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1

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type facility, when the facility is struck by lightning. In the following examples we will use Dr. Merewether's calculations from a poor quality Faraday cage as the input for the RF coupling analysis. coupling of radio frequency (RF) energy to explosive components is an indirect effect of currents [1]. If HE is adequately separated from the walls of the facility that is struck by disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightning is initiation of the HE. last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or lightning. The most sensitive component is typically a detonator, and the safety concern lightning, electrons discharged from the clouds should not reach the HE components. radio receiver, the metal cable of a detonator can extract energy from the EM fields. This to the earth will create electromagnetic (EM) fields in the facility. Like an antenna in a

Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

2009-04-24

2

Methodology to assess clinical liver safety data.  

PubMed

Analysis of liver safety data has to be multivariate by nature and needs to take into account time dependency of observations. Current standard tools for liver safety assessment such as summary tables, individual data listings, and narratives address these requirements to a limited extent only. Using graphics in the context of a systematic workflow including predefined graph templates is a valuable addition to standard instruments, helping to ensure completeness of evaluation, and supporting both hypothesis generation and testing. Employing graphical workflows interactively allows analysis in a team-based setting and facilitates identification of the most suitable graphics for publishing and regulatory reporting. Another important tool is statistical outlier detection, accounting for the fact that for assessment of Drug-Induced Liver Injury, identification and thorough evaluation of extreme values has much more relevance than measures of central tendency in the data. Taken together, systematical graphical data exploration and statistical outlier detection may have the potential to significantly improve assessment and interpretation of clinical liver safety data. A workshop was convened to discuss best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials. PMID:25352326

Merz, Michael; Lee, Kwan R; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Brueckner, Andreas; Watkins, Paul B

2014-11-01

3

An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

Timothy J. Leahy

2010-06-01

4

Unified methodology for fire safety assessment and optimal design  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a unified, fully-probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology has been developed by integrating Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) techniques with the modern methods of Structural System Reliability Analysis (SRA) and Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). The integration has been achieved by using platform-specific extended event-trees which model in detail the escalation paths leading to the failure of Temporary Refuge (TR), Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) systems or structural collapse of the topside. Probabilities of events for which historical data are not generally available are calculated using structural reliability methods. The optimization of fire protection is performed such that the total expected cost of the protection system and the cost of failure of the platform (loss of life, loss of asset, environmental damage) is minimized while satisfying reliability constraints.

Shetty, N.K.; Deaves, D.M.; Gierlinski, J.T. [WS Atkins Consultants Ltd., Epsom (United Kingdom); Dogliani, M. [Registro Italiano Navale, Genova (Italy)

1996-12-31

5

CO2 geological storage safety assessment: methodological developments , G. Bellenfanta  

E-print Network

production. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is seen as a decisive technology in order to achieve the most cost-effective stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations [2]. From International Probabilistic Safety Assessment & Management Conference, Seattle : United States (2010)" #12;Our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Methodology and results of the seismic probabilistic safety assessment of Krško Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic IPEEE (Individual Plant Examination for External Events) was performed for the Krško plant. The methodology adopted is the seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment). The Krško NPP is located on a medium to high seismicity site. The PSA study described here includes all the steps in the PSA sequence, i.e. reassessment of site hazard, calculation of plant structures response

M Vermaut; Ph Monette; P Shah; R. D Campbell

1998-01-01

7

Methodology for the relative risk assessment in the LDF safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the methodology used for the relative risk assessment performed in the LDF Safety Analysis Report. The safety analysis for a facility of the hazard level of the LDF Complex (Buildings 490L, 492 are low hazard) should be mostly qualitative. This was the approach taken for the LDF risk assessment, where qualitative descriptors were assigned to event consequences and frequencies. The event consequences and frequencies were then combined using a risk matrix to obtain an assessment of the relative risk presented by each event to LDF workers and to the public. The development of the risk matrices is the main subject of this report. The matrices have been applied in the LDF SAR (LLNL, 1997).

Brereton, S.J.

1997-09-03

8

Safety Assessment for a Surface Repository in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - Methodology for Assessing Disposal under Intervention Conditions - 13476  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, RWDF Buryakovka is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Plans for enlargement of the facility exist since more than 10 years but have not been implemented yet. In the framework of an European Commission Project DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) based on the planned enlargement. Due to its history RWDF Buryakovka does not fully comply with today's best international practices and the latest Ukrainian regulations in this area. The most critical aspects are its inventory of long-lived radionuclides, and the non-existent multi-barrier waste confinement system. A significant part of the project was dedicated, therefore, to the development of a methodology for the safety assessment taking into consideration the facility's special situation and to reach an agreement with all stakeholders involved in the later review and approval procedure of the safety analysis reports. Main aspect of the agreed methodology was to analyze the safety, not strictly based on regulatory requirements but on the assessment of the actual situation of the facility including its location within the Exclusion Zone. For both safety analysis reports, SAR and PSAR, the assessment of the long-term safety led to results that were either within regulatory limits or within the limits allowing for a specific situational evaluation by the regulator. (authors)

Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Shybetskyi, I. [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ul. O. Gonchara 55 b, 01054 Kiev (Ukraine)] [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ul. O. Gonchara 55 b, 01054 Kiev (Ukraine)

2013-07-01

9

Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew [Atomic Energy Licensing Board, MOSTI, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Faizal [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-02-12

10

Safety assessment of chilled meat logistics based-on GO-FLOW methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a quantitative analysis method for the chilled meat logistics system safety based on GO-FLOW methodology. Through a systematical analysis of chilled meat cold-chain, we build up its GO-FLOW chart and analyze its signals, operators and calculated rules. Then the application of the method with an example is demonstrated in detail. The reliability and failure probability of every

Huang Xin; Zou Yifeng; Lin Chaopeng

2010-01-01

11

Generating Resourcesg Assessment Methodology  

E-print Network

9/30/2014 1 Generating Resourcesg Assessment Methodology Power Committee October 7, 2014 Gillian Charles and Steve Simmons 1 Outline Generating Resources Assessment MethodologyMethodology Analysis in draft Seventh Plan analysis 4 #12;9/30/2014 3 Generating Resources Assessment Methodology Financial

12

DOE safety goals comparison using NUREG-1150 PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scope Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) including external events has been performed for N Reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Category A production reactor. This four-year, multi-million dollar task was a joint effort by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Technical lead in external events and NUREG-1150 methodology was provided

O. S. Wang; M. D. Zentner; T. E. Rainey

1990-01-01

13

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Northern British Columbia, University of

14

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a

Beverly Rainwater Sturgis; Kurt Evan Metzinger; Dana Auburn Powers; Christopher B. Atcitty; David B Robinson; John C. Hewson; Nathan E. Bixler; Brian W. Dodson; Donald L. Potter; John E. Kelly; Heather J. MacLean; Kenneth Donald Bergeron; Gregory Carl Bessette; Ronald J. Lipinski

2006-01-01

15

Crop residue assessment methodology  

SciTech Connect

Crop residue can be an attractive energy feedstock if proper care is taken to define how much resource is available, determine how much must remain in the field to control erosion and maintain soil carbon, and estimate the costs of harvesting and transporting the rest. Using crop residue for energy is a volatile issue because of the environmental implications of increasing soil erosion or reducing soil fertility. This methodology will remove some of this uncertainty so a rational and objective resource assessment can be conducted. This work describes a methodology for evaluating crop residue resource potential at a county level. At this level of detail, energy developers should be able to develop sound resource assessments for financing and project design. This methodology is inexpensive and easy to use, and consistent across the United States. This paper describes how researchers should measure the resource, adjust for the environmental demands for crop residue, and calculate the resulting supply and costs of corn and wheat residues. The results for wheat can be used for other small grains.

Tyson, K.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, R.; Thangavadivelu, S. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

16

Full-scale plant safety and availability assessment: a demonstration of GO system analysis methodology. Volume 2. Appendix: system-level detailed models. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the completion of a research project to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the GO methodology, originally developed by Kaman Sciences Corporation, to assess the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. The technical approach was to develop limited scope and availability assessment models patterned after a nuclear power plant design similar to the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Unit 1 and to demonstrate that these models could be quantified using hypothetical data for a partially complete list of risk and loss of productivity contributors. The basic capabilities of quantification of large plant level models and determination of contributors was demonstrated. Important insights about strengths, limitations, and ways to circumvent these limitations of the GO methodology in large, plant level applications were identified.

Raabe, P.H.; Reny, D.A.; Fleming, K.N.

1985-07-01

17

Full-scale plant safety and availability assessment: a demonstration of GO system analysis methodology. Volume 1. Plant-level models. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the completion of a research project to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the GO methodology, originally developed by Kaman Sciences Corporation, to assess the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. The technical approach was to develop limited scope and availability assessment models patterned after a nuclear power plant design similar to the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Unit 1 and to demonstrate that these models could be quantified using hypothetical data for a partially complete list of risk and loss of productivity contributors. The basic capabilities of quantification of large plant level models and determination of contributors was demonstrated. Important insights about strengths, limitations, and ways to circumvent these limitations of the GO methodology in large, plant level applications were identified.

Raabe, P.H.; Reny, D.A.; Fleming, K.N.

1985-07-01

18

Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

Crovelli, R.A.

1995-01-01

19

Risk-based airport selection for runway safety assessments through the development and application of systems-driven prioritization methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A runway incursion is the erroneous presence of an aircraft or other object on the runway. Runway incursions are rare precursors to aviation accidents and result from a variety of complex factors. Current quantitative methods are inadequate for analysis, forecasting, and understanding the risk profiles of airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) biennially employs runway safety action teams (RSATs) to

Kyle M. Galle; John C. Ale; Mohammad M. Hossain; Michael J. Moliterno; Maureen K. Rowell; Nikita V. Revenko; Ellen C. Rogerson; Scott F. Tucker; Kenneth G. Crowther; J. H. Lambert; Y. Y. Haimes

2010-01-01

20

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (WQAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Quality Assessment Methodology (WQAM) is a screening procedure for toxic and conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters and is a collection of formulas, tables, and graphs that planners can use for preliminary assessment of surface and ground water quality in ...

21

Assessing safety management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, both academe and practitioners have tended to address fire safety by focusing on technical aspects and looking for the immediate causes of fire incidents or accidents after they have taken place. More recently, organisations have focused on assessing the consequences of the fire risk inherent in their operations pro-actively. However, fire safety still tends to be addressed in isolation,

Jaime Santos-Reyes; Alan N. Beard

2002-01-01

22

SAFETY ASSESSMENT & CERTIFICATION FOR UAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the certification process to gain clearance to operate in unsegregated airspace, new UASs will require a robust Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined in ARP 4761 and the safety certi fication process in ARP4754, as used to demonstrate compliance with EASA \\/ FAA safety target requirements, in

Andrew R Evans; Mark Nicholson

23

Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment PI: ___________________________________________ Department: ________________________________ Lab Contact: ___________________________________ Lab Phone: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety

24

Safety-Driven Model-Based System Engineering Methodology Part I  

E-print Network

Safety-Driven Model-Based System Engineering Methodology Part I: Methodology Description* December....................................................................................................................... 22 3. System Engineering Methodology ............................................................ 45 4. Methodology Conclusion and Summary

Leveson, Nancy

25

A global non-destructive damage assessment methodology for civil engineering structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a potential methodology to continuously assess the safety of civil engineering structures, e.g. bridges, frames and offshore platforms. The proposed damage assessment methodology not only detects and sizes damage, but also evaluates the impact of the damage on the performance of the structure. The proposed methodology deals with two broad activities: (i) periodic non-destructive damage localization and

N. Stubbs; C. Sikorsky; S. Choi

2000-01-01

26

Environmental Health and Safety Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual 7/15/2013 #12;Environmental Health/26/2013. The most recent version of this document is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/general-environmental-management/environmental.........................................................................................................................4 #12;Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual Approved by: (Barb English) Last

Pawlowski, Wojtek

27

IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

Spitalnik, J.

2004-10-06

28

HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

EVANS, C B

2004-12-21

29

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

30

Formal assessment techniques for embedded safety critical system  

E-print Network

Recently, ONERA was involved in the ISAACS European project. The aim of this project was to investigate new safety assessment techniques based on the use of formal design languages and associated tools. ONERA studied more specifically the applicability of the AltaRica language and the Cecilia OCAS environment to perform the safety assessment of some Airbus aircraft systems. In this paper, we first recall the methodology developed for such traditional embedded safety critical system. Then we discuss its applicability to robotics systems.

Christel Seguin; Pierre Bieber; Charles Castel; Christophe Kehren

31

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

1993-01-10

32

Cogeneration Assessment Methodology for Utilities  

E-print Network

assessment model, and a data base to track customers over time. A case study is presented describing the background, procedures, and results of a cogeneration investigation for Northeast Utilities....

Sedlik, B.

1983-01-01

33

Safety assessment of modern aircraft-a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the increase in complexity of modern aircraft, a fresh look is needed at safety standards and guidelines, with a focus on those aspects that address the assessment objective, the methodology and applicable analytical tools. There should not be any scope for misinterpretation of safety requirements due to ambiguity in respect to its applicability or method of application. This paper

P. Biswaws; S. C. Shrimali

2001-01-01

34

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

35

Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

Cross, Kenneth D.

1992-01-01

36

Safety Assessment of Experimental Air Traffc Management Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents and discusses the application of safety assessment methodologies to a pre-operational project in the Air\\u000a Traffic Control field. In the case analysed in the present paper a peculiar aspect was the necessity to effectively assess\\u000a new operational procedures and tools. In particular we exploited an integrated methodology to evaluate computer-based applications\\u000a and their interactions with the operational

Alberto Pasquini; Simone Pozzi

2003-01-01

37

CONTEXT AND SOFTWARE SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of digital computers for instrumentation and control of safety-critical systems has increased, there has been a growing debate over the issue of whether probabilistic risk assessment techniques can be applied to digital systems. This debate has centered around the issue of whether software failures can be modeled probabilistically. This paper describes a context- based approach to software

Chris Garrett; George Apostolakis

38

ATMX System Safety Assessment report  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of the ATMX System Safety Assessment (SSA) activity, it was determined that the ATMX structural integrity would be severely impaired technically unacceptable, a major redirection of the SSA effort involving structural modifications was outlined. The redirected effort culminated into four modifications three of which are structural in nature and the fourth is thermal modification. The first structural

S. Basu; G. K. Vinjamuri

1991-01-01

39

Methodology In Danish Air Pollution Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of studies the possible link between air pollution exposure and health out- come is investigated. The methodology for assessment of air pollution exposure within these studies is presented and strength and weakness of the approach is discussed. The assessment is carried out from a GIS based model system called AirGIS, which is based on digital maps and various registers. The air pollution calculation is mainly based on the street pollution model - OSPM, developed at NERI.

Hertel, O.; Jensen, S. S.; Kousgaard, U.

40

Assessing Basic Competencies: A Practical Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Assessment of Basic Competencies (ABC), a methodology for measuring writing, arithmetic, and selected life skills that is simple, inexpensive, and easy to reproduce. Provides results of a pilot implementation of ABC among 2,100 children in Bangladesh between the ages of 11 and 12. (35 citations) (MAB)

Chowdhury, A. M. R.; And Others

1994-01-01

41

GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar  

E-print Network

1 GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar Scientist `F', National Institute of Hydrology is groundwater resources. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall both in time and space, the surface water on development of groundwater resources. The simultaneous development of groundwater, specially through dug wells

Kumar, C.P.

42

A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

2010-05-01

43

Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

2006-10-01

44

An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

2003-09-01

45

Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

1997-09-01

46

Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1981-01-01

47

Challenges in Implementing Methodologies for Nonproliferation Assessments  

SciTech Connect

A handful of models for explaining and predicting States’ development of nuclear weapons programs have been proposed since the 1970s. Despite the array of techno-social variables and computational concepts employed in these models, no model has yet been established as an agreed-upon standard. Likewise, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)—one of the main institutions evaluating social, political, and technological information for assessments of States’ current nuclear capabilities—uses only a qualitative framework by which to evaluate such information to assess the correctness and completeness of a State’s declaration. In this paper, analysts familiar with both the development of techno-social modelling and the IAEA’s implementation of a safeguards system that is information driven discuss the challenges faced in the development, implementation, and evaluation of models and methodologies for nonproliferation assessments, based on experiences at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the IAEA.

Gastelum, Zoe N.; Dalton, Angela C.; Coles, Garill A.

2011-07-17

48

Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

2014-09-01

49

Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity  

E-print Network

1 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity Report IEA-PVPS T12-03:2011 #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment

50

Comparative safety assessment for biotech crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first discussions on strategies to assess the food safety of genetically modified (GM) crop plants, assessment of GM plants and derived tissues has been based on comparisons with their traditionally bred counterparts. This was termed the Principle of Substantial Equivalence. However, implementation of the principle led to controversy and hampered the precision of the actual safety assessment. Here,

Esther J Kok; Harry A Kuiper

2003-01-01

51

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries  

E-print Network

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the Framework of SEVESOII, which started on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology measures against major accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries  

E-print Network

ARAMIS PROJECT Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II on January 2002. The ARAMIS project aims at developing a new risk assessment methodology which allows accidents and the vulnerability of its environment. The methodology will support the harmonised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

A General Methodology for Assessing and Characterizing Variation in Semiconductor  

E-print Network

A General Methodology for Assessing and Characterizing Variation in Semiconductor Manufacturing and Computer Science #12; A General Methodology for Assessing and Characterizing Variation in Semiconductor of this the­ sis is to develop the framework for a general methodology (particularly for systematic pat­ tern

Boning, Duane S.

54

Net Environmental Benefit Analysis: A New Assessment Methodology  

E-print Network

Net Environmental Benefit Analysis: A New Assessment Methodology R. A. Efroymson, efroymsonra.S. Department of Energy Dec-05 Net Environmental Benefit Analysis: A New Assessment Methodology R. A. Efroymson. Termed "Net Environmental Benefit Analysis" or NEBA, this methodology compares and ranks net

55

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

de Gispert, Adrià

56

Risk assessment modeling in aviation safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety risk management is important in aviation. This paper develops a quantitative model for assessing aviation safety risk factors as a means of increasing the effectiveness of safety risk management system by integrating the fuzzy linguistic scale method, failure mode, effects and criticality analysis principle, and as low as reasonably practicable approach. The model is developed by evaluating all related

Wen-Kuei Lee

2006-01-01

57

Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

2014-01-01

58

Safety risk assessment on communication system based on satellite constellations with the analytic hierarchy process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method in safety risk assessment on communication system based on satellite constellations through constructing safety risk index system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An empirical study using the AHP was carried out to find the relative weights of those assessment criterion and sub-objectives of subsystem. Then the risk

Li Yulong; Wu Xiande; Li Zhongfu

2008-01-01

59

A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

2009-06-01

60

ASSESSMENT OF TWO ACCIDENTS INVOLVING SAFETY DEVICES  

E-print Network

98-14 ASSESSMENT OF TWO ACCIDENTS INVOLVING SAFETY DEVICES J.F. Lechaudel. S. Bauchet INERIS Verneuil-en-Halatte, France. ABSTRACT This paper mainly aims at describing and analysing two accidents : an ammonia leakage and an explosion in a chemical unit. These accidents are in connection with safety

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU (Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty) methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Zuber, N.

1988-01-01

62

RADIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT/IMPROVEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The office is developing improved methodologies and guidance for evaluating human health risks associated with exposure to environmental radiological contaminants. These activities involve coordination with numerous federal agencies and the development and communication of vari...

63

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

64

A Common Methodology for Safety and Reliability Analysis for Space Reactor Missions  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this paper is that the methodology of probabilistic risk management (PRM) has the capability to integrate both safety and reliability analyses for space nuclear missions. Practiced within a decision analysis framework, the concept of risk and the overall methodology of PRM are not dependent on whether the outcome affects mission success or mission safety. This paper presents the methodology by means of simplified exampl0008.

Frank, Michael V. [Safety Factor Associates, Inc., 1410 Vanessa Circle, Encinitas, CA , 92024 (United States)

2006-01-20

65

Food Safety Assessment and Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

1994-01-01

66

System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

2003-01-01

67

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

Not Available

1992-12-01

68

Risk assessment methodologies for nuclear weapons compared to risk assessment methodologies for nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are major differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and Monte-Carlo-based sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons, compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors, identifies some of their dual-use characteristics, and discusses ongoing developmental activities.

Benjamin, A.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Special Risk Assessment Projects Dept.

1994-12-31

69

Developing Methodologies for Evaluating the Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains four papers written during an investigation of methods for evaluating the safety of existing school buildings under Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) grants. In "Evaluation of Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings," by B. Bresler, preliminary ideas on the evaluation of the earthquake safety of existing buildings are…

Bresler, B.; And Others

70

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an improved methodology for estimating volumes of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources within the United States and around the world. The methodology is based on previously developed U.S. Geological Survey methodologies that rely on well-scale production data. Improvements were made primarily to how the uncertainty about estimated ultimate recoveries is incorporated in the estimates. This is particularly important when assessing areas with sparse or no production data, because the new methodology allows better use of analog data from areas with significant discovery histories.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

2010-01-01

71

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

72

Cogeneration assessment methodology: assessing the cogeneration potentials of I. C. engine prime movers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is presented to provide an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of cogenerating steam from engine-generator type power plants. Typical performance values for engine and steam equipment are used. A general history, basic assumptions, and a general methodology to assess cogeneration are discussed. The detailed methodology with examples illustrated covers the following: temperature versus load functions; dual

Noon

1981-01-01

73

Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

Heimdahl, Olaf E. R. (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA); LaHoud, Paul (Athens, AL); Chapman, Leon Darrel

2004-08-01

74

Assessing offshore wind resources: An accessible methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for assessing the electric production and value of wind resources, specifically for the offshore environment. Three steps constitute our method. First, we map the available area, delimiting bathymetric areas based on turbine tower technology, then assess competing uses of the ocean to establish exclusion zones. From exclusion zones, bathymetry, and turbine tower water depth limitations,

Amardeep Dhanju; Phillip Whitaker; Willett Kempton

2008-01-01

75

Assessing offshore wind resources: An accessible methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for assessing the electric production and value of wind resources, specifically for the offshore environment. Three steps constitute our method. First, we map the available area, delimiting bathymetric areas based on turbine tower technology, then assess competing uses of the ocean to establish exclusion zones. From exclusion zones, bathymetry, and turbine tower water depth limitations,

Amardeep Dhanju; Phillip Whitaker; Willett Kempton

2007-01-01

76

Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

Joglekar, Prafulla

2001-01-01

77

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-09-01

78

Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

79

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources using analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The currently used U.S. Geological Survey methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) petroleum resources of the United States was developed in the 1990s. This methodology poorly incorporates uncertainty about the estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs). This is especially problematic for hypothetical assessment units where this may be the largest source of uncertainty that needs to be reflected in the estimates. An improved methodology estimates the uncertainty of mean EUR directly. It uses analog data that have been compiled from production histories of many developed U.S. continuous assessment units. The analog databases provide a way of estimating the variability of not just EURs but other production parameters useful in assessing continuous resources.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

2010-01-01

80

h~EPA Risk Assessments Methodology  

E-print Network

Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared in support of the rulemaking. The EIS consists of the following levels, the benefits and costs of emission controls, and economic impact evaluations. Copies of the EIS significant technical support in the preparation of the EIS, #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLLIYlE I: RISK ASSESSMENT

81

Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided that work at the UC Irvine campus including UCI employees who work off-campus and off-site locations by Environmental Health Safety (EH&S). The Safety Training Self-Assessment is required for: · All UC employees

Rose, Michael R.

82

Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

1996-08-01

83

76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 [Docket No. NHTSA 2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2011-12-01

84

Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals  

SciTech Connect

The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

1980-03-01

85

SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

86

Methodology to Achieve Safety and Energy Savings in Laboratory Buildings  

E-print Network

coping with both proper safety and energy saving. A primary cause, which makes lab exhaust greater, is installation of many spot exhaust devices such as fume hood to prevent human body from suffering chemical exposure. However, codes and regulations...

Odajima, T.; Numanaka, S.

87

Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

1998-01-01

88

78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety of its airlines. It does not assess the safety compliance of any particular air carrier (nor does it address aviation security, airports, or air traffic management). Although the FAA assessment team typically visits one or more air...

2013-03-08

89

76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA-2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety...SUMMARY: New passenger vehicles manufactured on or after...Safety Administration (NHTSA) under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). This...

2011-07-29

90

Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report  

SciTech Connect

The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

Not Available

1980-01-01

91

Safety assessment of probiotics for human use  

PubMed Central

The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

2010-01-01

92

Critical Inquiry and Writing Centers: A Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining one writing center's role in student success, this project offers two examples of the way writing centers impact student engagement. This analysis models a methodology that writing and learning center directors can utilize in order to foster effective communication with stakeholders. By conducting data-driven assessment, directors can…

Bell, Diana Calhoun; Frost, Alanna

2012-01-01

93

Assessing Competition Policy: Methodologies, Gaps and Agenda for  

E-print Network

1 Assessing Competition Policy: Methodologies, Gaps and Agenda for Future Research Stephen Davies* and Peter Ormosi** *ESRC Centre for Competition Policy and School of Economics, University of East Anglia **ESRC Centre for Competition Policy and Norwich Business School CCP Working Paper 10-19 Abstract

Feigon, Brooke

94

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

95

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLING  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

96

Space Shuttle probabilistic risk assessment: methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and processes used for the probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle vehicle to systematically quantify the risk incurred during a nominal Shuttle mission and rank the risk driving components to allow for a concerted risk and cost reduction effort. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology

G. Maggio

1996-01-01

97

Lunar Surface Habitat Configuration Assessment: Methodology and Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Habitat Configuration Assessment evaluated the major habitat approaches that were conceptually developed during the Lunar Architecture Team II Study. The objective of the configuration assessment was to identify desired features, operational considerations, and risks to derive habitat requirements. This assessment only considered operations pertaining to the lunar surface and did not consider all habitat conceptual designs developed. To examine multiple architectures, the Habitation Focus Element Team defined several adequate concepts which warranted the need for a method to assess the various configurations. The fundamental requirement designed into each concept included the functional and operational capability to support a crew of four on a six-month lunar surface mission; however, other conceptual aspects were diverse in comparison. The methodology utilized for this assessment consisted of defining figure of merits, providing relevant information, and establishing a scoring system. In summary, the assessment considered the geometric configuration of each concept to determine the complexity of unloading, handling, mobility, leveling, aligning, mating to other elements, and the accessibility to the lunar surface. In theory, the assessment was designed to derive habitat requirements, potential technology development needs and identify risks associated with living and working on the lunar surface. Although the results were more subjective opposed to objective, the assessment provided insightful observations for further assessments and trade studies of lunar surface habitats. This overall methodology and resulting observations will be describe in detail and illustrative examples will be discussed.

Carpenter, Amanda

2008-01-01

98

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

99

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

100

Preliminary assessment of the safety of IFMIF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a planned high-energy neutron source for the testing of candidate materials for future fusion power plants. Safety studies performed during the various stages of the conceptual design of IFMIF have been brought together in a preliminary assessment of the safety of IFMIF, identifying the principal hazards and the means to prevent or mitigate them. The design is based on dual high-energy deuteron accelerators delivering beams onto a flowing lithium target, in which neutrons are produced through a d-Li stripping reaction. The neutrons irradiate material samples in controlled conditions in a test cell. In all these systems, potential hazards arise, but analyses show that no postulated off-normal event can result in a significant risk of harm to the public. However, care must be taken in forthcoming detailed design development to minimise occupational radiation exposure during IFMIF operation and maintenance.

Taylor, N. P.; Brañas, B.; Eriksson, E.; Natalizio, A.; Pinna, T.; Rodríguez-Rodrigo, L.; Ciattaglia, S.; Lässer, R.

2007-08-01

101

Validation of the YAEC (Yankee Atomic Electric Company) criticality safety methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YEAC's) criticality safety methodology has evolved over the years to analyze high-density spent fuel rack designs, new fuel vault optimum moderation, burnup credit, pin consolidation, storage rack sensitivities, and large spent fuel rack arrays. The present methodology has three calculational paths: NITAWL-S\\/ KENO V.a Monte Carlo, CASMO-3 integral transport, and CASMO-3\\/CHART-2\\/PDQ-7 diffusion theory analysis. These

D. G. Napolitano; F. L. Carpenito; P. J. Rashid

1988-01-01

102

Methodology used in safety pharmacology: appraisal of the state-of-the-art, the regulatory issues and new directions.  

PubMed

This is the second focused issue of the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods that is devoted exclusively to methodology, opinions and regulatory issues related to Safety Pharmacology. This issue of the Journal highlights a record number of articles and abstracts from the 4th Annual Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) meeting that was held in Covington, Kentucky September 27-29, 2004. The focus of this issue of the Journal is to present a description of currently used fundamental pharmacological methods as outlined in the regulatory guidance documents for pre-clinical safety testing of drugs (ICH S7A and S7B). This issue features articles that discuss methods related to in vivo and in vitro CNS, respiratory and cardiovascular core battery studies. Additionally, articles are included that discuss species differences and recording issues in EKG measurement; automated (HTS) electrophysiology methods for assessing drug-induced hERG blockade (i.e., PatchXpress 7000A and hERG-lite); methods that describe and validate the use of the guinea pig as a safety pharmacology screening model; methods used to predict QTc prolongation and mathematical models that describe beat-to-beat instability of QT duration; supplemental studies that assess and discuss emerging renal biomarkers and renal function and food effects on gastrointestinal transit time; pro-arrhythmia models, cardiac function assessment using 3-D echocardiography and a description of a novel open field motor activity system to assess the possible CNS effects of drugs. Thus, this issue of the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods should be a primary resource aid to individuals in academia and industry that are interested in understanding Safety Pharmacology methods. It provides a comprehensive overview of current and advanced methods used in Safety Pharmacology studies today. PMID:15982903

Pugsley, Michael K

2005-01-01

103

Comprehensive methodology for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Development of a comprehensive methodology for ecological risk assessment and monitoring of contaminated soils is essential to assess the impacts of environmental contaminants on soil community and biologically-mediated processes in soil. The proposed four-step plan involves (1) a thorough survey of the soil community to establish biodiversity and a base-line community structure, (2) toxicity trials on indicator species and whole soil invertebrate communities, (3) laboratory and field tests on indicator processes and (4) the use of statistical and simulation models to ascertain changes in the soil ecosystems. This methodology was used in portions of the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. Previous soil analyses showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate and PCBs. Preliminary results from field surveys of soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local ``background`` area. Laboratory tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment. The proposed comprehensive methodology appears to offer an efficient and potentially cost saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-31

104

Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E. C.

1983-01-01

105

Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

1995-01-13

106

Examination of change factor methodologies for climate change impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods are available to estimate values of meteorological variables at future times and at spatial scales that are appropriate for local climate change impact assessment. One commonly used method is Change Factor Methodology (CFM), sometimes referred to as delta change factor methodology. Although more sophisticated methods exist, CFM is still widely applicable and used in impact analysis studies. While there are a number of different ways by which change factors (CFs) can be calculated and used to estimate future climate scenarios, there are no clear guidelines available in the literature to decide which methodologies are most suitable for different applications. In this study several categories of CFM (additive versus multiplicative and single versus multiple) for a number of climate variables are compared and contrasted. The study employs several theoretical case studies, as well as a real example from Cannonsville watershed, which supplies water to New York City, USA. Results show that in cases when the frequency distribution of Global Climate Model (GCM) baseline climate is close to the frequency distribution of observed climate, or when the frequency distribution of GCM future climate is close to the frequency distribution of GCM baseline climate, additive and multiplicative single CFMs provide comparable results. Two options to guide the choice of CFM are suggested. The first option is a detailed methodological analysis for choosing the most appropriate CFM. The second option is a default method for use under circumstances in which a detailed methodological analysis is too cumbersome.

Anandhi, Aavudai; Frei, Allan; Pierson, Donald C.; Schneiderman, Elliot M.; Zion, Mark S.; Lounsbury, David; Matonse, Adao H.

2011-03-01

107

The development of a more risk-sensitive and flexible airport safety area strategy: Part II. Accident location analysis and airport risk assessment case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This two-part paper presents the development of an improved airport risk assessment methodology aimed at assessing risks related to aircraft accidents at and in the vicinity of airports and managing Airport Safety Areas (ASAs) as a risk mitigation measure. The improved methodology is more quantitative, risk-sensitive, flexible and transparent than standard risk assessment approaches. As such, it contributes to the

D. K. Y. Wong; D. E. Pitfield; R. E. Caves; A. J. Appleyard

2009-01-01

108

Assessment methodology for computer-based instructional simulations.  

PubMed

Computer-based instructional simulations are becoming more and more ubiquitous, particularly in military and medical domains. As the technology that drives these simulations grows ever more sophisticated, the underlying pedagogical models for how instruction, assessment, and feedback are implemented within these systems must evolve accordingly. In this article, we review some of the existing educational approaches to medical simulations, and present pedagogical methodologies that have been used in the design and development of games and simulations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. In particular, we present a methodology for how automated assessments of computer-based simulations can be implemented using ontologies and Bayesian networks, and discuss their advantages and design considerations for pedagogical use. PMID:24084305

Koenig, Alan; Iseli, Markus; Wainess, Richard; Lee, John J

2013-10-01

109

Safety culture assessment: a tool for improving patient safety in healthcare organizations  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, healthcare organizations are becoming aware of the importance of transforming organizational culture in order to improve patient safety. Growing interest in safety culture has been accompanied by the need for assessment tools focused on the cultural aspects of patient safety improvement efforts. This paper discusses the use of safety culture assessment as a tool for improving patient safety. It describes the characteristics of culture assessment tools presently available and discusses their current and potential uses, including brief examples from healthcare organizations that have undertaken such assessments. The paper also highlights critical processes that healthcare organizations need to consider when deciding to use these tools. PMID:14645891

Nieva, V; Sorra, J

2003-01-01

110

Methodological Concerns About the Education Value-Added Assessment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value-added models help to evaluate the knowledge that school districts, schools, and teachers add to student learning as students progress through school. In this article, the well-known Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is examined. The author presents a practical investigation of the methodological issues associated with the model. Specifically, she argues that, although EVAAS is probably the most sophisticated value-added

Audrey Amrein-Beardsley

2008-01-01

111

Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Tragic marine and offshore accidents have caused serious consequences including loss of lives, loss of property, and damage of the environment. Method: A proactive, risk-based “goal setting” regime is introduced to the marine and offshore industries to increase the level of safety. Discussion: To maximize marine and offshore safety, risks need to be modeled and safety-based decisions need to

J Wang

2002-01-01

112

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2012-05-31

113

National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake, Ronald M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, Philip A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; and Varela, Brian A.

2013-01-01

114

Detecting adverse events for patient safety research: a review of current methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoting patient safety is a national priority. To evaluate interventions for reducing medical errors and adverse event, effective methods for detecting such events are required. This paper reviews the current methodologies for detection of adverse events and discusses their relative advantages and limitations. It also presents a cognitive framework for error monitoring and detection. While manual chart review has been

Harvey J. Murff; Vimla L. Patel; George Hripcsak; David W. Bates

2003-01-01

115

Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

2012-01-01

116

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

117

Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

Levin, H.A. [Synergy Consulting Services Corp., Great Falls, VA (United States); McGehee, R.B. [Wise Carter Child & Caraway, Jackson, MS (United States); Cottle, W.T. [Houston Lighting & Power, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

118

Application of Non-Human Biota Assessment Methodologies to the Assessment of Potential Impacts from a Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

The protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has become increasingly more topical over the last few years as the intentions enshrined in international principles and agreements have become more binding through national and international law. For example, the Directive on impact of certain projects on the environment (EIA Directive 85/337/EEC) [CEC, 1985], amended in 1997 [CEC, 1997], places a mandatory requirement on all EU Member States to conduct environmental impact assessments for a range of project having potential impact on the environment, including radioactive waste disposal. Such assessments must consider humans, fauna and flora, the abiotic environment (soil, water, air), material assets and cultural heritage as well as the interactions between these factors. In Finland, Posiva Oy are responsible for the overall repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and, as such, are conducting the Safety Case Assessment for a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste. Within the European legislation framework, the Finnish regulatory body requires that the repository safety case assessment should include not only human radiological safety, but also an assessment of the potential impact upon populations of non-human biota. Specifically, the Safety Case should demonstrate that there will be: - no decline in the biodiversity of currently living populations; - no significant detriment to populations of fauna and flora; and, - no detrimental effects on individuals of domestic animals and rare plants and animals. At present, there are no internationally agreed criteria that explicitly address protection of the environment from ionising radiation. However, over recent years a number of assessment methodologies have been developed including, at a European level, the Framework for the Assessment of Environmental impact (FASSET) and Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants (ERICA). The International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) have also proposed an approach to allow for assessments of potential impacts on non-human species, in its report in 2003. This approach is based on the development and use of a small set of reference animals and plants, with their associated dose models and data sets. Such approaches are broadly applicable to the Posiva Safety Case. However, the specific biota of concern and the current climatic conditions within Finland present an additional challenge to the assessment. The assessment methods most applicable to the Posiva Safety Case have therefore been reviewed in consideration of the regulatory requirements for the assessment and recommendations made on a suitable assessment approach. This has been applied within a test case and adaptations to the overall assessment method have been made to enable both population and individual impacts to be assessed where necessary. The test case has been undertaken to demonstrate the application of the recommended methodology, but also to identify data gaps, uncertainties and other specific issues associated with the application of an assessment method within the regulatory context. (authors)

Smith, K.L.; Robinson, C.A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd, D5 Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ikonen, A.T.K. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

2007-07-01

119

Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Armstrong, D.L.

1994-08-01

120

Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.  

PubMed

The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. PMID:20435414

Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

2010-08-15

121

Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL] [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.] [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.] [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy] [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.] [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

122

ASSESSMENT OF TOXICANT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN OVARIAN STEROIDOGENESIS: A METHODOLOGICAL OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

RTD-03-035 Assessment of Toxicant-induced Alterations in Ovarian Steroidogenesis: A Methodological Overview Jerome M. Goldman, Susan C. Laws and Ralph L. Cooper Abstract A variety of methodological approaches have been used for the assessment of tox...

123

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Part I - Overview of Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which will extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses diffeent approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2011-07-31

124

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation  

SciTech Connect

The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-09-29

125

Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health  

PubMed Central

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

126

Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  

PubMed

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

2014-05-01

127

Assessment of mining area's environmental system safety by fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining area's environmental system safety assessment is the comprehensive measure for the state and development trends of mining area's environmental system, and it is the important basis to take specific measures to control the mining area's environmental system safety. In this paper, under the guidance of the pressure - state - response (Pressure-State-Response, PSR), the mining area's environmental system safety

Dachao Zhang; Xiaojun Wen

2011-01-01

128

Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Health Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

, location, etc.) Proper PPE available and matched to hazards: Gloves Lab Coates Safety Glasses/Goggles Face are current Copy of lab safety procedures for handling radioactive materials is available in the lab. UsersEnvironmental Health and Safety Environmental Health Laboratory Assessment PI

129

Novel risk assessment techniques for maritime safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a brief review of the current status of offshore safety regulations in the UK, several issues pertaining to the problems encountered in applying the existing reliability and safety analysis methods in quantitative safety appraisal studies, especially in the early concept design stage of maritime engineering products, are discussed. Presents three novel risk assessment and decision support frameworks. These include

How Sing Sii; Jin Wang; Tom Ruxton

2001-01-01

130

Development of Non-LOCA Safety Analysis Methodology with RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01/K  

SciTech Connect

Korea Electric Power Research Institute has launched a project to develop an in-house non-loss-of-coolant-accident analysis methodology to overcome the hardships caused by the narrow analytical scopes of existing methodologies. Prior to the development, some safety analysis codes were reviewed, and RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01 were chosen as the base codes. The codes have been modified to improve the analytical capabilities required to analyze the nuclear power plants in Korea. The methodologies of the vendors and the Electric Power Research Institute have been reviewed, and some documents of foreign utilities have been used to compensate for the insufficiencies. For the next step, a draft methodology for pressurized water reactors has been developed and modified to apply to Westinghouse-type plants in Korea. To verify the feasibility of the methodology, some events of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2 have been analyzed from the standpoints of reactor coolant system pressure and the departure from nucleate boiling ratio. The results of the analyses show trends similar to those of the Final Safety Analysis Report.

Kim, Yo-Han; Cheong, Ae-Ju; Yang, Chang-Keun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2004-10-15

131

Safety Assessment and Detection Methods of Genetically Modified Organisms.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection were discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

Jiao, Guanglian; Xu, R; Zheng, Z

2014-10-24

132

Formal assessment techniques for embedded safety critical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, ONERA was involved in the ISAACS European project. The aim of this project was to investigate new safety assessment techniques based on the use of formal design languages and associated tools. ONERA studied more specifically the applicability of the AltaRica language and the Cecilia OCAS environment to perform the safety assessment of some Airbus aircraft systems. In this paper,

Christel Seguin; Pierre Bieber; Charles Castel; Christophe Kehren

133

Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal ketorolac.  

PubMed

Spinal prostaglandin synthesis has been implicated in acute pain processes and in generation and maintenance of central sensitization, and intrathecal injection of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors produce antinociception and reduce hypersensitivity in animals. We herein report a Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal injection of the COX inhibitor, ketorolac, in healthy volunteers, and demonstrate no serious side effects. Preclinical studies suggest a major site of action of COX inhibitors for analgesia lies in the central nervous system, especially the spinal cord. For example, COX isoenzymes are expressed in the spinal cord, acute noxious stimuli and inflammation increase spinal prostaglandin production, and spinally administered prostaglandins excite dorsal horn projection neurons, induce release of excitatory neurotransmitters, and cause nociceptive behavior. Intrathecal injection of COX inhibitors increases thermal and mechanical withdrawal threshold in animals with inflammation or nerve injury at doses several 100-fold less than those required systemically. Following pre-clinical neurotoxicity screening and regulatory agency approval, we examined the safety of intrathecal injection of a preservative-free formulation of the COX inhibitor, ketorolac. In an open label, dose-escalating design, 20 healthy volunteers received intrathecal ketorolac, 0.25, 0.5, 1, or 2mg (n=5 per group). Ketorolac did not alter blood pressure, although there was small (10-12%), dose-independent reduction in heart rate for the first hour after injection when data from all subjects were pooled. Ketorolac did not affect sensory or motor function or deep tendon reflexes, and there were no subjective sensations, neurologic or otherwise, reported by the volunteers. Ketorolac did not reduce pain report to heat stimuli applied to the lateral calf. One subject had a mild headache 24h after study, resolving the next day. There were no long-term side effects 6 months after study. These data suggest that intrathecal ketorolac does not produce a high incidence of serious adverse events, and they support further investigation for analgesia. PMID:12406536

Eisenach, James C; Curry, Regina; Hood, David D; Yaksh, Tony L

2002-10-01

134

Agenda Item 1 : Enroute separation minima and procedures - horizontal Safety Assessment prior to 30NM Longitudinal Separation Minimum under ADS-C Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Japan has conducted the safety assessment for 30NM longitudinal separation minimum for ADS-C aircraft in oceanic airspace. It turned out that the position reporting frequency must be once every 10 minutes for the collision risk to meet the TLS. This paper summarizes the safety assessment methodology and introduces the result.

Masao Kondo; Masato Fujita

135

Track train dynamics analysis and test program: Methodology development for the derailment safety analysis of six-axle locomotives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational safety of six axle locomotives is analyzed. A locomotive model with corresponding data on suspension characteristics, a method of track defect characterization, and a method of characterizing operational safety are used. A user oriented software package was developed as part of the methodology and was used to study the effect (on operational safety) of various locomotive parameters and operational conditions such as speed, tractive effort, and track curvature. The operational safety of three different locomotive designs was investigated.

Marcotte, P. P.; Mathewson, K. J. R.

1982-01-01

136

Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II directive  

E-print Network

ARAMIS Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the framework of SEVESO II risk assessment methodology which allows to evaluate the risk level of an industrial plant by taking into account prevention measures against major accidents. The methodology will support the harmonised

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E.C.

1983-10-15

138

Cogeneration assessment methodology: assessing the cogeneration potentials of I. C. engine prime movers  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is presented to provide an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of cogenerating steam from engine-generator type power plants. Typical performance values for engine and steam equipment are used. A general history, basic assumptions, and a general methodology to assess cogeneration are discussed. The detailed methodology with examples illustrated covers the following: temperature versus load functions; dual fuel exhaust mass flow rate; diesel exhaust mass flow rate; natural gas spark ignition exhaust mass flow rate; heat capacity of exhaust gas; waste heat output versus load; specific enthalpy of steam output; steam output mass flow rate; waste heat boiler costs; steam production profile; preliminary screening for cogeneration; steam customer identification; space heat demand factor and profile; space cooling demand factor and profile; systems match up; piping costs; and an economic assessment. The methodology has been developed to be flexible and can be implemented in either manual or computerized form. The methodology has been translated into TI-59 program commands. (MCW)

Noon, R.

1981-01-01

139

Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses, was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes the preliminary safety assessment results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP).

Marshall, A.C.

1993-07-01

140

A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

1993-07-01

141

Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

Reardon, P.T.

1995-03-01

142

Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Methodology for Homeland Security  

SciTech Connect

In response to increased interest in risk-informed decision making regarding terrorism, EPRI was selected by U.S. DHS and ASME to develop and demonstrate a nuclear sector specific methodology for owner / operators to utilize in performing a Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP) assessment for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The objective is to characterize SNF transportation risk for risk management opportunities and to provide consistent information for DHS decision making. The method uses a characterization of risk as a function of Consequence, Vulnerability, and Threat. Worst reasonable case scenarios characterize risk for a benchmark set of threats and consequence types. A trial application was successfully performed and implementation is underway by one utility. (authors)

Teagarden, Grant A. [ERIN Engineering and Research (United States); Canavan, Kenneth T. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Nickell, Robert E. [Applied Science and Technology, Poway, CA 92064 (United States)

2006-07-01

143

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

144

A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

145

Page 1 of 3 Laboratory Safety and Environmental Health Assessment Program  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 3 Laboratory Safety and Environmental Health Assessment Program Principal Investigators responsibilities. This Laboratory Assessment Program identifies four processes to evaluate safety and environmental to modify an assessment checklist that best addresses specific safety and environmental compliance needs

146

Developing a Methodology for Eliciting Subjective Probability Estimates During Expert Evaluations of Safety Interventions: Application for Bayesian Belief Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has defined several products that will potentially modify airline and/or ATC operations, enhance aircraft systems, and improve the identification of potential hazardous situations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the judgments to develop Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN's) that model the potential impact that specific interventions may have. Specifically, the present report summarizes methodologies for improving the elicitation of probability estimates during expert evaluations of AvSP products for use in BBN's. The work involved joint efforts between Professor James Luxhoj from Rutgers University and researchers at the University of Illinois. The Rutgers' project to develop BBN's received funding by NASA entitled "Probabilistic Decision Support for Evaluating Technology Insertion and Assessing Aviation Safety System Risk." The proposed project was funded separately but supported the existing Rutgers' program.

Wiegmann, Douglas A.a

2005-01-01

147

Safety Assessment & Certification for UAS Bristol UAV Systems Conference April 2007  

E-print Network

Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined and clearance from 1998, he developed Safety Management Systems and safety cases for legacy aircraft platforms Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process

Nicholson, Mark

148

[Ecological safety assessment of Manas River Basin oasis, Xinjiang].  

PubMed

By using analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, an index system for ecological safety assessment was built, and 18 indices in the aspects of water resource, environment, and social economy were selected to assess the ecological safety of Manas River Basin oasis in 2006. In the study area, the ecological situation in 2006 was basically safe, with the membership degree being 0. 3347 and the integrated evaluation score being 0. 551. The water resource safety index, social economy index, and environmental safety index were in the levels of relatively safe, extremely safe, and unsafe, respectively. Water resource index could represent the sustainable development degree of oasis, while social economy index and environment safety index could indicate the oasis development level and environment situation, respectively. These three indices could most reflect the ecological safety level of the oasis. PMID:20030146

Ling, Hong-bo; Xu, Hai-liang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Qing-qing

2009-09-01

149

A complete and consistent methodology for the assessment of mooring systems  

SciTech Connect

Ten years ago, the capacity of mooring systems was usually assessed using a static approach, Simplistic computational models were made to suit the computer technology available at that time. Conservative safety factors were used in order to balance the uncertainties associated with these calculation methods. The whole process was nevertheless coherent and experience has shown that an adequate level of safety was thus achieved. Nowadays, computers are so fast that it is possible to perform very sophisticated analyses. Simulations of the mooring system behavior that would include the 3D-dynamics of each line could probably be performed, even for complex mooring patterns. However, the actual dynamic response of mooring lines in full scale conditions has not yet been fully elucidated and calibration of such computer software would therefore be difficult. Subsequently, the most recent codes recommend performing a quasi-static analysis of the whole mooring system, to be completed by a dynamic analysis of the most critical line in its average vertical plane. These codes provide revised safety factors that are dramatically smaller than those used in the past, on the grounds of reduced uncertainties associated with partial dynamic considerations. This paper explains why such new practices are not necessarily consistent or appropriate. Calibration and validation have been derived from a very large number of cases, thus ensuring optimization between over-scantling, safety and cost effectiveness. Equations used to compute loads and motions are given in detail together with damping coefficients for each type of unit. Safety factors are also specified for Maximum Design Condition. An alternative mooring analysis methodology is thus proposed which is complete, consistent and efficient.

Leblanc, L.; Isnard, J.L.; Wilczynski, H.

1995-12-01

150

Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller  

SciTech Connect

CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

151

Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

2014-01-01

152

Using Rubrics to Assess Information Literacy: An Examination of Methodology and Interrater Reliability  

E-print Network

Using Rubrics to Assess Information Literacy: An Examination of Methodology and Interrater to remedy these omissions by describing the benefits of a rubric-based approach to information literacy assess- ment, identifying a methodology for using rubrics to assess information literacy skills

Oakleaf, Megan

153

Probabilistic assessment of financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags-part I: the methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized methodology for stochastic\\/probabilistic assessment of the annual financial losses due to interruptions and voltage sags. The costs of interruptions and voltage sags are treated separately and then combined in order to estimate the total financial losses in the network per annum. The methodology proposed is applicable to both assessment of individual customer losses and assessment

Jovica V. Milanovic ´; Chandra P. Gupta

2006-01-01

154

Safety assessment of 6-hydroxyindole as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6-hydroxyindole, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel considered relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that 6-hydroxyindole is safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations. PMID:25297906

Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2014-01-01

155

Compressed Natural Gas Bus Safety: A Quantitative Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results

Samuel Chamberlain; Mohammad Modarres

2005-01-01

156

Safety assessment of control system based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrochemical industry, where large amounts of dangerous chemical substances are stored and handled, maybe subjected to hazards. As control system is widely used in petrochemical industry, safety assessment is becoming increasingly important for control system in order to minimize catastrophic events while improving safety, reliability and availability. But a number of uncertainties connected with information shortages may lead to overlooking

Zuo Xin; Zhang Huiliang; Deng Qianjin; Wang Lijun

2012-01-01

157

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Safety Assessment Document (SAD)  

E-print Network

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Safety Assessment Document (SAD) for the Advanced Light Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. #12;ALS Safety Source (Rev. 7) Updated May 29, 2009 This work was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic

Knowles, David William

158

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI of promptly. Work surfaces are free of contamination. Heavy objects are stored on lower shelves. Glassware are available and in use. Chemical Fume Hoods / Exhaust Points # Compliance Items: Category Item Comments

159

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

160

Bayesian methodology to estimate and update safety performance functions under limited data conditions: a sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

In road safety studies, decision makers must often cope with limited data conditions. In such circumstances, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), which relies on asymptotic theory, is unreliable and prone to bias. Moreover, it has been reported in the literature that (a) Bayesian estimates might be significantly biased when using non-informative prior distributions under limited data conditions, and that (b) the calibration of limited data is plausible when existing evidence in the form of proper priors is introduced into analyses. Although the Highway Safety Manual (2010) (HSM) and other research studies provide calibration and updating procedures, the data requirements can be very taxing. This paper presents a practical and sound Bayesian method to estimate and/or update safety performance function (SPF) parameters combining the information available from limited data with the SPF parameters reported in the HSM. The proposed Bayesian updating approach has the advantage of requiring fewer observations to get reliable estimates. This paper documents this procedure. The adopted technique is validated by conducting a sensitivity analysis through an extensive simulation study with 15 different models, which include various prior combinations. This sensitivity analysis contributes to our understanding of the comparative aspects of a large number of prior distributions. Furthermore, the proposed method contributes to unification of the Bayesian updating process for SPFs. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the developed methodology. Therefore, the suggested approach offers considerable promise as a methodological tool to estimate and/or update baseline SPFs and to evaluate the efficacy of road safety countermeasures under limited data conditions. PMID:24316506

Heydari, Shahram; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Lord, Dominique; Fu, Liping

2014-03-01

161

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

162

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

163

Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1998-09-01

164

Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1998-09-01

165

Methodology for the application of hydrogen flux monitoring devices to assess equipment operating in wet H{sub 2} service  

SciTech Connect

To date, hydrogen flux monitoring devices have been only quantitatively used in the field to gauge environmental severity with respect to identifying changes from normal operating conditions. This paper discusses a methodology for extending the use of hydrogen flux monitoring equipment to quantitatively assess the severity of hydrogen charging and relate the response directly to the materials resistance or susceptibility to wet H{sub 2}S cracking, This methodology incorporates the value of measured hydrogen flux, operating equipment variables, material of construction and its inherent susceptibility to cracking to determine the risk of cracking based on the severity of the operating environment. This methodology will allow more applicability of the hydrogen flux monitoring equipment to determine safety margins with respect to intermittent upset conditions or more prolonged changes in hydrogen charging severity resulting from changing production or process conditions.

Cayard, M.S.; Kane, R.D. [InterCorr/CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Joia, C.J.B. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Correia, L.A. [Petrobras/REPAR, Araucaria, Parana (Brazil)

1998-12-31

166

Clinical safety assessment of infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Data on clinical safety and efficacy are ideally collected in a randomized clinical trial or, failing this, an observational study. Suitable outcomes vary depending on the intervention and population group, and certain outcomes such as growth may test both efficacy and safety. The use of growth as an important safety outcome has some limitations since it is currently not clear what represents an 'optimal' growth pattern. Several issues currently make the conduct and interpretation of infant nutrition trials challenging. These include difficulties in recruiting exclusively formula-fed infants, particularly given the emotive nature of infant feeding; the involvement of industry leading to real or perceived conflicts of interest; increased regulation and bureaucracy; and particular issues with long-term follow-up studies, notably cohort attrition. This paper addresses the implications of these issues and some potential solutions. PMID:22699768

Fewtrell, M S

2012-01-01

167

Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

2012-04-01

168

Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.  

PubMed

Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments. PMID:24508155

Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

2014-07-01

169

Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate variability and change on the PMP are also under investigation.

England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

2008-12-01

170

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

1994-02-01

171

Safety Performance Assessment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises with Linguistic Assessment Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety in small and medium-sized enterprises is a major problem in China, representing about 70% of serious industrial and trade accidents in 2005. By retrospective analysis of previous related research to safety performance, this paper advanced to assess safety performance in small and medium-sized enterprises by using the dasiainitiativepsila indicators together with dasiapassivepsila indicators. The research designed an indicator system

Su-xia Liu; Qiang Mei; Rui Xu; Yu-mei Lu

2009-01-01

172

Process waste assessment plan: Environmental safety and health programs. Revision C  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish a procedure and schedule for conducting process waste assessments (PWAS) at the Pinellas Plant. The plan specifies those activities and methods that will be employed to characterize all waste streams and to identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The plan also includes a methodology for evaluating proposed modifications to site processes and other options to minimize waste. The plan is intended to satisfy the requirement of the Pinellas Plant Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan to conduct PWAS. The plan will also include an assessment of safety, hazards and ergonomics associated with each waste stream.

Poole, R.L.; Hall, R.L.

1992-06-18

173

STATUS OF IERL-RTP ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR FOSSIL ENERGY PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the status of the following environmental assessment (EA) methodologies: current process technology background, environmental data acquisition, current environmental background, environmental objectives development, control technology assessment, and environ...

174

Development of an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources in North America  

E-print Network

national oil and gas assessment and the 2000 NOGA series, and presents an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. The new model improves upon the USGS method by using a stochastic approach, which includes correlation between...

Salazar Vanegas, Jesus

2007-09-17

175

Safety assessment of probiotics for human use  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of the potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are living organisms when administ...

176

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

177

Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.  

PubMed

The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted. PMID:22026190

Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

2011-01-01

178

INTERPRETING SPONTANEOUS RENAL LESIONS IN SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Interpreting Spontaneous Renal Lesions in Safety and Risk Assessment Douglas C. Wolf, D.V.M., Ph.D. Introduction Risk assessment is a process whereby the potential adverse health effects from exposure to a xenobiotic are predicted after evaluation of the availab...

179

NextGen Future Safety Assessment Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful implementation of the next generation infrastructure systems requires solid understanding of their technical, social, political and economic aspects along with their interactions. The lack of historical data that relate to the long-term planning of complex systems introduces unique challenges for decision makers and involved stakeholders which in turn result in unsustainable systems. Also, the need to understand the infrastructure at the societal level and capture the interaction between multiple stakeholders becomes important. This paper proposes a methodology in order to develop a holistic approach aiming to provide an alternative subject-matter expert (SME) elicitation and data collection method for future sociotechnical systems. The methodology is adapted to Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) decision making environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of this holistic approach.

Ancel, Ersin; Gheorghe, Adian; Jones, Sharon Monica

2010-01-01

180

A methodology to assess performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a methodology to assess system performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks such as habitat construction, geological sampling, and space exploration. The methodology uses a systematic approach that assesses performance by incorporating capabilities of both human and robotic agents based on accomplishment of functional operations and effect of cognitive stress due to continuous

Ayanna M. Howard

2005-01-01

181

NEW REQUIREMENTS OF SUBJECTIVE VIDEO QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR 3DTV  

E-print Network

NEW REQUIREMENTS OF SUBJECTIVE VIDEO QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR 3DTV Wei Chen1, 2 a novel subjective video quality assessment methodology for 3DTV. In particular, depth rendering for 3D of abundant micro- electronics and micro-optics technique, as well as further understanding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

183

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M.

2008-07-01

184

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

185

Methodology in business ethics research: A review and critical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 published empirical articles in academic journals as a data base, this paper provides a critical review of the methodology employed in the study of ethical beliefs and behavior of organizational members. The review revealed that full methodological detail was provided in less than one half of the articles. Further, the majority of empirical research articles expressed no concern

D. M. Randall; A. M. Gibson

1990-01-01

186

Integrated risk assessment and screening analysis of drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system.  

PubMed

Management of drinking water safety is changing towards an integrated risk assessment and risk management approach that includes all processes in a water supply system from catchment to consumers. However, given the large number of water supply systems in China and the cost of implementing such a risk assessment procedure, there is a necessity to first conduct a strategic screening analysis at a national level. An integrated methodology of risk assessment and screening analysis is thus proposed to evaluate drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system. The violation probability, indicating drinking water safety, is estimated at different locations of a water supply system in terms of permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity, residual chlorine and trihalomethanes. Critical parameters with respect to drinking water safety are then identified, based on which an index system is developed to prioritize conventional water supply systems in implementing a detailed risk assessment procedure. The evaluation results are represented as graphic check matrices for the concerned hazards in drinking water, from which the vulnerability of a conventional water supply system is characterized. PMID:17898443

Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S

2007-01-01

187

Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants  

SciTech Connect

Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (US). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-08-01

188

Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research conducted within the framework of this PhD thesis is devoted to the high-fidelity multi-physics (based on neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling) analysis of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a HTR design. The core design and safety analysis methods are considerably less developed and mature for HTR analysis than those currently used for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Compared to LWRs, the HTR transient analysis is more demanding since it requires proper treatment of both slower and much longer transients (of time scale in hours and days) and fast and short transients (of time scale in minutes and seconds). There is limited operation and experimental data available for HTRs for validation of coupled multi-physics methodologies. This PhD work developed and verified reliable high fidelity coupled multi-physics models subsequently implemented in robust, efficient, and accurate computational tools to analyse the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic behaviour for design optimization and safety evaluation of PBMR concept The study provided a contribution to a greater accuracy of neutronics calculations by including the feedback from thermal hydraulics driven temperature calculation and various multi-physics effects that can influence it. Consideration of the feedback due to the influence of leakage was taken into account by development and implementation of improved buckling feedback models. Modifications were made in the calculation procedure to ensure that the xenon depletion models were accurate for proper interpolation from cross section tables. To achieve this, the NEM/THERMIX coupled code system was developed to create the system that is efficient and stable over the duration of transient calculations that last over several tens of hours. Another achievement of the PhD thesis was development and demonstration of full-physics, three-dimensional safety analysis methodology for the PBMR to provide reference solutions. Investigation of different aspects of the coupled methodology and development of efficient kinetics treatment for the PBMR were carried out, which accounts for all feedback phenomena in an efficient manner. The OECD/NEA PBMR-400 coupled code benchmark was used as a test matrix for the proposed investigations. The integrated thermal-hydraulics and neutronics (multi-physics) methods were extended to enable modeling of a wider range of transients pertinent to the PBMR. First, the effect of the spatial mapping schemes (spatial coupling) was studied and quantified for different types of transients, which resulted in implementation of improved mapping methodology based on user defined criteria. The second aspect that was studied and optimized is the temporal coupling and meshing schemes between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics time step selection algorithms. The coupled code convergence was achieved supplemented by application of methods to accelerate it. Finally, the modeling of all feedback phenomena in PBMRs was investigated and a novel treatment of cross-section dependencies was introduced for improving the representation of cross-section variations. The added benefit was that in the process of studying and improving the coupled multi-physics methodology more insight was gained into the physics and dynamics of PBMR, which will help also to optimize the PBMR design and improve its safety. One unique contribution of the PhD research is the investigation of the importance of the correct representation of the three-dimensional (3-D) effects in the PBMR analysis. The performed studies demonstrated that explicit 3-D modeling of control rod movement is superior and removes the errors associated with the grey curtain (2-D homogenized) approximation.

Mkhabela, Peter Tshepo

189

Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies. PMID:16326787

Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

2005-01-01

190

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

Not Available

1992-12-01

191

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

192

A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

Fournier, Laëtitia

2005-01-01

193

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation  

SciTech Connect

This analysis examines activities associated with the installation of isolation barriers in the K Basins at the Hanford Reservation. This revision adds evaluation of barrier drops on stored fuel and basin floor, identifies fuel which will be moved and addresses criticality issues with sludge. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-10-21

194

Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.  

PubMed

Evidence for substantial environmental influences on health and food safety comes from work with environmental health indicators which show that agroenvironmental practices have direct and indirect effects on human health, concluding that "the quality of the environment influences the quality and safety of foods" [Fennema, O. Environ. Health Perspect. 1990, 86, 229-232). In the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Codex principles have been established for the assessment of GM food safety and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety outlines international principles for an environmental assessment of living modified organisms. Both concepts also contain starting points for an assessment of health/food safety effects of GMOs in cases when the environment is involved in the chain of events that could lead to hazards. The environment can act as a route of unintentional entry of GMOs into the food supply, such as in the case of gene flow via pollen or seeds from GM crops, but the environment can also be involved in changes of GMO-induced agricultural practices with relevance for health/food safety. Examples for this include potential regional changes of pesticide uses and reduction in pesticide poisonings resulting from the use of Bt crops or influences on immune responses via cross-reactivity. Clearly, modern methods of biotechnology in breeding are involved in the reasons behind the rapid reduction of local varieties in agrodiversity, which constitute an identified hazard for food safety and food security. The health/food safety assessment of GM foods in cases when the environment is involved needs to be informed by data from environmental assessment. Such data might be especially important for hazard identification and exposure assessment. International organizations working in these areas will very likely be needed to initiate and enable cooperation between those institutions responsible for the different assessments, as well as for exchange and analysis of information. An integrated assessment might help to focus and save capacities in highly technical areas such as molecular characterization or profiling, which are often necessary for both assessments. In the area of establishing international standards for traded foods, such as for the newly created Standards in Trade and Development Facility (STDF), an integrated assessment might help in the consideration of important environmental aspects involved in health and food safety. Furthermore, an established integrated view on GMOs may create greater consumer confidence in the technology. PMID:16637668

Haslberger, Alexander G

2006-05-01

195

Safety Risk Assessment by Monte Carlo Simulation of Complex Safety Critical Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of performing safety risk assessment of a safety critical operation with support of Monte Carlo\\u000a (MC) simulation. The approach is outlined for an air traffic example involving aircraft departing from a runway, which is\\u000a occasionally crossed by taxiing aircraft. At the airport considered, a Runway Incursion Alert System (RIAS) is installed to\\u000a warn the air

Henk A. P. Blom; Sybert H. Stroeve; Hans H. de Jong

196

Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.  

PubMed

Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

2012-07-01

197

Strategic environmental assessment methodologies—applications within the energy sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical tools can be used in the assessment. Several analytical tools are presented and their relation to SEA is discussed including methods for future studies, Life Cycle Assessment, Risk Assessment, Economic Valuation and Multi-Attribute Approaches. A framework for the integration of some

Goeran Finnveden; Maans Nilsson; Jessica Johansson; Åsa Persson; Åsa Moberg; Tomas Carlsson

2003-01-01

198

Approaches to qualitative fire safety risk assessment in hotel facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate approaches pertaining to qualitative fire risk assessment of existing hotel facilities, for the purpose of identifying and eliminating fire hazards, and meeting requirements of the current legislation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper carries out several research activities, including: identifying the set of factors that render hotel facilities a high-risk type of

Mohammad A. Hassanain

2009-01-01

199

Increasing accuracy in the assessment of motion sickness: A construct methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to introduce a new methodology that should improve the accuracy of the assessment of motion sickness. This construct methodology utilizes both subjective reports of motion sickness and objective measures of physiological correlates to assess motion sickness. Current techniques and methods used in the framework of a construct methodology are inadequate. Current assessment techniques for diagnosing motion sickness and space motion sickness are reviewed, and attention is called to the problems with the current methods. Further, principles of psychophysiology that when applied will probably resolve some of these problems are described in detail.

Stout, Cynthia S.; Cowings, Patricia S.

1993-01-01

200

Guiding principles of USGS methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last 30 years, the methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources used by the Geological Survey has undergone considerable change. This evolution has been based on five major principles. First, the U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for a wide range of U.S. and world assessments and requires a robust methodology suitable for immaturely explored as well as maturely explored areas. Second, the assessments should be based on as comprehensive a set of geological and exploration history data as possible. Third, the perils of methods that solely use statistical methods without geological analysis are recognized. Fourth, the methodology and course of the assessment should be documented as transparently as possible, within the limits imposed by the inevitable use of subjective judgement. Fifth, the multiple uses of the assessments require a continuing effort to provide the documentation in such ways as to increase utility to the many types of users. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are those recoverable volumes in undiscovered, discrete, conventional structural or stratigraphic traps. The USGS 2000 methodology for these resources is based on a framework of assessing numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations and the associated risks. The input is standardized on a form termed the Seventh Approximation Data Form for Conventional Assessment Units. Volumes of resource are then calculated using a Monte Carlo program named Emc2, but an alternative analytic (non-Monte Carlo) program named ASSESS also can be used. The resource assessment methodology continues to change. Accumulation-size distributions are being examined to determine how sensitive the results are to size-distribution assumptions. The resource assessment output is changing to provide better applicability for economic analysis. The separate methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) resources also has been evolving. Further studies of the relationship between geologic models of conventional and continuous resources will likely impact the respective resource assessment methodologies. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Charpentier, R.R.; Klett, T.R.

2005-01-01

201

A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

202

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, B. T.; Mueller, D. E.

2008-12-01

203

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

2008-01-01

204

Researching Assessment as Social Practice: Implications for Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent educational journals on both sides of the Atlantic have seen a resurgence of debate about the nature of educational research. As a contribution to these debates, this paper draws on theoretical and methodological "thinking tools" of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Specifically, the paper explores what Jenkins [Jenkins, R. (2002).…

Shay, Suellen

2008-01-01

205

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology  

Cancer.gov

A-1 APPENDIX A A-2 Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology Reference Manager Database A Reference Manager 10.0 database for this literature search and review was created to ensure that all of the references from the search strings in Exhibit

206

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES: NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this task were to: (1) consider alternative methodologies for information collection, analysis, and presentation; (2) design a system for maintaining current awareness of the environmental implications of technology in the non-ferrous metals industry; and, (3) e...

207

Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Methodology  

PubMed Central

Background: More than 90% of visual impairment can either be treated or avoided. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology provides valid estimates in short time to assess magnitude and causes of blindness. Aims: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in persons above 50 years in Kolar, South India, using the above methodology. Materials and Methods: Sixty one clusters of 50 people aged above 50 years were selected by probability-proportionate to size sampling. Participants were evaluated using a standardized survey form. Persons with vision <20/60 were dilated and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results: Of the 3050 people listed 2907 were examined (95.3%). Prevalence of bilateral blindness in persons was 3.9%; severe visual impairment 3.5%, and visual impairment 10.4%. Untreated cataract was the leading cause of blindness (74.6%) and severe visual impairment (73.3%). Avoidable causes of blindness accounted for 91.2% of all blindness and 95.0% of severe visual impairment. ‘Waiting for maturity’ and ‘No one to accompany’ were the most common barriers to uptake of cataract surgery. Conclusion: Untreated cataract continues to be the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Modified strategies need to be implemented to tackle the burden of cataract blindness. PMID:23050247

Bettadapura, Guruprasad S; Donthi, Krishnamurthy; Datti, Narendra P; Ranganath, Bommanahalli G; Ramaswamy, Shamanna B; Jayaram, Tejal S

2012-01-01

208

Methodological Quandaries in Studying Process and Outcomes in Peer Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…

Topping, Keith J.

2010-01-01

209

Obesity in Asia: prevalence and issues in assessment methodologies.  

PubMed

The dramatic changes in the lifestyle of many Asian communities, and the resultant changes in the food and nutrition issues facing the communities in the region have been documented by various investigators. Health authorities and researchers have given greater attention to the problem of overweight and obesity. Available data are lacking, but various estimates have indicated that the emerging problem of overweight amongst children cannot be ignored. Estimates of overweight by the World Health Organization (WHO) amongst preschool children in Asia in 1995 was around 2.9%. Data extracted from selected studies in individual Asian countries show much higher prevalences, ranging from 5% to 9% amongst several urban cities in Asia. In several other developing countries in the region, the prevalence is probably very low, with prevalences of less than 1%. There is thus considerable variation in this prevalence amongst the various countries. The problem of increasing overweight and obesity amongst adults in Asia has been highlighted for more than a decade. The database on the extent of the problem is far from being comprehensive, but various studies have pointed out the severity of the problem. Various reports in the 1990s have pointed out prevalences of overweight of over 20% and obesity of over 5% amongst urban population groups of the more developed countries in the region. It is also to be noted that there are also reports indicating that the most affluent societies in the region, such as Seoul and Tokyo, did not have the highest prevalence of overweight. There are also data on increasing prevalence of overweight among rural areas in the last 10 years. The situation for children is similar: there is considerable variation in the severity of the problem. In the Philippines National Surveys, for example, slightly lower prevalences have been reported. Countries in the region will continue to progress, accompanied by continued changes in lifestyle of communities. It is therefore of utmost importance to continue to monitor the nutritional status of communities. The lack of nationally representative data which is regularly updated is a major concern. The lack of data for certain age groups such as the adolescents and the elderly need to be addressed. One of the main obstacles in the formulation and effective implementation of intervention programs in developing countries is the lack of comprehensive data on the extent of the problems in many cases and the causes of such problems specific to the communities concerned. In addition to the lack of good data, other concerns too need to be addressed. These include methodological issues such as the need for harmonization of methods in assessment of nutritional status for the various groups, the appropriateness of criteria for cut-offs, growth reference to be used, and association of overweight and obesity with comorbidities. PMID:12534692

Tee, E-Siong

2002-12-01

210

Approaches and algorithms for groundwater flow modeling in support of site investigations and safety assessment of the Forsmark site, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has in 2011 finalized a safety assessment project, SR-Site, with the objective to assess the long term safety of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Northern Uppland of Sweden. Prior to the safety assessment, comprehensive site investigations were conducted at the Forsmark site to build understanding and characterize the site. An essential part of the site investigations were to describe hydrological properties and characteristics of the site and use this to assess the groundwater pathway. The geological structural context of the crystalline bedrock at Forsmark implied a fracture network concept was the natural description for interpreting site data and assessing the groundwater pathway. Of primary importance to the description of the fracture system was the assignment of down-borehole flow-logging measurements to individual fractures identified by imaging techniques, providing the basis to relate hydrogeological characteristics such as anisotropy and heterogeneity to the geological structural framework. Also, the key input quantities to the assessment of long-term safety can be closely related to the derived fracture flow-rate distributions. Key success factors for this project were to develop and test strategies for modeling methodologies, as described in this paper, from an early stage, hand-in-hand with the planning and phased acquisition of site data as well as successive safety assessments.

Hartley, Lee; Joyce, Steven

2013-09-01

211

Improving Risk Assessment for Nontarget Safety of Transgenic Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries, government regulations require environmental risk as- sessment prior to commercial sale and widespread planting of transgenic crops. Here I evaluate the design and statistical rigor of experiments used by industry to assess the safety of transgenic plants for nontarget organisms, as required under U.S. regulations. This review reveals that a few simple improvements in experimental design could

Michelle Marvier

2002-01-01

212

Project Safety Net: A Health Screening Outreach and Assessment Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Safety Net identifies low-income urban frail elderly and provides comprehensive geriatric assessment and referral. During 8-month period, 814 older persons were screened including high proportions who were widowed (51%) and who lived alone (66%). Effectiveness of program remains to be determined in randomized clinical trials. (Author/NB)

Reuben, David B.; And Others

1993-01-01

213

Safety Assessment Using Behavior Trees and Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the use of Behavior Trees and model checking to assess system safety requirements for a system containing substantial redundancy. The case study concerns the hydraulics systems for the Airbus A320 aircraft, which are critical for aircraft control. The system design is supposed to be able to handle up to 3 different components failing individually, without loss of

Peter A. Lindsay; K. Winter; N. Yatapanage

2010-01-01

214

A National Estimate of Performance: Statewide Highway Safety Program Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nationwide systematic approach to assess the developments and achievements of highway safety activities was conducted to measure program outputs from 1969 through 1974 using key indicators of performance such as ratios and percentages. A sample of 10 states was selected with overall sample of 105 local jurisdictions which would provide estimated…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

215

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

216

Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

NONE

1989-05-01

217

A methodology for calculating sample size to assess localized corrosion of process components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a methodology to estimate the required sample size to assess, with a specified precision, the localized corrosion of process components. The proposed methodology uses the extreme value and bootstrap methods. The results of estimated sample size ensure that the predicted maximum localized corrosion with the extreme value method is within an acceptable margin of error at a

Mohamed Khalifa; Faisal Khan; Mahmoud Haddara

218

Streamlined life cycle assessment of carbon footprint of a tourist food menu using probabilistic underspecification methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed a methodology based on life cycle assessment streamlining techniques to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of a meal. The methodology was applied to estimate the meal CF of twenty-four people on a 4-days Galapagos Island tour using over three hundred existing Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) results in the food industry. In spite of the abundance of food LCA

Yin Jin Lee; Xu Yang; Edgar Blanco

2012-01-01

219

MODEL BASED METHODOLOGY FOR REMEDIAL ACTION ASSESSMENT AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a remedial action assessment methodology for uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The model-based methodology consists of three key elements: a set of sophisticated models (one for each hydrologic zone), a data base structure and associated programs to transmit...

220

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality  

E-print Network

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality focused on how people perceive robots in a collaboration task and we proposed to use virtual reality the relevance of using such a methodology -- based on virtual reality, questionnaires and physiological measures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.  

PubMed

The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

2014-02-01

222

An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR\\u000a (?DPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The\\u000a aim of the ?DPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously\\u000a adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation

Ana M. Nobre

2009-01-01

223

Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

Browne, E.T.

1981-03-01

224

75 FR 15485 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Guidelines for Integrity Assessment of Cased Pipe  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0097] Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Guidelines for Integrity Assessment of Cased Pipe AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-03-29

225

A computer-based Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation - SAFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation (SAFE) system has been developed for the computerized evaluation of safety in civil Emergency Medical Service (EMS) operations. The speed of the microprocessor used to analyze data allows many individual factors to be considered, as well as the interactions among those factors. SAFE's data base is structured as if-then conditional statements. SAFE also allows the most important of the factors to be given greater weight in the final score. The questionnaire filled by EMS crews encompassed mission-, crew-, organization-, environment-, and aircraft-related factors; each of these was subdivided into as many as eight variables affecting the EMS-mission risk of that factor.

Shively, Robert J.

1988-01-01

226

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

Andrews, Nick

2012-09-01

227

Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

Hassan, O. A. B.

2011-01-01

228

A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes;

S. Vorogushyn; B. Merz; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; H. Apel

2010-01-01

229

Principles to guide the development of strategic environmental assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite much recent attention being given to strategic environmental assessment (SEA), there are considerable difficulties moving from a useful concept to widespread and enduring practice. This may be partly because the proponents of the policies, programmes and plans (PPPs) and the decision-makers remain unaware, or unconvinced, that SEA can add value to the existing processes in PPP development, assessment and

A. L. Brown; Riki Thérivel

2000-01-01

230

Application of risk assessment methodology to transborder data flow  

SciTech Connect

The formal application of risk assessment to computer systems first gained popularity in 1975. As a result, many business organizations and government agencies have established policies and regulations governing the conditions and procedures that are used in limiting their exposure to risks. This report describes the benefits that may arise from applying a formal risk assessment technique to transborder data flow (TDF) issues.

Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Lobel, J.

1985-01-01

231

Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum.  

PubMed

Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous filamentous yeast-like fungus commonly isolated from soil, air, water, milk, silage, plant tissues, digestive tract in humans and other mammals. This species is widely used as adjunct culture in the maturation of cheese. The genus Geotrichum is composed of 18 species. A recent taxonomic revision concluded that the old Galactomyces geotrichum/G. candidum complex contained four separate species of which Galactomyces candidus sp. nov./G. candidum. M13 primer can be used for identifying species of the Geotrichum genus. Used in combination, RAPD-PCR and RAM-PCR permit strains to be differentiated. The species can be unambiguous differentiated from the two species most frequently described in human pathology: Geotrichum clavatum (reclassified Saprochaete clavata) and Geotrichum capitatum (reclassified Magnusiomyces capitatus/Saprochaete capitata). Sources of exposure are food ingestion--cheese consumption playing a major role--inhalation and contact. A bibliographic survey was conducted to assess corresponding hazards and risks. G. candidum infections (mainly pulmonary or bronchopulmonary, but also cutaneous, oral, disseminates) are very rare: fewer than 100 cases reported between 1842 and 2006. Moreover, cases were not all confirmed by repeated isolations and demonstration of the fungus' presence in tissues, a prerequisite to establish a true diagnosis of geotrichosis. Immunocompromised population was recently shown as a target for opportunistic infection. The most effective treatments include either azole drogs as ketonazole, iconazole and clotrimazole, or polyene antibiotics as amphotericin B, nystatin and pimaricin, or voriconazole-amphotericin B association. Less than 1 case/year of disease was possibly caused by G. candidum and it never included dairy products or foodborne infection. The risk of developing an infection due to G. candidum in connection with its technological use and consumption of dairy products is virtually nil. For these reasons, G. candidum should be proposed for QPS status. PMID:17869364

Pottier, Ivannah; Gente, Stéphanie; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Guéguen, Micheline

2008-09-01

232

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

233

Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources  

SciTech Connect

Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty surrounding potential unconventional gas resources.

Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A., E-mail: mcvay@pe.tamu.edu; Lee, W. John [Texas A and M University, Department of Petroleum Engineering, 3116 TAMU (United States)

2010-12-15

234

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-print Network

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On. As a first step to assessing the selected mitigation options, methodologies for estimating on-road mobile data. The estimation methodologies will be developed to be applicable at both a county level

235

A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig.

Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

1991-07-01

236

A Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first year of that activity was specified for development of a methodology to estimate storage potential that could be applied uniformly to geologic formations across the United States. After its release, the methodology was to receive public comment and external expert review. An initial methodology was developed and published in March 2009 (Burruss and others, 2009), and public comments were received. The report was then sent to a panel of experts for external review. The external review report was received by the USGS in December 2009. This report is in response to those external comments and reviews and describes how the previous assessment methodology (Burruss and others, 2009) was revised. The resource that is assessed is the technically accessible storage resource, which is defined as the mass of CO2 that can be stored in the pore volume of a storage formation. The methodology that is presented in this report is intended to be used for assessments at scales ranging from regional to subbasinal in which storage assessment units are defined on the basis of common geologic and hydrologic characteristics. The methodology does not apply to site-specific evaluation of storage resources or capacity.

Brennan, Sean T.; Burruss, Robert C.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

2010-01-01

237

SCREENING METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING LEAKING UST SITES AND CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Across the nation, treatment technologies are being applied to clean up soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from leaking underground storage tanks (UST). ite assessment (developing an accurate understanding of subsurface conditions at a site) increases t...

238

Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety Analysis of the US Department of Energy's Central Training Academy) and other DOE complexes (WSI-SRS 1994, Ballistic Risk Assessment of Wackenhut Services, Inc). This safety analysis document (SAD) satisfies the requirements of DOE 0 440.1A. The preparation, review, and approval of this safety assessment document is in accordance with the guidelines of HNF-PRO-700, Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements.

BENDIXSEN, R.B.

2001-09-19

239

Residential radon-222 exposure and lung cancer: exposure assessment methodology.  

PubMed

Although occupational epidemiological studies and animal experimentation provide strong evidence that radon-222 (222Rn) progeny exposure causes lung cancer, residential epidemiological studies have not confirmed this association. Past residential epidemiological studies have yielded contradictory findings. Exposure misclassification has seriously compromised the ability of these studies to detect whether an association exists between 222Rn exposure and lung cancer. Misclassification of 222Rn exposure has arisen primarily from: 1) detector measurement error; 2) failure to consider temporal and spatial 222Rn variations within a home; 3) missing data from previously occupied homes that currently are inaccessible; 4) failure to link 222Rn concentrations with subject mobility; and 5) measuring 222Rn gas concentration as a surrogate for 222Rn progeny exposure. This paper examines these methodological dosimetry problems and addresses how we are accounting for them in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of 222Rn and lung cancer in Iowa. PMID:8792296

Field, R W; Steck, D J; Lynch, C F; Brus, C P; Neuberger, J S; Kross, B C

1996-01-01

240

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01

241

Shaking hazard compatible methodology for probabilistic assessment of permanent ground displacement across earthquake faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for probabilistic hazard assessment of permanent displacement across faults caused by earthquake rupture is presented, compatible with region specific models for ground shaking hazard in California, developed earlier by the authors and coworkers. Assessment of permanent dislocations across faults is important for the design and retrofit of highway bridges and tunnels crossing faults, as well as for other

M. I. Todorovska; M. D. Trifunac; V. W. Lee

2007-01-01

242

Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

2014-01-01

243

SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200). Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

244

Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

Craig, Robert J.

2005-01-01

245

Safety and immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development are indicated for treatment of patients with cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune disease and as such, are designed to directly interact with the immune system. A major hurdle for the development and early clinical investigation of many of these immunomodulatory mAbs is their inherent risk for adverse immune-mediated drug reactions in humans such as infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the immunopharmacology of a mAb in humans and animals is required to both anticipate the clinical risk of adverse immunotoxicological events and to select a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical studies. This review summarizes the most common adverse immunotoxicological events occurring in humans with immunomodulatory mAbs and outlines non-clinical strategies to define their immunopharmacology and assess their immunotoxic potential, as well as reduce the risk of immunotoxicity through rational mAb design. Tests to assess the relative risk of mAb candidates for cytokine release syndrome, innate immune system (dendritic cell) activation and immunogenicity in humans are also described. The importance of selecting a relevant and sensitive toxicity species for human safety assessment in which the immunopharmacology of the mAb is similar to that expected in humans is highlighted, as is the importance of understanding the limitations of the species selected for human safety assessment and supplementation of in vivo safety assessment with appropriate in vitro human assays. A tiered approach to assess effects on immune status, immune function and risk of infection and cancer, governed by the mechanism of action and structural features of the mAb, is described. Finally, the use of immunopharmacology and immunotoxicity data in determining a minimum anticipated biologic effect Level (MABEL) and in the selection of safe human starting dose is discussed. PMID:20421713

Morton, Laura Dill; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Kiessling, Andrea; Allenspach, Roy; Hey, Adam; Muller, Patrick Y; Frings, Werner; Sims, Jennifer

2010-01-01

246

CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document  

SciTech Connect

The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

1980-03-01

247

LESSONS FROM SAFETY ASSESSMENT, NATURAL DISASTERS AND OTHER HAZARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticipation and prevention of potential industrial accidents with severe consequences has benefited from the development\\u000a of formal methods of assessment for the different stages of the life cycle of an accident. A similar approach has subsequently\\u000a been applied in other situations where anticipation of hazards is necessary, including natural disasters and in areas such\\u000a as food safety and public

James McQuaid

248

Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

Jamali, K. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Core Technical Support and Facility Transition; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-08-01

249

An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

Janic, Milan

2003-01-01

250

Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-19

251

APPLYING THE RAPID MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT (RMA) METHODOLOGY TO ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the fall of 2002, approximately sixty undergraduate students from a broad range of disciplines at Acadia University enrolled in an interdisciplinary course entitled Sustainable Nova Scotia. While the theoretical and practical implications of this pedagogical approach are to be discussed elsewhere, this paper focuses on one course project that tested the feasibility of the Rapid Management Assessment (RMA)

Glyn Bissix; Steve Murray; Robin Cooper

252

USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

253

Using Tropos Methodology to Model an Integrated Health Assessment System  

E-print Network

health assessment of health and social care needs of older people is used as the case study throughout is the Health Care sector. Health Care information systems are becoming more and more computerised. A huge this can be done faster and more efficiently. One of the areas within the Health Care sector that can take

254

Comparing monitoring methodologies for assessing restoration success in peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Restoration specialists are often criticised for not establishing a proper monitoring program that would help judging the success of a restoration project. Here, we present a study case where monitoring has taken place for seven years after restoring a cut-over bog. The aim of this presentation is 1) to assess peatland restoration success when using the Sphagnum moss transfer

Line Rochefort; Francis Isselin-Nondedeu; Monique Poulin

255

Methodology of Quantitative Risk Assessment for Information System Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a security assessment method of information system based on mixed methods of constructing weights of criteria,\\u000a which indicate how to evaluate the overall security of information system in a synthetic and quantitative way from the aspect\\u000a of confidentiality, integrity, availability and controllability of the information system security.

Mengquan Lin; Qiangmin Wang; Jianhua Li

2005-01-01

256

Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, D.; Turner, F.

2012-01-01

257

Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a contribution to the study of hazard caused by the interaction between landslides and river courses. The effects of such interferences are often catastrophic and could include the formation of backwater lakes, potential dam failure, river bed dynamics and morphological alterations. These scenarios could be substantially reduced if it was possible to predict the eventuality that a moving landslide could block the river. This is a complex topic because it involves composite geomorphic phenomena concerning both hillslope and river systems and their interpretation, through model approaches, is still under development and testing. In this study, a methodology developed in the framework of the European Research Project IMPRINTS (FP7), was adopted and integrated in order to identify the areas of triggering and propagation of landslides and to characterize the possible scenarios of the interaction with river networks. Different deterministic and probabilistic approaches, calibrated using a case test in the middle valley of Noce River in Basilicata region (Italy), were applied and compared at basin scale. In this area, a landslide mobilized in July 2007 on the right side slope of the river invaded a gravel-bed reach, characterized by a narrow and confined section, causing its progressive morpho-hydrodynamic change.

Dal Sasso, S. F.; Sole, A.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Bateman Pinzòn, A.; Medina, V.

2013-10-01

258

Assessment methodology for the prediction of landslide dam hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper represents a contribution to the study of hazard caused by the interaction between landslides and river courses. The effects of such interferences are often catastrophic and could include the formation of upstream lakes, potential dam failure, river bed dynamics and morphological alterations. These scenarios could be substantially reduced if it was possible to predict the eventuality that a moving landslide would block the river. This is a complex topic because it involves composite geomorphic phenomena concerning both hillslope and river systems and their interpretation, through model approaches, is still under development and testing. In this study, a methodology developed in the framework of European Research Project IMPRINTS (FP7) was adopted and integrated in order to identify the areas of triggering and propagation of landslides and to characterize the possible scenarios of the interaction with river networks. Different deterministic and probabilistic approaches, calibrated using a case test in the middle valley of the Noce River in Basilicata (Italy), were applied and compared at basin scale.

Dal Sasso, S. F.; Sole, A.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Bateman Pinzòn, A.; Medina, V.

2014-03-01

259

A methodology for tsunami hazard assessment using Green functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose a methodology for fast computation of offshore wave heights of tsunamis generated by a specific initial water disturbance. The method includes the following steps: the source area is discretized into a grid of unity water sources, a linear shallow water (LSW) numerical model is used to pre-compute the corresponding Green functions, the reconstitution of the tsunami waveform is made for a set of possible earthquake sources. We compare these results with the direct LSW computation, to check for the accuracy of the method. We present a case study for the coast of Oman. The Makran subduction zone is used as potential source area, and Green summation is used to produce rapid estimations of water heights at a number of virtual tide gauges located along the shoreline. The results show the effectiveness of the method to save computation time and its use in estimations of tsunami hazard, when there is a need to compute a very large number of potential sources. This work was funded by projects: TAGUS DELTA, CONDRIBER, GEONUM of FCT Portugal, Avaliação do Risco Sísmico e de Tsunami no Concelho de Cascais (IDL-UL); and GTIMS tender no. JRC/IPR/2013/G.2/13/NC.

Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.

2013-12-01

260

Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education was completed, with connections and applications to civil engineering education highlighted. The experimental work of the thesis is organized into three parts: an assessment of civil engineering undergraduates' fundamental structural engineering knowledge and abilities; the development and testing of a software support environment for situated learning, the Civil Engineering Learning Library (CELL); and, the implementation and evaluation of the design studio, a pedagogical model for situated learning in the classroom. The results of the assessment study indicate that civil engineering seniors (and also students earlier in the curriculum) have difficulty retaining and applying basic knowledge of structural behavior, especially doing so in a flexible fashion in design situations. The survey also suggests that visualization plays an important role in understanding structural behavior. Tests with the CELL system show that a cognitively-flexible multimedia environment can support structural learning, but were inconclusive about whether the computer-based system helped the students to learn better than conventional classroom lecture. Two trial implementations of the design studio indicate that the studio model can serve as a powerful situated learning environment, and that it can be scaled up to reasonable class sizes. Significant requirements are associated with this model, however, primarily in faculty involvement, but also in physical resources and student time. In addition to these conclusions about the specific research efforts of this thesis, other more general observations of the difficulty of educational research (and particularly assessment) are discussed, especially in measuring the long-term effects of the desired learning influence. Finally, suggestions for improving these studies are offered, both for software environments and implementing other design studios, along with implications for future work.

Bertz, Michael Davis

261

Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a “dirty bomb”. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

2007-07-09

262

Solid Phase Synthesis of a Functionalized Bis-Peptide Using "Safety Catch" Methodology  

PubMed Central

In 1962, R.B. Merrifield published the first procedure using solid-phase peptide synthesis as a novel route to efficiently synthesize peptides. This technique quickly proved advantageous over its solution-phase predecessor in both time and labor. Improvements concerning the nature of solid support, the protecting groups employed and the coupling methods employed over the last five decades have only increased the usefulness of Merrifield's original system. Today, use of a Boc-based protection and base/nucleophile cleavable resin strategy or Fmoc-based protection and acidic cleavable resin strategy, pioneered by R.C. Sheppard, are most commonly used for the synthesis of peptides1. Inspired by Merrifield's solid supported strategy, we have developed a Boc/tert-butyl solid-phase synthesis strategy for the assembly of functionalized bis-peptides2, which is described herein. The use of solid-phase synthesis compared to solution-phase methodology is not only advantageous in both time and labor as described by Merrifield1, but also allows greater ease in the synthesis of bis-peptide libraries. The synthesis that we demonstrate here incorporates a final cleavage stage that uses a two-step "safety catch" mechanism to release the functionalized bis-peptide from the resin by diketopiperazine formation. Bis-peptides are rigid, spiro-ladder oligomers of bis-amino acids that are able to position functionality in a predictable and designable way, controlled by the type and stereochemistry of the monomeric units and the connectivity between each monomer. Each bis-amino acid is a stereochemically pure, cyclic scaffold that contains two amino acids (a carboxylic acid with an ?-amine)3,4. Our laboratory is currently investigating the potential of functional bis-peptides across a wide variety of fields including catalysis, protein-protein interactions and nanomaterials. PMID:22635107

Pfeiffer, Conrad T.; Schafmeister, Christian E.

2012-01-01

263

The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fletcher, W. J. 2005. The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1576e1587. Implementing more holistic forms of fisheries management (e.g. Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management) usually increases the number and scope of impacts requiring assessment. This study examined the effectiveness of a qualitative risk assessment

W. J. Fletcher

2005-01-01

264

Methodology for estimating extreme winds for probabilistic risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Reguulatory Commission (NRC) assesses the risks associated with nuclear faciliies using techniques that fall under a generic name of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. In these assessments, potential accident sequences are traced from initiating event to final outcome. At each step of the sequence, a probability of occurrence is assigned to each available alternative. Ultimately, the probability of occurrence of each possible outcome is determined from the probabilities assigned to the initiating events and the alternative paths. Extreme winds are considered in these sequences. As a result, it is necessary to estimate extreme wind probabilities as low as 10/sup -7/yr/sup -1/. When the NRC staff is called on to provide extreme wind estimates, the staff is likely to be subjected to external time and funding constraints. These constraints dictate that the estimates be based on readily available wind data. In general, readily available data will be limited to the data provided by the facility applicant or licensee and the data archived at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. This report describes readily available data that can be used in estimating extreme wind probabilities, procedures of screening the data to eliminate erroneous values and for adjusting data to compensate for differences in data collection methods, and statistical methods for making extreme wind estimates. Supporting technical details are presented in several appendices. Estimation of extreme wind probabilities at a given location involves many subjective decisions. The procedures described do not eliminate all of the subjectivity, but they do increase the reproducibility of the analysis. They provide consistent methods for determining probabilities given a set of subjective decisions. By following these procedures, subjective decisions can be identified and documented.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.; Hubbe, J.M.

1986-10-01

265

[Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].  

PubMed

Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p< 0.001). After the implementation of 5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on employees, and some sufficient satisfaction was observed. In addition, the non-conformity score, which was identified in the laboratory during the previous years, was significantly reduced at a rate of 69.7% after the implementation of 5S. 5S practices have successfully contributed to the establishment and to the sustainability of laboratory safety systems in the first public ISO 15189 accredited public clinical laboratory in Turkey. It is concluded that 5S methods can be used as an effective improvement tool in order to maintain a safe environment, to facilitate the job, and to encourage employees to participate in the management process. PMID:24819267

Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

2014-04-01

266

THE RISK OF TRUST IN SAFETY: CONFIDENCE GAMES Massimo Felici  

E-print Network

in safety-critical systems emphasize the relationship between safety and risk. The understanding of the relationship between safety and risk allowed the development of risk assessment and management methodologies to trust system safety? How much trust in safety? The relationship between trust and safety has been

Felici, Massimo

267

Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

2012-08-01

268

Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

NONE

1997-10-01

269

Reducing attrition in drug development: smart loading preclinical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Entry into the crucial preclinical good laboratory practice (GLP) stage of toxicology testing triggers significant R&D investment yet >20% of AstraZeneca's potential new medicines have been stopped for safety reasons in this GLP phase alone. How could we avoid at least some of these costly failures? An analysis of historical toxicities that caused stopping ('stopping toxicities') showed that >50% were attributable to target organ toxicities emerging within 2 weeks of repeat dosing or to acute cardiovascular risks. By frontloading 2-week repeat-dose toxicity studies and a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular safety, we anticipate a potential 50% reduction in attrition in the GLP phase. This will reduce animal use overall, save significant R&D costs and improve drug pipeline quality. PMID:24269835

Roberts, Ruth A; Kavanagh, Stefan L; Mellor, Howard R; Pollard, Christopher E; Robinson, Sally; Platz, Stefan J

2014-03-01

270

A Structured Security Assessment Methodology for Manufacturers of Critical Infrastructure Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting our critical infrastructures like energy generation and distribution, telecommunication, production and traffic against cyber attacks is one of the major challenges of the new millennium. However, as security is such a complex and multilayer topic often the necessary structured foundation is missing for a manufacturer to assess the current security level of a system. This paper introduces a methodology for structured security assessments which has been successfully applied during the development of several products for critical infrastructures. The methodology is described in detail and the lessons learnt are given from applying it to several systems during their development.

Brandstetter, Thomas; Knorr, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Ute

271

Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.  

PubMed

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping. PMID:15876211

Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

2005-04-01

272

Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

2010-01-01

273

A method for assessing health and safety management systems from the resilience engineering perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a method for assessing health and safety management systems (MAHS) that has two innovative characteristics: (a) it brings together the three main auditing approaches to health and safety (HS) – the structural approach (which assesses the system prescribed), the operational approach (which assesses what is really happening on the shop-floor) and the performance approach (which assesses the

Marcelo Fabiano Costella; Tarcisio Abreu Saurin; Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimarães

2009-01-01

274

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

1992-01-01

275

Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders  

SciTech Connect

The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

2008-03-01

276

Easy quantitative methodology to assess visual-motor skills  

PubMed Central

Introduction Visual-motor skills are the basis for a great number of daily activities. To define a correct rehabilitation program for neurological patients who have impairment in these skills, there is a need for simple and cost-effective tools to determine which of the visual-motor system levels of organization are compromised by neurological lesions. In their 1995 book, The Visual Brain in Action (Oxford: Oxford University Press), AD Milner and MA Goodale proposed the existence of two pathways for the processing of visual information, the “ventral stream” and “dorsal stream,” that interact in movement planning and programming. Beginning with this model, our study aimed to validate a method to quantify the role of the ventral and dorsal streams in perceptual and visual-motor skills. Subjects and methods Nineteen right-handed healthy subjects (mean age 22.8 years ± 3.18) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were recruited. We proposed that a delayed pointing task, a distance reproduction task, and a delayed anti-pointing task could be used to assess the ventral stream, while the dorsal stream could be evaluated with a grasping task and an immediate pointing task. Performance was recorded and processed with the video-analysis software Dartfish ProSuite. Results Results showed the expected pattern of predominance of attention for the superior left visual field, predominance of the flexor tone in proximal peri-personal space arm movements, tendency toward overestimation of short distances, and underestimation of long distances. Conclusion We believe that our method is advantageous as it is simple and easily transported, but needs further testing in neurologically compromised patients. PMID:23345980

Chiappedi, Matteo; Toraldo, Alessio; Mandrini, Silvia; Scarpina, Federica; Aquino, Melissa; Magnani, Francesca Giulia; Bejor, Maurizio

2013-01-01

277

A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test misinterpretation. Finally, a rational decision making model is introduced to quantify a section of the developed conceptual framework in the previous step and analyze the impact of different decision making biases on negative pressure test results. Along with the corroborating findings of previous studies, the analysis of the developed conceptual framework in this paper indicates that organizational factors are root causes of accumulated errors and questionable decisions made by personnel or management. Further analysis of this framework identifies procedural issues, economic pressure, and personnel management issues as the organizational factors with the highest influence on misinterpreting a negative pressure test. It is noteworthy that the captured organizational factors in the introduced conceptual framework are not only specific to the scope of the NPT. Most of these organizational factors have been identified as not only the common contributing causes of other offshore drilling accidents but also accidents in other oil and gas related operations as well as high-risk operations in other industries. In addition, the proposed rational decision making model in this research introduces a quantitative structure for analysis of the results of a conducted NPT. This model provides a structure and some parametric derived formulas to determine a cut-off point value, which assists personnel in accepting or rejecting an implemented negative pressure test. Moreover, it enables analysts to assess different decision making biases involved in the process of interpreting a conducted negative pressure test as well as the root organizational factors of those biases. In general, although the proposed integrated research methodology in this dissertation is developed for the risk assessment of human and organizational factors contributions in negative pressure test misinterpretation, it can be generalized and be potentially useful for other well control situations, both offshore and onshore; e.g. fracking. In addition, this methodology can be applied for the analysis

Tabibzadeh, Maryam

278

SCI Hazard Report Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

Mitchell, Michael S.

2010-01-01

279

Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

1994-06-01

280

Blood Cytokines as Biomarkers of In Vivo Toxicity in Preclinical Safety Assessment: Considerations for Their Use  

PubMed Central

In the drive to develop drugs with well-characterized and clinically monitorable safety profiles, there is incentive to expand the repertoire of safety biomarkers for toxicities without routine markers or premonitory detection. Biomarkers in blood are pursued because of specimen accessibility, opportunity for serial monitoring, quantitative measurement, and the availability of assay platforms. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (here referred to collectively as cytokines) show robust modulation in proximal events of inflammation, immune response, and repair. These are key general processes in many toxicities; therefore, cytokines are commonly identified during biomarker discovery studies. In addition, multiplexed cytokine immunoassays are easily applied to biomarker discovery and routine toxicity studies to measure blood cytokines. However, cytokines pose several challenges as safety biomarkers because of a short serum half-life; low to undetectable baseline levels; lack of tissue-specific or toxicity-specific expression; complexities related to cytokine expression with multiorgan involvement; and species, strain, and interindividual differences. Additional challenges to their application are caused by analytical, methodological, and study design–related variables. A final consideration is the strength of the relationship between changes in cytokine levels and the development of phenotypic or functional manifestations of toxicity. These factors should inform the integrated judgment-based qualification of novel biomarkers in preclinical, and potentially clinical, risk assessment. The dearth of robust, predictive cytokine biomarkers for specific toxicities is an indication of the significant complexity of these challenges. This review will consider the current state of the science and recommendations for appropriate application of cytokines in preclinical safety assessment. PMID:20447938

Tarrant, Jacqueline M.

2010-01-01

281

A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

Quintana, Rolando

2003-01-01

282

49 CFR Appendix B to Part 553 - Statement of Policy: Rulemakings Involving the Assessment of the Functional Equivalence of Safety...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assessment of the Functional Equivalence of Safety Standards B Appendix B to Part 553...Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Assessment of the Functional Equivalence of Safety Standards (a) Based on a...

2010-10-01

283

Developing a Customized Program Assessment Methodology for Assurance of Learning: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most academic institutions, selecting and/or designing a Program Assessment methodology for Assurance of Learning is a challenging task. This paper describes the steps taken to establish goals, values and criteria driving this process for a College of Business. In this case analysis, we document the options we explored in finding the right…

Baker, Hope; Brawley, Dorothy; Campbell, Jane; Capozzoli, Ernest; Malgeri, Linda; Roberts, Gary

2007-01-01

284

REVISION AND UPDATE OF METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND RISK FROM LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of their regulatory reform efforts, the Office of Solid Waste (OS) has recently (11/99) introduced a new open-architecture, multimedia, multi-pathway, and multi-receptor exposure and risk assessment methodology designed to support their Hazardous Waste Identification ...

285

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION MEANS  

E-print Network

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Couple Attachment and Relationship Duration in Psychotherapy Patients: Exploring a New Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief…

Sochos, Antigonos

2014-01-01

287

Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for Land Application and Distribution and Marketing of Municipal Sludge  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution a...

288

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SURFACE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include distribution and marketing programs, landfi...

289

A cost–benefit analysis methodology for assessing product adoption by older user populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for assessing perceptions of a product through cost–benefit analysis is demonstrated in an experimental study involving use of one of two products for supporting interaction with telephone voice menu systems. The method emphasizes ratings of constructs related to costs and benefits considered relevant to decisions regarding product adoption, and the use of the analytic hierarchy process technique to

Joseph Sharit; Sara J. Czaja; Dolores Perdomo; Chin Chin Lee

2004-01-01

290

METHODOLOGY FOR OVERLAND AND INSTREAM MIGRATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide planners and decision makers in government and industry with a sound basis for decision making, the Chemical Migration and Risk Assessment (CMRA) Methodology was developed to predict the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving ru...

291

Methodological aspects of life cycle assessment of integrated solid waste management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) developed rapidly during the 1990s and has reached a certain level of harmonisation and standardisation. LCA has mainly been developed for analysing material products, but can also be applied to services, e.g. treatment of a particular amount of solid waste. This paper discusses some methodological issues which come into focus when LCAs are applied to

Göran Finnveden

1999-01-01

292

Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children's Fears and Phobias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the conceptual and methodological considerations in assessment and treatment of children's fears and phobias is presented. Areas discussed include the definitional problems in the field, analogue and clinical research, experimental research methods, and criteria for the evaluation of outcome in fear and phobia research. (Author/DWH)

Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Morris, Richard J.

1985-01-01

293

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality  

E-print Network

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality to use virtual reality as a sim- ulation environment to test different parameters, by making users on virtual reality, questionnaires and physiological measures -- for future studies. CR Categories: I.2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

Project Appraisal Methodology: A Multidimensional R&D Benefit\\/Cost Assessment Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Appraisal Methodology (PAM) is a multidimensional, easy to use tool for assessing the relative merits of R&D projects. It requires users to estimate three vectors of economic and scoring values: energy benefits, consumer savings and societal factors. The Division of Fossil Fuel Utilization, Department of Energy implemented PAM in support of their annual R&D planning, programming and budget preparation

Barry G. Silverman

1981-01-01

295

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum  

E-print Network

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Sodium Silicate, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite1 This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium

Ahmad, Sajjad

296

A Simulation Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Spatial/Pattern Dependent Interconnect Parameter Variation on Circuit Performance  

E-print Network

A Simulation Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Spatial/Pattern Dependent Interconnect *PDF Solutions, Inc, San Jose, CA 95110 Abstract In this paper, we illustrate a methodology for determining the impact of interconnect pattern dependent variation on circuit performance. The methodology

Boning, Duane S.

297

78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay...SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware...DATES: Comments on the assessment methodology or recommendations for the...

2013-10-25

298

Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-01-01

299

Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.  

PubMed

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-09-01

300

Development of a Methodology for Strategic Environmental Assessment: Application to the Assessment of Golf Course Installation Policy in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related legislation procedure could not be arranged due to a few senators’ resistance. A self-review of the control phase was carried out in 2006 using this methodology. Installation permits for 12 courses on slope lands were terminated after 2001 and then 27 future courses could be installed on marginal lands. The assessment value of this policy using the data on ecological, social, and economic conditions from 2006 was higher than that using the data from 2001. The analytical results illustrate that the proposed methodology can be used to effectively and efficiently assist the related authorities for SEA.

Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

2009-01-01

301

Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

Burruss, Robert C.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, Philip A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

302

The SEURAT-1 approach towards animal free human safety assessment.  

PubMed

SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action framework to describe how any substance may adversely affect human health.The proof of the initiative will be in demonstrating the applicability of the concepts on which SEURAT-1 is built on three levels:(i) Theoretical prototypes for adverse outcome pathways are formulated based on knowledge already available in the scientific literature on investigating the toxicological mode-of-actions leading to adverse outcomes (addressing mainly liver toxicity);(ii)adverse outcome pathway descriptions are used as a guide for the formulation of case studies to further elucidate the theoretical model and to develop integrated testing strategies for the prediction of certain toxicological effects (i.e., those related to the adverse outcome pathway descriptions);(iii) further case studies target the application of knowledge gained within SEURAT-1 in the context of safety assessment. The ultimate goal would be to perform ab initio predictions based on a complete understanding of toxicological mechanisms. In the near-term, it is more realistic that data from innovative testing methods will support read-across arguments. Both scenarios are addressed with case studies for improved safety assessment. A conceptual framework for a rational integrated assessment strategy emerged from designing the case studies and is discussed in the context of international developments focusing on alternative approaches for evaluating chemicals using the new 21st century tools for toxicity testing. PMID:25372315

Gocht, Tilman; Berggren, Elisabet; Ahr, Hans Jürgen; Cotgreave, Ian; Cronin, Mark T D; Daston, George; Hardy, Barry; Heinzle, Elmar; Hescheler, Jürgen; Knight, Derek J; Mahony, Catherine; Peschanski, Marc; Schwarz, Michael; Thomas, Russell S; Verfaillie, Catherine; White, Andrew; Whelan, Maurice

2015-01-01

303

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs describes the purpose, data and methods used to calculate ranges or rankings for research-doctorate programs that participated in the NRC Assessment of Research-Doctorate programs. It is intended for those at universities who will have to explain the NRC Assessment to others at their university, to potential students, and to the press. Although the main text is fairly non-technical, it includes a technical description of the statistical methods used to derive rankings of over 5000 doctoral programs in 61 fields.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-07-22

304

Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43  

SciTech Connect

The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

1982-09-01

305

Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety.  

PubMed

Abstract Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimise biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all parameters required by a risk model may not be always feasible. This paper describes novel approaches for determining question suitability and for prioritising questions for systematic review in this area. Risk assessment questions that aim to estimate a parameter are likely to be suitable for systematic review. Such questions can be structured by their "key elements" (e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s) and outcome(s)). Prioritisation of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritising systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment. PMID:25191830

Aiassa, E; Higgins, J P T; Frampton, G K; Greiner, M; Afonso, A; Amzal, B; Deeks, J; Dorne, J-L; Glanville, J; Lövei, G L; Nienstedt, K; O'Connor, A M; Pullin, A S; Raji?, A; Verloo, D

2014-09-01

306

Modeling Characteristics of an Operational Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA)  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) are increasingly being used as a tool for supporting the acceptability of design, procurement, construction, operation, and maintenance activities at nuclear power plants. Since the issuance of Generic Letter 88-20 and subsequent Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs)/Individual Plant Examinations for External Events (IPEEEs), the NRC has issued several Regulatory Guides such as RG 1.182 to describe the use of PSA in risk informed regulation activities. The PSA models developed for the IPEs were typically based on a 'snapshot' of the the risk profile at the nuclear power plant. The IPE models contain implicit assumptions and simplifications that limit the ability to realistically assess current issues. For example, IPE modeling assumptions related to plant configuration limit the ability to perform online equipment out-of-service assessments. The lack of model symmetry results in skewed risk results. IPE model simplifications related to initiating events have resulted in non-conservative estimates of risk impacts when equipment is removed from service. The IPE models also do not explicitly address all external events that are potentially risk significant as equipment is removed from service. (authors)

Anoba, Richard C. [Anoba Consulting Services LLC, 36 Solitude Way, Wilmington, Delaware 19808-2029 (United States); Khalil, Yehia [Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Rope Ferry Road Waterford, CT 06385 (United States); Fluehr, J.J. III; Kellogg, Richard; Hackerott, Alan [Omaha Public Power District, 444 S. 16th St. Mall Omaha, NE 68102-2247 (United States)

2002-07-01

307

Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.  

PubMed

I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

2013-12-01

308

Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. PMID:23769621

Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

2013-11-01

309

A methodology for post-mainshock probabilistic assessment of building collapse risk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a methodology for post-earthquake probabilistic risk (of damage) assessment that we propose in order to develop a computational tool for automatic or semi-automatic assessment. The methodology utilizes the same so-called risk integral which can be used for pre-earthquake probabilistic assessment. The risk integral couples (i) ground motion hazard information for the location of a structure of interest with (ii) knowledge of the fragility of the structure with respect to potential ground motion intensities. In the proposed post-mainshock methodology, the ground motion hazard component of the risk integral is adapted to account for aftershocks which are deliberately excluded from typical pre-earthquake hazard assessments and which decrease in frequency with the time elapsed since the mainshock. Correspondingly, the structural fragility component is adapted to account for any damage caused by the mainshock, as well as any uncertainty in the extent of this damage. The result of the adapted risk integral is a fully-probabilistic quantification of post-mainshock seismic risk that can inform emergency response mobilization, inspection prioritization, and re-occupancy decisions.

Luco, N.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

2011-01-01

310

Implantable spinal fusion stimulator: assessment of MR safety and artifacts.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to perform magnetic resonance (MR) imaging safety and artifact testing of an implantable spinal fusion stimulator. Magnetic field interactions, artifacts, and operational aspects of an implantable spinal fusion stimulator were evaluated in association with a 1.5 T MR system. Magnetic field-related translational attraction was measured using the deflection angle test. A special test apparatus was used to determine torque at 4.7 T. Artifacts were characterized using fast multiplanar spoiled gradient-echo, T1-weighted spin-echo, and T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. Operational aspects of the implantable spinal fusion stimulator before and after exposure to MR imaging at 1.5 T were assessed. In addition, nine patients (six lumbar spine and three cervical spine) with implantable spinal fusion stimulators underwent MR imaging. The findings indicated that magnetic field interactions were relatively minor, artifacts were well characterized and should not create diagnostic problems, and there were no changes in the operation of the spinal fusion stimulator. The nine patients underwent MR procedures without substantial adverse events or complaints. Based on the results of this investigation and in consideration of the findings from previous studies of MR imaging safety for the implantable spinal fusion stimulator, MR imaging may be performed safely in patients using MR systems operating at 1.5 T or less following specific recommendations and precautions. PMID:10931583

Shellock, F G; Hatfield, M; Simon, B J; Block, S; Wamboldt, J; Starewicz, P M; Punchard, W F

2000-08-01

311

Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document  

SciTech Connect

The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

1980-02-01

312

A Geospatial Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing Campus Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of…

Hites, Lisle S.; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

2013-01-01

313

Assessing the state of organizational safety—culture or climate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concepts of safety culture and safety climate in an attempt to determine which is the more useful\\u000a for describing an organization's “state of safety.” From a review of the literature purporting to measure safety culture or\\u000a safety climate, it is argued that, although the two terms are often interchangeable, they are actually distinct but related\\u000a concepts

Kathryn J. Mearns; Rhona Flin

1999-01-01

314

The damage assessment methodology in cooperation with smart sensors and inspection robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a damage assessment methodology for the non-structural elements, especially the ceiling, in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot with the Wi-Fi camera. The developed smart sensors use the infrared LEDs in sending the measured data to the inspection blimp robot. The inspection blimp robot integrated in the proposed system has a Wi-Fi camera and an infrared remote control receiver for receiving the data from the smart sensor. In the proposed methodology, the distributed smart sensors firstly detect the damage occurrence. Next, the inspection blimp robots can gather the data from the smart sensors, which transmit the measured data by using an infrared remote control receiver and LED signals. The inspection blimp robot also can inspect the damage location and captures the photographic image of the damage condition. The inspection blimp robot will be able to estimate the damage condition without any process of engineers' on-site-inspection involved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the inspection blimp robot, the blimp robot is utilized to estimate the aging ceiling of a real structure. For demonstrating the feasibility or possibility of the proposed damage assessment methodology in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot, the conceptual laboratory experiment is conducted. The proposed methodology will provide valuable information for the repair and maintenance decision making of a damaged structure.

Nitta, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Masami; Onai, Toshio; Watakabe, Morimasa; Nishitani, Akira; Matsui, Chisa

2014-03-01

315

Department of Defense methodology guidelines for High Power Microwave (HPM) susceptibility assessments  

SciTech Connect

It is the intention of the National HPM Program to complete a series of tests over the next two years to validate the methodology described in these guidelines. When those tests are completed and results analyzed, this document will be revised to reflect lessons learned during the validation process. In addition, the Methodology Sub-Panel is compiling a second volume on specific measurement techniques. This volume (Volume 1) is intended to provide guidance to the Program Manager on the critical steps in a well-conceived test program. Volume 2 will provide detailed step-by-step information to the engineer who is responsible for performing the tests. The body of this volume is divided into seven sections. Sections 2 through 7 provide detailed descriptions of the activities within each of the modular steps which comprise the methodology schematically; Section 2: pre-test system analysis; Section 3: low power microwave tests -- coupling/subsystem component tests; Section 5: susceptibility assessment and test planning; Section 6: high power microwave tests; and Section 7: susceptibility assessment and test evaluation. The executive summary reviews the reasons for development of the methodology and provides brief descriptions of each module. Appendix B provides definitions of special terms and acronyms which are used throughout the document. 41 refs., 22 figs.

Chesser, N.J. (ed.) (Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (USA))

1990-01-01

316

A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

2011-01-01

317

A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the most emerging challenges is to assess the performance of a present FSMS. The objective of

L. Jacxsens; J. Kussaga; P. A. Luning; M. Van der Spiegel; F. Devlieghere; M. Uyttendaele

2009-01-01

318

Systematic assessment of core assurance activities in a company specific food safety management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic environment wherein agri-food companies operate and the high requirements on food safety force companies to critically judge and improve their food safety management system (FSMS) and its performance. The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic instrument enabling a systematic assessment of a company's food safety management system. This paper discusses core assurance activities, their contribution

P. A. Luning; W. J. Marcelis; J. Rovira; M. Van der Spiegel; M. Uyttendaele; L. Jacxsens

2009-01-01

319

Improved dose assessment in a nuclear reactor accident using the old and new ICRP methodologies  

E-print Network

that the contaminated air was infinite in extent and that the radionuclide concentration was uniform throughout the medium. A tabulation of the dose conversion factors for plume shine is presented in Table 9 for fifty radionuclides and organs of interest...IMPROVED DOSE ASSESSMENT IN A NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT USING THE OLD AND NEW ICRP METHODOLOGIES A Thesis by SUK-CHUL YOON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A ff M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Yoon, Suk-Chul

1987-01-01

320

Methodological proposals for improved assessments of the impact of traffic noise upon human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Several methodological shortcomings still hinder the inclusion of transport noise as an established impact category within\\u000a life cycle assessment (LCA). Earlier attempts to quantify the health damages caused by traffic noise yielded valuable results\\u000a from an academic point of view, but these were of limited use in the context of everyday LCA practice. An enhanced understanding\\u000a of

Vicente Franco; Daniel Garraín; Rosario Vidal

2010-01-01

321

Clinical research Methodological issues in trials assessing primary prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism  

E-print Network

Aims Many trials have been conducted to assess the efficacy of various strategies in the prevention of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). Some of these trials have been subject to methodological criticisms. We aimed to assess the methodological issues raised by VTE trials. Methods and results We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles assessing primary thromboprophylaxis published between 1994 and 2003 in 60 general medical and specialty journals. A total of 77 articles were analysed by two independent reviewers using a list of items. No primary endpoint was defined in 20 % of trials. Although the primary endpoint was collected before day 15 in 75 % of trials, there were 20 % missing data in 56 % of articles and 30 % in 24.2 % of articles. The rate of missing data was 23.7+ 9.7 % in studies using venography-detected deep-vein thrombosis as an endpoint compared with 5.6+ 6.0 % in studies using other end-points. Among the 47 superiority trials, 27 (57.4%) reported an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, but only 10 (21.3%) reported an analysis that complied with this principle. These results were consistent when limiting the analysis to articles published in high-impact journal (impact factor more than 5). Conclusion Recent randomized controlled trials assessing prophylactic regimens in VTE have important methodological limitations in terms of primary endpoints, missing data, and compliance with the ITT principle. These methodological shortcomings should be addressed when planning future trials.

Gabriel Thabut; Ice Estellat; Isabelle Boutron; Charles Marc Samama

322

Final Action Plan to Tiger Team. Environmental, safety and health assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit.

Not Available

1992-02-28

323

A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems.

Taylor, E. R., Jr.; Eichler, C. H.; Barnes, P. R.

324

Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1994-05-01

325

No time to lose--high throughput screening to assess nanomaterial safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as assist the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field--we have literally no time to lose.

Damoiseaux, R.; George, S.; Li, M.; Pokhrel, S.; Ji, Z.; France, B.; Xia, T.; Suarez, E.; Rallo, R.; Mädler, L.; Cohen, Y.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Nel, A.

2011-04-01

326

No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose. PMID:21301704

Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Mädler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

2014-01-01

327

Methodology for back-contamination risk assessment for a Mars sample return mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risk of back-contamination from Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) missions is assessed. The methodology is designed to provide an assessment of the probability that a given mission design and strategy will result in accidental release of Martian organisms acquired as a result of MSSR. This is accomplished through the construction of risk models describing the mission risk elements and their impact on back-contamination probability. A conceptual framework is presented for using the risk model to evaluate mission design decisions that require a trade-off between science and planetary protection considerations.

Merkhofer, M. W.; Quinn, D. J.

1977-01-01

328

Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

Gunn, Jill, E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.c [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada); Noble, Bram F. [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, Kirk Hall, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

2011-03-15

329

Stoffenmanager exposure model: company-specific exposure assessments using a Bayesian methodology.  

PubMed

The web-based tool "Stoffenmanager" was initially developed to assist small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Netherlands to make qualitative risk assessments and to provide advice on control at the workplace. The tool uses a mechanistic model to arrive at a "Stoffenmanager score" for exposure. In a recent study it was shown that variability in exposure measurements given a certain Stoffenmanager score is still substantial. This article discusses an extension to the tool that uses a Bayesian methodology for quantitative workplace/scenario-specific exposure assessment. This methodology allows for real exposure data observed in the company of interest to be combined with the prior estimate (based on the Stoffenmanager model). The output of the tool is a company-specific assessment of exposure levels for a scenario for which data is available. The Bayesian approach provides a transparent way of synthesizing different types of information and is especially preferred in situations where available data is sparse, as is often the case in small- and medium sized-enterprises. Real-world examples as well as simulation studies were used to assess how different parameters such as sample size, difference between prior and data, uncertainty in prior, and variance in the data affect the eventual posterior distribution of a Bayesian exposure assessment. PMID:20146134

van de Ven, Peter; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody; Rubingh, Carina; Warren, Nicholas; Tielemans, Erik

2010-04-01

330

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

None

1980-10-01

331

Pinellas Plant final action plan: environmental, safety and health assessment of Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida  

SciTech Connect

This document contains responses and planned actions and their estimated costs for addressing the findings presented in the Tiger Team Environment, Safety, and Health Compliance Assessment of the Pinellas Plant. The assessment presented 170 findings in three general categories: environment, safety and health, and management and organization.

Not Available

1990-12-03

332

Paper No. 04-4835 Assessing Safety Benefits of Variable Speed Limits  

E-print Network

Paper No. 04-4835 Assessing Safety Benefits of Variable Speed Limits Chris Lee Department of Civil Record 2004 #12;Lee et al. Paper No. 04-4835 1 Assessing Safety Benefits of Variable Speed Limits CHRIS the effectiveness of variable speed limits in reducing freeway crash potential. The real-time crash prediction model

Hellinga, Bruce

333

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

334

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

335

Assessment of a Worksite Safety Belt Promotion Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the feasibility and replicability of informational and reinforcement strategies designed to increase safety belt use in a university setting. The findings revealed moderate increases in safety belt use over repeated observations. (CB)

Nelson, Gary D.; Bruess, Clint E.

1986-01-01

336

Assessing multimodal school travel safety in North Carolina.  

PubMed

School transportation has been the subject of numerous federal and state policies since the early twentieth century-the Safe Routes to School program is the most recent example. However, few recent studies have thoroughly analyzed the risks and costs associated with different modes of transportation to school. Our descriptive study assessed the injury and fatality rates and related safety costs of different modes of school transportation using crash and exposure data from North Carolina, USA from 2005 to 2012. We found that riding with a teen driver is the most dangerous mode on a per trip basis with injury rates 20 times higher and fatality rates 90 times higher than school buses, which had the lowest injury rates. Non-motorized modes had per trip injury rates equivalent to school buses but per trip fatality rates were 15 times higher than for school buses. The economic costs of school travel-related injuries and fatalities for walking, biking, and teen drivers were substantially higher than other modes. This research has important policy implications because it quantified the risks of different school travel modes which allows policymakers to consider how safety investments can reduce risks. Decades of effort by schools, communities, and the government have made school buses a very safe mode and endeavored to reduce risks to teen drivers. This study highlighted the need for these same actors to reduce the risks of injury for walking and bicycling. As more improvements are made to infrastructure around schools, repeated studies of this type will allow practitioners to examine whether the improvements help mitigate the risks. PMID:25463952

McDonald, Noreen C; McGrane, Ann B; Rodgman, Eric A; Steiner, Ruth L; Palmer, W Mathew; Lytle, Benjamin F

2015-01-01

337

Assessing International Learning: A Mixed Methodological Approach to Assessing Curricular and Extracurricular International Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay is anchored on the challenges institutions face in attempting to assess international learning outcomes. It documents Michigan State University's efforts to seek and pilot new measurement tools to confront this challenge. Based on Michigan's assessment experience, it provides lessons others might consider for the success of their…

Cooper, Garth; Niu, Rui

2010-01-01

338

An Assessment Methodology to Evaluate In-Flight Engine Health Management Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

flight effectiveness of candidate engine health management system concepts. A next generation engine health management system will be required to be both reliable and robust in terms of anomaly detection capability. The system must be able to operate successfully in the hostile, high-stress engine system environment. This implies that its system components, such as the instrumentation, process and control, and vehicle interface and support subsystems, must be highly reliable. Additionally, the system must be able to address a vast range of possible engine operation anomalies through a host of different types of measurements supported by a fast algorithm/architecture processing capability that can identify "true" (real) engine operation anomalies. False anomaly condition reports for such a system must be essentially eliminated. The accuracy of identifying only real anomaly conditions has been an issue with the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) in the past. Much improvement in many of the technologies to address these areas is required. The objectives of this study were to identify and demonstrate a consistent assessment methodology that can evaluate the capability of next generation engine health management system concepts to respond in a correct, timely manner to alleviate an operational engine anomaly condition during flight. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), with support from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, identified a probabilistic modeling approach to assess engine health management system concept effectiveness using a deterministic anomaly-time event assessment modeling approach that can be applied in the engine preliminary design stage of development to assess engine health management system concept effectiveness. Much discussion in this paper focuses on the formulation and application approach in performing this assessment. This includes detailed discussion of key modeling assumptions, the overall assessment methodology approach identified, and the identification of key supporting engine health management system concept design/operation and fault mode information required to utilize this methodology. At the paper's conclusion, discussion focuses on a demonstration benchmark study that applied this methodology to the current SSME health management system. A summary of study results and lessons learned are provided. Recommendations for future work in this area are also identified at the conclusion of the paper. * Please direct all correspondence/communication pertaining to this paper to Dennis G. Pelaccio, Science

Maggio, Gaspare; Belyeu, Rebecca; Pelaccio, Dennis G.

2002-01-01

339

Application of a Comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis Method on the Safety Assessment of TRU Waste Disposal in Japan  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive sensitivity analysis method has been developed with the aim of providing quantitative information in an efficient manner. This methodology is composed of the following two components: (1) a statistical method with random sampling of independent parameters, which identifies important parameters and extracts threshold values of parameters and/or combinations yielding a 'successful condition' where maximum dose does not exceed a target value, (2) A nuclide migration model that as far as possible incorporates a comprehensive set of phenomena occurring within the repository. This approach was applied as part of a safety assessment of the geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in Japan (TRU-2). It was shown that the concept of TRU waste disposal is robust from the point of view of safety. (authors)

Takao Ohi; Manabu Inagaki; Tomoyuki Sone; Morihiro Mihara; Takeshi Ebashi [JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Hiroyasu Takase [Quintessa K. K, Queen's Tower A 7-707, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawaken, 220-6007 (Japan); Kiyoshi Oyamada [JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa-ken, 220-6001 (Japan); Kunihiko Nakajima [NESI Inc., 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1112 (Japan)

2007-07-01

340

Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.

2011-01-01

341

Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

2013-11-01

342

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2013-06-01

343

Safety assessment of a hydroethanolic extract of Caralluma fimbriata.  

PubMed

This toxicological assessment evaluated the safety of a hydroethanolic extract prepared from Caralluma fimbriata (CFE), a dietary supplement marketed worldwide as an appetite suppressant. Studies included 2 in vitro genotoxicity assays, a repeated dose oral toxicity study, and a developmental study in rats. No evidence of in vitro mutagenicity or clastogenicity surfaced in the in vitro studies at concentrations up to 5000 ?g of extract/plate (Ames test) or 5000 ?g of extract/mL (chromosomal aberration test). No deaths or treatment-related toxicity were seen in the 6-month chronic oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats conducted at 3 doses (100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d). The no observed effect level for CFE in this study was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d. A prenatal developmental toxicity study conducted at 3 doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) in female Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in no treatment-related external, visceral, or skeletal fetal abnormalities, and no treatment-related maternal or pregnancy alterations were seen at and up to the maximum dose tested. CFE was not associated with any toxicity or adverse events. PMID:23771637

Odendaal, Antoinette Y; Deshmukh, Narendra S; Marx, Tennille K; Schauss, Alexander G; Endres, John R; Clewell, Amy E

2013-01-01

344

Medication Safety of Five Oral Chemotherapies: A Proactive Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Oral chemotherapies represent an emerging risk area in ambulatory oncology practice. To examine the hazards associated with five oral chemotherapies, we performed a proactive risk assessment. Methods: We convened interdisciplinary teams and conducted failure mode and effects analyses (FMEAs) for five oral chemotherapy agents: capecitabine, imatinib, temozolomide, 6-mercaptopurine, and an investigational agent. This involved the creation of process maps for each medication, identification of failure modes, selection of high-risk failure modes, and development of recommendations to mitigate these risks. We analyzed the number of steps and types of failure modes and compared this information across the study drugs. Results: Key vulnerabilities include patient education about drug handling and adverse effects, prescription writing, patient self-administration and medication adherence, and failure to monitor and manage toxicities. Many of these failure modes were common across the five oral chemotherapies, suggesting the presence of common targets for improvement. Streamlining the FMEA itself may promote the dissemination of this method. Conclusion: Each stage of the medication process poses risks to the safe use of oral chemotherapies. FMEAs may identify opportunities to improve medication safety and reduce the risk of patient harm. PMID:21532801

Weingart, Saul N.; Spencer, Justin; Buia, Stephanie; Duncombe, Deborah; Singh, Prabhjyot; Gadkari, Mrinalini; Connor, Maureen

2011-01-01

345

The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

2012-01-01

346

Submitted to Environmental and Ecological Statistics A Methodology for Assessing Departure of Current Plant Communities from Historical  

E-print Network

Submitted to Environmental and Ecological Statistics 1 A Methodology for Assessing Departure of this strategy is the assessment of departure of current plant communities from historical conditions across Federal lands. Assessing departure is a difficult problem because of very limited spatial coverage of data

Steele, Brian

347

Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

348

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

349

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

PubMed Central

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

2011-01-01

350

A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems.  

PubMed

The assessment of sediment contamination is of crucial importance for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Environmental risk assessment of oil pollution must be specific to these ecosystems because of their unique toxicant bioavailability dynamics, which is not comparable with that of other ecosystems where the environmental parameters are less variable. The goal of this work was to test in two European estuarine areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal; La Manga, Spain) whether the common methodology used to evaluate sediment pollution in marine sediment (amphipod toxicity tests and community structure analysis) is suited to these physico-chemically unique systems. Manipulative field experiments were conducted at three oil concentration levels, to compare resulting changes in community structure with laboratory and in situ amphipod toxicity tests carried out with native amphipod species Corophium multisetosum (Atlantic area) and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Mediterranean area). The impact of the toxicant was reflected in the community structure and toxicity tests, both of which were correlated with oil concentration. These results point to this methodology being a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring pollution in estuarine areas. PMID:19272633

Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marín, Arnaldo

2009-05-15

351

Safety assessment for EPS electron-proton spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safety analysis was conducted to identify the efforts required to assure relatively hazard free operation of the EPS and to meet the safety requirements of the program. Safety engineering criteria, principles, and techniques in applicable disciplines are stressed in the performance of the system and subsystem studies; in test planning; in the design, development, test, evaluation, and checkout of the equipment; and the operating procedures for the EPS program.

Gleeson, P.

1971-01-01

352

A brief review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies in sport.  

PubMed

An athletic profile should encompass the physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric and performance measures pertinent to the athlete's sport and discipline. The measurement systems and procedures used to create these profiles are constantly evolving and becoming more precise and practical. This is a review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies used in sport, a critique of current maximum strength [one-repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric strength] and ballistic performance (bench throw and jump capabilities) assessments for the purpose of informing practitioners and evolving current assessment methodologies. The reliability of the various maximum strength and ballistic assessment methodologies were reported in the form of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (%CV). Mean percent differences (Mdiff = [/Xmethod1 - Xmethod2/ / (Xmethod1 + Xmethod2)] x 100) and effect size (ES = [Xmethod2 - Xmethod1] ÷ SDmethod1) calculations were used to assess the magnitude and spread of methodological differences for a given performance measure of the included studies. Studies were grouped and compared according to their respective performance measure and movement pattern. The various measurement systems (e.g., force plates, position transducers, accelerometers, jump mats, optical motion sensors and jump-and-reach apparatuses) and assessment procedures (i.e., warm-up strategies, loading schemes and rest periods) currently used to assess maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull strength (ICC > 0.95; CV < 2.0%), 1RM bench press, back squat and clean strength (ICC > 0.91; CV < 4.3%), and ballistic (vertical jump and bench throw) capabilities (ICC > 0.82; CV < 6.5%) were deemed highly reliable. The measurement systems and assessment procedures employed to assess maximum isometric strength [M(Diff) = 2-71%; effect size (ES) = 0.13-4.37], 1RM strength (M(Diff) = 1-58%; ES = 0.01-5.43), vertical jump capabilities (M(Diff) = 2-57%; ES = 0.02-4.67) and bench throw capabilities (M(Diff) = 7-27%; ES = 0.49-2.77) varied greatly, producing trivial to very large effects on these respective measures. Recreational to highly trained athletes produced maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull forces of 1,000-4,000 N; and 1RM bench press, back squat and power clean values of 80-180 kg, 100-260 kg and 70-140 kg, respectively. Mean and peak power production across the various loads (body mass to 60% 1RM) were between 300 and 1,500 W during the bench throw and between 1,500 and 9,000 W during the vertical jump. The large variations in maximum strength and power can be attributed to the wide range in physical characteristics between different sports and athletic disciplines, training and chronological age as well as the different measurement systems of the included studies. The reliability and validity outcomes suggest that a number of measurement systems and testing procedures can be implemented to accurately assess maximum strength and ballistic performance in recreational and elite athletes, alike. However, the reader needs to be cognisant of the inherent differences between measurement systems, as selection will inevitably affect the outcome measure. The strength and conditioning practitioner should also carefully consider the benefits and limitations of the different measurement systems, testing apparatuses, attachment sites, movement patterns (e.g., direction of movement, contraction type, depth), loading parameters (e.g., no load, single load, absolute load, relative load, incremental loading), warm-up strategies, inter-trial rest periods, dependent variables of interest (i.e., mean, peak and rate dependent variables) and data collection and processing techniques (i.e., sampling frequency, filtering and smoothing options). PMID:24497158

McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

2014-05-01

353

Bayesian-network-based safety risk assessment for steel construction projects.  

PubMed

There are four primary accident types at steel building construction (SC) projects: falls (tumbles), object falls, object collapse, and electrocution. Several systematic safety risk assessment approaches, such as fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect criticality analysis (FMECA), have been used to evaluate safety risks at SC projects. However, these traditional methods ineffectively address dependencies among safety factors at various levels that fail to provide early warnings to prevent occupational accidents. To overcome the limitations of traditional approaches, this study addresses the development of a safety risk-assessment model for SC projects by establishing the Bayesian networks (BN) based on fault tree (FT) transformation. The BN-based safety risk-assessment model was validated against the safety inspection records of six SC building projects and nine projects in which site accidents occurred. The ranks of posterior probabilities from the BN model were highly consistent with the accidents that occurred at each project site. The model accurately provides site safety-management abilities by calculating the probabilities of safety risks and further analyzing the causes of accidents based on their relationships in BNs. In practice, based on the analysis of accident risks and significant safety factors, proper preventive safety management strategies can be established to reduce the occurrence of accidents on SC sites. PMID:23499984

Leu, Sou-Sen; Chang, Ching-Miao

2013-05-01

354

The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice  

SciTech Connect

A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

1997-04-01

355

Qualified presumption of safety (QPS): a generic risk assessment approach for biological agents notified to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the

Renata G. K. Leuschner; Tobin P. Robinson; Marta Hugas; Pier Sandro Cocconcelli; Florence Richard-Forget; Günter Klein; Tine R. Licht; Christophe Nguyen-The; Amparo Querol; Malcolm Richardson; Juan E. Suarez; Ulf Thrane; Just M. Vlak; Atte von Wright

2010-01-01

356

Improving Safety Assessment of Complex Systems: An Industrial Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of embedded controllers is steadily increasing. This trend, stimulated by the continuous improvement of the computational power of hardware, demands for a corresponding increase in the capability of design and safety engineers to maintain adequate safety levels. The use of formal methods during system design has proved to be effective in several practical applications. However, the development of

Marco Bozzano; Antonella Cavallo; Massimo Cifaldi; Laura Valacca; Adolfo Villafiorita

2003-01-01

357

Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

2012-01-01

358

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-11-08

359

A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential approaches to capability-gaps can be identified with respect to effectiveness, cost, and time. When implemented, this methodology offers the opportunity to achieve system capabilities in a new way, improve the design of acquisition programs, and field the right combination of ways and means to address future challenges to national security.

Tangen, Steven Anthony

360

A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover, population density, economic activities) of several case studies in order to develop risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk at the regional scale. The main outputs of the RRA are receptor-based maps of risks useful to communicate the potential implications of floods in non-monetary terms to stakeholders and administrations. These maps can be a basis for the management of flood risks as they can provide information about the indicative number of inhabitants, the type of economic activities, natural systems and cultural heritages potentially affected by flooding. Moreover, they can provide suitable information about flood risk in the considered area in order to define priorities for prevention measures, for land use planning and management. Finally, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used as data input in the Socio- Economic Regional Risk Assessment methodology for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity). Within the KULTURisk project, the methodology has been applied and validated in several European case studies. Moreover, its generalization to address other types of natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, forest fires) will be evaluated. The preliminary results of the RRA application in the KULTURisk project will be here presented and discussed.

Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

2013-04-01

361

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.  

PubMed

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic material that should try to protect from patenting and commercialisation. Finally, we should be aware of the requirements of movement of GMOs within borders, i.e. GMOs grown or used in other countries but which are not intended to cross into Greece, since Greece is very close to countries that are non-EU. This is where the development of a new, integrated, trustworthy and transparent food quality control system will help to satisfy the societal demands for safe and quality products. On the other hand, Greece should not be isolated from any recent scientific technological development and should assess the possible advantages for some cultivation using a case by case approach. Finally, the safety assessment of GM foods and feed has been discussed according to the risk assessment methodology applied by EFSA. PMID:17275157

Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

2007-04-01

362

Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.  

PubMed

The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

2011-01-01

363

Wildlife Strike Risk Assessment in Several Italian Airports: Lessons from BRI and a New Methodology Implementation  

PubMed Central

The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

2011-01-01

364

A Probabilistic-Micro-mechanical Methodology for Assessing Zirconium Alloy Cladding Failure  

SciTech Connect

Cladding failure of fuel rods caused by hydride-induced embrittlement is a reliability concern for spent nuclear fuel after extended burnup. Uncertainties in the cladding temperature, cladding stress, oxide layer thickness, and the critical stress value for hydride reorientation preclude an assessment of the cladding failure risk. A set of micro-mechanical models for treating oxide cracking, blister cracking, delayed hydride cracking, and cladding fracture was developed and incorporated in a computer model. Results obtained from the preliminary model calculations indicate that at temperatures below a critical temperature of 318.5 deg. C [605.3 deg. F], the time to failure by delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5%Nb decreased with increasing cladding temperature. The overall goal of this project is to develop a probabilistic-micro-mechanical methodology for assessing the probability of hydride-induced failure in Zircaloy cladding and thereby establish performance criteria. (authors)

Pan, Y.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States); Chan, K.S.; Riha, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States)

2007-07-01

365

A knowledge management methodology for the integrated assessment of WWTP configurations during conceptual design.  

PubMed

The current complexity involved in wastewater management projects is arising as the XXI century sets new challenges leading towards a more integrated plant design. In this context, the growing number of innovative technologies, stricter legislation and the development of new methodological approaches make it difficult to design appropriate flow schemes for new wastewater projects. Thus, new tools are needed for the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) conceptual design using integrated assessment methods in order to include different types of objectives at the same time i.e. environmental, economical, technical, and legal. Previous experiences used the decision support system (DSS) methodology to handle the specific issues related to wastewater management, for example, the design of treatment facilities for small communities. However, tools developed for addressing the whole treatment process independently of the plant size, capable of integrating knowledge from many different areas, including both conventional and innovative technologies are not available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present and describe an innovative knowledge-based methodology that handles the conceptual design of WWTP process flow-diagrams (PFDs), satisfying a vast number of different criteria. This global approach is based on a hierarchy of decisions that uses the information contained in knowledge bases (KBs) with the aim of automating the generation of suitable WWTP configurations for a specific scenario. Expert interviews, legislation, specialized literature and engineering experience have been integrated within the different KBs, which indeed constitute one of the main highlights of this work. Therefore, the methodology is presented as a valuable tool which provides customized PFD for each specific case, taking into account process unit interactions and the user specified requirements and objectives. PMID:22678214

Garrido-Baserba, M; Reif, R; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Poch, M

2012-01-01

366

Assessment of a stochastic downscaling methodology in generating an ensemble of hourly future climate time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study extends a stochastic downscaling methodology to generation of an ensemble of hourly time series of meteorological variables that express possible future climate conditions at a point-scale. The stochastic downscaling uses general circulation model (GCM) realizations and an hourly weather generator, the Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN). Marginal distributions of factors of change are computed for several climate statistics using a Bayesian methodology that can weight GCM realizations based on the model relative performance with respect to a historical climate and a degree of disagreement in projecting future conditions. A Monte Carlo technique is used to sample the factors of change from their respective marginal distributions. As a comparison with traditional approaches, factors of change are also estimated by averaging GCM realizations. With either approach, the derived factors of change are applied to the climate statistics inferred from historical observations to re-evaluate parameters of the weather generator. The re-parameterized generator yields hourly time series of meteorological variables that can be considered to be representative of future climate conditions. In this study, the time series are generated in an ensemble mode to fully reflect the uncertainty of GCM projections, climate stochasticity, as well as uncertainties of the downscaling procedure. Applications of the methodology in reproducing future climate conditions for the periods of 2000-2009, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100, using the period of 1962-1992 as the historical baseline are discussed for the location of Firenze (Italy). The inferences of the methodology for the period of 2000-2009 are tested against observations to assess reliability of the stochastic downscaling procedure in reproducing statistics of meteorological variables at different time scales.

Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Caporali, E.

2013-04-01

367

DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION  

E-print Network

DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION David S. Bowles breaching a dam; so drop the matter before a dispute breaks out. Proverbs 17:14 (NIV) ABSTRACT A decision assessments and risk assessments. The approach can be adapted to any dam owner's unique decision context

Bowles, David S.

368

The use of cost–benefit analysis in road assessments: a methodological inquiry  

PubMed Central

Background Cost–benefit analysis is a useful tool for priority setting in road safety. The value of statistical life (VOSL) is a metric used to estimate the benefits of road interventions in cost–benefit analyses. The International Road Assessment Program (iRAP), for example, created a rule-of-thumb to calculate VOSL benefits of road infrastructure when performing cost–benefit assessments in countries where data on VOSL are sparse. Aim To evaluate the rapid assessment metric developed by iRAP and provide suggestions for improvement in these methods. Methods We replicated iRAP calculations in order to make a critical assessment of the sources, results and conclusions. Conclusions We found the iRAP metric a good example for highlighting some relevant aspects that should be considered in any VOSL estimation in order to enhance its use as a guiding principle for assessing road interventions. Specifically, we recommend the explicit disclosure of the assumptions, the use of sensitivity analysis and the avoidance of omitted variables bias. PMID:23710063

Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Hyder, Adnan A

2015-01-01

369

Distributed safety assessment for airborne systems: an industrial relevant approach for automated safety analysis and reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of safety critical systems in the aviation industry is a costly and time-consuming process. Despite the increasing complexity of modern aircraft systems, todays safety analyses and proofs for certification purposes are still performed through a number of predominantly manual, paper-based procedures, which are both expensive and prone to errors. This paper presents a new approach to integrate the most

Martin Waßmuth; Stephan C. Stilkerich; Enno Lübbers

2011-01-01

370

Recent developments in Topaz-II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate nuclear electric propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety analysis was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes preliminary safety analysis results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the NEP space test (NEPST).

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01

371

Safety qualification and operational assessment of a night vision cueing and display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Air Force and US Navy are cooperatively developing and demonstrating a wide field of view, night vision, helmet mounted cueing system called Night Vision Cueing and Display. This paper addresses the USAF path to safety of flight qualification of the device to include assessment of the display quality, aircraft compatibility, environmental tolerance, and ejection safety. The variety of

James M. Barnaba; Cary W. Wilson; Melina Baez-Vazquez

2008-01-01

372

Simulating Geriatric Home Safety Assessments in a Three-Dimensional Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual worlds could offer inexpensive and safe three-dimensional environments in which medical trainees can learn to identify home safety hazards. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of virtual worlds for geriatric home safety assessments and to correlate performance efficiency in hazard identification with…

Andrade, Allen D.; Cifuentes, Pedro; Mintzer, Michael J.; Roos, Bernard A.; Anam, Ramanakumar; Ruiz, Jorge G.

2012-01-01

373

Assessing benefits of coordination on safety in automated highway systems  

E-print Network

in exploring how coordination during braking improves safety in these three categories. In addition, we have considered sensor/communication failures and actuator failures on vehicles and how they result in collision. What we are seeking for this failure mode...

Choi, Woosuk

2000-01-01

374

Safety Assessment of PowerBeam Flywheel Technology  

SciTech Connect

The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems is the issue of safety. The PowerBeam flywheel system concept, developed by HyKinesys Inc., employs a pair of high aspect ratio, counter-rotating flywheels to provide surge power for hybrid vehicle applications. The PowerBeam approach to safety is to design flywheels conservatively so as to avoid full rotor burst failure modes. A conservative point design was sized for use in a mid-size sedan such as a Chevrolet Malibu. The PowerBeam rotor rims were designed with a steel tube covered by a carbon fiber reinforced composite tube. ORNL conducted rotor design analyses using both nested ring and finite element analysis design codes. The safety factor of the composite material was 7, while that of the steel was greater than 3. The design exceeded the PNGV recommendation for a safety factor of at least 4 for composite material to prevent flywheel burst.

Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

2009-11-01

375

Hospitals Safety from Disasters in I.R.Iran: The Results from Assessment of 224 Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Iran’s hospitals have been considerably affected by disasters during last decade. To address this, health system of I.R.Iran has taken an initiative to assess disaster safety of the hospitals using an adopted version of Hospital Safety Index (HSI). This article presents the results of disaster safety assessment in 224 Iran’s hospitals. Methods: A self-assessment approach was applied to assess the disaster safety in 145 items categorized in 3 components including structural, non-structural and functional capacity. For each item, safety level was categorized to 3 levels: not safe (0), average safe (1) and high safe (2). A raw score was tallied for each safety component and its elements by a simple sum of all the corresponding scores. All scores were normalized on a 100 point scale. Hospitals were classified to three safety classes according to their normalized total score: low (?34.0), average (34.01-66.0) and high (>66.0). Results: The average score of all safety components were 32.4 out of 100 (± 12.7 SD). 122 hospitals (54.5%) were classified as low safe and 102 hospitals (45.5%) were classified as average safe. No hospital was placed in the high safe category. Average safety scores out of 100 were 27.3 (±14.2 SD) for functional capacity, 36.0 (±13.9 SD) for non-structural component and 36.0 (±19.0 SD) for structural component. Neither the safety classes nor the scores of safety components were significantly associated with types of hospitals in terms of affiliation, function and size (P>0.05). Conclusions: To enhance the hospitals safety for disaster in Iran, we recommend: 1) establishment of a national committee for hospital safety in disasters; 2) supervision on implementation of the safety standards in construction of new hospitals; 3) enhancement of functional readiness and safety of non-structural components while structural retrofitting of the existing hospitals is being taken into consideration, whenever is cost-effective; 4) considering the disaster safety status as the criteria for licensing and accreditation of the hospitals. Key words: Hospital, safety, disaster, emergency, Iran Correspondence to: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir, ardalan@hsph.harvard.edu PMID:24596661

Ardalan, Ali; Kandi, Maryam; Talebian, Mohammad Taghi; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Reza; Maleknia, Samaneh; Miadfar, Jafar; Mobini, Atieh; Mehranamin, Sara

2014-01-01

376

Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program  

SciTech Connect

The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

Marshall, A.C.

1993-01-01

377

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. Risk maps, along with related statistics, provide crucial information about flood risk pattern, and allow the development of relevant and strategic mitigation and prevention measures to minimizing flood risk in urban areas. The present study applied and validated the KULTURisk RRA methodology to the Sihl river case study in Zurich (Switzerland). Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl river valley, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. The total risk maps obtained under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as the reference one) have highlighted that the area is associated with the lower class of risk. Moreover, the relative risk is higher in Zurich city centre, in the few residential areas around the city centre and within the districts that rely just beside to the Sihl river course.

Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-05-01

378

Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. As the lead Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for this Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with developing and deploying methods and tools that support the quantification and management of safety margin and uncertainty.

Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

2013-03-01

379

Risk Assessment Methodology for Water utilities (RAM-W) : the foundation for emergency response planning.  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about acts of terrorism against critical infrastructures have been on the rise for several years. Critical infrastructures are those physical structures and information systems (including cyber) essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) probed the security of the nation's critical infrastructures. The PCCIP determined the water infrastructure is highly vulnerable to a range of potential attacks. In October 1997, the PCCIP proposed a public/private partnership between the federal government and private industry to improve the protection of the nation's critical infrastructures. In early 2000, the EPA partnered with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and Sandia National Laboratories to create the Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-W{trademark}). Soon thereafter, they initiated an effort to create a template and minimum requirements for water utility Emergency Response Plans (ERP). All public water utilities in the US serving populations greater than 3,300 are required to undertaken both a vulnerability assessment and the development of an emergency response plan. This paper explains the initial steps of RAM-W{trademark} and then demonstrates how the security risk assessment is fundamental to the ERP. During the development of RAM-W{trademark}, Sandia performed several security risk assessments at large metropolitan water utilities. As part of the scope of that effort, ERPs at each utility were reviewed to determine how well they addressed significant vulnerabilities uncovered during the risk assessment. The ERP will contain responses to other events as well (e.g. natural disasters) but should address all major findings in the security risk assessment.

Danneels, Jeffrey John

2005-03-01

380

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamic models with site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities etc.) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected receptors (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritage) in the considered region. It further compares the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned and eventually implemented. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow one to identify and classify, on a relative scale, areas at risk which are more likely to be affected by floods and support the development of strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. In addition, the outcomes of the RRA can be eventually used for a further socio-economic assessment, considering the tangible and intangible costs as well as the human dimension of vulnerability.

Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

2014-12-01

381

Clinical Practice Guidelines and Consensus Statements in Oncology – An Assessment of Their Methodological Quality  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine’s standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Findings Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice guidelines. One journal scored consistently lower than the others over both domains. No journals adhered to all the items related to the transparency of document development. One journal’s consensus statements endorsed a product made by the sponsoring pharmaceutical company in 64% of cases. Conclusion Guidance documents are an essential part of oncology care and should be subjected to a rigorous and validated development process. Consensus statements had lower methodological quality than clinical practice guidelines using AGREE II. At a minimum, journals should ensure that that all consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines adhere to AGREE II criteria. Journals should consider explicitly requiring guidelines to declare pharmaceutical company sponsorship and to identify the sponsor’s product to enhance transparency. PMID:25329669

Jacobs, Carmel; Graham, Ian D.; Makarski, Julie; Chassé, Michaël; Fergusson, Dean; Hutton, Brian; Clemons, Mark

2014-01-01

382

Safety assessment for a side-by-side offloading mooring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the safety properties of an offloading system with side-by-side (SBS) mooring in which the FPSO is moored by a yoke system in the field of BZ25-1, it is necessary to analyze those properties. According to the experience of similar projects, tow strategies of different offloading arrangements were discussed by using the 3-D radiation/diffraction theory and quasi-static time domain method to assess their respective safety properties. Through the safety assessment analysis of different arrangement comparisons, various ways to improve the safety properties of offloading systems with side-by-side mooring were verified by analyzing the tension in the mooring lines and the fender deflection. Through comparison it can be concluded that by enlarging the key factors properly, including the size of the fenders and the hawsers as well as the number of hawsers, a better safety performance can be achieved.

Sun, Liping; He, Qiang; Ai, Shangmao

2011-09-01

383

Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind resources, but since installing and operating a meteorological mast in situ is expensive, prospective sites must be carefully evaluated. Accordingly, one can conceptualize the wind resource assessment process as a two-phase activity: ( i) an evaluation of wind resources at the regional scale to locate promising wind farm sites and ( ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase ( i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations of opportunity derived from ships, lighthouses and buoys in conjunction with model tools and remote sensing products. The reliability of such data sources has been extensively investigated in different national and European projects especially in Northern Europe, and the results are summarized herein. Phase ( ii) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment are reviewed.

Sempreviva, A. M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

2008-12-01

384

Preliminary assessment of human exposure to ozone in Mexico City using a GIS-based methodology  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of ozone exposure experienced by the population of a large metropolitan zone encompassing Mexico City. Demographic geocoded databases from the Mexican National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information were acquired and analyzed to develop the required population spatial distributions. With the use of a geographic information system (GIS), and other statistical tools, it was possible to generate spatially- and temporally-resolved ozone distributions for indoor and outdoor microenvironments. The ozone levels were determined using various air quality metrics to assess extreme and average exposures for the demographic groups. Populations with the most time spent outdoors at high ozone concentration locations experienced ozone above the Mexican air quality standard as much as 80% of the days of the year, and more than one thousand hours annually. Co-located populations entirely indoors potentially experienced ozone above the Mexican air quality standard 16% of the days of the year, and more than one hundred hours annually. The basic methodology described in this paper integrates both demographic and air quality geocoded databases, allowing the evaluation of various air pollution scenarios. For the particular case of Mexico City, this methodology is starting to be used as a tool to support epidemiological surveillance and, during extreme episodes, to identify and implement mitigation actions

Cicero-Fernandez, P.; Winer, A.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Environmental Health Sciences; Otero-Delgado, A.; Sanchez-Martinez, S. [Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico). Dept. del Distrito Federal

1998-12-31

385

Territorial Impact Assessment for European regions: A methodological proposal and an application to EU transport policy.  

PubMed

The need to engage European research and institutions in the new field of Territorial Impact Assessment, from both a methodological and a procedural perspective, was stated some years ago by the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP). The necessity of multidimensional evaluation of the likely impact of policies and programmes on the territory - understood as the dimension on which all the other relevant dimensions (economic, social, environmental and cultural) converge and with which they integrate - emerged as a natural consequence of the importance of spatial aspects in the future development of the Union and of widespread preoccupations about certain emerging spatial trends. A proposal for a TIA methodology combining logical consistency vis-à-vis the Union's present institutional and policy guidelines with operational viability is being developed and applied to Trans-European Networks policy of the EU. Territorial impact is linked to an innovative definition of the objective of "territorial cohesion" of the Treaties in terms of territorial efficiency, quality and identity. Utilising sectoral impact studies developed inside the ESPON programme and developing territorial indicators for impact, vulnerability and desirability (territorial utility functions), a multicriteria model (TEQUILA) is implemented on priority projects as defined by the Commission, and results mapped and described for the 1360 NUTS-3 regions of the Union. PMID:19665227

Camagni, Roberto

2009-11-01

386

Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports  

SciTech Connect

Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

Kurniawan, Jermanto S., E-mail: Jermanto.kurniawan@inrets.fr; Khardi, S., E-mail: Salah.khardi@inrets.f

2011-04-15

387

Urban transport safety assessment in akure based on corresponding performance indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level of safety of the transportation system in Akure, Nigeria was assessed by identifying the associated road safety problems and developing the corresponding safety performance indicators. These indicators were analysed with respect to accidents that occurred within the city from the year 2005 to 2009 based on the corresponding attributable risk measures. The results of the analysis showed the state of existing safety programs in Akure town. Six safety performance indicators were identified namely alcohol and drug use, excessive speeds, protection system (use of seat belts and helmets), use of day time running lights, state of vehicles (passive safety) and road condition. These indicators were used to determine the percentage of injury accidents as follows: 83.33% and 86.36% for years 2005 and 2006 respectively, 81.46% for year 2007 while years 2008 and 2009 had 82.86% and 78.12% injury accidents respectively.

Oye, Adedamola; Aderinlewo, Olufikayo; Croope, Silvana

2013-03-01

388

Diablo Canyon internal events PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) review: Methodology and findings  

SciTech Connect

The review of the Diablo Canyon Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DCRPA) incorporated some new and innovative approaches. These were necessitated by the unprecedented size, scope and level of detail of the DCRPA, which was submitted to the NRC for licensing purposes. This paper outlines the elements of the internal events portion of the review citing selected findings to illustrate the various approaches employed. The paper also provides a description of the extensive and comprehensive importance analysis applied by BNL to the DCRPA model. Importance calculations included: top event/function level; individual split fractions; pair importances between frontline-support and support-support systems; system importance by initiator; and others. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the effectiveness of the applied methodology. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Bozoki, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Sabek, M. (Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt))

1990-01-01

389

Process-based groundwater salinisation risk assessment methodology: Application to the Akrotiri aquifer (Southern Cyprus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryGroundwater salinisation is a major groundwater contamination issue world-wide and can be caused by different processes, such as seawater intrusion, agrochemical pollution, geogenic contamination and irrigation-induced salinisation. In many areas, several salinisation processes are superimposed. Since remedial measures vary for different salinisation processes, correct identification is fundamental for adequate design of management strategies: different strategies may be required in one and the same aquifer, depending on which salinisation process is active where in the domain. A simulation-based salinisation risk assessment methodology is proposed, based on the principle of linear superposition of total dissolved solutes in groundwater. In a first step, the measured bulk salinity distribution is used to calibrate a numerical groundwater flow and transport model, accounting for all identified salinisation processes. Then, the bulk salinity distribution is decomposed into different salinity components by adapting the boundary conditions, running a simulation for each salinisation process separately. These simulation results yield the necessary components to calculate the risk index distributions, which are a measure of the respective future potential salinity increase. Overlaying the risk index distributions with a defined threshold concentration reveals risk areas requiring remediation or conservation measures with respect to each process. The risk area maps resulting from this methodology are a promising tool for the design of groundwater management schemes. They condense relevant information from complex dynamic processes obtained from numerical simulations and visualise the results in simple and static maps, accessible to decision makers who are not familiar with groundwater dynamics. The different steps of the salinisation risk assessment procedure are first described and illustrated on a synthetic example and then applied to a real aquifer system in Southern Cyprus (Akrotiri), where three major salinisation processes are superimposed.

Milnes, Ellen

2011-03-01

390

Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA's program requirements.

deGroh, Henry C., III; Nahra, Henry K.

2009-01-01

391

Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA s program requirements.

deGroh, Henry C., III; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nahra, Henry K.

2009-01-01

392

Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

NWCC Economic Development Work Group

2003-12-17

393

RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific  

E-print Network

RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

Barker, Jon

394

The development and validation of an assessment of safety awareness of science teachers using interactive videodisc technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new assessment of science teachers' knowledge of school lab safety management was developed and tested. The assessment, called the Safety Simulator, is based on Interactive Videodisc (IVD) technology and was developed as part of the Beginning Educator Support and Training program for beginning teachers in Connecticut. The Safety Simulator contains two phases: 1) A walk through the lab room,

Michal S. Lomask; Larry Jacobson; Laurin P. Hafner

1995-01-01

395

Toxicologic Risk Assessment Issues for Drinking Water Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this presentation is to review the studies conducted by the National Research Council (NRC) where risk assessment was the central theme and to present both a current view and some ideas for the future of risk assessment procedures for drinking water. Although the principal interest is in the use of toxicologic data in assessing risk, nonetheless, mention

Richard D. Thomas

1992-01-01

396

Probabilistic Basis and Assessment Methodology for Effectiveness of Protecting Nuclear Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safeguards and security (S&S) systems for nuclear facilities include material control and accounting (MC&A) and a physical protection system (PPS) to protect nuclear materials from theft, sabotage and other malevolent human acts. The PPS for a facility is evaluated using probabilistic analysis of adversary paths on the basis of detection, delay, and response timelines to determine timely detection. The path analysis methodology focuses on systematic, quantitative evaluation of the physical protection component for potential external threats, and often calculates the probability that the PPS is effective (PE) in defeating an adversary who uses that attack path. By monitoring and tracking critical materials, MC&A activities provide additional protection against inside adversaries, but have been difficult to characterize in ways that are compatible with the existing path analysis methods that are used to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a site's protection system. This research describes and demonstrates a new method to incorporate MC&A protection elements explicitly within the existing probabilistic path analysis methodology. MC&A activities, from monitoring to inventory measurements, provide many, often recurring opportunities to determine the status of critical items, including detection of missing materials. Human reliability analysis methods are applied to determine human error probabilities to characterize the detection capabilities of MC&A activities. An object-based state machine paradigm was developed to characterize the path elements of an insider theft scenario as a race against MC&A activities that can move a facility from a normal state to a heightened alert state having additional detection opportunities. This paradigm is coupled with nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment techniques to incorporate the evaluation of MC&A activities in the existing path analysis methodology. Event sequence diagrams describe insider paths through the PPS and also incorporate MC&A activities as path elements. This work establishes a probabilistic basis for incorporating MC&A activities explicitly within the existing path analysis methodology to extend it to address insider threats. The analysis results for this new method provide an integrated effectiveness measure for a safeguards and security system that addresses threats from both outside and inside adversaries.

Duran, Felicia Angleica

397

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

398

An assessment of risk and safety in civil aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk and safety have always been important considerations in civil aviation. This is particularly so under current conditions of continuous growth in air transport demand, frequent scarcity of airport and infrastructure capacity, and thus permanent and increased pressure on the system components. There is also the growing public and operators’ awareness of these and other system externalities such as air

Milan Janic

2000-01-01

399

Environment modeling for sense and avoid sensor safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sense and avoid (SAA) systems being developed for unmanned aircraft are needed to fulfill the requirement to see and avoid other aircraft. An environment model objectively describes a specific environmental condition so that the performance of unmanned aircraft SAA sensors can be accurately modeled in safety studies. This paper presents an approach to develop an environment model that encompasses elements

J. Daniel Griffith; Seung J. Lee

2011-01-01

400

An Employee Questionnaire for Assessing Patient Safety in Outpatient Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides information on the reliability and validity of an employee questionnaire developed in a study of patient safety in outpatient surgery. The Systems Engineering Intervention in Outpatient Surgery (SEIPS), a collaborative community perspective project currently underway at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, examines the impact of a systems engineering intervention on both employees and patients. In this paper, we

Pascale Carayon; Carla J. Alvarado; Ann Schoofs Hundt; Scott Springman; Amanda Borgsdorf; Peter L. T. Hoonakker

2005-01-01

401

Assessment of the Accuracy of Material Safety Data Sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated 150 material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for the accuracy and completeness of five areas of information: (1) chemical identification of hazardous ingredients; (2) reported health effects; (3) suggested first aid procedures; (4) recommended personal protective equipment; and (5) exposure level regulations and guidelines. The material from each MSDS was reviewed by both an industrial hygienist and an

Paul W. Kolp; Phillip L. Williams; Rupert C. Burtan

1995-01-01

402

Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

1999-03-01

403

Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

1999-04-01

404

Safety management systems under Seveso II: Implementation and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `Seveso II Directive' (96\\/82\\/EC) requires certain establishments holding hazardous substances to implement a Safety Management System (SMS). The first part of the paper discusses the origin of this requirement, the guidance drawn up to help companies fulfil it, and the results of preliminary testing of this guidance. One important element in implementing and inspecting SMS is the identification of

Neil Mitchison; Georgios A. Papadakis

1999-01-01

405

Integrated environmental and safety assessment of selected mechanical energy storage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental, safety, and social impacts of two mechanical storage systems, underground pumped hydro (UPH) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) are similar to those of existing peaking power plants. These impacts, with engineering factors, form a methodology for selecting sites for these two systems. Application of this methodology to a hypothetical case indicates that, although design alternatives which mitigate adverse environmental impacts are recommended, site selection effectively limits the environmental effect of CAES or UPH plants. Public perception of CAES and UPH energy storage facilities should generally be positive, provided that those affected are informed and allowed to participate in the siting process.

1982-01-01

406

A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR&PP Methodology  

SciTech Connect

FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

2012-01-20

407

Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.  

PubMed

The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:15806954

Sanders, Thomas A B

2003-01-01

408

A new methodology for non-contact accurate crack width measurement through photogrammetry for automated structural safety evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mechanical, aerospace and civil structures, cracks are important defects that can cause catastrophes if neglected. Visual inspection is currently the predominant method for crack assessment. This approach is tedious, labor-intensive, subjective and highly qualitative. An inexpensive alternative to current monitoring methods is to use a robotic system that could perform autonomous crack detection and quantification. To reach this goal, several image-based crack detection approaches have been developed; however, the crack thickness quantification, which is an essential element for a reliable structural condition assessment, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a new contact-less crack quantification methodology, based on computer vision and image processing concepts, is introduced and evaluated against a crack quantification approach which was previously developed by the authors. The proposed approach in this study utilizes depth perception to quantify crack thickness and, as opposed to most previous studies, needs no scale attachment to the region under inspection, which makes this approach ideal for incorporation with autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile inspection systems. Validation tests are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, and the results show that the new proposed approach outperforms the previously developed one.

Jahanshahi, Mohammad R.; Masri, Sami F.

2013-03-01

409

Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.  

PubMed

The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. PMID:24861368

Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2014-05-26

410

Combination of Fault Tree Analysis and Model Checking for Safety Assessment of Complex System  

E-print Network

Abstract. Safety assessment of complex systems traditionally requires the combination of various results derived from various models. The Altarica language was designed to formally specify the behaviour of systems when faults occurs. A unique Altarica model can be assessed by means of complementary tools such as fault tree generator and model-checker. This paper reports how the Altarica language was used to model a system in the style of the hydraulic system of the Airbus A320 aircraft family. It presents how fault tree generation and model-checking can be used separately then combined to assess safety requirements.

Pierre Bieber; Charles Castel; Christel Seguin

2002-01-01

411

[Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].  

PubMed

Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management. PMID:22267026

Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

2012-02-01

412

Measuring Safety Levels in Playgrounds Using Environment Assessment Scales: The Issue of Playground Safety in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Playgrounds beget an unrivalled context which, through play activity, can foster children's growth. The foremost function of all playgrounds is to provide for safety. In the present study, our primary focus is to determine the degree of adequacy as far as playground equipment is concerned, including estimates of imminent dangers and the level of…

Botsoglou, Kafenia; Hrisikou, Spyridoula; Kakana, Domna Mika

2011-01-01

413

A Qualified Presumption of Safety approach for the safety assessment of Grana Padano whey starters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach was applied to dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Thirty-two strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, and representing the overall genotypic LAB diversity associated with 24 previously collected whey starters [Rossetti, L., Fornasari, M.E., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Neviani,

Lia Rossetti; Domenico Carminati; Miriam Zago; Giorgio Giraffa

2009-01-01

414

RBMK thermohydraulic safety assessments using RELAP5/MOD3 codes  

SciTech Connect

The capability of the RELAP5/MOD3 code to validate various transients encountered in RBMK reactor postulated accidents has been assessed. The assessment results include a loss of coolant accident at the inlet of the core pressure tube, the blockage of a pressure tube, and the pressure response of the core cavity to in core pressure tube ruptures. These assessments show that the RELAP5/MOD3 code can predict major phenomena during postulated accidents in the RBMK reactors.

Tsiklauri, G.V.; Schmitt, B.E.

1995-06-01

415

The practice of pre-marketing safety assessment in drug development.  

PubMed

The last 15 years have seen a substantial increase in efforts devoted to safety assessment by statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. While some of these efforts were driven by regulations and public demand for safer products, much of the motivation came from the realization that there is a strong need for a systematic approach to safety planning, evaluation, and reporting at the program level throughout the drug development life cycle. An efficient process can help us identify safety signals early and afford us the opportunity to develop effective risk minimization plan early in the development cycle. This awareness has led many pharmaceutical sponsors to set up internal systems and structures to effectively conduct safety assessment at all levels (patient, study, and program). In addition to process, tools have emerged that are designed to enhance data review and pattern recognition. In this paper, we describe advancements in the practice of safety assessment during the premarketing phase of drug development. In particular, we share examples of safety assessment practice at our respective companies, some of which are based on recommendations from industry-initiated working groups on best practice in recent years. PMID:23331218

Chuang-Stein, Christy; Xia, H Amy

2013-01-01

416

Reliability and Reproducibility of Novel Methodology for Assessment of Pressure Pain Sensitivity in Pelvis  

PubMed Central

Vestibulodynia, the most common type of chronic vulvovaginal pain, impairs the psychological, physical health of nearly 10% of women at some point in their lifetime. The aim of this investigation was to establish reliable standardized methodologies for assessment of pain sensitivity in vulvar mucosa and pelvic musculature. We enrolled 34 women with vestibulodynia and 21 pain-free controls. The participants underwent a nuanced exam that consisted of palpation of precisely located vulvar mucosal and pelvic muscle sites. These measurements remained highly stable when participants were reexamined after two weeks, with high within-examiner correlation. Vestibulodynia patients reported greater sensitivity than pain-free controls at the majority of examination sites, particularly at mucosal sites on the lower vestibule. The pain threshold measures at the lower mucosal sites were also associated with the participants’ self-reported pain levels during intercourse. These mucosal pain threshold measurements were used to discriminate between vestibulodynia cases and controls with high sensitivity and specificity. This data supports the feasibility of contemporaneous assessment of vulvar mucosa and underlying musculature in the pelvic region, offering the hope of a more precise case definition for vestibulodynia and related disorders. PMID:22958875

Zolnoun, Denniz; Bair, Eric; Essicks, Greg; Gracely, Richard; Goyal, Vinita; Maixner, William

2012-01-01

417

Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl\\/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital.

Lakshmi Durairaj; Janice Launspach; Janet L Watt; Thomas R Businga; Joel N Kline; Peter S Thorne; Joseph Zabner

2004-01-01

418

Value of preapproval safety data in predicting postapproval hepatic safety and assessing the legitimacy of class warning  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate whether preapproval safety data for nonhepatotoxic drugs and hepatotoxic drugs can be compared to improve preapproval prediction of postapproval hepatic safety and to assess the legitimacy of applying class warnings. Methods: Drugs within a therapeutic class that included at least one drug that had been withdrawn from the market because of liver toxicity or had a warning of potential liver toxicity issued by major regulatory agencies, and at least one drug free from such regulatory action, were identified and divided into two groups: drugs with and drugs without regulatory action. Preapproval clinical data [including the elevation rates of alanine aminotransferse (ALT) and withdrawal due to liver toxicity, the number of patients with combined elevation of ALT and bilirubin, and liver failure] and nonclinical data (including chemical structures, metabolic pathways, and other significant findings in animal studies) were compared between the two groups. Results: Six drug classes were assessed in this study: thiazolidinediones, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, fluoroquinolones, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, leukotriene receptor inhibitors, and endothelin receptor antagonists. In two classes (COMT inhibitors and endothelin receptor antagonists), drugs with regulatory action had significantly higher rates of ALT elevation of more than threefold and greater numbers of patients with combined elevation of ALT and bilirubin than drugs without regulatory action. Drugs with regulatory action also had chemical structures or metabolic pathways associated with the toxicity. The legitimacy of class warnings was refuted in all six classes of drugs. Conclusion: Preapproval safety data may help predict postapproval hepatic safety and can be used to assess the legitimacy of applying class warnings. PMID:25083222

Lin, Yeong-Liang; Wu, Ya-Chi; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

2012-01-01

419

An Open-Label Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Virgin Coconut Oil in Reducing Visceral Adiposity  

PubMed Central

Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86?cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P < .05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans. PMID:22164340

Liau, Kai Ming; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Chen, Chee Keong; Rasool, Aida Hanum G.

2011-01-01

420

Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

421

Comparison of methodologies for assessing the risks from nuclear weapons and from nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are important differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and parameter sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons and compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors. It also presents a new intelligent searching process for identifying potential nuclear detonation vulnerabilities. The new searching technique runs very rapidly on a workstation and shows promise for providing an accurate assessment of potential vulnerabilities with far fewer physical response calculations than would be required using a standard Monte Carlo sampling procedure.

Benjamin, A.S.

1996-08-01

422

Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment. Patients and methods We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation. Results We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups. Conclusion The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor–patient relationships. PMID:25609926

Yao, Linjie; Xu, Xingqiao; Ni, Zhenyu; Zheng, Minling; Lin, Feiou

2015-01-01

423

Satellite vulnerability to space debris - an improved 3D risk assessment methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work described in the present paper, performed as a part of the P2 project, presents an enhanced method to evaluate satellite vulnerability to micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD), using the ESABASE2/Debris tool (developed under ESA contract). Starting from the estimation of induced failures on spacecraft (S/C) components and from the computation of lethal impacts (with an energy leading to the loss of the satellite), and considering the equipment redundancies and interactions between components, the debris-induced S/C functional impairment is assessed. The developed methodology, illustrated through its application to a case study satellite, includes the capability to estimate the number of failures on internal components, overcoming the limitations of current tools which do not allow propagating the debris cloud inside the S/C. The ballistic limit of internal equipment behind a sandwich panel structure is evaluated through the implementation of the Schäfer Ryan Lambert (SRL) Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE). The analysis conducted on the case study satellite shows the S/C vulnerability index to be in the range of about 4% over the complete mission, with a significant reduction with respect to the results typically obtained with the traditional analysis, which considers as a failure the structural penetration of the satellite structural panels. The methodology has then been applied to select design strategies (additional local shielding, relocation of components) to improve S/C protection with respect to MMOD. The results of the analyses conducted on the improved design show a reduction of the vulnerability index of about 18%.

Grassi, Lilith; Tiboldo, Francesca; Destefanis, Roberto; Donath, Thérèse; Winterboer, Arne; Evans, Leanne; Janovsky, Rolf; Kempf, Scott; Rudolph, Martin; Schäfer, Frank; Gelhaus, Johannes

2014-06-01

424

Sustainability Assessment of Future Scenarios: Methodology and Application to Mountain Areas of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BioScene (scenarios for reconciling biodiversity conservation with declining agriculture use in mountain areas in Europe) was a three-year project (2002 2005) funded by the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme, and aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe. The research took a case study approach to the analysis of the biodiversity processes and outcomes of different scenarios of agri-environmental change in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) covering the major biogeographical regions of Europe. The project was coordinated by Imperial College London, and each study area had a multidisciplinary team including ecologists and social and economic experts, which sought a comprehensive understanding of the drivers for change and their implications for sustainability. A key component was the sustainability assessment (SA) of the alternative scenarios. This article discusses the development and application of the SA methodology developed for BioScene. While the methodology was objectives-led, it was also strongly grounded in baseline ecological and socio-economic data. This article also describes the engagement of stakeholder panels in each study area and the use of causal chain analysis for understanding the likely implications for land use and biodiversity of strategic drivers of change under alternative scenarios for agriculture and rural policy and for biodiversity management. Finally, this article draws conclusions for the application of SA more widely, its use with scenarios, and the benefits of stakeholder engagement in the SA process.

Sheate, William R.; Partidário, Maria Rosário Do; Byron, Helen; Bina, Olivia; Dagg, Suzan

2008-02-01

425

Selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals. Volume III. User's manual for the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP)  

SciTech Connect

The computer program which was developed to apply the multi-attribute utility (MAU) methodology to the selection of LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. An overview of the MAU method is presented, followed by a description of the steps incorporated in developing individual modules for use in the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP). Each module is described complete with usage information and an example of computer output.

Hale, M.; Turnage, J. J.; Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

1981-02-01

426

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

427

Assessment of patient safety culture among healthcare providers at a teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

A previous study in Cairo, Egypt highlighted the need to improve the patient safety culture among health-care providers at Ain Shams University hospitals. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed healthcare providers' perceptions of patient safety culture within the organization and determined factors that played a role in patient safety culture. A representative sample of 510 physicians, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and labourers in different departments answered an Arabic version of the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality hospital survey for patient safety culture. The highest mean composite positive score among the 12 dimensions was for the organizational learning for continuous improvement (78.2%), followed by teamwork (58.1%). The lowest mean score was for the dimension of non-punitive response to error (19.5%). Patient safety culture still has many areas for improvement that need continuous evaluation and monitoring to attain a safe environment both for patients and health-care providers. PMID:22768700

Aboul-Fotouh, A M; Ismail, N A; Ez Elarab, H S; Wassif, G O

2012-04-01

428

An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic operation while maintaining adequate safety margins.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

2014-07-18

429

Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Public water systems provide potable water for the public's use. The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 required States to prepare a source-water susceptibility assessment (SWSA) for each public water system (PWS). States were required to determine the source of water for each PWS, the origin of any contaminant of concern (COC) monitored or to be monitored, and the susceptibility of the public water system to COC exposure, to protect public water supplies from contamination. In Texas, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was responsible for preparing SWSAs for the more than 6,000 public water systems, representing more than 18,000 surface-water intakes or groundwater wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in cooperation with TCEQ to develop the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) approach and methodology. Texas' SWAP meets all requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and ultimately provides the TCEQ with a comprehensive tool for protection of public water systems from contamination by up to 247 individual COCs. TCEQ staff identified both the list of contaminants to be assessed and contaminant threshold values (THR) to be applied. COCs were chosen because they were regulated contaminants, were expected to become regulated contaminants in the near future, or were unregulated but thought to represent long-term health concerns. THRs were based on maximum contaminant levels from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. For reporting purposes, COCs were grouped into seven contaminant groups: inorganic compounds, volatile organic compounds, synthetic organic compounds, radiochemicals, disinfection byproducts, microbial organisms, and physical properties. Expanding on the TCEQ's definition of susceptibility, subject-matter expert working groups formulated the SWSA approach based on assumptions that natural processes and human activities contribute COCs in quantities that vary in space and time; that increased levels of COC-producing activities within a source area may increase susceptibility to COC exposure; and that natural and manmade conditions within the source area may increase, decrease, or have no observable effect on susceptibility to COC exposure. Incorporating these assumptions, eight SWSA components were defined: identification, delineation, intrinsic susceptibility, point- and nonpoint-source susceptibility, contaminant occurrence, area-of-primary influence, and summary components. Spatial datasets were prepared to represent approximately 170 attributes or indicators used in the assessment process. These primarily were static datasets (approximately 46 gigabytes (GB) in size). Selected datasets such as PWS surface-water-intake or groundwater-well locations and potential source of contamination (PSOC) locations were updated weekly. Completed assessments were archived, and that database is approximately 10 GB in size. SWSA components currently (2011) are implemented in the Source Water Assessment Program-Decision Support System (SWAP-DSS) computer software, specifically developed to produce SWSAs. On execution of the software, the components work to identify the source of water for the well or intake, assess intrinsic susceptibility of the water- supply source, assess susceptibility to contamination with COCs from point and nonpoint sources, identify any previous detections of COCs from existing water-quality databases, and summarize the results. Each water-supply source's susceptibility is assessed, source results are weighted by source capacity (when a PWS has multiple sources), and results are combined into a single SWSA for the PWS.'SWSA reports are generated using the software; during 2003, more than 6,000 reports were provided to PWS operators and the public. The ability to produce detailed or summary reports for individual sources, and detailed or summary reports for a PWS, by COC or COC group was a unique capability of SWAP-DSS. In 2004, the TCEQ began a rotating schedule for SWSA wherein one-third of PWSs statewide would be

Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

2011-01-01

430

Safety Issues at the Defense Production Reactors. A Report to the U.S. Department of Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an assessment of safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and private contractors. Chapter 1, "The DOE Safety Framework," examines safety objectives for production reactors and processes to implement the objectives. Chapter 2, "Technical Issues," focuses on a variety…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

431

Safety Assessment of Chlorphenesin as Used in Cosmetics.  

PubMed

Chlorphenesin functions as a biocide in cosmetics and is used at concentrations up to 0.32% in rinse-off products and up to 0.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that chlorphenesin was well absorbed when applied to the skin of rats; however, any safety concern was minimized because available data demonstrated an absence of toxicity. The Panel concluded that chlorphenesin is safe in the present practices of use and concentration. PMID:24861369

Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2014-05-26

432

Methodologies for evaluating performance and assessing uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes methodologies to evaluate the performance and to assess the uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion models, tools that predict the fate of gases and aerosols upon their release into the atmosphere. Because of the large economic and public-health impacts often associated with the use of the dispersion model results, these models should be properly evaluated, and their uncertainty should be properly accounted for and understood. The CALPUFF, HPAC, and VLSTRACK dispersion modeling systems were applied to the Dipole Pride (DP26) field data (˜20 km in scale), in order to demonstrate the evaluation and uncertainty assessment methodologies. Dispersion model performance was found to be strongly dependent on the wind models used to generate gridded wind fields from observed station data. This is because, despite the fact that the test site was a flat area, the observed surface wind fields still showed considerable spatial variability, partly because of the surrounding mountains. It was found that the two components were comparable for the DP26 field data, with variability more important than uncertainty closer to the source, and less important farther away from the source. Therefore, reducing data errors for input meteorology may not necessarily increase model accuracy due to random turbulence. DP26 was a research-grade field experiment, where the source, meteorological, and concentration data were all well-measured. Another typical application of dispersion modeling is a forensic study where the data are usually quite scarce. An example would be the modeling of the alleged releases of chemical warfare agents during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, where the source data had to rely on intelligence reports, and where Iraq had stopped reporting weather data to the World Meteorological Organization since the 1981 Iran-Iraq-war. Therefore the meteorological fields inside Iraq must be estimated by models such as prognostic mesoscale meteorological models, based on observational data from areas outside of Iraq, and using the global fields simulated by the global meteorological models as the initial and boundary conditions for the mesoscale models. It was found that while comparing model predictions to observations in areas outside of Iraq, the predicted surface wind directions had errors between 30 to 90 deg, but the inter-model differences (or uncertainties) in the predicted surface wind directions inside Iraq, where there were no onsite data, were fairly constant at about 70 deg. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chang, Joseph C.

433

Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

1984-02-01

434

L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting add