDIAL ACTION ASSESSMENT AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a remedial action assessment methodology for uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The model-based methodology consists of three key elements: a set of sophisticated models (one for each hydrologic zone), a data base structure and associated programs to transmit...

282

METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE DAMAGES IN LOW VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT DUE TO LIGHTNING SURGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be

Nelson M. Matsuo; Nelson Kagan; Ivo T. Domingues; Nelson C. de Jesus; Edson H. Takauti

283

Conceptually and Methodologically Vexing Issues in Teacher Knowledge Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe the vexing issues that arise as researchers try to define and assess the knowledge teachers need to teach reading and writing effectively in the primary grades. Over the past several years, the authors of this article have developed and tested an assessment system of teacher knowledge under a grant titled The Primary

D. Ray Reutzel; Janice A. Dole; Sylvia Read; Parker Fawson; Kerry Herman; Cindy D. Jones; Richard Sudweeks; Jamison Fargo

2011-01-01

284

Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

Hassan, O. A. B.

2011-01-01

285

Application of risk assessment methodology to transborder data flow  

SciTech Connect

The formal application of risk assessment to computer systems first gained popularity in 1975. As a result, many business organizations and government agencies have established policies and regulations governing the conditions and procedures that are used in limiting their exposure to risks. This report describes the benefits that may arise from applying a formal risk assessment technique to transborder data flow (TDF) issues.

Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Lobel, J.

1985-01-01

286

Principles to guide the development of strategic environmental assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite much recent attention being given to strategic environmental assessment (SEA), there are considerable difficulties moving from a useful concept to widespread and enduring practice. This may be partly because the proponents of the policies, programmes and plans (PPPs) and the decision-makers remain unaware, or unconvinced, that SEA can add value to the existing processes in PPP development, assessment and

A. L. Brown; Riki Thérivel

2000-01-01

287

Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations\\/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach

W. P. Davis; G. I. Scott; C. D. Getter; M. O. Hayes; E. R. Gundlach

1980-01-01

288

Methodologies for assessing performance of irrigation and drainage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework irrigation managers can use in assessing performance of irrigation, and recommends a specific set of indicators for measuring performance that the authors believe are practical, useful, and generally applicable. Although the primary focus is on the management of canal systems for agricultural production, the paper also discusses indicators that can be used for assessing longer

M. G. Bos; D. H. Murray-Rust; D. J. Merrey; H. G. Johnson; W. B. Snellen

1993-01-01

289

A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes;

S. Vorogushyn; B. Merz; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; H. Apel

2010-01-01

290

Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published

J. F. England; T. J. Nicholson; R. Prasad

2008-01-01

291

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

2008-01-01

292

A methodology for vulnerability assessment of backup protection under cascading failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid undesired operation of backup protection caused by load encroachment under cascading failures, the methodology for vulnerability assessment of backup protection is studied. In this paper, the vulnerability assessment of backup protections is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, which is solved by the binary particle swarm optimization approach. The measurement index for assessing the vulnerability of

W. H. Yang; T. S. Bi; S. F. Huang; A. C. Xue; Q. X. Yang

2010-01-01

293

Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Multiple Pathways of Exposure to Combustor Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) has prepared this methodology in response to the 1993 Combustion Strategy for Hazardous Waste Incinerators released by the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Among other...

1999-01-01

294

Investigation of Risk Assessment Methodology for Dam Gates and Associated Operating Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with investigation of risk assessment methodologies, existing in literature, pertaining to dam gates and associated operating equipment conducted in Phase I of this research. More than 60 references have been studied in detail as part of...

C. S. Putcha R. C. Patev

2000-01-01

295

EMERGING METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPLEX MIXTURES; THE INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment of complex mixtures of environmental pollutants requires new interdisciplinary strategies. The integration of bioassay methodologies into these strategies is an important tool which provides direct evidence of the toxicity of a mixture. Short-term genetic bioassays...

296

A FORTRAN Program for Assessing Unidimensionality of Binary Data Using Holland and Rosenbaum's Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology of P. E. Holland and P. R. Rosenbaum (1986) to assess unidimensionality of binary data is outlined and illustrated through a simulation with 36 items for 2,000 examinees. How to interpret the results is discussed. (SLD)

Nandakumar, Ratna

1993-01-01

297

Biomarkers: Dynamic "Tools" for Health and Safety Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Today informational flow from biomarkers contributes importantly to various types of health effects research, risk assessment and risk management decisions that impact, or have the potential to impact, public health and safety. Therefore, dependent upon the nature of the health r...

298

Improving Risk Assessment for Nontarget Safety of Transgenic Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries, government regulations require environmental risk as- sessment prior to commercial sale and widespread planting of transgenic crops. Here I evaluate the design and statistical rigor of experiments used by industry to assess the safety of transgenic plants for nontarget organisms, as required under U.S. regulations. This review reveals that a few simple improvements in experimental design could

Michelle Marvier

2002-01-01

299

Project Safety Net: A Health Screening Outreach and Assessment Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Safety Net identifies low-income urban frail elderly and provides comprehensive geriatric assessment and referral. During 8-month period, 814 older persons were screened including high proportions who were widowed (51%) and who lived alone (66%). Effectiveness of program remains to be determined in randomized clinical trials. (Author/NB)

Reuben, David B.; And Others

1993-01-01

300

Quantitative risk assessment—a place in laser safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976 the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MOD) has used quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as a tool to manage the risks involved with airborne laser rangefinders and target designators. It has done this against the background of the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the regulations made under this act. These apply equally to MOD and civilian

R. Gardner; P. A. Smith

1995-01-01

301

A National Estimate of Performance: Statewide Highway Safety Program Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A nationwide systematic approach to assess the developments and achievements of highway safety activities was conducted to measure program outputs from 1969 through 1974 using key indicators of performance such as ratios and percentages. A sample of 10 states was selected with overall sample of 105 local jurisdictions which would provide…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

302

Modeling issues associated with production reactor safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) modeling issues that are related to the unique design and operation of the production reactors. The identification of initiating events and determination of a set of success criteria for the production reactors is of concern because of their unique design. The modeling of accident recovery must take into account the unique operation

D. W. Stack; W. R. Thomas

1990-01-01

303

Probabilistic safety assessment of support systems for CANDU stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has performed probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor support systems since 1975. AECL's experience in the use of PSAs on support system and the application of the PSA for the CANDU 3 are described. The PSA work reviews support system failures such as loss of service

1991-01-01

304

Vapor explosion phenomena with respect to nuclear reactor safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stringent licensing procedures for commercial nuclear reactor operation require an in-depth analysis of the phenomena associated with postulated reactor core overheating accidents. One aspect of nuclear reactor safety assessment is a prediction of the consequences of interaction between molten fuel and coolant, in which rapid heat transfer from the fuel may lead to explosive vaporization of the coolant. Some of

A. W. Cronenberg; R. Benz

1978-01-01

305

Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

NONE

1989-05-01

306

Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school,safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research...

307

Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products

Zhang-Liang Chen; Hongya Gu; Yi Li; Yilan Su; Ping Wu; Zhicheng Jiang; Xiaotian Ming; Jinhua Tian; Naisui Pan; Li-Jia Qu

2003-01-01

308

Assessing Student Perceptions of School Victimization and School Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to assess students' perceptions of victimization in their schools, as well as their schools' safety, over 1,900 students from elementary, middle, high, and alternative schools were administered a 154-item questionnaire. The responses on the items were used to establish the psychometric properties of 19 theoretically driven scales and subscales developed by the researchers. The results support the

Irina R. Soderstrom; Preston Elrod

2006-01-01

309

Food safety regulation, economic impact assessment and quantitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with a call for more efficient regulations in the EU, there is a growing demand for transparency in the evaluation techniques to assess and predict their effects. This article explores the potential impacts of food safety regulations and discusses the quantitative methods used in the policy evaluation literature. Along with the strengths and limitations of each method, this review

Maddalena Ragona; Mario Mazzocchi

2008-01-01

310

Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including

B. N. Odell; H. E. Pfeifer

1981-01-01

311

Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including

B. N. Odell; H. E. Pfeifer

1981-01-01

312

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

313

Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment for Tank 38H Salt Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

This assessment report of sample results of the accumulating insoluble solids from Tank 38H demonstrates that an inherent subcritical condition for nuclear criticality safety exists during saltcake dissolution. This report also defines criteria for future sampling of Tank 38H for continued verification of the inherent subcritical condition as saltcake dissolution proceeds.

Davis, P.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-23

314

Use of Magellan Images for Venus Landing Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the use of Magellan radar stereo images to assess landing safety. For a sample area in Fortuna Tessera we show that steep (>20 deg) 100-m-scale slopes are rare and that the typical surface is not covered with boulders.

Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W., III

2004-03-01

315

Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.  

PubMed

Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design. PMID:18406519

Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

2008-03-04

316

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

Not Available

1992-05-01

317

Update and Refinement of an Indoor Exposure Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary mission of the ARB Indoor Program is to identify and reduce Californians' exposures to indoor pollutants. To fully consider indoor exposures in assessing risk, the ARB needs estimates of average and peak indoor exposures for the general Califo...

A. S. Rosenbuam J. P. Cohen F. Kavoosi

2002-01-01

318

Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

Edwards, Gareth [63 Woodlands Road, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9TD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gareth.edwards@novelfoods.co.uk

2005-09-01

319

Assessing avian richness in remnant wetlands: Towards an improved methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because the North American Breeding Bird Survey provides inadequate coverage of wetland habitat, the Wetland Breeding Bird Survey was recently established in Ohio, USA. This program relies on volunteers to conduct 3 counts at each monitored wetland. Currently, all counts are conducted during the morning. Under the premise that volunteer participation could be increased by allowing evening counts, we evaluated the potential for modifying the methodology. We evaluated the sampling efficiency of all 3-count combinations of morning and evening counts using data collected at 14 wetlands. Estimates of overall species richness decreased with increasing numbers of evening counts. However, this pattern did not hold when analyses were restricted to wetland-dependent species or those of conservation concern. Our findings suggest that it would be reasonable to permit evening counts, particularly if the data are to be used to monitor wetland dependent species and those of concern.

Krzys, Greg; Waite, Thomas A.; Stapanian, Martin; Vucetich, John A.

2002-01-01

320

Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

Browne, E.T.

1981-03-01

321

Improving timeliness and efficiency in the referral process for safety net providers: application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology.  

PubMed

Designated primary care clinics largely serve low-income and uninsured patients who present a disproportionate number of chronic illnesses and face great difficulty in obtaining the medical care they need, particularly the access to specialty physicians. With limited capacity for providing specialty care, these primary care clinics generally refer patients to safety net hospitals' specialty ambulatory care clinics. A large public safety net health system successfully improved the effectiveness and efficiency of the specialty clinic referral process through application of Lean Six Sigma, an advanced process-improvement methodology and set of tools driven by statistics and engineering concepts. PMID:20228635

Deckard, Gloria J; Borkowski, Nancy; Diaz, Deisell; Sanchez, Carlos; Boisette, Serge A

322

Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources  

SciTech Connect

Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty surrounding potential unconventional gas resources.

Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A., E-mail: mcvay@pe.tamu.edu; Lee, W. John [Texas A and M University, Department of Petroleum Engineering, 3116 TAMU (United States)

2010-12-15

323

LISA (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment): A Code for Safety Assessment in Nuclear Waste Disposals Program Description and User Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The code LISA (Long Term Isolation Safety Assessment), developed at the Joint Research Center, Ispra is a useful tool in the analysis of the hazard due to the disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations. The risk linked to preestablished release sc...

A. Saltelli G. Bertozzi D. A. Stanners

1984-01-01

324

Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-02-01

325

Methodological Issues in Assessing the Evidence for Compulsory Community Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is controversy as to whether compulsory community treatment (CCT) reduces health service use, or im- proves clinical outcome and social functioning. Given the widespread use of such powers in North America, Europe and Australasia, it is important to assess the benefits and potential harms of this type of legislation. Unfortunately, evidence for their effectiveness remains weak. In our Cochrane

Stephen Kisely; Leslie Anne Campbell

2007-01-01

326

Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education

Michael Davis Bertz

1998-01-01

327

METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SALINITY CONTROL.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The performance of subsurface drainage systems is rarely evaluated after installation either for physical or financial performance. Moreover, assessments are rarely made regarding the completion of salinity reclamation and hence the need to move to a reduced drainage requirement. This paper provide...

328

METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT FROM POWER PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are different options that could be used in order to assess human health impact from power plants. Tools as monitoring campaigns, epidemiology and mathematical models must be based on strength scientific evidenced and valid epidemiological theory and practice. On the other hand, as a consequence of the technology used in energy production and of the type of fuel, the

Adrian Badea; Tiberiu Apostol

329

USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

330

Multimethod Personality Profile Assessment Methodology: Alcohol Abusers versus Nonalcoholic Controls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The approach of this study involved multimethod personality assessment via a composite profile derived by averaging self-report inventory/questionnaire data, direct self-ratings, and peer ratings, all basd on a common set of construct definitions. The per...

J. S. Majors

1982-01-01

331

Methodology for Integral Water Pollution Assessment within Agricultural Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main economy branch in the Province of Vojvodina is agriculture, which has significantly influenced water quality of watercourses as well as groundwater. Both nonpoint and point source of pollution are present in the form of agricultural runoff from arable land and point sources from farm wastewater discharges. Pollution assessment stated by the EU Water Framework Directive requires the application

Jasna Piperski; Pavel Benka; Atila Bezdan; Atila Salvai

2010-01-01

332

Automobile Fuel Demand: A Critical Assessment of Empirical Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many surveys have attempted to convey and synthesize the information of hundreds of studies on automobile fuel demand. In most cases, the focus has been placed in giving assessments of the most likely values of various elasticities, particularly price and income, while trying to explain the differences between results. However, given the summary characteristic of these surveys, the most popular

Leonardo J. Basso; Tae Hoon Oum

2007-01-01

333

A Technology Assessment Methodology. Volume I. Some Basic Propositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one of six reports on the subject of technology assessment prepared by MITRE for the Office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President. The purpose of this project was to develop a standard, structured method for making studies d...

M. V. Jones

1971-01-01

334

National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources: Methodology Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-40, 2007), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline form...

M. D. Merrill M. L. Buursink M. S. Blondes P. D. Warwick S. T. Brennan

2013-01-01

335

Some specialized risk assessment methodologies for vertebrate populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present three empirical methods for risk assessment in field studies of free-ranging vertebrates. First, we advocate statistical inference concerning population recruitment or mortality in response to ecological hazards. Second, if inferences about both recruitment and mortality are available, one can use a Leslie- Lefkovitch matrix to estimate the finite rate of population change (?) as a function of ecological

David R. Anderson; Gary C. White; Kenneth P. Burnham

1995-01-01

336

STREAM, AN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure assessments for pesticides used in agriculture require the estimation of both pesticide runoff from fields and resulting concentrations in streams in order to predict the potential aquatic and/or health risk posed by pesticide usage. he and duration of pesticide concentr...

337

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. Th...

S. A. Eide S. A. Atkinson T. A. Thatcher

1992-01-01

338

Spiritual assessment in marital and family therapy: a methodological framework for selecting from among six qualitative assessment tools.  

PubMed

Emerging professional and cultural developments underscore the importance of spiritual assessment. Most marriage and family therapists, however, appear to have received little training on the topic. Consequently, this article overviews a complementary family of six recently developed qualitative assessment approaches or tools, an initial brief assessment tool and five comprehensive assessment tools, and presents a methodological framework for using the six tools. To help decide whether or not a comprehensive assessment is warranted after conducting an initial brief assessment, two general guidelines are offered. Suggestions for selecting the appropriate comprehensive assessment tool are also presented, and summarized graphically in the form of a decision tree. The overall methodological framework is designed to be congruent with the recent spiritual assessments recommendations issued by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), the largest healthcare accrediting organization in the United States. PMID:16294684

Hodge, David R

2005-10-01

339

Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

1980-03-01

340

Clearing Unexploded Ordnance: Bayesian Methodology for Assessing Success  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Defense has many Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) that are slated for transfer for public use. Some sites have unexploded ordnance (UXO) that must be cleared prior to any land transfers. Sites are characterized using geophysical sensing devices and locations are identified where possible UXO may be located. In practice, based on the analysis of the geophysical surveys, a dig list of N suspect locations is created for a site that is possibly contaminated with UXO. The suspect locations on the dig list are often assigned into K bins ranging from ``most likely to contain UXO" to ``least likely to be UXO" based on signal discrimination techniques and expert judgment. Usually all dig list locations are sampled to determine if UXO is present before the site is determined to be free of UXO. While this method is 100% certain to insure no UXO remains in the locations identified by the signal discrimination and expert judgment, it is very costly. This paper proposes a statistical Bayesian methodology that may result in digging less than 100% of the suspect locations to reach a pre-defined tolerable risk, where risk is defined in terms of a low probability that any UXO remains in the unsampled dig list locations. Two important features of a Bayesian approach are that it can account for uncertainties in model parameters and that it can handle data that becomes available in stages. The results from each stage of data can be used to direct the subsequent digs.

Anderson, K K.

2005-10-30

341

Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a contribution to the study of hazard caused by the interaction between landslides and river courses. The effects of such interferences are often catastrophic and could include the formation of backwater lakes, potential dam failure, river bed dynamics and morphological alterations. These scenarios could be substantially reduced if it was possible to predict the eventuality that a moving landslide could block the river. This is a complex topic because it involves composite geomorphic phenomena concerning both hillslope and river systems and their interpretation, through model approaches, is still under development and testing. In this study, a methodology developed in the framework of the European Research Project IMPRINTS (FP7), was adopted and integrated in order to identify the areas of triggering and propagation of landslides and to characterize the possible scenarios of the interaction with river networks. Different deterministic and probabilistic approaches, calibrated using a case test in the middle valley of Noce River in Basilicata region (Italy), were applied and compared at basin scale. In this area, a landslide mobilized in July 2007 on the right side slope of the river invaded a gravel-bed reach, characterized by a narrow and confined section, causing its progressive morpho-hydrodynamic change.

Dal Sasso, S. F.; Sole, A.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Bateman Pinzòn, A.; Medina, V.

2013-10-01

342

Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education was completed, with connections and applications to civil engineering education highlighted. The experimental work of the thesis is organized into three parts: an assessment of civil engineering undergraduates' fundamental structural engineering knowledge and abilities; the development and testing of a software support environment for situated learning, the Civil Engineering Learning Library (CELL); and, the implementation and evaluation of the design studio, a pedagogical model for situated learning in the classroom. The results of the assessment study indicate that civil engineering seniors (and also students earlier in the curriculum) have difficulty retaining and applying basic knowledge of structural behavior, especially doing so in a flexible fashion in design situations. The survey also suggests that visualization plays an important role in understanding structural behavior. Tests with the CELL system show that a cognitively-flexible multimedia environment can support structural learning, but were inconclusive about whether the computer-based system helped the students to learn better than conventional classroom lecture. Two trial implementations of the design studio indicate that the studio model can serve as a powerful situated learning environment, and that it can be scaled up to reasonable class sizes. Significant requirements are associated with this model, however, primarily in faculty involvement, but also in physical resources and student time. In addition to these conclusions about the specific research efforts of this thesis, other more general observations of the difficulty of educational research (and particularly assessment) are discussed, especially in measuring the long-term effects of the desired learning influence. Finally, suggestions for improving these studies are offered, both for software environments and implementing other design studios, along with implications for future work.

Bertz, Michael Davis

343

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the

S. A. Eide; S. A. Atkinson; T. A. Thatcher

1992-01-01

344

Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety Analysis of the US Department of Energy's Central Training Academy) and other DOE complexes (WSI-SRS 1994, Ballistic Risk Assessment of Wackenhut Services, Inc). This safety analysis document (SAD) satisfies the requirements of DOE 0 440.1A. The preparation, review, and approval of this safety assessment document is in accordance with the guidelines of HNF-PRO-700, Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements.

BENDIXSEN, R.B.

2001-09-19

345

12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.  

PubMed Central

The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility.

Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

1997-01-01

346

A methodological approach towards the design of a highly innovative wheelchair with enhanced safety, manoeuvrability and comfort.  

PubMed

This paper presents the methodological framework for the development of an innovative wheelchair able to solve the problem of use within all transportation modes (car, bus, train, ship, aeroplane). This task calls for a multi-step integrated methodology in order to gather and reconciliate conflicting user needs and requirements regarding safety, manoeuvrability and comfort. The paper describes also the methodology adopted for the system architecture of a modular design wheelchair as well as for its evaluation, ranging from crash tests (both simulations and real tests) to vibration and comfort studies. The work stems from the research conducted in the TRANSWHEEL project (DE 3013), partly financed by the European Union's DE/TAP programme. PMID:10218599

Papaioannou, G; Naniopoulos, A; Bekiaris, E; Spaepen, A

1999-01-01

347

A Patient Safety Curriculum for Graduate Medical Education: Results From a Needs Assessment of Educators and Patient Safety Experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graduate medical education (GME) has traditionally focused on the diagnosis and management of disease with little attention devoted to patient safety and systems thinking. In this article, we describe the results of a needs assessment conducted to develop a patient safety curriculum for GME. Eight program directors, 10 patient safety experts, and 9 experts in education technology were interviewed for

Prathibha Varkey; Sudhakar Karlapudi; Steven Rose; Steve Swensen

2009-01-01

348

Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems. These efforts have produced a generic PA methodology for the evaluation of waste management systems that has gained wide acceptance within the international community. This report documents how this methodology has been used as an effective management tool to evaluate different disposal designs and sites; inform development of regulatory requirements; identify, prioritize, and guide research aimed at reducing uncertainties for objective estimations of risk; and support safety assessments.

Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-11-01

349

Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach.  

PubMed

We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease. PMID:23890489

Chinna, Karuthan; Karupaiah, Tilakavati

2013-07-26

350

Biochemical and histological methodologies for assessing vitamin A status in human populations  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, new biochemical and histological methodologies have been developed for assessing vitamin A nutritional status in humans at subclinical levels of nutriture. Insensitive static blood levels no longer are the only practical assessment parameter. Some of the newer functional methodologies require additional testing of their sensitivity and specificity under a variety of conditions existing in human populations and that frequently are associated with an inadequate vitamin A status. Some of these conditions could confound the interpretation when only a single assessment method is applied.

Underwood, B.A.

1990-01-01

351

Case Report Form for oral health assessments: methodological considerations.  

PubMed

Information on the oral health condition of the target population is required to enable the development of policy strategies for oral health promotion. This information needs to be substantiated by reliable data obtained through regular oral health assessments. Countries around the world have set up oral health data-registration systems that monitor the oral health of the population. These systems are either integrated in the public oral health care service or in national surveys conducted on a regular basis. This paper describes the conception and development of a Case Report Form for oral health assessments and introduces a recently developed electronic data-registration system for data capture in oral health surveys. The conception and development of a Case Report Form poses a number of challenges to be overcome. In addition to ensuring the scientific quality of its contents, several requirements need to be met. In the framework of national oral health surveys, handwritten data capture has proven accurate, but entails an important workload related to the printing and transporting of the forms, data transfer and storage of the forms, as well as the time required to perform these tasks. On the other hand, electronic data capture enables time saving and better performance. However, the advantages of this system may not be fully acknowledged by general practitioners, and their motivation to employ information and communication technologies may need to be encouraged. In the long term, the inclusion of electronic data registration in university training is probably the best strategy to achieve this. PMID:23318739

Carvalho, Joana Christina

2012-01-01

352

Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

Craig, Robert J.

2005-01-01

353

User`s reference manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology Controller. Version 3.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories annually compares the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with the Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191. To assist the analyst in these comparisons the PA Department developed CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology Controller, which

Rechard

1992-01-01

354

SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200). Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

355

A Methodological Model for Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation: The RARE Program in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid assessment projects are expanding in the arenas of public health policy, planning, and program development in both developing and developed nations. This article reviews the methodological advances that have changed rapid assessment from a primarily “quick and dirty” approach for data collection into a public health tool for time-sensitive development of changes in intervention strategies, community-based organizational structure, program

Robert T. Trotter; Richard H. Needle; Eric Goosby; Christopher Bates; Merrill Singer

2001-01-01

356

Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

Craig, Robert J.

2005-01-01

357

Safety assessment of silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates.  

PubMed

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate as used in cosmetics. These silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates function in cosmetics as antifoaming agents, anticaking agents, bulking agents, binders, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, slip modifiers, suspension agents--nonsurfactant, and viscosity increasing agents--nonaqueous. The Expert Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data as well as information from a previous CIR safety assessment of amorphous silica. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate are safe as used when formulated and delivered in the final product not to be irritating or sensitizing to the respiratory tract. PMID:23696579

Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

358

ZBDD algorithm features for an efficient Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains a Zero-suppressed Binary Decision Diagram (ZBDD) algorithm and introduces advanced ZBDD algorithm-based features that are implemented into a fault tree solver Fault Tree Reliability Evaluation eXpert (FTREX). The ZBDD algorithm and its advanced features have been developed for solving a fault tree in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant. The ZBDD can be interpreted

Woo Sik Jung

2009-01-01

359

Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy\\/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE\\/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid\\/sludge\\/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50

D. R. MacFarlane; D. S. Stack; J. P. Kindinger; R. K. Deremer

1995-01-01

360

Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

Jamali, K. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Core Technical Support and Facility Transition; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-08-01

361

Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-19

362

Application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment to Parameters of Operational Limits and Conditions of the Opal Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief explanation of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the meaning and application of Operational\\u000a Limits and Conditions (OL&Cs) for facilities and describes the application of PSA to the derivation of OL&C parameters such\\u000a as Completion Times. ANSTO’s Research Reactor OPAL is used as a case study but the authors conclude that the methodology,\\u000a based on NUREG\\/CR-6141, could

S. J. Bastin

363

Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments  

PubMed Central

Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either “the more, the better” or “not too much and not too little.” This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between “maximum performance” and “typical performance” is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system.

Patry, Jean-Luc

2011-01-01

364

A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

1982-05-01

365

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

1992-01-01

366

Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, D.; Turner, F.

2012-01-01

367

Combined application of life cycle assessment and data envelopment analysis as a methodological approach for the assessment of fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The synergistic use of life cycle assessment (LCA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) is proposed as a new methodological\\u000a approach to link environmental and socioeconomic assessments of fisheries. Therefore, the goal is to combine LCA and DEA in\\u000a order to increase the assessment ability of both tools when applied to these fisheries. Specifically, the joint inclusion\\u000a of

Ian Vázquez-Rowe; Diego Iribarren; Maria Teresa Moreira; Gumersindo Feijoo

2010-01-01

368

A harmonised model for safety assessment and certification of safety-critical systems in the transportation industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model for the assessment and certification of safety-critical programmable electronic systems in the\\u000a transportation industries. The proposed model is founded on the significant commonalities between emerging international safety-related\\u000a standards in the automotive, railway and aerospace industries. It contains a system development and a safety assessment process\\u000a which rationalise and unify the common requirements among the standards

Yiannis Papadopoulos; John A. McDermid

1998-01-01

369

The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fletcher, W. J. 2005. The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1576e1587. Implementing more holistic forms of fisheries management (e.g. Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management) usually increases the number and scope of impacts requiring assessment. This study examined the effectiveness of a qualitative risk assessment

W. J. Fletcher

2005-01-01

370

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3

G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-01-01

371

Application of a Safety-Driven Design Methodology to an Outer Planet Exploration Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional requirements specification and hazard analysis techniques have not kept pace with the increasing complexity and constraints of modern space systems development. These techniques are incomplete and often consider safety late in the development cycle when the most significant design decisions have already been made. The lack of an integrated approach to perform safety-driven system development from the beginning of

Brandon D. Owens; Margaret Stringfellow Herring; Nicolas Dulac; Nancy G. Leveson; Michel D. Ingham; Kathryn Anne Weiss

2008-01-01

372

Design methodology for battery powered embedded systems - In safety critical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery powered embedded system can be considered as a power aware system for a safety critical application. There is a need of saving the battery power for such power aware system so that it can be used more efficiently, particularly in safety critical applications. Present paper describes power optimization procedure using real time scheduling technique having a specific dead line

Joydeb Roy Chowdury; Sayantica Pattanayak; A. K. Bhattacharjee

2009-01-01

373

Long-term safety assessment of live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccines: deliberations from a WHO technical consultation.  

PubMed

Dengue is a rapidly growing public health threat with approximately 2.5 billion people estimated to be at risk. Several vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Thus far, live dengue vaccine candidates have been administered to several thousands of volunteers and were well-tolerated, with minimal short-term safety effects reported in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. Based on the natural history of dengue, a theoretical possibility of an increased risk of severe dengue as a consequence of vaccination has been hypothesized but not yet observed. In October 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a consultation of experts in dengue, vaccine regulation and vaccine safety to review the current scientific evidence regarding safety concerns associated with live attenuated dengue vaccines and, in particular, to consider methodological approaches for their long-term evaluation. In this paper we summarize the scientific background and methodological considerations relevant to the safety assessment of these vaccines. Careful planning and a coordinated approach to safety assessment are recommended to ensure adequate long-term evaluation of dengue vaccines that will support their introduction and continued use. PMID:23570986

Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Schmitz, Julia; Edelman, Robert; Durbin, Anna; Roehrig, John T; Smith, Peter G; Hombach, Joachim; Farrar, Jeremy

2013-04-06

374

Meeting Report: Metabolites in Safety Testing (MIST) Symposium-Safety Assessment of Human Metabolites: What's REALLY Necessary to Ascertain Exposure Coverage in Safety Tests?  

PubMed

In the 2012 AAPS metabolites in safety testing (MIST) symposium held in Chicago, IL, USA, on October 15, 2012, regulatory experts and industrial scientists joined together to discuss their perspectives and strategies in addressing contemporary MIST recommendations (FDA 2008, International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) M3(R2), ICH M(R2) Q&A). Overall, these regulatory guidances indicate that metabolites identified in human plasma should circulate at similar or greater concentrations in at least one of the animal species used in nonclinical safety assessment of the parent drug. However, synthetic standards for the metabolites often do not exist or they are intractable to synthesize, thus introducing multiple challenges in drug development for the quantitative comparison of metabolites between human and animals. A tiered bioanalytical strategy for metabolite analysis is a prevalent approach to demonstrate coverage in animals. Recent developments in bioanalytical methodology have yielded several time- and resource-sparing strategies to provide fit-for-purpose approaches that can enable critical decisions related to metabolite quantification and monitoring in plasma. This report summarizes the presentations and panel discussions at the symposium. PMID:23821354

Gao, Hongying; Jacobs, Abigail; White, Ronald E; Booth, Brian P; Obach, R Scott

2013-07-03

375

Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural enhancement assessment at Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight (8) systems, namely: Cooling Water System, Emergency Cooling System, Moderator Recovery System supplementary Safety System, Water Removal System, Service Raw Water System, Service Clarified Water System, and River Water System. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four (4) major disciplines, including. structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five (35) subsystem. These subsystems were then ranked with six (6) attributes, namely: Safety Classification, Degradation Mechanisms, Difficulty of Replacement, Failure Mode, Radiation Dose to Workers and Consequence of Failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner.

Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

1992-09-01

376

Performance-based methodology for assessing seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a performance-based methodology for the assessment of seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings. The vulnerability assessment methodology is based on the HAZUS methodology and the improved capacitydemand-diagram method. The spectral displacement ( S d ) of performance points on a capacity curve is used to estimate the damage level of a building. The relationship between S d and peak ground acceleration (PGA) is established, and then a new vulnerability function is expressed in terms of PGA. Furthermore, the expected value of the seismic capacity index (SCev) is provided to estimate the seismic capacity of buildings based on the probability distribution of damage levels and the corresponding seismic capacity index. The results indicate that the proposed vulnerability methodology is able to assess seismic damage of a large number of building stock directly and quickly following an earthquake. The SCev provides an effective index to measure the seismic capacity of buildings and illustrate the relationship between the seismic capacity of buildings and seismic action. The estimated result is compared with damage surveys of the cities of Dujiangyan and Jiangyou in the M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, revealing that the methodology is acceptable for seismic risk assessment and decision making. The primary reasons for discrepancies between the estimated results and the damage surveys are discussed.

Shibin, Lin; Lili, Xie; Maosheng, Gong; Ming, Li

2010-06-01

377

Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

2012-08-01

378

Development of methodologies for optimization of surveillance testing and maintenance of safety related equipment at NPPs. Report of a research coordination meeting. Working material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results of the first meeting of the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Development of Methodologies for Optimization of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs, held at the Agency Headquarte...

1997-01-01

379

Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment.  

PubMed

The four cornerstones of microbial food safety risk assessment are hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, and risk characterization. These steps represent a systematic process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probabilities arising from consumption of foods that may be contaminated with microbial pathogens and/or microbial toxins. This paper presents a discussion of the first two steps: hazard identification and exposure assessment, and considerations for different approaches that can be used to analyze the relevant information. PMID:10939265

Lammerding, A M; Fazil, A

2000-07-15

380

A Structured Security Assessment Methodology for Manufacturers of Critical Infrastructure Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting our critical infrastructures like energy generation and distribution, telecommunication, production and traffic against cyber attacks is one of the major challenges of the new millennium. However, as security is such a complex and multilayer topic often the necessary structured foundation is missing for a manufacturer to assess the current security level of a system. This paper introduces a methodology for structured security assessments which has been successfully applied during the development of several products for critical infrastructures. The methodology is described in detail and the lessons learnt are given from applying it to several systems during their development.

Brandstetter, Thomas; Knorr, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Ute

381

Human Performance Modeling: A Cooperative and Necessary Methodology for Studying Occupational Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a human-out-of-the- loop (HOOTL) methodology for studying complex human-system performance. The U.S. and international military forces have used HOOTL methodologies for years to study complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns in battlefield management simulations. More recent application of HOOTL technologies has been in complex work environments such as aviation, medical and nuclear power

Brian F. Gore; Kevin M. Corker

382

Preliminary Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the IRIS Plant  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary level-1 probabilistic safety assessment of the IRIS plant has been performed. The first focus is on five internal initiating events, such as primary system break (loss-of-coolant accident and steam generator tube rupture) and transients (secondary system line break and loss-of-off-site power). In this study, the event tree for each initiating event was developed and the fault tree analysis of the event tree headings was carried out. In particular, since one of the IRIS safety systems, the passive emergency heat removal system, is unique to the IRIS plant and its reliability is key to the core damage frequency evaluation, it received more extensive fault-tree development. Finally the dominant sequences that lead to severe accidents and the failures in the main and support systems are identified. (authors)

Mizuno, Yuko O.; Ogura, Katsunori; Ninokata, Hisashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Conway, Lawrence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

2002-07-01

383

Predictive computational toxicology to support drug safety assessment.  

PubMed

Use of predictive technologies is an important aspect of many efforts in today's research, development, and regulatory landscapes. Computational methods as predictive tools for supporting drug safety assessments is of widespread interest as the field of in silico assessments rapidly changes with emerging technologies and the large amount of existing data available for modeling. There are challenges associated with application of in silico analyses for drug toxicity predictions and need for strategies and harmonization to enable an acceptable in silico evaluation for prediction of specific toxicity assay outcomes. This chapter will provide an overview focused on computational tools using structure-activity relationships and will highlight initiatives for use of computational assessments and realistic applications for predictive modeling in evaluating potential toxicities of drug-related molecules. PMID:23086849

Valerio, Luis G

2013-01-01

384

Evaluation Methodology for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Volume II. Technical Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, Volume II of two volumes, describes overall study details and presents a thorough discussion of the evaluation plan developed for four Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS): FMVSS 301--Fuel System Integrity; FMVSS 208--Occupant Prote...

A. V. Fend J. R. Norman N. A. David R. H. Cronin R. L. Braun

1977-01-01

385

Evaluation Methodology for Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Volume I. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Executive Summary, Volume I of a two volume documentation, summarizes the results of a 6-month study to determine feasibility and appropriate evaluation schemes in a real-world environment for four Federal motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSS): FMVSS...

R. L. Braun R. H. Cronin N. A. David A. V. Fend J. R. Norman

1977-01-01

386

Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.  

PubMed

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping. PMID:15876211

Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

2005-04-01

387

Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43  

SciTech Connect

The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

1982-09-01

388

Assessing drinking water treatment systems for safety against cyanotoxin breakthrough using maximum tolerable values.  

PubMed

For assessing the safety of drinking water supplies suffering cyanobacterial blooms in their water source, a methodology is proposed which relates the performance of their current treatment train to the quality of the raw water. The approach considers that different treatment trains can remove algal toxins with different efficiency. Maximum Tolerable (MT-) values of the raw water expressed by cell counts or by biovolumes of cyanobacteria were calculated. Three MT-categories were identified by colours; high risk (red), moderate risk (yellow) and no risk (green). Two treatment facilities using a conventional (1) and polishing train (2) were assessed using this methodology. For most of the time during an algal bloom the water quality could be classified as yellow which means short term higher toxin levels in comparison to the guide line in clear water were found. However, the red classification, indicating a high risk for drinking water quality was never reached. The model proposed can be understood as supplement of the common alert level framework, ALF-concept (Chorus and Bartram, Situation Assessment, Planning and Management. London and New York: E & FN Spon. 1999; House et al., Management Strategies for Toxic Blue Green Algae: Literature Review. Australia: CRC for Water Quality and Treatment. 2004). PMID:18214897

Schmidt, Wido; Bornmann, Katrin; Imhof, Lutz; Mankiewicz, Joanna; Izydorczyk, Katarzyna

2008-06-01

389

Quantitative assessment of building fire risk to life safety.  

PubMed

This article presents a quantitative risk assessment framework for evaluating fire risk to life safety. Fire risk is divided into two parts: probability and corresponding consequence of every fire scenario. The time-dependent event tree technique is used to analyze probable fire scenarios based on the effect of fire protection systems on fire spread and smoke movement. To obtain the variation of occurrence probability with time, Markov chain is combined with a time-dependent event tree for stochastic analysis on the occurrence probability of fire scenarios. To obtain consequences of every fire scenario, some uncertainties are considered in the risk analysis process. When calculating the onset time to untenable conditions, a range of fires are designed based on different fire growth rates, after which uncertainty of onset time to untenable conditions can be characterized by probability distribution. When calculating occupant evacuation time, occupant premovement time is considered as a probability distribution. Consequences of a fire scenario can be evaluated according to probability distribution of evacuation time and onset time of untenable conditions. Then, fire risk to life safety can be evaluated based on occurrence probability and consequences of every fire scenario. To express the risk assessment method in detail, a commercial building is presented as a case study. A discussion compares the assessment result of the case study with fire statistics. PMID:18643819

Guanquan, Chu; Jinhua, Sun

2008-06-01

390

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

2004-10-06

391

Validation of a Full Bayes methodology for observational before–after road safety studies and application to evaluation of rural signal conversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study on which the paper is based was to explore the application of fully Bayesian methods for before–after road safety studies. Several variations of the methodology were evaluated with a simulated dataset in which hypothetical treatments with no safety effect were randomly assigned to high accident locations to mimic the common site selection process in road

Bo Lan; Bhagwant Persaud; Craig Lyon; Ravi Bhim

2009-01-01

392

United States Environmental Protection Agency: Use of risk assessment and risk management methodologies. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Make a full investigation of the policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management in regulatory programs under various Federal laws to prevent cancer and other chronic health effects which may result from exposure to hazardous substances. This is the primary mission of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission (Risk Commission). The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), created the Risk Commission reflecting Congress' concern over agency use of risk assessment and risk management techniques and methodologies to implement federal laws protective of human health. The Risk Commission is to consider: methods for measuring and describing risks of chronic health effects from hazardous substances; methods to reflect uncertainties associated with estimation techniques, and whether it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology or a consistent standard of acceptable risk for various federal programs.

Lamuro, R.J.

1992-09-30

393

Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is {approximately}60 million gal, containing {approximately}200 million Ci of radioactivity.

MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Kindinger, J.P.; Deremer, R.K. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

394

Comparative safety assessment of upflow versus downflow GCFR core designs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a hypothetical core disruptive accident safety assessment and a post-accident fuel containment evaluation which were performed for the upflow versus downflow core design decision for the GCFR. Differences between the upflow and downflow unprotected accident sequences were not significant. However, differences do appear when potential accident mitigation and recriticality prevention design concepts are investigated for the loss of shutdown cooling and flow blockage accidents. An in-vessel molten fuel containment system is preferred over an ex-vessel system for both the upflow and downflow concepts.

Frank, M.V.; Kang, C.S.; Reilly, J.T.; Wheeler, P.A.

1980-09-01

395

History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years  

SciTech Connect

From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

Spray, S.D.

1996-06-01

396

An approach for assessing ALWR passive safety system reliability  

SciTech Connect

Many advanced light water reactor designs incorporate passive rather than active safety features for front-line accident response. A method for evaluating the reliability of these passive systems in the context of probabilistic risk assessment has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This method addresses both the component (e.g. valve) failure aspect of passive system failure, and uncertainties in system success criteria arising from uncertainties in the system's underlying physical processes. These processes provide the system's driving force; examples are natural circulation and gravity-induced injection. This paper describes the method, and provides some preliminary results of application of the approach to the Westinghouse AP600 design.

Hake, T M

1991-01-01

397

Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Huang, Y. -N.; Whittaker, A. S.; Luco, N.

2010-01-01

398

The Impact of the Feminist Critique on Tests, Assessment, and Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses early feminist efforts in psychological assessment, and reviews general issues related to feminist methodology. Successful impact and lack of impact of feminist criticism are illustrated by the revisions of the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (1990), respectively. (SLD)|

Lewin, Miriam; Wild, Cheryl L.

1991-01-01

399

METHODOLOGY FOR OVERLAND AND INSTREAM MIGRATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide planners and decision makers in government and industry with a sound basis for decision making, the Chemical Migration and Risk Assessment (CMRA) Methodology was developed to predict the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving ru...

400

Methodology to Assess the Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Results Generated for the Kwajalein Missile Range.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this study is the creation of a methodology whereby more realistic assessments of the aerodynamic forces acting upon reentry vehicles flown from the U.S. West Coast to the Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) are obtained. This proposed ...

J. T. Findlay

1991-01-01

401

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION OF COAL: METHODOLOGY AND INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), aimed at complete environmental assessment (EA) of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal. It reviews the EA methodology being developed by EPA: identification of current technolo...

402

Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

403

Developing a Customized Program Assessment Methodology for Assurance of Learning: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For most academic institutions, selecting and/or designing a Program Assessment methodology for Assurance of Learning is a challenging task. This paper describes the steps taken to establish goals, values and criteria driving this process for a College of Business. In this case analysis, we document the options we explored in finding the right…

Baker, Hope; Brawley, Dorothy; Campbell, Jane; Capozzoli, Ernest; Malgeri, Linda; Roberts, Gary

2007-01-01

404

A process-orientated design and performance assessment methodology for passive mine water treatment systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is the development of a methodology for assessing the iron removal efficiency of passive mine water treatment settling lagoons and reed beds. Previous work in the design and sizing of coal mine drainage lagoons and wetlands has focussed on the use of standard hydraulic residence times or using the 10gm?2d?1 metric, these criteria have been

D. J. Sapsford; I. Watson

2011-01-01

405

Assessment of Methodological Alternatives for a Regional Freight Model in the NYMTC Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this report is to conduct an assessment of the different freight transportation modeling methodologies. The report begins with a definition of the main objectives and scope of the regional freight model, followed by a discussion of t...

J. Holguin-Veras G. F. List A. H. Meyburg K. Ozbay R. E. Passwell

2003-01-01

406

A methodology for the assessment of short duration voltage variations in electric power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new methodology for the assessment of power quality indices in electric power distribution systems. Power quality indices concerning short duration voltage variations, i.e. voltage sags and swells, are particularly introduced taking into account the needs for establishing power quality standards. The paper also presents a new proposal for a measurement protocol, a testing procedure to

N. Kagan; E. L. Ferrari; N. M. Matsuo; S. X. Duarte; J. L. Cavaretti; A. Tenorio; L. R. Souza

2002-01-01

407

Statistical Test of the Rule Assessment Methodology by Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of Siegler's (1981) rule assessment methodology is that the assignment of subjects to rules takes place by an arbitrary criterion. This problem can be solved by latent class analysis by which we can test statistically how many rules are needed to fit the data and which these rules are. Two data sets of the balance scale test are

Brenda R. J. Jansen

1997-01-01

408

Methodological characteristics of the national dietary surveys carried out in the European Union as included in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database.  

PubMed

In 2009 competent organisations in the European Union provided the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with data from the most recent national dietary survey at the level of individuals' consumption. Twenty different Member States provided EFSA with data from 22 different national dietary surveys, with consumption figures for adults and, when available, for children. Member States' dietary data were assembled into the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. In this paper an overview of the methodologies and protocols employed in the different national dietary surveys is provided. Specifically, details about dietary assessment methods, interview administration, sampling design, portion size estimation, dietary software, evaluation of under-reporting and non-dietary information collected are described. This information is crucial to evaluate the level of accuracy of food consumption data and to anticipate and acknowledge the utmost important sources of heterogeneity of national databases included in the Comprehensive Database. The Comprehensive Database constitutes a unique resource for the estimation of consumption figures across the European Union and represents a useful tool to assess dietary exposure to hazardous substances and nutrient intake in Europe. Nevertheless, the many substantial methodological differences that characterise the Comprehensive Database are acknowledged and critically discussed. PMID:21732710

Merten, C; Ferrari, P; Bakker, M; Boss, A; Hearty, A; Leclercq, C; Lindtner, O; Tlustos, C; Verger, P; Volatier, J L; Arcella, D

2011-07-06

409

A method for assessing health and safety management systems from the resilience engineering perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a method for assessing health and safety management systems (MAHS) that has two innovative characteristics: (a) it brings together the three main auditing approaches to health and safety (HS) – the structural approach (which assesses the system prescribed), the operational approach (which assesses what is really happening on the shop-floor) and the performance approach (which assesses the

Marcelo Fabiano Costella; Tarcisio Abreu Saurin; Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimarães

2009-01-01

410

An Open-Label, Randomized, Flexible-Dose, Crossover Study to Assess the Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil Citrate and Apomorphine Hydrochloride in Men with Erectile Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We report the methodology and results of a study that compared a dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine, with a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in terms of efficacy, tolerability, satisfaction and patient preference. Patients and Methods: This was a 20-week open- label, randomized, flexible-dose, crossover study to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of sildenafil and apomorphine. One sequence group received treatment

Bruno Giammusso; Giovanni M. Colpi; Luigi Cormio; Giuseppe Ludovico; Marcello Soli; Roberto Ponchietti; Francesco Montorsi; Claudio Panzironi; Bruno Guastella

2008-01-01

411

Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

Burruss, Robert C.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, Philip A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

412

Neurobehavioral Assessment: A Survey of Use and Value in Safety Assessment Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of a survey designed to evaluate the contribution of F1 neurobehavioral testing to hazard identifi- cation and characterization in safety assessment studies. (To re- view the details of the distributed survey, please see the supple- mentary data for this article on the journal's Web site.) The survey provided information about studies completed in industrial labo-

Lawrence D. Middaugh; Diana Dow-Edwards; Abby A. Li; J. David Sandler; Jennifer Seed; Larry P. Sheets; Dana L. Shuey; William Slikker; Walter P. Weisenburger; L. David Wise; Murray R. Selwyn

2003-01-01

413

Safety assessment for the above ground storage of Cadmium Safety and Control Rods at the Solid Waste Management Facility  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Savannah River Site is changing from radioisotope production to waste management and environmental restoration. As such, Reactor Engineering has recently developed a plan to transfer the safety and control rods from the C, K, L, and P reactor disassembly basin areas to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads for long-term, retrievable storage. The TRU pads are located within the Solid Waste Management Facilities at the Savannah River Site. An Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) Safety Evaluation has been performed for the proposed disassembly basin operations phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project. The USQ screening identified a required change to the authorization basis; however, the Proposed Activity does not involve a positive USQ Safety Evaluation. A Hazard Assessment for the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project determined that the above-ground storage of the cadmium rods results in no change in hazard level at the TRU pads. A Safety Assessment that specifically addresses the storage (at the TRU pads) phase of the Cadmium Safety and Control Rod Project has been performed. Results of the Safety Assessment support the conclusion that a positive USQ is not involved as a result of the Proposed Activity.

Shaw, K.W.

1993-11-01

414

The European experience with double-balloon enteroscopy: indications, methodology, safety, and clinical impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a new technique that allows high-resolution visualization, biopsies, and therapeutic interventions in all segments of the GI tract. The objective of the study was to evaluate the indications, the safety, and the clinical impact of DBE. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis conducted at 4 European medical centers. A total of 62 patients with suspected

Simona Di Caro; Andrea May; Dimitri G. N. Heine; Lucia Fini; Bruno Landi; Lucio Petruzziello; Christophe Cellier; Chris J. Mulder; Guido Costamagna; Christian Ell; Antonio Gasbarrini

2005-01-01

415

Methodological issues related to longitudinal epidemiological assessment of developmental trajectories in children.  

PubMed

This supplement presents some of the methodological issues that arose during the early phases of protocol development for the National Children's Study (NCS), a probability sample of 100,000 children that will be followed prospectively from pregnancy through 21 years of age, and to share some of the challenges and solutions that were discussed. These papers on motor, social/emotional, psychiatric and neurocognitive/behavioural development do not define the protocol of the NCS, but reflect methodology related to the design of research and assessment of developmental trajectories in children that may be useful to other epidemiologists planning similar longitudinal studies. PMID:19098135

Knox, S S; Echeveria, D

2009-01-01

416

Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

2013-01-01

417

NASA Aviation Safety Program Systems Analysis/Program Assessment Metrics Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to evaluate the metrics and processes used by NASA's Aviation Safety Program in assessing technologies that contribute to NASA's aviation safety goals. There were three objectives for reaching this goal. First, NASA's main obje...

G. E. Louis K. Anderson T. Ahmad A. Bouabid M. Siriwardana P. Guilbaud

2003-01-01

418

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs describes the purpose, data and methods used to calculate ranges or rankings for research-doctorate programs that participated in the NRC Assessment of Research-Doctorate programs. It is intended for those at universities who will have to explain the NRC Assessment to others at their university, to potential students, and to the press. Although the main text is fairly non-technical, it includes a technical description of the statistical methods used to derive rankings of over 5000 doctoral programs in 61 fields.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-07-22

419

Quantifying reactor safety margins: Part 1: An overview of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology  

SciTech Connect

In August 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the final version of a revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) entitled ''Emergency Core Cooling System; Revisions to Acceptance Criteria.'' The revised rule states an alternate ECCS performance analysis, based on best-estimate methods, may be used to provide more realistic estimates of plant safety margins, provided the licensee quantifies the uncertainty of the estimates and included that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with prescribed acceptance limits. To support the revised ECCS rule, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. It is an auditable, traceable, and practical method for combining quantitative analyses and expert opinions to arrive at computed values of uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the CSAU evaluation methodology and its application to a postulated cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor with 17 /times/ 17 fuel. The code selected for this demonstration of the CSAU methodology was TRAC-PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Wulff, W.; Zuber, N.

1988-01-01

420

Ymparistoturvallisuus: Ymparistoriskien Arvioinnin Osaaminen ja Haasteet (Environmental Safety: Challenges and Trends of Environmental Risk Assessment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VTT has prepared a roadmap of 'Environmental safety--challenges and trends of environmental risk assessment', the aim of which was to: (1) define the content of environmental risk assessment, (2) clarify the knowledge of environmental risk assessment in V...

N. Wessberg

2007-01-01

421

Developmental toxicity testing for safety assessment: new approaches and technologies.  

PubMed

The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee held a 2-day workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" in April 2009. The fourth session of this workshop focused on new approaches and technologies for the assessment of developmental toxicology. This session provided an overview of the application of genomics technologies for developmental safety assessment, the use of mouse embryonic stem cells to capture data on developmental toxicity pathways, dynamical cell imaging of zebrafish embryos, the use of computation models of development pathways and systems, and finally, high-throughput in vitro approaches being utilized by the EPA ToxCast program. Issues discussed include the challenges of anchoring in vitro predictions to relevant in vivo endpoints and the need to validate pathway-based predictions with targeted studies in whole animals. Currently, there are 10,000 to 30,000 chemicals in world-wide commerce in need of hazard data for assessing potential health risks. The traditional animal study designs for assessing developmental toxicity cannot accommodate the evaluation of this large number of chemicals, requiring that alternative technologies be utilized. Though a daunting task, technologies are being developed and utilized to make that goal reachable. PMID:21770025

Knudsen, Thomas B; Kavlock, Robert J; Daston, George P; Stedman, Donald; Hixon, Mary; Kim, James H

2011-07-18

422

Definition of a shortcut methodology for assessing flood-related Na-Tech risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs), the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such qualitative KHIs. The developed methodology was validated through two case studies by comparing the predicted risk levels with the results of much more detailed QRAs previously presented in literature and then applied to the real flood happened at Spolana a.s., Neratovice, Czech Republic in August 2002.

Marzo, E.; Busini, V.; Rota, R.

2012-11-01

423

Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted within the framework of this PhD thesis is devoted to the high-fidelity multi-physics (based on neutronics\\/thermal-hydraulics coupling) analysis of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a HTR design. The core design and safety analysis methods are considerably less developed and mature for HTR

Peter Tshepo Mkhabela

2010-01-01

424

Assessing the quality of care of multiple conditions in general practice: practical and methodological problems  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate practical and methodological problems in assessing the quality of care of multiple conditions in general practice. Setting: Sixteen general practices from two socioeconomically diverse regions in the UK. Method: Quality of care was assessed in 100 randomly selected patient records in each practice using an established set of quality indicators covering 23 conditions commonly seen in primary care. Inter-rater reliability assessment was carried out for five of the conditions. Results: Conducting simultaneous quality assessment across multiple conditions is highly resource intensive. Poor data quality and the low prevalence of some items of care defined by the indicators are significant problems. Scores for individual indicators require very large samples for reliable assessment. Quality scores are more reliable when reported at a higher unit of analysis. This is particularly true for indicators and conditions with low prevalence where data may need to be aggregated to the level of groups of conditions or organisational providers. There is no single ideal way of aggregating quality scores. Conclusion: The study identified some of the practical and methodological difficulties in assessing quality of care across multiple conditions. For improved quality assessment, advances in information technology and improvements in data quality are required for more efficient and reliable data extraction from medical records, together with the development of methods for combining scores across indicators, conditions, and practices. However, electronic data extraction methods will still be based on the assumption that the care recorded reflects the care provided.

Kirk, S; Campbell, S; Kennell-Webb, S; Reeves, D; Roland, M; Marshall, M

2003-01-01

425

78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission's Water Quality Regulations, 18 CFR Part 410, and will identify impaired waters, which consist of waters in which surface water quality standards are not being met. The assessment methodology to be used in the 2014 Assessment is...

2013-10-25

426

Safety assessment of DHA-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp.  

PubMed

The purpose of this series of studies was to assess the genotoxic potential of docosahexaenoic acid-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp. (DRM). DRM contains oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA n-3) is the most abundant PUFA component of the oil ( approximately 29% w/w of total fatty acid content). DHA-rich extracted oil from Schizochytrium sp. is intended for use as a nutritional ingredient in foods. All in vitro assays were conducted with and without mammalian metabolic activation. DRM was not mutagenic in the Ames reverse mutation assay using five different Salmonella histidine auxotroph tester strains. Mouse lymphoma suspension assay methodology was found to be inappropriate for this test material because precipitating test material could not be removed by washing after the intended exposure period and the precipitate interfered with cell counting. The AS52/XPRT assay methodology was not subject to these problems and DRM was tested and found not to be mutagenic in the CHO AS52/XPRT gene mutation assay. DRM was not clastogenic to human peripheral blood lymphocytes in culture. Additionally, DRM did not induce micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow in vivo further supporting its lack of any chromosomal effects. Overall, the results of this series of mutagenicity assays support the conclusion that DRM does not have any genotoxic potential. PMID:12052009

Hammond, Bruce G; Mayhew, Dale A; Kier, Larry D; Mast, Richard W; Sander, Wayne J

2002-04-01

427

Department of Defense methodology guidelines for High Power Microwave (HPM) susceptibility assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is the intention of the National High Power Microwave (HPM) Program to complete a series of tests over the next two years to validate the methodology described in these guidelines. When those tests are completed and results analyzed, this document will be revised to reflect lessons learned during the validation process. In addition, the Methodology Sub-Panel is compiling a second volume on specific measurement techniques. This volume (Volume 1) is intended to provide guidance to the Program Manager on the critical steps in a well-conceived test program. Volume 2 will provide detailed step-by-step information to the engineer who is responsible for performing the tests. The body of this volume is divided into seven sections. Sections 2 through 7 provide detailed descriptions of the activities within each of the modular steps which comprise the methodology schematically; Section 2: pre-test system analysis; Section 3: low power microwave tests -- coupling/subsystem component tests; Section 5: susceptibility assessment and test planning; Section 6: high power microwave tests; and Section 7: susceptibility assessment and test evaluation. The executive summary reviews the reasons for development of the methodology and provides brief descriptions of each module. Appendix B provides definitions of special terms and acronyms which are used throughout the document.

Chesser, Nancy C.

1990-01-01

428

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...417.107(b). When employing hazard isolation, the analysis must establish flight...flight safety analysis employs hazard isolation to establish flight safety limits as...safety analysis does not employ hazard isolation to establish the flight safety...

2010-01-01

429

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown with a Flight Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...417.107(b). When employing hazard isolation, the analysis must establish flight...flight safety analysis employs hazard isolation to establish flight safety limits as...safety analysis does not employ hazard isolation to establish the flight safety...

2009-01-01

430

Assessing safety, health, and environmental impact early during process development  

SciTech Connect

During chemical process development, potential safety, health, and environmental (SHE) hazards must be identified, analyzed, and managed as early as possible to avoid negative consequences (higher risks, higher costs, longer development times). The main problem of early SHE assessment is the lack of substance data and process information, especially when batch processes are considered. A new method is presented that closes this gap considerably. SHE aspects are assessed in 11 effect categories. For each substance of a given chemical process and each effect category, the most reliable data are selected out of a variety of different substance databases or estimation methods. After identifying SHE problems as dangerous properties, their magnitude is analyzed as potential of danger and can be reduced by technological measures. In this paper, first the goal and scope of the method is outlined. Then the detailed definitions of all categories as well as the exact way of combining information is presented and discussed with respect to current practices in risk analysis and environmental assessment. Finally the method is applied to a case study from pharmaceutical industry. Major SHE hazards of the process are identified and discussed.

Koller, G.; Fischer, U.; Hungerbuehler, K.

2000-04-01

431

Assessment of Contributions to Patient Safety Knowledge by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-Funded Patient Safety Projects  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the activities of projects funded in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)' patient safety portfolio and assess their aggregate potential to contribute to knowledge development. Data Sources Information abstracted from proposals for projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio, information on safety practices from the AHRQ Evidence Report on Patient Safety Practices, and products produced by the projects. Study Design This represented one part of the process evaluation conducted as part of a longitudinal evaluation based on the Context–Input–Process–Product model. Principal Findings The 234 projects funded through AHRQ' patient safety portfolio examined a wide variety of patient safety issues and extended their work beyond the hospital setting to less studied parts of the health care system. Many of the projects implemented and tested practices for which the patient safety evidence report identified a need for additional evidence. The funded projects also generated a substantial body of new patient safety knowledge through a growing number of journal articles and other products. Conclusions The projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio have the potential to make substantial contributions to the knowledge base on patient safety. The full value of this new knowledge remains to be confirmed through the synthesis of results.

Sorbero, Melony E S; Ricci, Karen A; Lovejoy, Susan; Haviland, Amelia M; Smith, Linda; Bradley, Lily A; Hiatt, Liisa; Farley, Donna O

2009-01-01

432

Life cycle impact assessment and risk assessment of chemicals — a methodological comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Risk Assessment (RA) are two different tools in environmental management. This article identifies harmonies, discrepancies, and relations between the two tools exemplified by the RA principles of the European Commission (EC) and the LCA method, Environmental Design of Industrial Products (EDIP), developed in Denmark, respectively. A very important feature of LCA is the relative assessment

Stig Irving Olsen; Frans Møller Christensen; Michael Hauschild; Finn Pedersen; Henrik Fred Larsen; Jens Tørsløv

2001-01-01

433

The streamlined site assessment methodology: A new approach for wind energy site assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops superior approaches to the traditional site assessment process, as well as novel strategies that offer a distinct advantage over the traditional process. Two major contributions are presented: new analysis approaches for site assessment, and new technical approaches to wind resource monitoring. Two new analysis approaches for wind energy site assessment are developed. The first is a method

Matthew A. Lackner

2008-01-01

434

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RFD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. The paper presents

A. M. Jarabek; M. G. Menache; J. H. Overton; M. L. Dourson; F. J. Miller

1989-01-01

435

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RfD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. This paper presents

J. H. Jr. Overton; F. J. Miller

1990-01-01

436

Comparison of methodologies for the in vivo assessment of 18 FLT utilisation in colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine-18 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ( 18FLT) is a tissue proliferation marker which has been suggested as a new tumour-specific imaging tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 18FLT in patients with colorectal cancer, defining methodologies for the quantitative analysis of the in vivo 18FLT uptake and subsequently assessing the accuracy of semi-quantitative

D. Visvikis; D. Francis; R. Mulligan; D. C. Costa; I. Croasdale; S. K. Luthra; I. Taylor; P. J. Ell

2004-01-01

437

Assessment methodology for the A-7E: scale model coupling experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient electromagnetic measurements were performed on a scale model of the A-7E aircraft as part of the FAANTAEL program concerned with the development of a methodology for assessing navy aircraft. A 1:10 scale model of the A-7E was developed and tested in configurations which resemble those used in the full scale aircraft EMP simulation tests at the Air Force Weapons

E. J. Bogdan; D. Wythe

1983-01-01

438

An integrated earthquake damage assessment methodology and its application for two districts in Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated, earthquake-damage assessment that standardizes and quantifies methods of analysis. The proposed methodology evaluates all damage-causing phenomena, both individually and in combination. This approach inherently relates to soil-structure interactions by quantifying site-specific geotechnical and structural properties. Specifically considered is ground shaking, the primary damage-causing phenomenon. Also evaluated are the collateral effects of liquefaction, degradation of seismic-bearing

S. Feyza Cinicioglu; Ilknur Bozbey; Sadik Oztoprak; M. Kubilay Kelesoglu

2007-01-01

439

Methodology for the Assessment of the Macroeconomic Impacts of Stricter CAFE Standards - Addendum  

EIA Publications

This assessment of the economic impacts of CAFÉ standards marks the first time EIA has used the new direct linkage of the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model to NEMS in a policy setting. This methodology assures an internally consistent solution between the energy market concepts forecast by NEMS and the aggregate economy as forecast by the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy.

Information Center

2002-03-01

440

Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. PMID:23769621

Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

2013-05-22

441

A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Eichler, C.H.; Barnes, P.R.

1988-01-01

442

Application of total uncertainty theory in radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessment requires the interaction of a large number of disciplines to model the environmental phenomena necessary to evaluate the safety of the disposal system. In this complex process, the identification and quantification of both types of uncertainties, random and epistemic, plays a very important role for confidence building. In this work an application of the concept of total uncertainty to radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment is proposed. By combining both types of uncertainty, aleatory and epistemic, in the same framework, this approach ultimately aims to assess the confidence one can pose in the safety-assessment decisions. (authors)

Lemos, Francisco Luiz de [CNEN - National Nuclear Energy Commission (Brazil); Ross, Timothy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2007-07-01

443

Methodological issues in the use of survey questionnaires to assess the health effects of torture.  

PubMed

It has become increasingly important to identify torture survivors among subgroups of the American population and to assess the continuing health effects of torture experience. To determine whether survey questionnaires can be effectively used to make such assessments, we reviewed the recent literature on refugee health, on the measurement and treatment of trauma, and in the related areas of survey methodology and cognitive psychology. We conclude that, if properly conducted, the survey approach represents an effective method, and we propose specific recommendations concerning procedures that may be used in surveys of torture survivors to maximize study validity. PMID:9612445

Willis, G B; Gonzalez, A

1998-05-01

444

Methodology for validation of safety parameters and fault detection and isolation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a methodology for instrument data validation as well as fault detection and isolation, based on analytic redundancy, is presented. This work differs from previously reported work on analytic redundancy in that validation of all the main parameters of the plant heat transport loops is sought by using plant-wide instrument information. An LMFBR plant is used as a reference, and validation of the following plant parameters is considered: reactor power (Q), reactor inlet (T/sub IC/) and reactor outlet (T/sub OC/) coolant temperatures, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) inlet (T/sub IS/) and outlet (T/sub OS/) secondary coolant temperatures, steam generator feedwater temperature (T/sub w/), steam temperature (T/sub s/) and pressure (P/sub s/), as well as primary (G/sub p/), intermediate (G/sub I/), and feedwater (G/sub w/) flow. In this paper, only validation at steady state conditions will be discussed.

Tzanos, C.P.

1984-01-01

445

Assessing Student Perceptions of School Victimization and School Safety: A Psychometric Assessment of Relevant Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource.\\u0009In an effort to assess students' perceptions of victimization in their schools, as well as their schools' safety, over 1,900 students from elementary, middle, high, and alternative schools were administered a 154-item questionnaire. The responses on the items were used to establish the psychometric properties of 19 theoretically driven

Preston Elrod; Irina Soderstrom

2006-01-01

446

Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Herbicide Roundup and Its Active Ingredient, Glyphosate, for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews on the safety of glyphosate and Roundup herbicide that have been conducted by several regulatory agencies and scientific institutions worldwide have concluded that there is no indication of any human health concern. Nevertheless, questions regarding their safety are periodically raised. This review was undertaken to produce a current and comprehensive safety evaluation and risk assessment for humans. It includes

Gary M. Williams; Robert Kroes; Ian C. Munro

2000-01-01

447

United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide

K. C. Kerns; J. M. Smith; R. L. Blanchard; Z. G. Burson

1994-01-01

448

Assessment of Asset Safety Risk for Transmission Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety to workers and to the public has been one of the most important concerns for electric utilities to be in the deregulated electricity market. In achieving high safety performance for station equipment, electric utilities are using approved planning, design and operation guidelines and standards in order to minimize or eliminate hazardous events that may endanger safety to personnel. Hydro

G. Hamoud; J. Toneguzzo; C. Yung; A. Wong

2006-01-01

449

Innovative modeling approaches for risk assessment in food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food safety involves preventing foodborne illness by describing ways to properly handle, prepare and store food. Regulation of food safety is applied to companies that produce food. Thus, the goal of food safety regulation is to reduce human pathogens to acceptable levels at the processing plant t...

450

Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Lactobacillus genus.  

PubMed

Lactobacilli are Gram positive rods belonging to the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) group. Their phenotypic traits, such as each species' obligate/facultative, homo/heterofermentation abilities play a crucial role in souring raw milk and in the production of fermented dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt and fermented milk (including probiotics). An up to date safety analysis of these lactobacilli is needed to ensure consumer safety. Lactobacillus genus is a heterogeneous microbial group containing some 135 species and 27 subspecies, whose classification is constantly being reshuffled. With the recent use of advanced molecular methods it has been suggested that the extreme diversity of the Lactobacillus genomes would justify recognition of new subgeneric divisions. A combination of genotypic and phenotypic tests, for example DNA-based techniques and conventional carbohydrate tests, is required to determine species. Pulsed-Field gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) has been successfully applied to strains of dairy origin and is the most discriminatory and reproducible method for differentiating Lactobacillus strains. The bibliographical data support the hypothesis that the ingestion of Lactobacillus is not at all hazardous since lactobacillemia induced by food, particularly fermented dairy products, is extremely rare and only occurs in predisposed patients. Some metabolic features such as the possible production of biogenic amines in fermented products could generate undesirable adverse effects. A minority of starter and adjunct cultures and probiotic Lactobacillus strains may exceptionally show transferable antibiotic resistance. However, this may be underestimated as transferability studies are not systematic. We consider that transferable antibiotic resistance is the only relevant cause for caution and justifies performing antibiotic-susceptibility assays as these strains have the potential to serve as hosts of antibiotic-resistance genes, with the risk of transferring these genes to other bacteria. However, as a general rule, lactobacilli have a high natural resistance to many antibiotics, especially vancomycin, that is not transferable. Safety assessment requirements for Lactobacillus strains of technological interest should be limited to an antibiotic profile and a study to determine whether any antibiotic resistance(s) of medical interest detected is (or are) transferable. This agrees with the recent EFSA proposal suggesting attribution of a QPS status for 32 selected species of lactobacilli. PMID:17889388

Bernardeau, Marion; Vernoux, Jean Paul; Henri-Dubernet, Ségolène; Guéguen, Micheline

2007-08-22

451

Possibility of experimental validation of criticality safety methodology in support of underground fuel storage efforts  

SciTech Connect

Critical systems which might be formed in geologic repositories as a result of long-term degradation of the storage media, leaching of plutonium from the storage media, and the redistribution of low concentrations of plutonium into underground sand layers or lenses can be characterized by positive reactivity feedback. Formation of such a systems can not be excluded when considering the burial of high enriched uranium or plutonium contaminated wastes or spent nuclear fuels. Although the probability of formation of a critical systems under such conditions is very low, the reliable prediction of neutron multiplication properties appears to be of great interest from a criticality safety view point. At the present time, all estimations of criticality are based only on evaluated neutron data because critical experiments are not available for large systems containing small quantities plutonium distributed throughout a typically encountered matrix material such as silicon dioxide. The possibility of providing such an experiment using the large Russian critical assemblies, BFS-1 or BFS-2, is considered. It is shown that critical systems containing small amounts of hydrogenous material (polyethylene) with positive reactivity feedback can by modeled in the BFS Facility.

Nikolaev, M.N. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Physics and Power Engineering; Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering and Environment, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1997-10-01

452

Final Action Plan to Tiger Team. Environmental, safety and health assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit.

Not Available

1992-02-28

453

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

PubMed

Context Healthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety. Objective The purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals. Data Collection A survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to 223 health professionals including nurses, technicians, managers and medical staff. Measurement The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to identify dimensions of patient safety culture. Results Overall Patient Safety Grade was rated as excellent or very good by 60% of respondents, acceptable by 33% and failing or poor by 7%. More than half of respondents thought that managers overlook safety problems that happen over and over. Areas of strength for most hospitals were organisational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork within units, feedback and communication about errors. Areas with potential for improvement for most hospitals were under-reporting of events, non-punitive response to error, staffing, teamwork across hospital units. Conclusion Leadership is a critical element to the effectiveness of patient safety initiatives. Response to errors is an important determinant of safety culture in healthcare organisations. In order for healthcare organisations to create a culture of safety and improvement, they must eliminate fear of blame and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning. PMID:20430929

Alahmadi, H A

2010-04-29

454

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2012-11-27

455

Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

Faria, Eliane Rodrigues de; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Sant'ana, Luciana Ferreira da R; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

2013-09-01

456

An impact assessment methodology for urban surface runoff quality following best practice treatment.  

PubMed

The paper develops an easy to apply desk-based semi-quantitative approach for the assessment of residual receiving water quality risks associated with urban surface runoff following its conveyance through best practice sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). The innovative procedure utilises an integrated geographical information system (GIS)-based pollution index approach based on surface area impermeability, runoff concentrations/loadings and individual SUDS treatment performance potential to evaluate the level of risk mitigation achievable by SUDS drainage infrastructure. The residual impact is assessed through comparison of the determined pollution index with regulatory receiving water quality standards and objectives. The methodology provides an original theoretically based procedure which complements the current acute risk assessment approaches being widely applied within pluvial flood risk management. PMID:22227301

Ellis, J Bryan; Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian

2012-01-09

457

Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

Gautier, D. L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F. G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K. J.; Charpentier, R. R.; Houseknecht, D. W.; Klett, T. R.; Schenk, C. J.; Tennyson, M. E.

2011-01-01

458

Pinellas Plant final action plan: environmental, safety and health assessment of Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida  

SciTech Connect

This document contains responses and planned actions and their estimated costs for addressing the findings presented in the Tiger Team Environment, Safety, and Health Compliance Assessment of the Pinellas Plant. The assessment presented 170 findings in three general categories: environment, safety and health, and management and organization.

Not Available

1990-12-03

459

Review of R&D activities in Level1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment and aging studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the research and development activities in Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and aging studies . Earlier, PSA models have been successfully employed during design evaluation in order to assess weak links and carry out design modifications to improve system reliability and safety. Now,studies are directed towards applying PSA in various decision making issues concerned with plant

V. V. S. S. Rao; V. Gopika; P. K. Ramteke; M. H. Prasad; Santhosh; K. K. Vaze; A. K. Ghosh

2010-01-01

460

Preliminary Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Chinese Dual Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module System for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual functional lithium lead (DFLL) test blanket module (TBM) concept for testing in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been proposed. The safety assessment of DFL-TBM has been carried out applying the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) approach. The accident sequences have been modeled and quantified through the event tree technique, which allows identifying all possible combinations of success or

L. Hu; Y. Wu; J. Wang; S. WangandFDSTeam

2007-01-01

461

APPLICATION OF FUZZY LOGIC APPROACHES TO SAFETY ASSESSMENT IN MARITIME ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment based on conventional methods such as probability risk assessment (PRA) may not be well suited for dealing with innovative systems having a high level of uncertainty, particularly in the feasibility and concept design stages of a maritime engineering system. By contrast, safety models using fuzzy logic approaches employing fuzzy IF-THEN rules can model the qualitative aspects of human

H. S. Sii; J. Wang; T. Ruxton; J. B. Yang; J. Liu

462

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

463

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

464

Fire safety assessment in oil depot based on Comprehensive Grey Relational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several serious fire and explosion accidents occurred in Chinese oil depots in recent years, thus an increasing number of people pay attention to its security work. Fire safety assessment acting as a measurement to the security of an oil depot becomes more and more important to the modern management. This paper describes several methods of fire safety assessment at home

Xiaogang Zhao; Yi Zhou; Jianyu Zhao

2011-01-01

465

Quantifying the influence of safety management on the reliability of safety barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is described that enables to use safety management audit assessments and safety culture questionnaire results for estimating the reductions in the reliability of safety barriers in major hazard plants. The critical issue is the establishment of weight factors in combination with the anchoring of “good” safety management. A method is proposed to derive weight factors from statistical accident

Nijs Jan Duijm; Louis Goossens

2006-01-01

466

Impact of biomarker development on drug safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Drug safety has always been a key aspect of drug development. Recently, the Vioxx case and several cases of serious adverse events being linked to high-profile products have increased the importance of drug safety, especially in the eyes of drug development companies and global regulatory agencies. Safety biomarkers are increasingly being seen as helping to provide the clarity, predictability, and certainty needed to gain confidence in decision making: early-stage projects can be stopped quicker, late-stage projects become less risky. Public and private organizations are investing heavily in terms of time, money and manpower on safety biomarker development. An illustrative and 'door opening' safety biomarker success story is the recent recognition of kidney safety biomarkers for pre-clinical and limited translational contexts by FDA and EMEA. This milestone achieved for kidney biomarkers and the 'know how' acquired is being transferred to other organ toxicities, namely liver, heart, vascular system. New technologies and molecular-based approaches, i.e., molecular pathology as a complement to the classical toolbox, allow promising discoveries in the safety biomarker field. This review will focus on the utility and use of safety biomarkers all along drug development, highlighting the present gaps and opportunities identified in organ toxicity monitoring. A last part will be dedicated to safety biomarker development in general, from identification to diagnostic tests, using the kidney safety biomarkers success as an illustrative example.

Marrer, Estelle, E-mail: estelle.marrer@novartis.co [Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Dieterle, Frank [Molecular Diagnostics, Novartis Pharma, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-03-01

467

Safety assessment of DHA-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp.  

PubMed

Schizochytrium sp. dried microalgae (DRM) contains oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA n-3) is the most abundant PUFA component of the oil. DHA-rich oil extracted from Schizochytrium sp. is intended for use as a nutritional ingredient in foods. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment program, the reproductive toxicity of DRM was examined in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats Crl:CD(SD)BR (30/sex/group) provided DRM in the diet at concentrations of 0, 0.6, 6.0, and 30%. These dietary levels corresponded to overall average dosages of approximately 400, 3900, and 17,800 mg/kg/day for F0 males (premating) and 480, 4600, and 20,700 mg/kg/day for F0 females, respectively. Prior to mating, males and females of the F0 generation were treated for 10 and 2 weeks, respectively. Treatment of males continued throughout mating and until termination (approximately 3 weeks after mating). Treatment of the females was continued throughout gestation and through lactation day 21. The females were killed after raising their young to weaning at 21 days of age. Food consumption was measured weekly throughout the study (except during mating) and body weights were recorded at least weekly during premating, gestation, and lactation. Reproductive parameters including estrus cycle duration, mating performance, fertility, gestation length, parturition, and gestation index were evaluated. Litter