Sample records for safety assessment methodologies

  1. Safety assessment of adjuvanted vaccines: Methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Fernanda Tavares; Di Pasquale, Alberta; Yarzabal, Juan P; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Adjuvants mainly interact with the innate immune response and are used to enhance the quantity and quality of the downstream adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. Establishing the safety of a new adjuvant-antigen combination is achieved through rigorous evaluation that begins in the laboratory, and that continues throughout the vaccine life-cycle. The strategy for the evaluation of safety pre-licensure is guided by the disease profile, vaccine indication, and target population, and it is also influenced by available regulatory guidelines. In order to allow meaningful interpretation of clinical data, clinical program methodology should be optimized and standardized, making best use of all available data sources. Post-licensure safety activities are directed by field experience accumulated pre- and post-licensure clinical trial data and spontaneous adverse event reports. Continued evolution of safety evaluation processes that keep pace with advances in vaccine technology and updated communication of the benefit-risk profile is necessary to maintain public confidence in vaccines. PMID:26029975

  2. CO2 geological storage safety assessment: methodological developments , G. Bellenfanta

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 geological storage safety assessment: methodological developments O. Bouca* , G. Bellenfanta, France b IRIT, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological tools for identifying risk scenarios, modelling risk events and exposure. It incorporates a rigorous

  3. A methodology for assessing underground coal mines for high safety-related risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harisha Kinilakodi; R. Larry Grayson

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the authors developed a methodology for assessing underground coal mines for high risk for major-hazard events. It focused on major hazard-related violations of safety standards associated with high-risk conditions. Later using the same stratified pilot sample of 31 mines, injury measures and MSHA citation data were combined into a Safe Performance Index (SPI). Using 2009 data, the database

  4. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  5. Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-09-01

    The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

  6. CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

  7. Generating Resourcesg Assessment Methodology

    E-print Network

    · Nondispatchable resources (wind, solar PV, landfill gas) ­ determined by environmental conditions, supply9/30/2014 1 Generating Resourcesg Assessment Methodology Power Committee October 7, 2014 Gillian Models Generating Resources Advisory Committee Categorization of Resources for the Draftg Seventh Power

  8. Cogeneration assessment methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is presented which is intended to be used to provide a first cut assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of cogenerating steam from engine-generator type power plants. The intended audience for this material is primarily power system design engineers, power plant managers, plant managers and engineers, and energy professionals in the general area of small power generation. The term first cut is used to denote a level of detail comparable to a general preliminary feasibility study and does not imply any lack of engineering rigor or quality. Throughout the methodology, typical performance values for engine and steam equipment are used. However, the general development of each equation is presented so that other performance values may be incorporated without difficulty for greater site specificity.

  9. The assessment of food safety culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Griffith; K. M. Livesey; D. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The concept of food safety organizational culture, whilst largely ignored in the past, is attracting increasing interest. The purpose of this paper is to examine a possible framework for assessing a business's food safety culture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature on health and safety culture and organizational culture is examined and relevant components applicable to food safety are identified

  10. Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

  11. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (WQAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Assessment Methodology (WQAM) is a screening procedure for toxic and conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters and is a collection of formulas, tables, and graphs that planners can use for preliminary assessment of surface and ground water quality in ...

  12. Methodology for qualitative urban flooding risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leitão, João P; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Simões, Nuno E; Martins, André

    2013-01-01

    Pluvial or surface flooding can cause significant damage and disruption as it often affects highly urbanised areas. Therefore it is essential to accurately identify consequences and assess the risks associated with such phenomena. The aim of this study is to present the results and investigate the applicability of a qualitative flood risk assessment methodology in urban areas. This methodology benefits from recent developments in urban flood modelling, such as the dual-drainage modelling concept, namely one-dimensional automatic overland flow network delineation tools (e.g. AOFD) and 1D/1D models incorporating both surface and sewer drainage systems. To assess flood risk, the consequences can be estimated using hydraulic model results, such as water velocities and water depth results; the likelihood was estimated based on the return period of historical rainfall events. To test the methodology two rainfall events with return periods of 350 and 2 years observed in Alcântara (Lisbon, Portugal) were used and three consequence dimensions were considered: affected public transportation services, affected properties and pedestrian safety. The most affected areas in terms of flooding were easily identified; the presented methodology was shown to be easy to implement and effective to assess flooding risk in urban areas, despite the common difficulties in obtaining data. PMID:23985513

  13. Reactor safety assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category.

  14. Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Laquer, H.L.; Peaslee, A.T.

    1983-12-01

    Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine R and D of the Department of Energy, a relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG); liquefied natural gas (LNG); liquefied petroleum gas (LPG); and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings.

  15. SAFETY ASSESSMENT & CERTIFICATION FOR UAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R Evans; Mark Nicholson

    As part of the certification process to gain clearance to operate in unsegregated airspace, new UASs will require a robust Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined in ARP 4761 and the safety certi fication process in ARP4754, as used to demonstrate compliance with EASA \\/ FAA safety target requirements, in

  16. Hanford safety analysis and risk assessment handbook (SARAH)

    SciTech Connect

    GARVIN, L.J.

    2003-01-20

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 1,2, and 3 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. SARAH describes currently acceptable methodology for development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of technical safety requirements (TSR) based on 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management,'' Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' and provides data to ensure consistency in approach.

  17. Environmental Health and Safety Assessment

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual 7/15/2013 #12;Environmental Health/26/2013. The most recent version of this document is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/general-environmental-management/environmental-health-and-safety.........................................................................................................................4 #12;Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual Approved by: (Barb English) Last

  18. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. Sholander; John L. Darby; James M. Phelan; Bryan Smith; Gregory Dane Wyss; Andrew Walter; G. Bruce Varnado; Jennifer Mae Depoy

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a

  19. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  20. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Current decision making involves numerous possible combinations of technology elements, safety and health issues, operational aspects and process considerations to satisfy program goals. Identifying potential risk considerations as part of the management decision making process provides additional tools to make more informed management decision. Adapting and using risk assessment methodologies can generate new perspectives on various risk and safety concerns that are not immediately apparent. Safety and operational risks can be identified and final decisions can balance these considerations with cost and schedule risks. Additional assessments can also show likelihood of event occurrence and event consequence to provide a more informed basis for decision making, as well as cost effective mitigation strategies. Methodologies available to perform Risk Assessments range from qualitative identification of risk potential, to detailed assessments where quantitative probabilities are calculated. Methodology used should be based on factors that include: 1) type of industry and industry standards, 2) tasks, tools, and environment 3) type and availability of data and 4) industry views and requirements regarding risk & reliability. Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures.

  1. Methodology for energy solid waste impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Meier; D. Guenther

    1980-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for the environmental assessment of solid waste related to the coal fuel cycle. The methodology requires as its key input a county level siting and energy use file. Given also a database of coal characteristics, and the process characteristics of the coal utilizing technology, the model generates a detailed picture of residuals, including criteria pollutants,

  2. Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Beyma

    1986-01-01

    NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents

  3. E-Health Readiness Assessment Methodology (EHRAM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JunHua Li; Pradeep Ray

    \\u000a E-Health systems include applications of information communication technologies to promote healthcare services support, delivery\\u000a and education. Readiness assessment has been identified as an essential requirement for the success of E-Health in terms of\\u000a adoption rate and\\/or acceptance. This paper presents E-Health Readiness Assessment Methodology (EHRAM). It involves a new\\u000a EHealth Readiness Assessment Framework (EHRAF), an assessment process and several techniques

  4. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  5. A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment Methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Gonzalez; Eric Geist; Bruce Jaffe; Utku Kanoglu; Harold Mofjeld; Costas Synolakis; Vasily Titov; Diego Arcas

    2010-01-01

    A methodology for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) will be described for multiple near- and far-field seismic sources. The method integrates tsunami inundation modeling with the approach of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). A database of inundation simulations is developed, with each simulation corresponding to an earthquake source for which the seismic parameters and mean interevent time have been estimated.

  6. Alternative gaseous-fuels safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Laquer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A relative safety assessment of alternative gaseous and reference liquid fuels utilized for light automotive transportation in the public sector was completed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and the liquid fuels, gasoline and diesel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. A technique involving a method of eliciting expert judgment combined with a comparative scoring methodology was applied in establishing fuel relative safety rankings. Limitations of this type of assessment are discussed. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate dependency upon the specific application or scenario. Gaseous fuels have increased relative risks in certain situations and are relatively safe in others. The results suggest that alternative gaseous fuels are not disqualified for public usage. The assessment also provides rationale for the development of selected safe handling criteria and recommendations.

  7. Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Kenneth D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

  8. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

  9. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    SciTech Connect

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  10. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. PMID:25772195

  11. Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

    1997-09-01

    The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

  12. A methodology for assessment of nuclear power plant seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W. (Benjamin (J.R.) and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Kennedy, R.P. (Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (United States)); Buttemer, D.R. (Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)); Idriss, I.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Moore, D.P.; Barr, T.; Wooten, K.D.; Smith, J.E. (South

    1991-08-01

    EPRI's seismic margin methodology enables utility engineers to quantify a nuclear power plant's ability to withstand an earthquake greater than design and still safety shut down for a least 72 hours. This cost-effective, practical methodology used generic screening of systems and component seismic reggedness and does not require probabilistic calculations. The revision adds depth, detail, and more complete procedures to the original report but does not change the basic method. The seismic margin methodology enables engineers to choose a functional success path and several alternatives to shut down the plant and to identify the subset of plant structures and components associated with the path selected. The methodology further provides guidelines for screening the seismic ruggedness of subset components and structures. Components that satisfy screening criteria require no further evaluation. Remaining components require deterministic evaluations using in-structure motions calculated for the earthquake being assessed. The seismic margin earthquake (SME) is chosen to be sufficiently larger than the SSE to establish a significant seismic margin. Methodology procedures determine the weakest link components and establish the HCLPF level of ground moton for which the plant can safely shut down. Plant walkdowns ensure component compliance with screening guideline conditions. The revision gives detailed methods for calculating HCLPF values for an extensive variety of components.

  13. Operations safety: an assessment of a commercial aviation safety program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen L. McFadden; Balakrishna S. Hosmane

    2001-01-01

    Operations safety is an important issue in operations management. While prior studies have focused on the operational performance of various airlines and airports, few have assessed the efficacy of government airline safety programs. This empirical study evaluates a commercial aviation safety program that sanctions pilots with alcohol-related motor vehicle convictions. We compare a 5-year period prior to the implementation of

  14. Using video vignettes to evaluate children’s personal safety knowledge: methodological and ethical issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to assess children’s personal safety knowledge by seeking their responses to video-delivered simulations of child maltreatment.Method: In seeking to do this, methodological and ethical difficulties were encountered. These arose during several phases of consultation, the refinement of an interview protocol to be used with the vignettes, and during discussions over the ethical integrity of the research.Results:

  15. Sustainability Assessment of Housing Developments : A New Methodology

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Sustainability Assessment of Housing Developments : A New Methodology L'évaluation de la this problem by presenting a new methodology to assess the sustainability of housing development systems. The methodology uses indicators with a common "Sustainability Scale" which is derived from percentiles

  16. Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, Adrià

    Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

  17. Assessment of rural energy resources; Methodological guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11016 (IN))

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity.

  18. Evaluation of air traffic management procedures—safety assessment in an experimental environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Pasquini; Simone Pozzi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the application of safety assessment methodologies to a pre-operational project in the Air Traffic Control field. In the case analysed in the present paper a peculiar aspect was the necessity to effectively assess new operational procedures and tools. In particular we exploited an integrated methodology to evaluate computer-based applications and their interactions with the operational

  19. ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. (BNL); GRAVES, H. (US NRC).

    2005-07-01

    Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

  20. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

  1. Gaseous fuel safety assessment for light-duty automotive vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Peaslee, A.T.; Laquer, H.L.

    1983-11-01

    The relative safety of gaseous and liquid fuels utilized for light-duty automotive transportation was assessed. The specific fuels considered were compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and as reference, gasoline and diesel fuel. The assessment methodology describes and develops the relative hazards of these fuels from an integrated generic physicochemical property and accident scenario point of view. Fuel-relative safety rankings were established by eliciting expert judgment and combining that judgment with a comparative scoring methodology. Selected accident scenarios included fuel leakage in both residential and public garages; fueling line rupture at a refueling station in the presence of user vehicles or delivery vehicles; and vehicle collisions under rural, urban, and vehicular tunnel conditions. Results permit the generation of selected safe handling criteria.

  2. A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

  3. Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health Safety (EH&S). The Safety Training Self-Assessment is required for: · All UC employees the Safety Training Self-Assessment: 1. Log into the UC Learning Center at http://www.uclc.uci.edu. 2

  4. A methodological framework to design and assess food traceability systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A methodological framework to design and assess food traceability systems Mhamed Bendaoud 93 51 13 Abstract A methodological framework to design, assess and manage food traceability systems, practical performance criteria are provided for daily traceability control. This performance system may

  5. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

  6. Model-based Safety Risk Assessment

    E-print Network

    Lindsay, Peter

    development life-cycle, in order to identify critical system requirements, such as safety requirements designers in assessing the effectiveness of system safety requirements. A hypothetical bushfire-fighting management system is used to illustrate the approach. 1. INTRODUCTION Overview and Scope This paper

  7. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU (Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty) methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Zuber, N.

    1988-01-01

    Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection for offshore structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Shetty; C. Guedes Soares; P. Thoft-Christensen; F. M. Jensen

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a unified probabilistic approach to fire safety assessment and optimal design of passive fire protection on offshore topside structures. The methodology was developed by integrating quantitative risk analysis (QRA) techniques with the modem methods of structural system reliability analysis (SRA) and reliability based design optimisation (RBDO). Reliability analysis methodologies are presented for both plated (e.g. fire and

  9. Reviewing methodologically disparate data: a practical guide for the patient safety research field.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katrina F; Long, Susannah J; Athanasiou, Thanos; Vincent, Charles A; Kroll, J Simon; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses key questions frequently asked by researchers conducting systematic reviews in patient safety. This discipline is relatively young, and asks complex questions about complex aspects of health care delivery and experience, therefore its studies are typically methodologically heterogeneous, non-randomized and complex; but content rich and highly relevant to practice. Systematic reviews are increasingly necessary to drive forward practice and research in this area, but the data do not always lend themselves to 'standard' review methodologies. This accessible 'how-to' article demonstrates that data diversity need not preclude high-quality systematic reviews. It draws together information from published guidelines and experience within our multidisciplinary patient safety research group to provide entry-level advice for the clinician-researcher new to systematic reviewing, to non-biomedical research data or to both. It offers entry-level advice, illustrated with detailed practical examples, on defining a research question, creating a comprehensive search strategy, selecting articles for inclusion, assessing study quality, extracting data, synthesizing data and evaluating the impact of your review. The article concludes with a comment on the vital role of robust systematic reviews in the continuing advancement of the patient safety field. PMID:20704633

  10. Food Safety Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

  11. Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

  12. Cogeneration assessment methodology: assessing the cogeneration potentials of I. C. engine prime movers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noon

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is presented to provide an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of cogenerating steam from engine-generator type power plants. Typical performance values for engine and steam equipment are used. A general history, basic assumptions, and a general methodology to assess cogeneration are discussed. The detailed methodology with examples illustrated covers the following: temperature versus load functions; dual

  13. Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an improved methodology for estimating volumes of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources within the United States and around the world. The methodology is based on previously developed U.S. Geological Survey methodologies that rely on well-scale production data. Improvements were made primarily to how the uncertainty about estimated ultimate recoveries is incorporated in the estimates. This is particularly important when assessing areas with sparse or no production data, because the new methodology allows better use of analog data from areas with significant discovery histories.

  14. Challenges and methodology for safety analysis of a high-level waste tank with large periodic releases of flammable gas

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stewart, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 10,000 ft{sup 3} of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest-priority DOE operational safety problems. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The mitigation method selected for the tank was to install a pump that would mix the tank contents and eliminate the sludge layer believed to be responsible for the gas retention and periodic releases. This report will describe the principal analysis methodologies used to prepare the safety assessment for the installation and operation of the pump, and because this activity has been completed, it will describe the results of pump operation.

  15. A Methodology for Assessing Sample Representativeness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Ramsey; Alan D. Hewitt

    2005-01-01

    Assessing sample representativeness is a critical component of any environmental investigation and should be performed before any conclusions are reached. If the samples are not representative, any conclusions or decisions will be incorrect. A complete understanding of the data quality objective process, sample plan design, sample plan implementation, and quality control is required to assess sample representativeness. This article presents

  16. An assessment methodology for thermal energy storage evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Spanner, G.E.; Williams, T.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents an assessment methodology for evaluating the cost, performance, and overall economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The methodology was developed by Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program personnel at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for use by PNL and other TES concept evaluators. The methodology is generically applicable to all TES concepts; however, specific analyses may require additional or more detailed definition of the ground rules, assumptions, and analytical approach. The overall objective of the assessment methodology is to assist in preparing equitable and proper evaluations of TES concepts that will allow developers and end-users to make valid decisions about research and development (R and D) and implementation. The methodology meets this objective by establishing standard approaches, ground rules, assumptions, and definitions that are analytically correct and can be consistently applied by concept evaluators. 15 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Developing Methodologies for Evaluating the Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, B.; And Others

    This report contains four papers written during an investigation of methods for evaluating the safety of existing school buildings under Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) grants. In "Evaluation of Earthquake Safety of Existing Buildings," by B. Bresler, preliminary ideas on the evaluation of the earthquake safety of existing buildings are…

  18. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  19. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  20. Alternative gaseous fuels safety assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Krupka; H. L. Laquer; A. T. Peaslee

    1983-01-01

    Public acceptance of alternative transportation fuels in the United States is contingent not only upon the requisite technical, environmental, and economic factors but also upon demonstration through adequate assessment, testing, and operational experience that the intrinsic risk is either equivalent to or less than that associated with energy carriers presently in common use. In support of work sponsored by the

  1. Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

    The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

  2. 76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 [Docket No. NHTSA 2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF EARTHQUAKE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY IN NCREE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Hsun Yeh; Chin-Hsiung Loh; Keh-Chyuan Tsai

    In order to promote researches in seismic hazard analysis, engineering structural damage assessment, and socio-economic loss estimation in Taiwan, the National Science Council started the HAZ-Taiwan project in 1998. The National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering also develops the associated application software \\

  4. h~EPA Risk Assessments Methodology

    E-print Network

    Impact Statement (EIS) has been prepared in support of the rulemaking. The EIS consists of the following levels, the benefits and costs of emission controls, and economic impact evaluations. Copies of the EIS significant technical support in the preparation of the EIS, #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLLIYlE I: RISK ASSESSMENT

  5. Institutional Financial Assessment: Methodology and Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.

    1979-01-01

    W. John Minter and Howard R. Bowen's annual report on "Financial and Educational Trends in Independent Higher Education, 1978" is examined. Problems in data reporting by college administrators that skew financial assessment reports are noted. A rating questionnaire for institutional quality is appended. (Author/LBH)

  6. Methodology for assessing adaptive cruise control behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zevi Bareket; Paul S. Fancher; Huei Peng; Kangwon Lee; Charbel A. Assaf

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on nonintrusive methods for char- acterizing the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports the experimental set-up and procedures for measuring ACC system performance, followed by the modeling and simulation of the measured ACC per- formance. To further assess the interaction of ACC vehicles with human-controlled traffic, microscopic simulation involving both

  7. 76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ...NHTSA-2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety...SUMMARY: New passenger vehicles manufactured on or after...Safety Administration (NHTSA) under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). This...

  8. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...safety of its airlines. It does not assess the safety compliance of any particular air carrier (nor does it address aviation security, airports, or air traffic management). Although the FAA assessment team typically visits one or more air...

  9. Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

    1980-03-01

    The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  11. Methodology to Achieve Safety and Energy Savings in Laboratory Buildings

    E-print Network

    Odajima, T.; Numanaka, S.

    coping with both proper safety and energy saving. A primary cause, which makes lab exhaust greater, is installation of many spot exhaust devices such as fume hood to prevent human body from suffering chemical exposure. However, codes and regulations...

  12. Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

    1998-01-01

    This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

  13. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  14. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose

    1983-01-01

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials,

  15. Methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott O Lilienfeld

    1998-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a number of significant methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist—Revised and the two-factor model of psychopathy have facilitated the assessment of psychopathy and clarified the differential correlates of the personality- and behavior-based operationalizations of this syndrome. Although preliminary evidence suggests that certain features of psychopathy may be underpinned by

  16. Methodological Concerns about the Education Value-Added Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Value-added models help to evaluate the knowledge that school districts, schools, and teachers add to student learning as students progress through school. In this article, the well-known Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is examined. The author presents a practical investigation of the methodological issues associated with the…

  17. Critical Inquiry and Writing Centers: A Methodology of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Diana Calhoun; Frost, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    By examining one writing center's role in student success, this project offers two examples of the way writing centers impact student engagement. This analysis models a methodology that writing and learning center directors can utilize in order to foster effective communication with stakeholders. By conducting data-driven assessment, directors can…

  18. Does help help? Introducing the Bayesian Evaluation and Assessment methodology

    E-print Network

    Mostow, Jack

    Does help help? Introducing the Bayesian Evaluation and Assessment methodology Joseph E. Beck1 the effectiveness of tutor help is an important evaluation of an ITS. Does help help? Does one type of help work of the difficulties is that the question "does help help?" is ill-defined; what does it mean to help students? Does

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

  20. Design exploration assessment methodology: testing the guidance of design processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Murrie Clevenger; John Riker Haymaker; Andrew Ehrich

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the design exploration assessment methodology (DEAM) for comparing design process impact and outcome. Current practice fails to reliably generate high-performing alternatives in part because it lacks systematic means to compare existing or emerging design processes. Researchers lack empirical methods and data to evaluate design challenges and the strategies available to address them. In this paper, we document

  1. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prafulla Joglekar

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of

  2. ROAD POLISHING ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (TROWS) PIARC XXIIND WORLD ROAD CONGRESS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROAD POLISHING ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (TROWS) ­ PIARC XXIIND WORLD ROAD CONGRESS M.GOTHIÉ CETE de, France Minh-tan.do@lcpc.fr ABSTRACT Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. They both

  3. Space Shuttle probabilistic risk assessment: methodology and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maggio

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and processes used for the probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle vehicle to systematically quantify the risk incurred during a nominal Shuttle mission and rank the risk driving components to allow for a concerted risk and cost reduction effort. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology

  4. Methodology and tools for source term assessment in case of emergency.

    PubMed

    Herviou, Karine; Calmtorp, Christer

    2004-01-01

    By looking at the power plant state of fission product barriers and critical safety systems, the magnitude of a potential radioactive release could be predicted in a timely manner to allow emergency response to be executed even before the occurrence of a release. This is the perspective in which the development of ASTRID methodology and tool is performed. The methodology maps out, for several reactor types as well as reactor containments, relevant process parameters and indicators, what and how to calculate and a structured way to summarise and conclude on potential source term and likely time projections. A computer tool is proposed to support the methodology, to suite different user situations, both on-site and off-site as well as size of staff, priority and work order. The output from such an assessment is intended to, first, give bases for decisions on necessary urgent protective actions pre-release, and, second, an input for the sophisticated dispersion calculation codes. PMID:15238656

  5. METHODOLOGY OF THE SAFETY ANALYSES FOR THE HFR PETTEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. F. SLOOTMAN; M. M. STEMPNIEWICZ; H. T. WIERSEMA

    The High Flux reactor (HFR) in Petten is a tank in pool type research reactor, operated at a maximal core power of 50 MW. It operates exclusively in the single-phase, liquid water regime, at low pressure and temperature. In 2001 a License Renewal Project has been started. Part of this project was the performance of Safety Analyses for the HFR.

  6. Methodology to Achieve Safety and Energy Savings in Laboratory Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Odajima, T.; Numanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    , is installed. Figure 1 Face Velocity Table 1 Codes and regulations for face velocity Figure 2 Comparison of Air Change Rate Face velocity Face velocityCode Ave. : ??????????????? (O ccupational Safety & H ealth Adm inistration) Ave.... ??????????????? (National Fire Protection Association ) Ave. ???????????????( The Scientific Equipment and Furniture Association ) Ave. ???????????????? (American National Standards Institute)???? (American Industrial H ygiene Association ) Ave. ?????????????????(American...

  7. Mine Ventilation Safety Assessment Based on FNN and DS Evidence Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Jin-can; Xu Li-zhong; Yao Hong-xi; Shen Ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an information fusion methodology, which is based on fuzzy neural network (FNN) and D-S evidence theory, to assess the mine ventilation system safety. This method imports fuzzy rule information, expert language information, etc. to fusion system by using fuzzy neural network, and uses the output of each neural network as the base probability assignment function (BPAF) of

  8. Methodology for assessing onshore impacts for Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas development. Volume II. methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tencer

    1978-01-01

    As the key document in a three-volume study, Volume II details methodologies for assessing the onshore implications of outer continental shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration, development\\/production, and well workover. Chapters are based on six major elements: industry requirements--a means for estimating the material, job, salary, transportation, onshore facility, capital cost, and environmental demands associated with offshore development activities; location

  9. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M; Berger, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. Setting: The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. Methods: In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. Results: For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%–21%. Rates for infants (71%–80%) far exceeded rates for 1–4 year old children (5%–14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. Conclusions: A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores. PMID:12460964

  10. Rapid Assessment of Plant Diversity Patterns: A Methodology for Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; Geneva W. Chong; Mohammed a. Kalkhan; Lisa D. Schell

    1997-01-01

    We present a rapid, cost-efficient methodology to link plantdiversity surveys from plots to landscapes using: (1) unbiasedsite selection based on remotely sensed information; (2) multi-scale field techniques to assess plant diversity; (3)mathematical models (species-area curves) to estimate thenumber of species in larger areas corrected for within-typeheterogeneity; and (4) mathematical techniques to estimatetotal species richness and patterns of plant diversity in

  11. Methodological Concerns About the Education Value-Added Assessment System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey Amrein-Beardsley

    2008-01-01

    Value-added models help to evaluate the knowledge that school districts, schools, and teachers add to student learning as students progress through school. In this article, the well-known Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is examined. The author presents a practical investigation of the methodological issues associated with the model. Specifically, she argues that, although EVAAS is probably the most sophisticated value-added

  12. An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Bricker; J. G. Ferreira; T. Simas

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated methodology for the Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS), which may be applied comparatively to rank the eutrophication status of estuaries and coastal areas, and to address management options. It includes quantitative and semi-quantitative components, and uses field data, models and expert knowledge to provide Pressure-State-Response (PSR) indicators.A substantial part of the concepts underlying the

  13. Assessment of methodologies for colorimetric cholesterol assay of meats

    E-print Network

    Bohac, Cynthia Kay Edwards

    1987-01-01

    density lipoprotein-cholesterol (Grundy and Ahrens, 1970; Grundy, 1983; Krause and Hartman, 1984), and may (Vega et al. , 1982; Mattson and Grundy, 1985) or may not (Oh and Monaco, 1985) subsequently decrease serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol.... Kube a (Co-Chair of Committee) J. R. Lupton (Member) J. D. Williams (Member) G. C. Smith (Head of Department) May 1987 1 1x ABSTRACT Assessment of Methodologies for Colorimetric Cholesterol Assay of Meats. (May 1987) Cynthia Kay Edwards...

  14. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2012-05-31

    Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

  15. Application of Non-Human Biota Assessment Methodologies to the Assessment of Potential Impacts from a Nuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.L.; Robinson, C.A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd, D5 Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Ikonen, A.T.K. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has become increasingly more topical over the last few years as the intentions enshrined in international principles and agreements have become more binding through national and international law. For example, the Directive on impact of certain projects on the environment (EIA Directive 85/337/EEC) [CEC, 1985], amended in 1997 [CEC, 1997], places a mandatory requirement on all EU Member States to conduct environmental impact assessments for a range of project having potential impact on the environment, including radioactive waste disposal. Such assessments must consider humans, fauna and flora, the abiotic environment (soil, water, air), material assets and cultural heritage as well as the interactions between these factors. In Finland, Posiva Oy are responsible for the overall repository programme for spent nuclear fuel and, as such, are conducting the Safety Case Assessment for a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste. Within the European legislation framework, the Finnish regulatory body requires that the repository safety case assessment should include not only human radiological safety, but also an assessment of the potential impact upon populations of non-human biota. Specifically, the Safety Case should demonstrate that there will be: - no decline in the biodiversity of currently living populations; - no significant detriment to populations of fauna and flora; and, - no detrimental effects on individuals of domestic animals and rare plants and animals. At present, there are no internationally agreed criteria that explicitly address protection of the environment from ionising radiation. However, over recent years a number of assessment methodologies have been developed including, at a European level, the Framework for the Assessment of Environmental impact (FASSET) and Environmental Risks from Ionising Contaminants (ERICA). The International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) have also proposed an approach to allow for assessments of potential impacts on non-human species, in its report in 2003. This approach is based on the development and use of a small set of reference animals and plants, with their associated dose models and data sets. Such approaches are broadly applicable to the Posiva Safety Case. However, the specific biota of concern and the current climatic conditions within Finland present an additional challenge to the assessment. The assessment methods most applicable to the Posiva Safety Case have therefore been reviewed in consideration of the regulatory requirements for the assessment and recommendations made on a suitable assessment approach. This has been applied within a test case and adaptations to the overall assessment method have been made to enable both population and individual impacts to be assessed where necessary. The test case has been undertaken to demonstrate the application of the recommended methodology, but also to identify data gaps, uncertainties and other specific issues associated with the application of an assessment method within the regulatory context. (authors)

  16. Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A. [Synergy Consulting Services Corp., Great Falls, VA (United States); McGehee, R.B. [Wise Carter Child & Caraway, Jackson, MS (United States); Cottle, W.T. [Houston Lighting & Power, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

  17. QTc prolongation assessment in anticancer drug development: clinical and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Curigliano, G; Spitaleri, G; de Braud, F; Cardinale, D; Cipolla, C; Civelli, M; Colombo, N; Colombo, A; Locatelli, M; Goldhirsch, A

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac safety assessments are commonly employed in the clinical development of investigational oncology medications. In anti-cancer drug development there has been increasing consideration for the potential of a compound to cause adverse electrocardiographic changes, especially QT interval prolongation, which can be associated with risk of torsades de pointes and sudden death. Irrespective of overt clinical toxicities, QTc assessment can potentially influence decision making at many levels during the conduct of clinical studies, including eligibility for protocol therapy, dose delivery or discontinuation, and analyses of optimal dose for subsequent development. Given the potential for serious and irreversible morbidity from cardiac adverse events, it is understandable that cardiac safety results can have broad impact on study conduct and patient management. The methodologies for risk management of QTc prolongation for non cardiac drugs have been developed out of experiences primarily from drugs used to treat non life-threatening illnesses in a chronic setting such as antibiotics or antihistamines. Extrapolating these approaches to drugs for treating cancer over an acute period may not be appropriate. Few specific guidelines are available for risk management of cardiac safety in the development and use of oncology drugs. In this manuscript, clinical and methodological issues related to QTc prolongation assessment will be reviewed. Discussions about limitations in phase-I design and oncology drug development will be highlighted. Efforts are needed to refine strategies for risk management, avoiding unintended consequences that negatively affect patient access and clinical development of promising new cancer treatments. A thoughtful risk management plan generated by an organized collaboration between oncologists, cardiologists, and regulatory agencies to support a development programme essential for oncology agents with cardiac safety concerns. PMID:22275999

  18. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: The Enterococcus genus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Claude Ogier; Pascale Serror

    2008-01-01

    Unlike most of lactic acid bacteria, the Enterococcus genus is not considered “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS). Safety assessment for enterococci remains controversial. While enterococci are considered “positive\\

  19. PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

    Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICANT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN OVARIAN STEROIDOGENESIS: A METHODOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-035 Assessment of Toxicant-induced Alterations in Ovarian Steroidogenesis: A Methodological Overview Jerome M. Goldman, Susan C. Laws and Ralph L. Cooper Abstract A variety of methodological approaches have been used for the assessment of tox...

  1. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL] [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.] [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.] [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy] [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.] [New West Technologies, LLC.

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  2. A qualitative risk assessment methodology for scientific expert panels.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; Plée, L; Moutou, F; Boisseleau, D; Chartier, C; Durand, B; Ganière, J P; Guillotin, J; Lancelot, R; Saegerman, C; Thébault, A; Hattenberger, A M; Toma, B

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment can be either quantitative, i.e. providing a numeric estimate of the probability of risk and the magnitude of the consequences, or qualitative, using a descriptive approach. The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), formerly the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA), bases its assessments on the opinions of scientific panels, such as the ANSES Animal Health Scientific Panel (AH-SP). Owing to the lack of relevant data and the very short period of time usually allowed to assess animal health risks on particular topics, this panel has been using a qualitative risk method for evaluating animal health risks or crises for the past few years. Some experts have drawn attention to the limitations of this method, such as the need to extend the range of adjectives used for the lower probabilities and to develop a way to assess consequences. The aim of this paper is to describe the improved method now established by the AH-SP, taking into account the limitations of the first version. The authors describe a new set of levels for probabilities, as well as the items considered when addressing either animal or human health consequences. PMID:22435181

  3. Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

  4. SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF THE ARIES COMPACT STELLARATOR DESIGN

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF THE ARIES COMPACT STELLARATOR DESIGN B. J. MERRILL,*a L. A. EL-GUEBALY,b C. This power plant design contains many innovative features to im- prove the physics, engineering, and safety-cooled by flowing lead lithium. In this paper we examine the safety and environmental performance of ARIES

  5. A Methodology to Assess the Value of Integrated Hydropower and Wind Generation

    E-print Network

    A Methodology to Assess the Value of Integrated Hydropower and Wind Generation by Mitch A. Clement entitled: A Methodology to Assess the Value of Integrated Hydropower and Wind Generation written by Mitch A) A Methodology to Assess the Value of Integrated Hydropower and Wind Generation Thesis directed by Professor

  6. Development of reload safety-analysis methodology and code package: uncertainty analysis. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents the development of a statistical methodology proposed for use with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP). The EPRI package is an integrated design methodology for use by utilities in reload core design, licensing, and operations support. Existing EPRI codes, including some currently under development, are major elements in the reload safety analysis methodology. As envisioned, the methodology will be applicable to both Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) analyses. The current status of code development and availability has mandated that the scope of the present statistical effort be confined to a basic set of codes for the PWR analysis package. This consists of the neutronics (ARMP), systems analysis (RETRAN), and thermal-hydraulics (VIPRE) codes.

  7. A Methodology to Assess Ionospheric Models for GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume; González-Casado, Guillermo; Ibánez, Deimos

    2015-04-01

    Testing the accuracy of the ionospheric models used in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a long-standing issue. It is still a challenging problem due to the lack of accurate enough slant ionospheric determinations to be used as a reference. The present study proposes a methodology to assess any ionospheric model used in satellite-based applications and, in particular, GNSS ionospheric models. The methodology complements other analysis comparing the navigation based on different models to correct the code and carrier-phase observations. Specifically, the following ionospheric models are assessed: the operational models broadcast in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS), the post-process Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) from different analysis centers belonging to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and, finally, a new GIM computed by the gAGE/UPC research group. The methodology is based in the comparison between the predictions of the ionospheric model with actual unambiguous carrier-phase measurements from a global distribution of permanent receivers. The differences shall be separated into the hardware delays (a receiver constant plus a satellite constant) per data interval, e.g., a day. The condition that these Differential Code Biases (DCBs) are commonly shared throughout the world-wide network of receivers and satellites provides a global character to the assessment. This approach generalizes simple tests based on double differenced Slant Total Electron Contents (STECs) between pairs of satellites and receivers on a much local scale. The present study has been conducted during the entire 2014, i.e., the last Solar Maximum. The seasonal and latitudinal structures of the results clearly reflect the different strategies used by the different models. On one hand, ionospheric model corrections based on a grid (IGS-GIMs or EGNOS) are shown to be several times better than the models included in the navigation messages of GPS or Galileo. On the other hand, the new gAGE/UPC GIM is shown to be several times more accurate than the previously mentioned IGS-GIMs or EGNOS grid models. The results of this assessment suggest that current ionospheric models can be improved by using the methodology proposed in this work in conjunction with a precise STEC determination, such as the GIMs calculated by the gAGE/UPC research group. The findings underline that the temporal resolution of the techniques considered does not solely explain the different performances. In fact, it is shown how the adequate (and sometimes subtle) use of the relevant parameters to the ionospheric modelling determines the accuracy.

  8. A global view on ARAMIS, a risk assessment methodology for industries in the framework of the SEVESO II directive.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Olivier; Debray, Bruno

    2006-03-31

    The ARAMIS methodology was developed in an European project co-funded in the fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission with the objective to answer the specific requirements of the SEVESO II directive. It offers an alternative to purely deterministic and probabilistic approaches to risk assessment of process plants. It also answers the needs of the various stakeholders interested by the results of the risk assessment for land use or emergency planning, enforcement or, more generally, public decision-making. The methodology is divided into the following major steps: identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), identification of the safety barriers and assessment of their performances, evaluation of safety management efficiency to barrier reliability, identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS), assessment and mapping of the risk severity of reference scenarios and of the vulnerability of the plant surroundings. The methodology was tested during five case studies, which provided useful information about the applicability of the method and, by identifying the most sensitive parts of it opened way to new research activity for an improved industrial safety. PMID:16236437

  9. Fundamentals of Clinical Outcomes Assessment for Spinal Disorders: Study Designs, Methodologies, and Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B.; Shen, Francis H.; Chapman, Jens R.; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?A broad narrative review. Objective?Management of spinal disorders is continuously evolving, with new technologies being constantly developed. Regardless, assessment of patient outcomes is key in understanding the safety and efficacy of various therapeutic interventions. As such, evidence-based spine care is an essential component to the armamentarium of the spine specialist in an effort to critically analyze the reported literature and execute studies in an effort to improve patient care and change clinical practice. The following article, part one of a two-part series, is meant to bring attention to the pros and cons of various study designs, their methodological issues, as well as statistical considerations. Methods?An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language of publication, addressing study designs and their methodologies as well as statistical concepts. Results?Numerous articles and concepts addressing study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analytical concepts have been reported. Their applications in the context of spine-related conditions and disorders were noted. Conclusion?Understanding the fundamental principles of study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analyses can further advance and improve future spine-related research. PMID:25844291

  10. Development of Non-LOCA Safety Analysis Methodology with RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01/K

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yo-Han; Cheong, Ae-Ju; Yang, Chang-Keun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-15

    Korea Electric Power Research Institute has launched a project to develop an in-house non-loss-of-coolant-accident analysis methodology to overcome the hardships caused by the narrow analytical scopes of existing methodologies. Prior to the development, some safety analysis codes were reviewed, and RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01 were chosen as the base codes. The codes have been modified to improve the analytical capabilities required to analyze the nuclear power plants in Korea. The methodologies of the vendors and the Electric Power Research Institute have been reviewed, and some documents of foreign utilities have been used to compensate for the insufficiencies. For the next step, a draft methodology for pressurized water reactors has been developed and modified to apply to Westinghouse-type plants in Korea. To verify the feasibility of the methodology, some events of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2 have been analyzed from the standpoints of reactor coolant system pressure and the departure from nucleate boiling ratio. The results of the analyses show trends similar to those of the Final Safety Analysis Report.

  11. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  12. Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, V. H.

    2001-01-01

    Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

  13. Track train dynamics analysis and test program: Methodology development for the derailment safety analysis of six-axle locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcotte, P. P.; Mathewson, K. J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The operational safety of six axle locomotives is analyzed. A locomotive model with corresponding data on suspension characteristics, a method of track defect characterization, and a method of characterizing operational safety are used. A user oriented software package was developed as part of the methodology and was used to study the effect (on operational safety) of various locomotive parameters and operational conditions such as speed, tractive effort, and track curvature. The operational safety of three different locomotive designs was investigated.

  14. Cogeneration assessment methodology: assessing the cogeneration potentials of I. C. engine prime movers

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is presented to provide an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of cogenerating steam from engine-generator type power plants. Typical performance values for engine and steam equipment are used. A general history, basic assumptions, and a general methodology to assess cogeneration are discussed. The detailed methodology with examples illustrated covers the following: temperature versus load functions; dual fuel exhaust mass flow rate; diesel exhaust mass flow rate; natural gas spark ignition exhaust mass flow rate; heat capacity of exhaust gas; waste heat output versus load; specific enthalpy of steam output; steam output mass flow rate; waste heat boiler costs; steam production profile; preliminary screening for cogeneration; steam customer identification; space heat demand factor and profile; space cooling demand factor and profile; systems match up; piping costs; and an economic assessment. The methodology has been developed to be flexible and can be implemented in either manual or computerized form. The methodology has been translated into TI-59 program commands. (MCW)

  15. Optical methodology for the health assessment of power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, John A.; Wang, Xianghui; Shoureshi, Rahmat A.; Mander, Arthur A.; Torgerson, Duane

    2000-06-01

    Among the most critical components in the electric power system is the power transformer. As such, a significant body of research has been put forward to attempt to anticipate the needs for maintenance to be performed. Traditional health assessment has required sampling of oil for submission to a laboratory for analysis, but this has been deemed undesirable in light of budgetary constraints on maintenance staffing, and new predictive maintenance philosophies for substation equipment. A number of processes have been developed in recent years for online health assessment of transformers, most of which have focused on dissolved gas analysis. This paper describes a novel optical methodology for on-line transformer health assessment that utilizes an ultraviolet absorption measurement to identify the degradation of the transformer oil. An optical system was selected because of its immunity to the electromagnetic noise typical of substations, and because of the minimal impact that non-conducting materials have on the insulation system design of the transformer. The system is designed to identify deterioration and premature aging resulting from overheating, low level arcing or excessive exposure to atmospheric air. The system consists of a light source, filter, guide and detection components, and a very simple computational requirement. The measurements performed with the prototype system are validated with a high precision spectrophotometry measurement and an independent oil-testing laboratory.

  16. Practical Methodology of Cognitive Tasks Within a Navigational Assessment.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Roy-Charland, Annie; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for measuring navigation accuracy relative to cognitive skills. The methodology behind the assessment will thus be clearly outlined in a step-by-step manner. Navigational skills are important when trying to find symbols within a speech-generating device (SGD) that has a dynamic screen and taxonomical organization. The following skills have been found to impact children's ability to find symbols when navigating within the levels of an SGD: sustained attention, categorization, cognitive flexibility, and fluid reasoning(1,2). According to past studies, working memory was not correlated with navigation(1,2). The materials needed for this method include a computerized tablet, an augmentative and alternative communication application, a booklet of symbols, and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R)(3). This method has been used in two previous studies. Robillard, Mayer-Crittenden, Roy-Charland, Minor-Corriveau and Bélanger(1) assessed typically developing children, while Rondeau, Robillard and Roy-Charland(2) assessed children and adolescents with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The direct observation of this method will facilitate the replication of this study for researchers. It will also help clinicians that work with children who have complex communication needs to determine the children's ability to navigate an SGD with taxonomical categorization. PMID:26065431

  17. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  18. Use of the GO methodology to assess plant operating data

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, L.O.; Danner, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1985, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) published The Operational Performance of Auxiliary Feedwater Systems in US PWRs, 1980-1984, in which many of the problems experienced by the nuclear industry with auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWSs) were summarized. The principal conclusions of the INPO report were that pressurized water reactor AFWS equipment failure rates had nearly doubled industry-wide since 1980. Calvert Cliffs Units 1 and 2 were highlighted by INPO as being among some of the poorer performers identified in the report. The study objective involved estimating the historical AFWS unavailability so that it could be compared with a predetermined acceptable availability goal. From this comparison, the relative importance of individual contributions to overall system unavailability resulting from various equipment failure modes could be assessed. The GO methodology, a computerized reliability analyses technique, was selected as the means for performing additional analyses. A GO system model was developed to represent the current Calvert Cliffs AFWS configuration. In summary, it was shown that integration of plant data with a comprehensive availability/reliability model can provide both the necessary insights to focus attention on the most important contributions to system unavailability and a pragmatic way for developing a cost effective implementation strategy. The GO methodology was useful and provided the requisite results with a minimal outlay of valuable resources.

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF SIMPLIFIED VS. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES FOR SSI ANALYSES OF DEEPLY EMBEDDED STRUCTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.MILLER,C.HOFMAYER,C.GRAVES,H.

    2004-03-04

    Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to develop a technical basis to support the safety evaluation of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) structures as proposed for advanced reactor designs. In this program, the methods and computer programs established for the assessment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects for the current generation of light water reactors are evaluated to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of DEB structures. This paper presents an assessment of the simplified vs. detailed methodologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures. In this assessment, a lump-mass beam model is used for the simplified approach and a finite element representation is employed for the detailed method. A typical containment structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized, considering various embedment depths from shallow to full burial. BNL used the CARES program for the simplified model and the SASSI2000 program for the detailed analyses. The calculated response spectra at the key locations of the DEB structure are used for the performance assessment of the applied methods for different depths of burial. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of both the simplified and detailed models for the SSI analyses of the DEB structure, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different depths of burial between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of DEB structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

  20. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  1. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    PubMed

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  2. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  3. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  4. Reliability assessment of passive safety systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Burgazzi; GL Fiorini; F De Magistris; W Von Lensa; M Staat; J Altes

    1998-01-01

    Innovative reactor concepts make use of passive safety features to a large extent in combination with active safety or operational systems. Following the IAEA definitions a passive component does not need external input (especially energy) to operate. This is why it is expected that passive systems combine among others the advantages of simplicity, reduction of the need for human interaction,

  5. A complete and consistent methodology for the assessment of mooring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leblanc, L.; Isnard, J.L.; Wilczynski, H.

    1995-12-01

    Ten years ago, the capacity of mooring systems was usually assessed using a static approach, Simplistic computational models were made to suit the computer technology available at that time. Conservative safety factors were used in order to balance the uncertainties associated with these calculation methods. The whole process was nevertheless coherent and experience has shown that an adequate level of safety was thus achieved. Nowadays, computers are so fast that it is possible to perform very sophisticated analyses. Simulations of the mooring system behavior that would include the 3D-dynamics of each line could probably be performed, even for complex mooring patterns. However, the actual dynamic response of mooring lines in full scale conditions has not yet been fully elucidated and calibration of such computer software would therefore be difficult. Subsequently, the most recent codes recommend performing a quasi-static analysis of the whole mooring system, to be completed by a dynamic analysis of the most critical line in its average vertical plane. These codes provide revised safety factors that are dramatically smaller than those used in the past, on the grounds of reduced uncertainties associated with partial dynamic considerations. This paper explains why such new practices are not necessarily consistent or appropriate. Calibration and validation have been derived from a very large number of cases, thus ensuring optimization between over-scantling, safety and cost effectiveness. Equations used to compute loads and motions are given in detail together with damping coefficients for each type of unit. Safety factors are also specified for Maximum Design Condition. An alternative mooring analysis methodology is thus proposed which is complete, consistent and efficient.

  6. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A Mendoza; Kathy Watson; Tom Baranowski; Theresa A Nicklas; Doris K Uscanga; Marcus J Hanfling

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. METHODS: Fourth grade

  7. Instruments for Assessing Risk of Bias and Other Methodological Criteria of Published Animal Studies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Krauth, David; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Results from animal toxicology studies are critical to evaluating the potential harm from exposure to environmental chemicals or the safety of drugs prior to human testing. However, there is significant debate about how to evaluate the methodology and potential biases of the animal studies. There is no agreed-upon approach, and a systematic evaluation of current best practices is lacking. Objective: We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate instruments for assessing the risk of bias and/or other methodological criteria of animal studies. Method: We searched Medline (January 1966–November 2011) to identify all relevant articles. We extracted data on risk of bias criteria (e.g., randomization, blinding, allocation concealment) and other study design features included in each assessment instrument. Discussion: Thirty distinct instruments were identified, with the total number of assessed risk of bias, methodological, and/or reporting criteria ranging from 2 to 25. The most common criteria assessed were randomization (25/30, 83%), investigator blinding (23/30, 77%), and sample size calculation (18/30, 60%). In general, authors failed to empirically justify why these or other criteria were included. Nearly all (28/30, 93%) of the instruments have not been rigorously tested for validity or reliability. Conclusion: Our review highlights a number of risk of bias assessment criteria that have been empirically tested for animal research, including randomization, concealment of allocation, blinding, and accounting for all animals. In addition, there is a need for empirically testing additional methodological criteria and assessing the validity and reliability of a standard risk of bias assessment instrument. Citation: Krauth D, Woodruff TJ, Bero L. 2013. Instruments for assessing risk of bias and other methodological criteria of published animal studies: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 121:985–992 (2013);?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206389 PMID:23771496

  8. Development of AMSTAR: a measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverley J Shea; Jeremy M Grimshaw; George A Wells; Maarten Boers; Neil Andersson; Candyce Hamel; Ashley C Porter; Peter Tugwell; David Moher; Lex M Bouter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to develop an instrument to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews, building upon previous tools, empirical evidence and expert consensus. METHODS: A 37-item assessment tool was formed by combining 1) the enhanced Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ), 2) a checklist created by Sacks, and 3) three additional items recently judged to be of methodological importance.

  9. Using Rubrics to Assess Information Literacy: An Examination of Methodology and Interrater Reliability

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    Using Rubrics to Assess Information Literacy: An Examination of Methodology and Interrater to remedy these omissions by describing the benefits of a rubric-based approach to information literacy assess- ment, identifying a methodology for using rubrics to assess information literacy skills

  10. Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

  11. A Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Vulnerability of Highway Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cirianni, Francis; Leonardi, Giovanni; Scopelliti, Francesco [University of Reggio Calabria-Faculty of Engineering Department of Computer Science, Mathematics, Electronics and Transportation (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    Modern society is totally dependent on a complex and articulated infrastructure network of vital importance for the existence of the urban settlements scattered on the territory. On these infrastructure systems, usually indicated with the term lifelines, are entrusted numerous services and indispensable functions of the normal urban and human activity.The systems of the lifelines represent an essential element in all the urbanised areas which are subject to seismic risk. It is important that, in these zones, they are planned according to opportune criteria based on two fundamental assumptions: a) determination of the best territorial localization, avoiding, within limits, the places of higher dangerousness; b) application of constructive technologies finalized to the reduction of the vulnerability.Therefore it is indispensable that in any modern process of seismic risk assessment the study of the networks is taken in the rightful consideration, to be integrated with the traditional analyses of the buildings.The present paper moves in this direction, dedicating particular attention to one kind of lifeline: the highway system, proposing a methodology of analysis finalized to the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the system.

  12. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  13. Methodology development for mine life safety system evaluation. Open file report 1 Jan 80-28 Feb 82

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Nutter; N. S. Smith; W. R. Voltz; P. Klinkhachorn; D. F. Tuthill

    1982-01-01

    A methodology was developed for qualitative safety hazard evaluation and quantitative reliability analysis of mine monitoring and control systems. Detailed application of these techniques were made to two commercial monitor-control systems and to a microprocessor-based system. A controlled environmental test was conducted on a set of one of the commercial system's outstations. A software reliability evaluation methodology was also developed

  14. Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  15. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  16. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  17. Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies. PMID:22317200

  18. Methodology for the application of hydrogen flux monitoring devices to assess equipment operating in wet H{sub 2} service

    SciTech Connect

    Cayard, M.S.; Kane, R.D. [InterCorr/CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Joia, C.J.B. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Correia, L.A. [Petrobras/REPAR, Araucaria, Parana (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    To date, hydrogen flux monitoring devices have been only quantitatively used in the field to gauge environmental severity with respect to identifying changes from normal operating conditions. This paper discusses a methodology for extending the use of hydrogen flux monitoring equipment to quantitatively assess the severity of hydrogen charging and relate the response directly to the materials resistance or susceptibility to wet H{sub 2}S cracking, This methodology incorporates the value of measured hydrogen flux, operating equipment variables, material of construction and its inherent susceptibility to cracking to determine the risk of cracking based on the severity of the operating environment. This methodology will allow more applicability of the hydrogen flux monitoring equipment to determine safety margins with respect to intermittent upset conditions or more prolonged changes in hydrogen charging severity resulting from changing production or process conditions.

  19. Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate variability and change on the PMP are also under investigation.

  20. A Methodology for the Assessment of Experiential Learning Lean: The Lean Experience Factory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Zan, Giovanni; De Toni, Alberto Felice; Fornasier, Andrea; Battistella, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology to assess the experiential learning processes of learning lean in an innovative learning environment: the lean model factories. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on learning and lean management literatures was carried out to design the methodology. Then, a case study…

  1. Clinical safety assessment of infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, M S

    2012-01-01

    Data on clinical safety and efficacy are ideally collected in a randomized clinical trial or, failing this, an observational study. Suitable outcomes vary depending on the intervention and population group, and certain outcomes such as growth may test both efficacy and safety. The use of growth as an important safety outcome has some limitations since it is currently not clear what represents an 'optimal' growth pattern. Several issues currently make the conduct and interpretation of infant nutrition trials challenging. These include difficulties in recruiting exclusively formula-fed infants, particularly given the emotive nature of infant feeding; the involvement of industry leading to real or perceived conflicts of interest; increased regulation and bureaucracy; and particular issues with long-term follow-up studies, notably cohort attrition. This paper addresses the implications of these issues and some potential solutions. PMID:22699768

  2. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  3. Overview of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary and an overview of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. This performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with a tool for performing confirmatory analyses in support of license reviews related to postclosure performance. The methodology allows analyses of dose to individuals from off-site releases under normal conditions as well as on-site doses to inadvertent intruders. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Walls; Virginia N. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Microbial risk assessment is a newly emerging discipline in the area of food safety. One of the difficulties associated with microbial risk assessment is in determining the number of microorganisms in food at a given time, i.e., estimating exposure of an individual to the microorganism. Numbers of bacteria in food can change at all stages of food production and processing,

  5. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  6. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  7. Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

  8. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of the potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are living organisms when administ...

  9. The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

    2008-07-08

    The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

  10. Execution of a self-directed risk assessment methodology to address HIPAA data security requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnathan Coleman

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the method and training of a self directed risk assessment methodology entitled OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat Asset and Vulnerability Evaluation) at over 170 DOD medical treatment facilities. It focuses specifically on how OCTAVE built interdisciplinary, inter-hierarchical consensus and enhanced local capabilities to perform Health Information Assurance. The Risk Assessment Methodology was developed by the Software Engineering Institute

  11. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  12. A multi-level assessment methodology for determining the potential for groundwater contamination by pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Crowe; W. G. Booty

    1995-01-01

    A multi-level pesticide assessment methodology has been developed to permit regulatory personnel to undertake a variety of assessments on the potential for pesticide used in agricultural areas to contaminate the groundwater regime at an increasingly detailed geographical scale of investigation. A multi-level approach accounts for a variety of assessment objectives and detail required in the assessment, the restrictions on the

  13. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

  14. Exploration on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xin-Li; Wang, Qiangbin; Hu, Kun; Wang, Xiu-Mei

    2012-01-01

    More and more applications of nanomaterials have been achieved in the biomedicine field. Numerous nanomedical devices, such as bone grafts with nano-hydroxyapatite and the silver-based anti-bacteria products, have been developed and have been trying to enter into the Chinese market. The State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) is facing a critical challenge of how to explore and supervise the safety assessment of the nanomedical products. This paper briefly introduces the approval status of nanomedical products and the current advances of the safety assessment of nanomaterials in China. PMID:23741614

  15. Guidelines for pressure vessel safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, S.

    1990-04-01

    A technical overview and information on metallic pressure containment vessels and tanks is given. The intent is to provide Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) personnel and other persons with information to assist in the evaluation of the safety of operating pressure vessels and low pressure storage tanks. The scope is limited to general industrial application vessels and tanks constructed of carbon or low alloy steels and used at temperatures between -75 and 315 C (-100 and 600 F). Information on design codes, materials, fabrication processes, inspection and testing applicable to the vessels and tanks are presented. The majority of the vessels and tanks are made to the rules and requirements of ASME Code Section VIII or API Standard 620. The causes of deterioration and damage in operation are described and methods and capabilities of detecting serious damage and cracking are discussed. Guidelines and recommendations formulated by various groups to inspect for the damages being found and to mitigate the causes and effects of the problems are presented.

  16. A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization

    E-print Network

    Fournier, Laëtitia

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

  17. Quantitative safety assessment of computer based I and C systems via modular Markov analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Elks, C. R.; Yu, Y.; Johnson, B. W. [Univ. of Virginia, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the methodology based on quantitative metrics for evaluating digital I and C system that has been under development at the Univ. of Virginia for a number years. Our quantitative assessment methodology is based on three well understood and extensively practiced disciplines in the dependability assessment field: (1) System level fault modeling and fault injection, (2) safety and coverage based dependability modeling methods, and (3) statistical estimation of model parameters used for safety predication. There are two contributions of this paper; the first contribution is related to incorporating design flaw information into homogenous Markov models when such data is available. The second is to introduce a Markov modeling method for managing the modeling complexities of large distributed I and C systems for the predication of safety and reliability. The method is called Modular Markov Chain analysis. This method allows Markov models of the system to be composed in a modular manner. In doing so, it address two important issues. (1) The models are more visually representative of the functional the system. (2) Important failure dependencies that naturally occur in complex systems are modeled accurately with our approach. (authors)

  18. Spill accident modeling: a critical survey of the event-decision network in the context of IMO's formal safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Ventikos, Nikolaos P; Psaraftis, Harilaos N

    2004-02-27

    In this paper, we present the relationship between an oil spill-assessing approach, namely the event-decision network (EDN) and the formal safety assessment (FSA) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). We focus on various points at which the Network incorporates basic features of the FSA in order to formulate a state-of-the-art, original strategic tool. In keeping with a safety-friendly effort, we developed the EDN, which implements a scenario-driven, generic tree framework. Moreover, the IMO, under the umbrella of decision-making, has introduced FSA, which is a systematic methodology for enhanced maritime safety by using risk and cost/benefit criteria. It is of interest to describe the introduced spill-scenario analysis/simulation and to pinpoint its interconnections with the aforementioned official instrument. Among other things, the goal of such a task is the enhancement of marine safety and the subsequent protection of seas from oil spills. PMID:15036643

  19. Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. England; T. J. Nicholson; R. Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published

  20. Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

  1. Biomarkers: Dynamic "Tools" for Health and Safety Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today informational flow from biomarkers contributes importantly to various types of health effects research, risk assessment and risk management decisions that impact, or have the potential to impact, public health and safety. Therefore, dependent upon the nature of the health r...

  2. Safety assessment of severe accidents in fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Justin; J. Petit; P. F. Tanguy

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the accidents in the Creys-Malville Nuclear Plant categorizes the types of accidents that can occur in fast breeder reactors (FBRs) according to their expected frequencies. Focusing on the highly improbable events, the article describes a method of estimating plant design safety. It identifies risks in future FBRs and arranges actions to prevent or mitigate events into successive

  3. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school,safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research...

  4. A National Estimate of Performance: Statewide Highway Safety Program Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    A nationwide systematic approach to assess the developments and achievements of highway safety activities was conducted to measure program outputs from 1969 through 1974 using key indicators of performance such as ratios and percentages. A sample of 10 states was selected with overall sample of 105 local jurisdictions which would provide estimated…

  5. Probabilistic risk assessment modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems using two dynamic methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Aldemir; S. Guarro; D. Mandelli; J. Kirschenbaum; L. A. Mangan; P. Bucci; M. Yau; E. Ekici; D. W. Miller; X. Sun; S. A. Arndt

    2010-01-01

    The Markov\\/cell-to-cell mapping technique (CCMT) and the dynamic flowgraph methodology (DFM) are two system logic modeling methodologies that have been proposed to address the dynamic characteristics of digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems and provide risk-analytical capabilities that supplement those provided by traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques for nuclear power plants. Both methodologies utilize a discrete state, multi-valued logic

  6. Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Bettadapura, Guruprasad S; Donthi, Krishnamurthy; Datti, Narendra P; Ranganath, Bommanahalli G; Ramaswamy, Shamanna B; Jayaram, Tejal S

    2012-01-01

    Background: More than 90% of visual impairment can either be treated or avoided. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology provides valid estimates in short time to assess magnitude and causes of blindness. Aims: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in persons above 50 years in Kolar, South India, using the above methodology. Materials and Methods: Sixty one clusters of 50 people aged above 50 years were selected by probability-proportionate to size sampling. Participants were evaluated using a standardized survey form. Persons with vision <20/60 were dilated and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results: Of the 3050 people listed 2907 were examined (95.3%). Prevalence of bilateral blindness in persons was 3.9%; severe visual impairment 3.5%, and visual impairment 10.4%. Untreated cataract was the leading cause of blindness (74.6%) and severe visual impairment (73.3%). Avoidable causes of blindness accounted for 91.2% of all blindness and 95.0% of severe visual impairment. ‘Waiting for maturity’ and ‘No one to accompany’ were the most common barriers to uptake of cataract surgery. Conclusion: Untreated cataract continues to be the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Modified strategies need to be implemented to tackle the burden of cataract blindness. PMID:23050247

  7. 75 FR 15485 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Guidelines for Integrity Assessment of Cased Pipe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0097] Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Guidelines for Integrity Assessment of Cased Pipe AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  8. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES: NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this task were to: (1) consider alternative methodologies for information collection, analysis, and presentation; (2) design a system for maintaining current awareness of the environmental implications of technology in the non-ferrous metals industry; and, (3) e...

  9. A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality focused on how people perceive robots in a collaboration task and we proposed to use virtual reality the relevance of using such a methodology -- based on virtual reality, questionnaires and physiological measures

  10. Validation of a Methodology for Assessing Software Reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Li; Y. Wei; Dejan Desovski; Hamed Nejad; Sushmita Ghose; Bojan Cukic; Carol Smidts

    2004-01-01

    Software-based digital systems are progressively replacing analog systems in safety-critical applications. However the ability to predict their reliability is not well understood and needs further study. A first step towards systematic resolution of this issue was presented in a recent software engineering measure study. In that study a set of software engineering measures were ranked with respect to their ability

  11. 78 FR 12335 - Submission for OMB review; Comment Request: Methodological Studies for the Population Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB...Methodological Studies for the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study SUMMARY...submitted to the Office of Management and Budget...

  12. A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage in a hostile environment, they are particularly vulnerable in sit- uations of unavailability. Military weapon principles for weapon systems modeling that integrate both system failure and system damage, as well

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE PATHWAYS OF EXPOSURE TO COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared this methodology in response to the 1993 Combustion Strategy for Hazardous Waste Incinerators released by the Administrator of EPA. Among other mandates regarding the regulation of this industrial sector, the strategy ...

  14. A methodology to assess performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to assess system performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks such as habitat construction, geological sampling, and space exploration.

  15. EMERGING METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPLEX MIXTURES; THE INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment of complex mixtures of environmental pollutants requires new interdisciplinary strategies. The integration of bioassay methodologies into these strategies is an important tool which provides direct evidence of the toxicity of a mixture. Short-term genetic bioassays...

  16. Assessing the Comparative Effectiveness of Newly Marketed Medications: Methodological Challenges and Implications for Drug Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Schneeweiss; J J Gagne; R J Glynn; M Ruhl; J A Rassen

    2011-01-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-,

  17. Risk-assessment methodology for hazardous-waste management. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawless

    1988-01-01

    A methodology is presented for assessing and comparing the risks to human health and the environment of hazardous-waste-management alternatives, based on a critique of available technical and science policy literature. Methodology is oriented toward site-specific assessments of alternative treatment, storage and disposal facilities. It is designed to be modular, with 7 steps (1) hazard characterization, (2) environmental transport and fate

  18. An assessment of team teaching methodologies in selected classes at Texas A&M University 

    E-print Network

    Cummins, Richard Aaron

    1998-01-01

    AN ASSESSMENT OF TEAM TEACHING METHODOLOGIES IN SELECTED CLASSES AT TEXAS ALM UNIVERSITY A Thesis by RICHARD AARON CUMMINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AfrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1998 Major Subject: Agricultural Education AN ASSESSMENT OF TEAM TEACHING METHODOLOGIES IN SELECTED CLASSES AT TEXAS ASM UNIVERSITY A Thesis by RICHARD AARON CUMMINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  19. Risk assessment and water safety plan: case study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bixiong; Chen, Yuansheng; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi

    2015-06-01

    Two typical rural water utilities in Beijing, China were chosen to describe the principles and applications of water safety plans (WSP), to provide a methodological guide for the actual application and improve the quality of rural drinking water quality, and to establish an appropriate method for WSP applied in rural water supply. Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted for rural water supply systems. A total of 13 and 12 operational limits were defined for two utilities, respectively. The main risk factors that affect the water safety were identified in water sources, water processes, water disinfection systems and water utility management. The main control measures were strengthening the water source protection, monitoring the water treatment processes, establishing emergency mechanisms, improving chemical input and operating system management. WSP can be feasibly applied to the management of a rural water supply. PMID:26042982

  20. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

  1. A computer-based Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation - SAFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation (SAFE) system has been developed for the computerized evaluation of safety in civil Emergency Medical Service (EMS) operations. The speed of the microprocessor used to analyze data allows many individual factors to be considered, as well as the interactions among those factors. SAFE's data base is structured as if-then conditional statements. SAFE also allows the most important of the factors to be given greater weight in the final score. The questionnaire filled by EMS crews encompassed mission-, crew-, organization-, environment-, and aircraft-related factors; each of these was subdivided into as many as eight variables affecting the EMS-mission risk of that factor.

  2. An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Nobre

    2009-01-01

    An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR\\u000a (?DPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The\\u000a aim of the ?DPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously\\u000a adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation

  3. Safety assessment of dichlorophene and chlorophene.

    PubMed

    Yamarik, Torill A

    2004-01-01

    Dichlorophene is a halogenated phenolic compound that functions as a bacteriocide and fungicide in cosmetics. Chlorophene is a halogenated phenolic compound that functions as a biocide and preservative in cosmetics. Dichlorophene was reported to be used in a total of five cosmetic formulations at concentrations of 0% to 1.0%, but Chlorophene was not reported to be used. Dichlorophene is prohibited for use in cosmetic ingredients in Japan. In Europe, the maximum authorized concentration allowed for Dichlorophene is 0.5% and for Chlorophene is 0.2%. The major impurity of Dichlorophene is the trimer 4-chloro-2,6-bis(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl)phenol. In rats, Dichlorophene sulfate, Dichlorophene monoglucuronide, and Dichlorophene diglucuronide were the major metabolites of Dichlorophene and were excreted, mainly in the urine. The glucuronic acid conjugate, the sulfate ester conjugate, and two minor metabolites of Chlorophene were the metabolites found in rat urine. Chlorophene was incompletely absorbed through the rat skin. These chemicals exhibited low toxicity in acute oral toxicity studies in several animal species. Some evidence of toxicity with both chemicals was found in short-term oral toxicity studies in mice and rats; nephropathy was the principal finding. Chronic toxicity data were not available for Dichlorophene. Rats and mice dosed with Chlorophene for 2 years had a dose-related and sex-related increase in the severity of nephropathy. In animal tests, Dichlorophene and Chlorophene were ocular irritants. No inhalation toxicity data were available for these ingredients. Dichlorophene up to 10% concentration resulted in no to minimal irritation when applied to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits. Chlorophene was severely irritating to rabbits in most dermal irritation studies. Studies on guinea pigs gave positive and negative results in sensitization tests of Dichlorophene. A dose-related contact hypersensitivity response to Chlorophene was reported in mice. No reproductive or developmental toxicity data were available for Dichlorophene, but there was some evidence of non-dose-dependent developmental toxicity with Chlorophene in rabbits. Dichlorophene was positive in the Ames mutagenicity assay, but not in mammalian or fruit fly test systems. Chlorophene was mutagenic in four in vitro mammalian test systems. Carcinogenicity studies for Dichlorophene were not found. Neoplasms were not observed in rats treated with Chlorophene for 2 years; however a significant incidence of neoplasms was observed in mice so treated. A 1-year National Toxicology Program (NTP) study concluded that Chlorophene was a cutaneous irritant and a weak skin tumor promoter but had no activity as an initiator or complete carcinogen. Dichlorophene was not a sensitizer in clinical dermal sensitization tests. Some reactions to Chlorophene occurred in some, but not all, clinical dermal sensitization tests. Positive photopatch tests to Dichlorophene were found in 13/469 patients. Although these ingredients were ocular irritants at high concentrations, the risk at concentrations which are actually used in cosmetic formulations was uncertain. Overall, the available data were insufficient to support safety of Dichlorophene or Chlorophene. Additional data needed include (1) method of manufacture and impurities data (especially the trimer in Dichlorophene); (2) photosensitization and photocarcinogenicity data for Dichlorophene; (3) dermal reproductive and developmental toxicity data for Dichlorophene (as a function of dose); and (4) ocular irritation at concentration of use, if available. PMID:15162836

  4. Learning theories and assessment methodologies – an engineering educational perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. B. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational policy as regards promoting the learning of engineering is discussed. It is suggested that an

  5. Methodologies for assessing performance of irrigation and drainage management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Bos; D. H. Murray-Rust; D. J. Merrey; H. G. Johnson; W. B. Snellen

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a framework irrigation managers can use in assessing performance of irrigation, and recommends a specific set of indicators for measuring performance that the authors believe are practical, useful, and generally applicable. Although the primary focus is on the management of canal systems for agricultural production, the paper also discusses indicators that can be used for assessing longer

  6. Risk-assessment methodology for fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ott

    1976-01-01

    The methods applied or proposed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors are reviewed, particularly with respect to their applicability for risk assessment of future commercial fast breeder reactors. All methods are based on the calculation of accident consequences for relatively few accident scenarios. The role and general impact of uncertainties in fast-reactor accident analysis are discussed. The discussion shows the

  7. A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vorogushyn; B. Merz; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; H. Apel

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes;

  8. Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…

  9. Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, O. A. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

  10. Application of risk assessment methodology to transborder data flow

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Lobel, J.

    1985-01-01

    The formal application of risk assessment to computer systems first gained popularity in 1975. As a result, many business organizations and government agencies have established policies and regulations governing the conditions and procedures that are used in limiting their exposure to risks. This report describes the benefits that may arise from applying a formal risk assessment technique to transborder data flow (TDF) issues.

  11. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Pottier, Ivannah; Gente, Stéphanie; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Guéguen, Micheline

    2008-09-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous filamentous yeast-like fungus commonly isolated from soil, air, water, milk, silage, plant tissues, digestive tract in humans and other mammals. This species is widely used as adjunct culture in the maturation of cheese. The genus Geotrichum is composed of 18 species. A recent taxonomic revision concluded that the old Galactomyces geotrichum/G. candidum complex contained four separate species of which Galactomyces candidus sp. nov./G. candidum. M13 primer can be used for identifying species of the Geotrichum genus. Used in combination, RAPD-PCR and RAM-PCR permit strains to be differentiated. The species can be unambiguous differentiated from the two species most frequently described in human pathology: Geotrichum clavatum (reclassified Saprochaete clavata) and Geotrichum capitatum (reclassified Magnusiomyces capitatus/Saprochaete capitata). Sources of exposure are food ingestion--cheese consumption playing a major role--inhalation and contact. A bibliographic survey was conducted to assess corresponding hazards and risks. G. candidum infections (mainly pulmonary or bronchopulmonary, but also cutaneous, oral, disseminates) are very rare: fewer than 100 cases reported between 1842 and 2006. Moreover, cases were not all confirmed by repeated isolations and demonstration of the fungus' presence in tissues, a prerequisite to establish a true diagnosis of geotrichosis. Immunocompromised population was recently shown as a target for opportunistic infection. The most effective treatments include either azole drogs as ketonazole, iconazole and clotrimazole, or polyene antibiotics as amphotericin B, nystatin and pimaricin, or voriconazole-amphotericin B association. Less than 1 case/year of disease was possibly caused by G. candidum and it never included dairy products or foodborne infection. The risk of developing an infection due to G. candidum in connection with its technological use and consumption of dairy products is virtually nil. For these reasons, G. candidum should be proposed for QPS status. PMID:17869364

  12. United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; evaluation and assessment methodology, standards, and procedures manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, K.C.; Smith, J.M.; Blanchard, R.L.; Burson, Z.G. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Remote Sensing Lab.]|[National Air and Radiation Environmental Lab., Montgomery, AL (United States)]|[Sanford Cohen and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, the United States (US) Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate the Federal off-site monitoring and assessment activities, and is comprised of representatives from several Federal agencies and Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who provide assistance to the state(s) and Lead Federal Agency (LFA). The Evaluation and Assessment (E&A) Division of the FRMAC is responsible for receiving, storing and interpreting environmental surveillance data to estimate the potential health consequences to the population in the vicinity of the accident site. The E&A Division has commissioned the preparation of a methodology and procedures manual which will result in a consistent approach by Division members in carrying out their duties. The first edition of this manual is nearing completion. In this paper, a brief review of the structure of the FRMAC (with emphasis on the E&A Division) is presented. The contents of the E&A manual are briefly described as are future plans for expansion of this work.

  13. A Patient Safety Curriculum for Graduate Medical Education: Results From a Needs Assessment of Educators and Patient Safety Experts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prathibha Varkey; Sudhakar Karlapudi; Steven Rose; Steve Swensen

    2009-01-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) has traditionally focused on the diagnosis and management of disease with little attention devoted to patient safety and systems thinking. In this article, we describe the results of a needs assessment conducted to develop a patient safety curriculum for GME. Eight program directors, 10 patient safety experts, and 9 experts in education technology were interviewed for

  14. Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    BENDIXSEN, R.B.

    2001-09-19

    The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety Analysis of the US Department of Energy's Central Training Academy) and other DOE complexes (WSI-SRS 1994, Ballistic Risk Assessment of Wackenhut Services, Inc). This safety analysis document (SAD) satisfies the requirements of DOE 0 440.1A. The preparation, review, and approval of this safety assessment document is in accordance with the guidelines of HNF-PRO-700, Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements.

  15. Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Lammerding; Aamir Fazil

    2000-01-01

    The four cornerstones of microbial food safety risk assessment are hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, and risk characterization. These steps represent a systematic process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probabilities arising from consumption of foods that may be contaminated with microbial pathogens and\\/or microbial toxins. This paper presents a discussion of the first two steps: hazard identification

  16. A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig.

  17. A Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean T.; Burruss, Robert A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first year of that activity was specified for development of a methodology to estimate storage potential that could be applied uniformly to geologic formations across the United States. After its release, the methodology was to receive public comment and external expert review. An initial methodology was developed and published in March 2009 (Burruss and others, 2009), and public comments were received. The report was then sent to a panel of experts for external review. The external review report was received by the USGS in December 2009. This report is in response to those external comments and reviews and describes how the previous assessment methodology (Burruss and others, 2009) was revised. The resource that is assessed is the technically accessible storage resource, which is defined as the mass of CO2 that can be stored in the pore volume of a storage formation. The methodology that is presented in this report is intended to be used for assessments at scales ranging from regional to subbasinal in which storage assessment units are defined on the basis of common geologic and hydrologic characteristics. The methodology does not apply to site-specific evaluation of storage resources or capacity.

  18. Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

  19. SCREENING METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING LEAKING UST SITES AND CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Across the nation, treatment technologies are being applied to clean up soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from leaking underground storage tanks (UST). ite assessment (developing an accurate understanding of subsurface conditions at a site) increases t...

  20. A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation 

    E-print Network

    Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

    2006-08-16

    Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economic manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, ...

  1. Considerations Regarding Nonhuman Primate Use in Safety Assessment of Biopharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorrene A. Buckley; Kathryn Chapman; Leigh Ann Burns-Naas; Marque D. Todd; Pauline L. Martin; Janice A. Lansita

    2011-01-01

    Selection of a pharmacologically responsive species can represent a major challenge in designing nonclinical safety assessment programs for many biopharmaceuticals (eg, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)). Frequently, the only relevant species for nonclinical testing of mAbs is the non-human primate (NHP). This situation, coupled with a rapidly increasing number of mAb drugs in development, has resulted in a significant increase in the

  2. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems. These efforts have produced a generic PA methodology for the evaluation of waste management systems that has gained wide acceptance within the international community. This report documents how this methodology has been used as an effective management tool to evaluate different disposal designs and sites; inform development of regulatory requirements; identify, prioritize, and guide research aimed at reducing uncertainties for objective estimations of risk; and support safety assessments.

  3. Strategic environmental assessment methodologies--applications within the energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Goeran; Nilsson, Maans; Johansson, Jessica; Persson, Aasa; Moberg, Aasa; Carlsson, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a procedural tool and within the framework of SEA, several different types of analytical tools can be used in the assessment. Several analytical tools are presented and their relation to SEA is discussed including methods for future studies, Life Cycle Assessment, Risk Assessment, Economic Valuation and Multi-Attribute Approaches. A framework for the integration of some analytical tools in the SEA process is suggested. It is noted that the available analytical tools primarily cover some types of environmental impacts related to emissions of pollutants. Tools covering impacts on ecosystems and landscapes are more limited. The relation between application and choice of analytical tools is discussed. It is suggested that SEAs used to support a choice between different alternatives require more quantitative methods, whereas SEAs used to identify critical aspects and suggest mitigation strategies can suffice with more qualitative methods. The possible and desired degree of site-specificity in the assessment can also influence the choice of methods. It is also suggested that values and world views can be of importance for judging whether different types of tools and results are meaningful and useful. Since values and world views differ between different stakeholders, consultation and understanding are important to ensure credibility and relevance.

  4. Food and feed safety assessment: the importance of proper sampling.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the European Union-funded project Safe Foods. We underline the crucial role of sampling in foods/feed safety assessment. High quality sampling should always be applied to ensure the use of adequate and representative samples as test materials for hazard identification, toxicological and nutritional characterization of identified hazards, as well as for estimating quantitative and reliable exposure levels of foods/feed or related compounds of concern for humans and animals. The importance of representative sampling is emphasized through examples of risk analyses in different areas of foods/feed production. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) is recognized as the only framework within which to ensure accuracy and precision of all sampling steps involved in the field-to-fork continuum, which is crucial to monitor foods and feed safety. Therefore, TOS must be integrated in the well-established FAO/WHO risk assessment approach in order to guarantee a transparent and correct frame for the risk assessment and decision making process. PMID:25964957

  5. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment (MCEA) methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Cole, C.R.; Davis, W.E.; Whelan, G.

    1982-04-01

    A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical concentration levels in the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of chemical migration and fate. The methodology consists of a series of widely used physics-based pathway models to handle four major release modes: stacks, coal-piles and land fills, ash sludge ponds, and direct liquid discharges to surface water. The MCEA Methodology includes the RAPT, ANDEP, STRAM and ISC computer models for the atmospheric pathway; the Agricultural Runoff Management (ARM) model for the overland pathway; the UNSAT, VTT and MMT models for the groundwater pathway; and the TODAM, SERATRA and EXAMS models for the surface water pathway. Although these specific pathway models were selected for the MCEA Methodology, these models can be replaced or supplemented when more appropriate models (such as geochemical models) become available in the future. The MCEA Methodology acts as a framework for the multimedia pathway modeling. The study also applied the surface water portion of the computer model SERATRA to arsenic migration in the Columbia River released from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant.

  6. Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology for coal-fired power plants. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Cole, C.R.; Davis, W.E.; Whelan, G.

    1982-04-01

    A coal-fired power plant assessment methodology was developed to provide the helpful and moderately accurate prediction of chemical concentrations in the environment at a reasonable cost. The Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) Methodology was developed to assess exposures of the air, soil, groundwater and surface water to chemicals released from a coal-fired power plant. The MCEA Methodology predicts chemical concentration levels in the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of chemical migration and fate. The methodology consists of a series of widely used physics-based pathway models to handle four major release modes: stacks, coal-piles and land fills, ash sludge ponds, and direct liquid discharges to surface water. The MCEA Methodology includes the RAPT, ANDEP, STRAM and ISC computer models for the atmospheric pathway; the Agricultural Runoff Management (ARM) model for the overland pathway; the UNSAT, VTT and MMT models for the ground-water pathway; and the TODAM, SERATRA and EXAMS models for the surface water pathway. Although these specific pathway models were selected for the MCEA Methodology, these models can be replaced or supplemented when more appropriate models (such as geochemical models) become available in the future. The MCEA Methodology acts as a framework for the multimedia pathway modeling. The study also applied the surface water portion of the computer model SERATRA to arsenic migration in the Columbia River released from a hypothetical coal-fired power plant.

  7. Assessment of ductile fracture methodology based on applications to large-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. (Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the present status of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiment (FALSIRE) is given. Fracture assessments compiled from Project FALSIRE for five pressurized-thermal-shock experiments are compared. Some observations are made concerning predictive capabilities of the fracture methodologies used in these assessments. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200). Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

  9. Assessment of the Methodology for Bounding Loran Temporal ASF for Aviation

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    Assessment of the Methodology for Bounding Loran Temporal ASF for Aviation Sherman C. Lo, Stanford those capabilities. This is especially important in critical applications such as aviation. As part of the ongoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Loran evaluation, the system is being assessed for its

  10. Methodology for retinal photography and assessment of diabetic retinopathy: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Aldington; E. M. Kohner; S. Meuer; R. Klein; A. K. SjØlie

    1995-01-01

    Summary  We present the methodology for 45 retinal photography and detail the development, application and validation of a new system of 45 field grading standards for the assessment of diabetic retinopathy. The systems were developed for the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study, part of a European Community funded Concerted Action Programme into the epidemiology and prevention of diabetes (EURODIAB). Assessment of diabetic

  11. Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, David; Turner, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

  12. Techniques of subjective workload assessment - A comparison of two methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    With increasing complexity of systems, evaluation techniques based on close examination of an operator's performance become more and more difficult to perform, and it is much easier to base on evaluation of a workload on the opinion of the operator involved in performing the task. The present paper has the objective to compare two of the general subjective workload assessment techniques which have been developed. One of these techniques, the Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT), has been developed primarily at the USAF Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory for use in cockpit environments. The second technique, the NASA weighted-bipolar technique, is a development tool to examine the underlying relationships among many factors. One of the two goals of the study is concerned with the general validity of subjective workload assessments, while, according to the second goal, any particular strengths or weaknesses with respect to either of the two techniques are to be observed. It is concluded that both techniques appear to be worthwhile.

  13. Assessing hypothetical scenario methodology in genetic susceptibility testing analog studies: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Persky, Susan; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Condit, Celeste M; McBride, Colleen M

    2007-11-01

    Hypothetical scenario methodology is commonly employed in the study of genetic susceptibility testing uptake estimation. The methodology, however, has not been rigorously assessed and sizeable gaps exist between estimated and actual uptake for tests that have recently become available. This quantitative review explores the effect of several theoretically based factors on genetic test uptake accuracy among a sample of 38 articles. These factors include verbal immediacy and temporal proximity of test scenarios, method of decision assessment, content of testing detail provided, processing demand required, and study features related to administration and sample. A number of assessed factors influenced uptake accuracy. Among these, temporal proximity of the genetic susceptibility test appeared to be the most consistent. There was also some evidence for effects of verbal immediacy and decision-assessment method on interest in testing. We recommend strategies for increasing accuracy using hypothetical scenario methodology to examine genetic susceptibility test uptake prediction. PMID:18007141

  14. Interpretive validity theory: mapping a methodology for validating educational assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher DeLuca

    2011-01-01

    Background:?Validity theory has evolved significantly over the past 30 years in response to the increased use of assessments across scientific, social and educational settings. The overarching trajectory of this evolution reflects a shift from a purely quantitative, positivistic approach to a conception of validity reliant on the interpretation of multiple evidence sources integrated into validity arguments. Moreover, within contemporary validity,

  15. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  16. Using Tropos Methodology to Model an Integrated Health Assessment System

    E-print Network

    health assessment of health and social care needs of older people is used as the case study throughout is the Health Care sector. Health Care information systems are becoming more and more computerised. A huge this can be done faster and more efficiently. One of the areas within the Health Care sector that can take

  17. Assessment of methodologies for airborne BaP analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Piñeiro-Iglesias; G. Grueiro-Noche; P. López-Mah??a; S. Muniategui-Lorenzo; D. Prada-Rodr??guez

    2004-01-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods will be required to assess airborne contaminants with the implementation of new EC Directives. In this work, Soxhlet, ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were applied to two airborne standard reference materials (SRM) 1648 “Urban Particulate Matter” and SRM 1649a “Urban Dust”. All three techniques afforded satisfactory results, but MAE was preferred due to its low solvent

  18. Property risk assessment for power plants: Methodology, validation and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Orme; Mauro Venturini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure for Risk Assessment, which makes use of two risk indices (PML – Probable Maximum Loss and MFL – Maximum Foreseeable Loss) is applied to power plants to evaluate potential economic losses due to risk exposure for two different loss scenarios (probable and worst-case).First, the procedure is presented in order to provide a prediction of probable

  19. METHODOLOGY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY IN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessments, except those based upon measured exposure levels for a probability sample of population members, rely upon a model to predict exposure. The model may be any mathematical function that estimates the population distribution of exposure or an individual's expos...

  20. Situated learning methodologies and assessment in civil engineering structures education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Davis Bertz

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes an overarching study of civil engineering undergraduate structural education through student performance in recalling and applying basic structural engineering knowledge, and the viability of alternative situated learning environments for more effectively supporting the learning of this knowledge. To properly ground this study, a thorough investigation of related work in assessment, cognitive science, educational technology, and design education

  1. Change-oriented aircraft fuel burn and emissions assessment methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf H. Mayer

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the National Airspace System (NAS) generally requires research to project the costs and benefits of proposed operational changes that improve system efficiency and environmental performance. Aviation regulatory agencies increasingly rely on aircraft fuel consumption and emissions assessments to support investment decisions needed to adopt new technologies that ensure the best value to the public. The varying scopes of such

  2. STREAM, AN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessments for pesticides used in agriculture require the estimation of both pesticide runoff from fields and resulting concentrations in streams in order to predict the potential aquatic and/or health risk posed by pesticide usage. he and duration of pesticide concentr...

  3. Methodological Considerations in Developing the Timber Assessment Projection System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

    This chapter considers the major modeling issues that arise in development of a resource and market projection system. It\\u000a reviews recent evolution in policy and scenario planning and forest sector market modeling. It presents a basic outline of\\u000a the Timber Assessment Projection System and compares its structure to that of other contemporary modeling approaches.

  4. Transmission loss assessment by integrated FEM-BEM methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Calì; R. Citarella; A. Galasso

    Nowadays, one of the most valuable criteria for vehicle quality assessment is based on acoustic emission levels: a car is judged comfortable also depending on the noise level transmitted inside. Consequently there is a general attention to design criteria aimed to improve the structural-acoustic behaviour in such a way to withstand the increasingly restrictive ergonomic standard. Such design approach, based

  5. Assessment Center Methodology as a Tool for Leadership Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Project EXCEL (Excellence in Community Elected and Appointed Leadership) was created in 1990 to provide opportunities for assessing job training and personal development needs of public officials in small and midsized communities, as well as to develop a continuing education program to assist public leaders in professional growth and problem…

  6. Condition assessment methodologies for maintenance and repair decisions 

    E-print Network

    Bouvier, Charles

    1997-01-01

    be remembered and appreciated. I also wish to extend the thanks to Dr. Chouinard, &om McGill University for helpmg me with risk assessment, Dr. Back for having made me discover life cycle cost analysis, Dr. Yao for his tips on fuzzy logic, and Dr. Lazarov.... . AMity to function. Importance of the function. . Conclusion. . . . . . . 32 . . . . . 32 32 . . . . . 33 35 35 FUZZY LOGIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction. Use of fuzzy logic in condition...

  7. Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2007-07-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a “dirty bomb”. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

  8. Flood hazard assessment based on a GIS based methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzafou, A.; Dimitriou, E.; Markogianni, V.

    2012-04-01

    Global warming effects on hydrological cycle and land use changes have led to flood events with severe social and economical consequences. The European Directive 2007/60/EC aims to the reduction and management of the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity. Especially in cases of transboundary river basins, the integrated management of flood risks is even more challenging. Under this scope, the estimation of flood hazards areas of Evros transboundary river basin was attempted based on a grid-based GIS modelling method. Based on this approach, the flood-hazard map was produced after the aggregation of six individual maps for each of the main factors that contribute to the development of floods: flow accumulation, slope, land use, rainfall intensity, geology and elevation of the river basin. The final flood hazard map was divided in five classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low. In order to verify the results of the specific methodology, the produced risk map was compared to the inundation map of the April 2006 flood event. The results accredited the accuracy of the method since 85.3% of the inundated area was already characterized as of very high flood hazard in the model while 14% of the flooded area was classified as of high hazard. Keywords: flood hazard mapping, Evros river, GIS, Directive 2007/60/EC

  9. The Development of Quality Assurance and Visualization for Safety Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Lak Kim, C.; Yo Yun, B.; Lee, K.J.; Moon Park, S.; Wan Park, J.; Ho Choi, S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. LTD. (KHNP) (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Site Information and Total Environmental data management System (SITES) is an integrated program for overall data acquisition, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis. SITES is composed of three main modules such as site database system, safety assessment system and environmental monitoring system named SECURE, SAINT and SUDAL, respectively. SAINT abbreviated for Safety Assessment Integration system is the integrated interface for the radioactive waste safety assessment codes in the SITES. SAINT is developed for the application and analysis of data from SECURE and for the systematic management of the resulted data from the safety assessment. The Quality Assurance module in SAINT is implemented to enhance the reliability of safety assessment results. The visualization in SAINT is purposed of reliability, comprehension of safety assessment results and user's convenience which can easily recognize the assessment results using the geographic information. (authors)

  10. Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

  11. Methodology for estimating extreme winds for probabilistic risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    The US Nuclear Reguulatory Commission (NRC) assesses the risks associated with nuclear faciliies using techniques that fall under a generic name of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. In these assessments, potential accident sequences are traced from initiating event to final outcome. At each step of the sequence, a probability of occurrence is assigned to each available alternative. Ultimately, the probability of occurrence of each possible outcome is determined from the probabilities assigned to the initiating events and the alternative paths. Extreme winds are considered in these sequences. As a result, it is necessary to estimate extreme wind probabilities as low as 10/sup -7/yr/sup -1/. When the NRC staff is called on to provide extreme wind estimates, the staff is likely to be subjected to external time and funding constraints. These constraints dictate that the estimates be based on readily available wind data. In general, readily available data will be limited to the data provided by the facility applicant or licensee and the data archived at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. This report describes readily available data that can be used in estimating extreme wind probabilities, procedures of screening the data to eliminate erroneous values and for adjusting data to compensate for differences in data collection methods, and statistical methods for making extreme wind estimates. Supporting technical details are presented in several appendices. Estimation of extreme wind probabilities at a given location involves many subjective decisions. The procedures described do not eliminate all of the subjectivity, but they do increase the reproducibility of the analysis. They provide consistent methods for determining probabilities given a set of subjective decisions. By following these procedures, subjective decisions can be identified and documented.

  12. The use of meta-analytical tools in risk assessment for food safety.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis

    2011-06-01

    This communication deals with the use of meta-analysis as a valuable tool for the synthesis of food safety research, and in quantitative risk assessment modelling. A common methodology for the conduction of meta-analysis (i.e., systematic review and data extraction, parameterisation of effect size, estimation of overall effect size, assessment of heterogeneity, and presentation of results) is explained by reviewing two meta-analyses derived from separate sets of primary studies of Salmonella in pork. Integrating different primary studies, the first meta-analysis elucidated for the first time a relationship between the proportion of Salmonella-carrier slaughter pigs entering the slaughter lines and the resulting proportion of contaminated carcasses at the point of evisceration; finding that the individual studies on their own could not reveal. On the other hand, the second application showed that meta-analysis can be used to estimate the overall effect of a critical process stage (chilling) on the incidence of the pathogen under study. The derivation of a relationship between variables and a probabilistic distribution is illustrations of the valuable quantitative information synthesised by the meta-analytical tools, which can be incorporated in risk assessment modelling. Strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis within the context of food safety are also discussed. PMID:21511145

  13. An Open-Label, Randomized, Flexible-Dose, Crossover Study to Assess the Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Sildenafil Citrate and Apomorphine Hydrochloride in Men with Erectile Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Giammusso; Giovanni M. Colpi; Luigi Cormio; Giuseppe Ludovico; Marcello Soli; Roberto Ponchietti; Francesco Montorsi; Claudio Panzironi; Bruno Guastella

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We report the methodology and results of a study that compared a dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine, with a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, in terms of efficacy, tolerability, satisfaction and patient preference. Patients and Methods: This was a 20-week open- label, randomized, flexible-dose, crossover study to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of sildenafil and apomorphine. One sequence group received treatment

  14. Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Nauta, Maarten J; Jansen, Jaap T

    2004-05-15

    Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) have been proposed as a practical tool to translate public health targets for food safety into tolerable levels of pathogens in a food product. The FSO concept is subject to intensive debate, and has not been developed in detail. We evaluate the proposed definition of FSOs and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. We conclude that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, we propose the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose). PMID:15135579

  15. STUDYING OF SAFETY CLIMATE ASSESSMENT: A CASE STUDY AT STEEL INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan DARVISH; Mehdi ROOSTAEI; Saeed AZIZI

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and

  16. Who can help me? The Safety Office offers ergonomic assessments for

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Who can help me? The Safety Office offers ergonomic assessments for all University of Winnipeg employees. Call 786.9894 to arrange an appointment. For more information on ergonomics, visit the Safety Office website at www. uwinnipeg.ca/index/safety-safety. ERGONOMICS OFFICE What is ergonomics? Ergonomics

  17. [Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

    2014-04-01

    Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p< 0.001). After the implementation of 5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on employees, and some sufficient satisfaction was observed. In addition, the non-conformity score, which was identified in the laboratory during the previous years, was significantly reduced at a rate of 69.7% after the implementation of 5S. 5S practices have successfully contributed to the establishment and to the sustainability of laboratory safety systems in the first public ISO 15189 accredited public clinical laboratory in Turkey. It is concluded that 5S methods can be used as an effective improvement tool in order to maintain a safe environment, to facilitate the job, and to encourage employees to participate in the management process. PMID:24819267

  18. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping. PMID:15876211

  19. Onshore wave energy resource: Methodology and tools for the assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T. [INETI/ITE, Lisbon (Portugal). Dept. of Renewable Energies

    1995-12-31

    The assessment of onshore wave energy resource should in general be based on computational shallow water wave models. The paper summarizes the variety of such models and indicates their merit for different coastal situations and type of study. Case studies for Ireland and Azores islands, Portugal, are presented. The present paper is focused on the evaluation of the onshore wave energy resource. A review of the shallow water phenomena regarding their role in the transformation of the resource as the waves approach the coastline is presented. Since several approaches were developed for predicting computationally the transformation waves undergo in shallow waters, the types of available models are summarized and their applicability to different coastal situations is outlined.

  20. A Structured Security Assessment Methodology for Manufacturers of Critical Infrastructure Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstetter, Thomas; Knorr, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Ute

    Protecting our critical infrastructures like energy generation and distribution, telecommunication, production and traffic against cyber attacks is one of the major challenges of the new millennium. However, as security is such a complex and multilayer topic often the necessary structured foundation is missing for a manufacturer to assess the current security level of a system. This paper introduces a methodology for structured security assessments which has been successfully applied during the development of several products for critical infrastructures. The methodology is described in detail and the lessons learnt are given from applying it to several systems during their development.

  1. Blood cytokines as biomarkers of in vivo toxicity in preclinical safety assessment: considerations for their use.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Jacqueline M

    2010-09-01

    In the drive to develop drugs with well-characterized and clinically monitorable safety profiles, there is incentive to expand the repertoire of safety biomarkers for toxicities without routine markers or premonitory detection. Biomarkers in blood are pursued because of specimen accessibility, opportunity for serial monitoring, quantitative measurement, and the availability of assay platforms. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (here referred to collectively as cytokines) show robust modulation in proximal events of inflammation, immune response, and repair. These are key general processes in many toxicities; therefore, cytokines are commonly identified during biomarker discovery studies. In addition, multiplexed cytokine immunoassays are easily applied to biomarker discovery and routine toxicity studies to measure blood cytokines. However, cytokines pose several challenges as safety biomarkers because of a short serum half-life; low to undetectable baseline levels; lack of tissue-specific or toxicity-specific expression; complexities related to cytokine expression with multiorgan involvement; and species, strain, and interindividual differences. Additional challenges to their application are caused by analytical, methodological, and study design-related variables. A final consideration is the strength of the relationship between changes in cytokine levels and the development of phenotypic or functional manifestations of toxicity. These factors should inform the integrated judgment-based qualification of novel biomarkers in preclinical, and potentially clinical, risk assessment. The dearth of robust, predictive cytokine biomarkers for specific toxicities is an indication of the significant complexity of these challenges. This review will consider the current state of the science and recommendations for appropriate application of cytokines in preclinical safety assessment. PMID:20447938

  2. Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

    2008-03-01

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

  3. Assessment of methodologies for airborne BaP analysis.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Iglesias, M; Grueiro-Noche, G; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2004-12-01

    Very sensitive analytical methods will be required to assess airborne contaminants with the implementation of new EC Directives. In this work, Soxhlet, ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were applied to two airborne standard reference materials (SRM) 1648 "Urban Particulate Matter" and SRM 1649a "Urban Dust". All three techniques afforded satisfactory results, but MAE was preferred due to its low solvent requirement and speed of analysis. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection was compared to gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionisation detection (FID) with programmed split-splitless injection (PSS) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) with programmed temperature vaporiser (PTV) injection. The HPLC method proved far more sensitive than the GC techniques (four and three orders of magnitude, respectively). Real atmospheric particulate samples were taken at A Coruna (Spain). Different sampling devices were used to collect PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1), cascade impactor and TSP/gas phase samples. BaP concentrations quantified in the samples are similar to those reported for other cities. PMID:15504523

  4. History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years

    SciTech Connect

    Spray, S.D.

    1996-06-01

    From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

  5. A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Maryam

    According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test misinterpretation. Finally, a rational decision making model is introduced to quantify a section of the developed conceptual framework in the previous step and analyze the impact of different decision making biases on negative pressure test results. Along with the corroborating findings of previous studies, the analysis of the developed conceptual framework in this paper indicates that organizational factors are root causes of accumulated errors and questionable decisions made by personnel or management. Further analysis of this framework identifies procedural issues, economic pressure, and personnel management issues as the organizational factors with the highest influence on misinterpreting a negative pressure test. It is noteworthy that the captured organizational factors in the introduced conceptual framework are not only specific to the scope of the NPT. Most of these organizational factors have been identified as not only the common contributing causes of other offshore drilling accidents but also accidents in other oil and gas related operations as well as high-risk operations in other industries. In addition, the proposed rational decision making model in this research introduces a quantitative structure for analysis of the results of a conducted NPT. This model provides a structure and some parametric derived formulas to determine a cut-off point value, which assists personnel in accepting or rejecting an implemented negative pressure test. Moreover, it enables analysts to assess different decision making biases involved in the process of interpreting a conducted negative pressure test as well as the root organizational factors of those biases. In general, although the proposed integrated research methodology in this dissertation is developed for the risk assessment of human and organizational factors contributions in negative pressure test misinterpretation, it can be generalized and be potentially useful for other well control situations, both offshore and onshore; e.g. fracking. In addition, this methodology can be applied for the analysis

  6. Development of an integrated methodology in support of remaining life assessment of Co60 based gamma irradiation facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. Varde; N. S. Joshi; Mayank Agarwal; Amit Shrivastava; L. N. Bandi; A. K. Kohli

    2011-01-01

    An integrated approach has been developed for the remaining life assessment of an irradiation facility. The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) was performed for the plant to develop the quantified indicators of safety for various situations. PSA results were used to identify and prioritize the systems and components for deterministic assessment. The insight developed from various accidents world over has also

  7. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Sodium Silicate, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite1 This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium

  8. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, Calvin D.; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  9. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Derring, L.R. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of Low-Level Waste Management and Decommissioning); Kozak, M.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: identification of environmental pathways, ranking the significance of the pathways, identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. This paper summarizes the NRC approach for conducting evaluations of license applications for low-level radioactive waste facilities. 23 refs.

  10. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  11. A Methodology for Assessing the Effect of Countermeasures Against a Nuclear Accident Using Fuzzy Set Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Han; W. T. Hwang; E. H. Kim; K. S. Suh; Y. G. Choi

    A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures against a nuclear accident has been designed by means of the concept of fuzzy set theory. In most of the existing countermeasure models in actions under radiological emergencies, the large variety of possible features is simplified by a number of rough assumptions. During this simplification procedure, a lot of information is lost

  12. Methodological aspects of life cycle assessment of integrated solid waste management systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Finnveden

    1999-01-01

    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) developed rapidly during the 1990s and has reached a certain level of harmonisation and standardisation. LCA has mainly been developed for analysing material products, but can also be applied to services, e.g. treatment of a particular amount of solid waste. This paper discusses some methodological issues which come into focus when LCAs are applied to

  13. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Kashapova, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks.

  14. A Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Hydrogen-based Transportation Energy Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan McCarthy

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to assess the reliability of hydrogen supply systems for transportation applications. It relies on a panel of experts to rate the reliability and importance of various metrics as they pertain to selected hydrogen systems. These are aggregated to develop broad reliability scores to be compared across systems. A trial application of the methodology is presented,

  15. Developing a Customized Program Assessment Methodology for Assurance of Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Hope; Brawley, Dorothy; Campbell, Jane; Capozzoli, Ernest; Malgeri, Linda; Roberts, Gary

    2007-01-01

    For most academic institutions, selecting and/or designing a Program Assessment methodology for Assurance of Learning is a challenging task. This paper describes the steps taken to establish goals, values and criteria driving this process for a College of Business. In this case analysis, we document the options we explored in finding the right…

  16. A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality to use virtual reality as a sim- ulation environment to test different parameters, by making users on virtual reality, questionnaires and physiological measures -- for future studies. CR Categories: I.2

  17. MULTI-MEDIA MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the risk of municipal sludge to acceptable levels, the U.S. EPA has undertaken a regulatory program based on risk assessment and risk management. The key to such a program is the development of a methodology which allows the regulatory agency to quantify the re...

  18. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for Land Application and Distribution and Marketing of Municipal Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution a...

  19. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Effects of Maltreatment Characteristics on Behavioral Adjustment in Maltreated Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Milling Kinard

    2004-01-01

    This paper explored methodological issues in examining the impact of maltreatment characteristics on behavioral adjustment in a sample of maltreated school-age children. Different approaches to assessing the effects of maltreatment type were used to determine whether maltreatment characteristics differed by type of maltreatment and whether relationships between maltreatment characteristics and child behavioral functioning differed according to type of maltreatment. Results

  20. A Methodology to Assess Lethality and Collateral Damage for Nonfragmenting Precision-Guided Weapons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Humphrey; David Faulkner

    2008-01-01

    A methodology was developed to assess lethality and collateral damage for the Focused Lethality Munition (FLM) program. FLM is a new nonfragmenting, precision-guided weapon with damage effects mechanisms that differ from the principal fragmentation damage effects for traditional weapons. To date, guidelines to determine lethality, based on mannequin test data, have not been articulated for nonfragmenting warheads such as FLM.

  1. Application of california ISO transmission economic assessment methodology (team) for the sunrise powerlink project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Chowdhury; David Le

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the application of California ISO approach in evaluating economic benefit of the Sunrise Powerlink transmission project, which was proposed by San Diego Gas & Electric Company (SDG&E). The California ISO (CAISO) applied its Transmission Economic Assessment Methodology (TEAM) in its original evaluation of the economic benefits of the Sunrise Powerlink Project. Five principles constitute

  2. Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  3. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

  4. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  5. A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

  6. Development of a methodology for strategic environmental assessment: application to the assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related legislation procedure could not be arranged due to a few senators' resistance. A self-review of the control phase was carried out in 2006 using this methodology. Installation permits for 12 courses on slope lands were terminated after 2001 and then 27 future courses could be installed on marginal lands. The assessment value of this policy using the data on ecological, social, and economic conditions from 2006 was higher than that using the data from 2001. The analytical results illustrate that the proposed methodology can be used to effectively and efficiently assist the related authorities for SEA. PMID:19015828

  7. Development of a Methodology for Strategic Environmental Assessment: Application to the Assessment of Golf Course Installation Policy in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Wei-Lin; Su, Wen-Ray; Chang, Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Some countries, including Taiwan, have adopted strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to assess and modify proposed policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) in the planning phase for pursuing sustainable development. However, there were only some sketchy steps focusing on policy assessment in the system of Taiwan. This study aims to develop a methodology for SEA in Taiwan to enhance the effectiveness associated with PPPs. The proposed methodology comprises an SEA procedure involving PPP management and assessment in various phases, a sustainable assessment framework, and an SEA management system. The SEA procedure is devised based on the theoretical considerations by systems thinking and the regulative requirements in Taiwan. The positive and negative impacts on ecology, society, and economy are simultaneously considered in the planning (including policy generation and evaluation), implementation, and control phases of the procedure. This study used the analytic hierarchy process, Delphi technique, and systems analysis to develop a sustainable assessment framework. An SEA management system was built based on geographic information system software to process spatial, attribute, and satellite image data during the assessment procedure. The proposed methodology was applied in the SEA of golf course installation policy in 2001 as a case study, which was the first SEA in Taiwan. Most of the 82 existing golf courses in 2001 were installed on slope lands and caused a serious ecological impact. Assessment results indicated that 15 future golf courses installed on marginal lands (including buffer zones, remedied lands, and wastelands) were acceptable because the comprehensive environmental (ecological, social, and economic) assessment value was better based on environmental characteristics and management regulations of Taiwan. The SEA procedure in the planning phase for this policy was completed but the implementation phase of this policy was not begun because the related legislation procedure could not be arranged due to a few senators’ resistance. A self-review of the control phase was carried out in 2006 using this methodology. Installation permits for 12 courses on slope lands were terminated after 2001 and then 27 future courses could be installed on marginal lands. The assessment value of this policy using the data on ecological, social, and economic conditions from 2006 was higher than that using the data from 2001. The analytical results illustrate that the proposed methodology can be used to effectively and efficiently assist the related authorities for SEA.

  8. Methodology for assessing onshore impacts for Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas development. Volume I. executive summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tencer

    1980-01-01

    Volume I is the first of three volumes presenting methodologies for assessing onshore impacts for offshore continental shelf oil and gas development. The primary objective of this methodology is to offer guidelines for obtaining early projections of future significant activities. Designed as a primer for potential users to determine whether they want to use all or part of the methodology,

  9. Safety assessment in schools: beyond risk: the role of child psychiatrists and other mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Nancy; Pollack, William S; Flaherty, Lois T; Schwartz, Sarah E O; McMickens, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    This article presents an overview of a comprehensive school safety assessment approach for students whose behavior raises concern about their potential for targeted violence. Case vignettes highlight the features of 2 youngsters who exemplify those seen, the comprehensive nature of the assessment, and the kind of recommendations that enhance a student's safety, connection, well-being; engage families; and share responsibility of assessing safety with the school. PMID:25773324

  10. A methodological approach to non-invasive assessments of vascular function and morphology.

    PubMed

    Sandoo, Aamer; Kitas, George D

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium is the innermost lining of the vasculature and is involved in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. Damage to the endothelium may predispose the vessel to atherosclerosis and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Assessments of peripheral endothelial function are good indicators of early abnormalities in the vascular wall and correlate well with assessments of coronary endothelial function. The present manuscript details the important methodological steps necessary for the assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis, large vessel endothelial function using flow-mediated dilatation, and carotid atherosclerosis using carotid artery ultrasound. A discussion on the methodological considerations for each of the techniques is also presented, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:25741637

  11. Use of a structured descriptive assessment methodology to identify variables affecting problem behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Long, Ethan S

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a variation of functional assessment methodology, the structured descriptive assessment (SDA). The SDA is conducted in an individual's natural environment and involves systematically manipulating antecedent variables while leaving consequences free to vary. Results were evaluated by comparing the results of an SDA with results obtained from an analogue functional analysis with 4 children who exhibited problem behavior. For 3 of 4 participants, the results of the two assessments suggested similar hypotheses about variables maintaining problem behavior. Interventions based on the results of the SDA were implemented for 3 children and resulted in significant reductions in rates of problem behavior. PMID:12102134

  12. A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

    2009-07-22

    A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs describes the purpose, data and methods used to calculate ranges or rankings for research-doctorate programs that participated in the NRC Assessment of Research-Doctorate programs. It is intended for those at universities who will have to explain the NRC Assessment to others at their university, to potential students, and to the press. Although the main text is fairly non-technical, it includes a technical description of the statistical methods used to derive rankings of over 5000 doctoral programs in 61 fields.

  13. A Methodology to Assess and Evaluate Rainwater Harvesting Techniques in (Semi-)Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ammar; Riksen, Michel; Ouessar, Mohamed; Ritsema, Coen

    2015-04-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions around the world are generally facing water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Many researchers have presented and applied different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for RWH. However, there is still little attention given to evaluation of the performance of RWH structures. The aim of this research was to design a scientifically-based and generally applicable methodology to evaluate and assess the performance of existing RWH techniques in (semi-) arid regions. The methodology takes engineering, biophysical, and socio-economic criteria into account to assess the performance of RWH using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) supported by Geographic Information System (GIS). The Oum Zessar watershed in south-eastern Tunisia is used as a case study site to test this evaluation tool. The performance of 58 RWH locations (14 jessour and 44 tabias) in three main sub-catchments of Oum Zessar watershed were assessed and evaluated. Based on the criteria selected, 60performance, 36received good performance scores. The results very accurately represent the real performance of each site. This integrated methodology, which is highly flexible, saves time and costs, and is easy to adapt in different regions, provides a scientifically based analytical tool to support designers and decision makers aiming to improve the performance of existing and new RWH sites.

  14. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of land resources, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian, E-mail: cumt_chenlongqian@163.com [School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui [Department of Geography, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  15. Safety assessment of mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jong Ho; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-03-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette "A" was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette "T". The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette "A" did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette "A" were higher than those in the general cigarette "T". The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette "A" were higher than those in the general cigarette "T", but cresol contents in herbal cigarette "A" were lower than those in the general cigarette "T". The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette "A" was higher than that in the general cigarette "T"; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette "A" were lower than those in the general cigarette "T". The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette "A" exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette "T" at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  16. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market. PMID:25874032

  17. A Geospatial Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Lisle S.; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

    2013-01-01

    Background: While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of…

  18. A methodology for post-mainshock probabilistic assessment of building collapse risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, N.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for post-earthquake probabilistic risk (of damage) assessment that we propose in order to develop a computational tool for automatic or semi-automatic assessment. The methodology utilizes the same so-called risk integral which can be used for pre-earthquake probabilistic assessment. The risk integral couples (i) ground motion hazard information for the location of a structure of interest with (ii) knowledge of the fragility of the structure with respect to potential ground motion intensities. In the proposed post-mainshock methodology, the ground motion hazard component of the risk integral is adapted to account for aftershocks which are deliberately excluded from typical pre-earthquake hazard assessments and which decrease in frequency with the time elapsed since the mainshock. Correspondingly, the structural fragility component is adapted to account for any damage caused by the mainshock, as well as any uncertainty in the extent of this damage. The result of the adapted risk integral is a fully-probabilistic quantification of post-mainshock seismic risk that can inform emergency response mobilization, inspection prioritization, and re-occupancy decisions.

  19. Methodology for assessing system performance loss within a proactive maintenance framework

    E-print Network

    Cocheteux, Pierre; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance plays now a critical role in manufacturing for achieving important cost savings and competitive advantage while preserving product conditions. It suggests moving from conventional maintenance practices to predictive strategy. Indeed the maintenance action has to be done at the right time based on the system performance and component Remaining Useful Life (RUL) assessed by a prognostic process. In that way, this paper proposes a methodology in order to evaluate the performance loss of the system according to the degradation of component and the deviations of system input flows. This methodology is supported by the neuro-fuzzy tool ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems) that allows to integrate knowledge from two different sources: expertise and real data. The feasibility and added value of such methodology is then highlighted through an application case extracted from the TELMA platform used for education and research.

  20. Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.

    PubMed

    Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-12-01

    I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

  1. Efficiency assessment of coal mine safety input by data envelopment analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei TONG; Ri-jia DING

    2008-01-01

    In recent years improper allocation of safety input has prevailed in coal mines in China, which resulted in the frequent accidents in coal mining operation. A comprehensive assessment of the input efficiency of coal mine safety should lead to improved efficiency in the use of funds and management resources. This helps government and enterprise managers better understand how safety inputs

  2. Assessing the state of organizational safety—culture or climate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn J. Mearns; Rhona Flin

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of safety culture and safety climate in an attempt to determine which is the more useful\\u000a for describing an organization's “state of safety.” From a review of the literature purporting to measure safety culture or\\u000a safety climate, it is argued that, although the two terms are often interchangeable, they are actually distinct but related\\u000a concepts

  3. Department of Defense methodology guidelines for High Power Microwave (HPM) susceptibility assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesser, Nancy C.

    1990-01-01

    It is the intention of the National High Power Microwave (HPM) Program to complete a series of tests over the next two years to validate the methodology described in these guidelines. When those tests are completed and results analyzed, this document will be revised to reflect lessons learned during the validation process. In addition, the Methodology Sub-Panel is compiling a second volume on specific measurement techniques. This volume (Volume 1) is intended to provide guidance to the Program Manager on the critical steps in a well-conceived test program. Volume 2 will provide detailed step-by-step information to the engineer who is responsible for performing the tests. The body of this volume is divided into seven sections. Sections 2 through 7 provide detailed descriptions of the activities within each of the modular steps which comprise the methodology schematically; Section 2: pre-test system analysis; Section 3: low power microwave tests -- coupling/subsystem component tests; Section 5: susceptibility assessment and test planning; Section 6: high power microwave tests; and Section 7: susceptibility assessment and test evaluation. The executive summary reviews the reasons for development of the methodology and provides brief descriptions of each module. Appendix B provides definitions of special terms and acronyms which are used throughout the document.

  4. Safety climate and self-reported injury: assessing the mediating role of employee safety control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Ho, Michael; Smith, Gordon S; Chen, Peter Y

    2006-05-01

    To further reduce injuries in the workplace, companies have begun focusing on organizational factors which may contribute to workplace safety. Safety climate is an organizational factor commonly cited as a predictor of injury occurrence. Characterized by the shared perceptions of employees, safety climate can be viewed as a snapshot of the prevailing state of safety in the organization at a discrete point in time. However, few studies have elaborated plausible mechanisms through which safety climate likely influences injury occurrence. A mediating model is proposed to link safety climate (i.e., management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training) with self-reported injury through employees' perceived control on safety. Factorial evidence substantiated that management commitment to safety, return-to-work policies, post-injury administration, and safety training are important dimensions of safety climate. In addition, the data support that safety climate is a critical factor predicting the history of a self-reported occupational injury, and that employee safety control mediates the relationship between safety climate and occupational injury. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating organizational factors and workers' characteristics in efforts to improve organizational safety performance. PMID:16442068

  5. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  7. No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety

    PubMed Central

    Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Mädler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose. PMID:21301704

  8. Performance assessment of feature detection algorithms: a methodology and case study on corner detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter I. Rockett

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a generic methodology for evaluating the labeling performance of feature detectors. We de- scribe a method for generating a test set and apply the method- ology to the performance assessment of three well-known corner detectors: the Kitchen-Rosenfeld, Paler et al., and Harris-Stephens corner detectors. The labeling deficiencies of each of these detec- tors is related

  9. Methodological proposals for improved assessments of the impact of traffic noise upon human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Franco; Daniel Garraín; Rosario Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  Several methodological shortcomings still hinder the inclusion of transport noise as an established impact category within\\u000a life cycle assessment (LCA). Earlier attempts to quantify the health damages caused by traffic noise yielded valuable results\\u000a from an academic point of view, but these were of limited use in the context of everyday LCA practice. An enhanced understanding\\u000a of

  10. A methodology to assess the effects of high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, E. R., Jr.; Eichler, C. H.; Barnes, P. R.

    Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from high altitude nuclear detonations (HEMP) has the potential to seriously disrupt electric power systems. A methodology has been developed to assess the vulnerability of electric power systems to this phenomena for any specified nuclear burst scenario. The methodology is based on a structured approach whereby the power system is broken down into subsystems, functional groups, and circuits and devices. Vulnerability (likelihood of failure) is assessed for individual equipment (circuits and devices) for each nuclear burst scenario. These effects are then evaluated for their performance impact on successively higher system levels. This forms the input for classical load flow, short circuit and transient stability studies to evaluate system stability and survivability. Applicability of the assessment methodology is not dependent on the quality of component/equipment vulnerability data. Susceptibility of power equipment to HEMP damage may be determined by established technical analysis, by intepretation of equipment design and testing standards, and by laboratory testing. This paper has been written not only for the electric utility engineer, but also for experts in EMP who may not be knowledgeable in electric utility systems.

  11. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  12. Amended final report of the safety assessment of cocamidopropylamine oxide.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Cocamidopropylamine Oxide is a tertiary amine oxide which functions as a hair-conditioning agent and as a surfactant, currently used in 60 cosmetic formulations at concentrations between 0.07% and 4.0%. In an earlier safety assessment, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel had determined that the available data were insufficient to support the safety of this ingredient in cosmetic products. Additional data have now been provided and reviewed. Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was determined to have an acute oral LD(50) between 500 and 1000 mg/kg day(-1) using rats. The acute dermal LD(50) in rats was > 2174 mg/kg day(-1). A 28-day repeated oral dose toxicity study in rats found hemolytic anemia at 150 and 1000 mg/kg day(- 1), with a no observed effect level (NOEL) of 15 mg/kg day(- 1). At 5%, Cocamidopropylamine Oxide solution was not a primary dermal irritant. Application of 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide to rabbit skin caused moderate irritation under Draize classification scale, but 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide in rabbit eyes caused severe irritation. A maximization study classified Cocamidopropylamine Oxide as a nonsensitizer to guinea pig skin. Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was not mutagenic in an Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. No evidence of increased chromosomal aberrations were noted in human lymphocytes treated with 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide. In a clinical study, 7.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was not a sensitizer, although it did produce some reactions typical of mild irritation. Although the impurities, amidoamine and dimethylaminopropylamine, have been implicated in contact allergy reactions to products containing cocamidopropylamine betaine, clinical testing of a product with cocamidopropylamine betaine containing these impurities, at levels comparable to those found in Cocamidopropylamine Oxide, failed to produce a reaction in 10 individuals known to be sensitive to cocamidopropylamine betaine. Two repeat-insult patch tests using a facial wash with 1% raw material containing 35% to 36.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide did not find evidence of dermal sensitization. Tests for dermal phototoxicity and photoallergenicity with the same facial wash product also did not produce evidence of effect. The CIR Expert Panel recognizes that there are data gaps regarding the use and concentration of this ingredient. However, the overall information available on types of products in which this ingredient is used and at what concentration indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety. Overall, these data demonstrate that Cocamidopropylamine Oxide has low toxicity in animal and in vitro tests. Although there are no available carcinogenicity data, the available genotoxicity data, combined with the absence of any structural alerts, suggest no carcinogenic potential. The Panel noted the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data. Because this ingredient has a highly polarized molecular structure, the Panel considered that it would be, at most, slowly absorbed. Given that most of the uses and the highest use concentration of 4% is found in rinse-off products, the Panel determined that the available data suggest that Cocamidopropylamine Oxide is safe as used in rinse-off products. Although dermal penetration may be slow, data on the extent of dermal penetration of Cocamidopropylamine Oxide are needed to support the safety of leave-on uses. If there is significant dermal absorption, dermal reproductive and developmental toxicity data may be needed. PMID:18569162

  13. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Part 1: An overview of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Wulff, W.; Zuber, N.

    1988-01-01

    In August 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the final version of a revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) entitled ''Emergency Core Cooling System; Revisions to Acceptance Criteria.'' The revised rule states an alternate ECCS performance analysis, based on best-estimate methods, may be used to provide more realistic estimates of plant safety margins, provided the licensee quantifies the uncertainty of the estimates and included that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with prescribed acceptance limits. To support the revised ECCS rule, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. It is an auditable, traceable, and practical method for combining quantitative analyses and expert opinions to arrive at computed values of uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the CSAU evaluation methodology and its application to a postulated cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor with 17 /times/ 17 fuel. The code selected for this demonstration of the CSAU methodology was TRAC-PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Assessing multimodal school travel safety in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Noreen C; McGrane, Ann B; Rodgman, Eric A; Steiner, Ruth L; Palmer, W Mathew; Lytle, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    School transportation has been the subject of numerous federal and state policies since the early twentieth century-the Safe Routes to School program is the most recent example. However, few recent studies have thoroughly analyzed the risks and costs associated with different modes of transportation to school. Our descriptive study assessed the injury and fatality rates and related safety costs of different modes of school transportation using crash and exposure data from North Carolina, USA from 2005 to 2012. We found that riding with a teen driver is the most dangerous mode on a per trip basis with injury rates 20 times higher and fatality rates 90 times higher than school buses, which had the lowest injury rates. Non-motorized modes had per trip injury rates equivalent to school buses but per trip fatality rates were 15 times higher than for school buses. The economic costs of school travel-related injuries and fatalities for walking, biking, and teen drivers were substantially higher than other modes. This research has important policy implications because it quantified the risks of different school travel modes which allows policymakers to consider how safety investments can reduce risks. Decades of effort by schools, communities, and the government have made school buses a very safe mode and endeavored to reduce risks to teen drivers. This study highlighted the need for these same actors to reduce the risks of injury for walking and bicycling. As more improvements are made to infrastructure around schools, repeated studies of this type will allow practitioners to examine whether the improvements help mitigate the risks. PMID:25463952

  15. Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items. PMID:24786942

  16. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Lactobacillus genus.

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, Marion; Vernoux, Jean Paul; Henri-Dubernet, Ségolène; Guéguen, Micheline

    2008-09-01

    Lactobacilli are Gram positive rods belonging to the Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) group. Their phenotypic traits, such as each species' obligate/facultative, homo/heterofermentation abilities play a crucial role in souring raw milk and in the production of fermented dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt and fermented milk (including probiotics). An up to date safety analysis of these lactobacilli is needed to ensure consumer safety. Lactobacillus genus is a heterogeneous microbial group containing some 135 species and 27 subspecies, whose classification is constantly being reshuffled. With the recent use of advanced molecular methods it has been suggested that the extreme diversity of the Lactobacillus genomes would justify recognition of new subgeneric divisions. A combination of genotypic and phenotypic tests, for example DNA-based techniques and conventional carbohydrate tests, is required to determine species. Pulsed-Field gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) has been successfully applied to strains of dairy origin and is the most discriminatory and reproducible method for differentiating Lactobacillus strains. The bibliographical data support the hypothesis that the ingestion of Lactobacillus is not at all hazardous since lactobacillemia induced by food, particularly fermented dairy products, is extremely rare and only occurs in predisposed patients. Some metabolic features such as the possible production of biogenic amines in fermented products could generate undesirable adverse effects. A minority of starter and adjunct cultures and probiotic Lactobacillus strains may exceptionally show transferable antibiotic resistance. However, this may be underestimated as transferability studies are not systematic. We consider that transferable antibiotic resistance is the only relevant cause for caution and justifies performing antibiotic-susceptibility assays as these strains have the potential to serve as hosts of antibiotic-resistance genes, with the risk of transferring these genes to other bacteria. However, as a general rule, lactobacilli have a high natural resistance to many antibiotics, especially vancomycin, that is not transferable. Safety assessment requirements for Lactobacillus strains of technological interest should be limited to an antibiotic profile and a study to determine whether any antibiotic resistance(s) of medical interest detected is (or are) transferable. This agrees with the recent EFSA proposal suggesting attribution of a QPS status for 32 selected species of lactobacilli. PMID:17889388

  17. An Assessment of the Methodological Quality of Published Network Meta-Analyses: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, James D.; Naci, Huseyin; Wouters, Olivier J.; Pyo, Junhee; Gunjal, Shalak; Kennedy, Ian R.; Hoey, Mark G.; Winn, Aaron; Neumann, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the methodological quality of published network meta-analysis. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched the medical literature for network meta-analyses of pharmaceuticals. We assessed general study characteristics, study transparency and reproducibility, methodological approach, and reporting of findings. We compared studies published in journals with lower impact factors with those published in journals with higher impact factors, studies published prior to January 1st, 2013 with those published after that date, and studies supported financially by industry with those supported by non-profit institutions or that received no support. Results The systematic literature search identified 854 citations. Three hundred and eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. The number of network meta-analyses has grown rapidly, with 48% of studies published since January 2013. The majority of network meta-analyses were supported by a non-profit institution or received no support (68%). We found considerable inconsistencies among reviewed studies. Eighty percent reported search terms, 61% a network diagram, 65% sufficient data to replicate the analysis, and 90% the characteristics of included trials. Seventy percent performed a risk of bias assessment of included trials, 40% an assessment of model fit, and 56% a sensitivity analysis. Among studies with a closed loop, 69% examined the consistency of direct and indirect evidence. Sixty-four percent of studies presented the full matrix of head-to-head treatment comparisons. For Bayesian studies, 41% reported the probability that each treatment was best, 31% reported treatment ranking, and 16% included the model code or referenced publicly-available code. Network meta-analyses published in higher impact factors journals and those that did not receive industry support performed better across the assessment criteria. We found few differences between older and newer studies. Conclusions There is substantial variation in the network meta-analysis literature. Consensus among guidelines is needed improve the methodological quality, transparency, and consistency of study conduct and reporting. PMID:25923737

  18. Assessment of Asset Safety Risk for Transmission Stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hamoud; J. Toneguzzo; C. Yung; A. Wong

    2006-01-01

    Safety to workers and to the public has been one of the most important concerns for electric utilities to be in the deregulated electricity market. In achieving high safety performance for station equipment, electric utilities are using approved planning, design and operation guidelines and standards in order to minimize or eliminate hazardous events that may endanger safety to personnel. Hydro

  19. Application of a Comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis Method on the Safety Assessment of TRU Waste Disposal in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takao Ohi; Manabu Inagaki; Tomoyuki Sone; Morihiro Mihara; Takeshi Ebashi [JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Hiroyasu Takase [Quintessa K. K, Queen's Tower A 7-707, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawaken, 220-6007 (Japan); Kiyoshi Oyamada [JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa-ken, 220-6001 (Japan); Kunihiko Nakajima [NESI Inc., 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1112 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive sensitivity analysis method has been developed with the aim of providing quantitative information in an efficient manner. This methodology is composed of the following two components: (1) a statistical method with random sampling of independent parameters, which identifies important parameters and extracts threshold values of parameters and/or combinations yielding a 'successful condition' where maximum dose does not exceed a target value, (2) A nuclide migration model that as far as possible incorporates a comprehensive set of phenomena occurring within the repository. This approach was applied as part of a safety assessment of the geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in Japan (TRU-2). It was shown that the concept of TRU waste disposal is robust from the point of view of safety. (authors)

  20. 76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

  1. RIVER BASIN VALIDATION OF THE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SCREENING NONDESIGNATED 208 AREAS. VOLUME II: CHESAPEAKE-SANDUSKY NONDESIGNATED 208 SCREENING METHODOLOGY DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In earlier work under the sponsorship of EPA, a screening methodology was produced by Tetra Tech, Inc., for assessing water quality problems in areas not covered under Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and loading functions were developed ...

  2. The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

  3. Landscape modeling for dose calculations in the safety assessment of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), PO Box 5864, 102 40 Stockholm (Sweden); Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,(SKB), pursues site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at two sites in the south eastern part of Sweden, the Forsmark- and the Laxemar site. Data from the two site investigations are used to build site descriptive models of the areas. These models describe the bedrock and surface system properties important for designing the repository, the environmental impact assessment, and the long-term safety, i.e. up to 100,000 years, in a safety assessment. In this paper we discuss the methodology, and the interim results for, the landscape model, used in the safety assessment to populate the Forsmark site in the numerical dose models. The landscape model is built upon ecosystem types, e.g. a lake or a mire, (Biosphere Objects) that are connected in the landscape via surface hydrology. Each of the objects have a unique set of properties derived from the site description. The objects are identified by flow transport modeling, giving discharge points at the surface for all possible flow paths from the hypothetical repository in the bedrock. The landscape development is followed through time by using long-term processes e.g. shoreline displacement and sedimentation. The final landscape model consists of a number of maps for each chosen time period and a table of properties that describe the individual objects which constitutes the landscape. The results show a landscape that change over time during 20,000 years. The time period used in the model equals the present interglacial and can be used as an analogue for a future interglacial. Historically, the model area was covered by sea, and then gradually changes into a coastal area and, in the future, into a terrestrial inland landscape. Different ecosystem types are present during the landscape development, e.g. sea, lakes, agricultural areas, forest and wetlands (mire). The biosphere objects may switch from one ecosystem type to another during the modeled time period, from sea to lake, and from lake to mire and finally, some objects are transformed into agricultural area due to favorable farming characteristics. (authors)

  4. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  5. STREAM TRANSPORT AND AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF OF PESTICIDES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A METHODOLOGY. PART A. TEXT AND APPENDICES A THROUGH F

    EPA Science Inventory

    To predict the potential environmental or human health risk posed by agricultural pesticides, exposure assessments require the estimation of chemical concentrations in field runoff and in associated streams. In the report, a methodology is described for estimating the mean, maxim...

  6. STREAM TRANSPORT AND AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF OF PESTICIDES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A METHODOLOGY. PART B. APPENDICES G THROUGH K

    EPA Science Inventory

    To predict the potential environmental or human health risk posed by agricultural pesticides, exposure assessments require the estimation of chemical concentrations in field runoff and in associated streams. In the report, a methodology is described for estimating the mean, maxim...

  7. Application of an integrated methodology for eutrophication assessment: a case study in the Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zaixing; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Yuan, Yongquan; Cao, Xihua; Liang, Yubo

    2013-09-01

    An integrated methodology for eutrophication assessment, which integrates both water quality indicators (causative factors) and ecological response indicators (effect factors), is described. It is then applied to rank the eutrophication status of the years 2007 and 2008 in the southwest Bohai Sea. The assessment model identified that north Bohai Bay and west Laizhou Bay were the two areas with the most serious eutrophication problems in the southwest Bohai Sea. In addition, compared to that in the west Laizhou Bay, the eutrophication conditions in the north Bohai Bay was more serious in both years. Eutrophication problems such as harmful algal blooms (HABs) and low dissolved oxygen (DO) events in north Bohai Bay were frequent. The integrated method outmatched the currently used Chinese nutrient index method by definitely identifying areas with the most serious eutrophication problems, while the nutrient index method gave ambiguous results between the two years. Inclusion of both causative factors and effect factors, combining concentration, spatial coverage and frequency of indicators, as well as use of multi-season monitoring datasets in the methodology result in a more accurate, representative and useful assessment.

  8. Ecological risk assessment methodology for species exposed to contaminant mixtures with application to Chesapeake Bay striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.T.; Wilson, H.T.

    1995-12-31

    This report is on the development of a new methodology to assess potential risks to natural populations exposed to contaminant mixtures. The purpose of this project was to develop an objective and quantitative methodology that could help ChesapeakeBay environmental managers assess the potential risks that mixtures of chemical contaminants might pose to resource species. Application of the method was to be demonstrated on Chesapeake Bay striped bass populations to the extent that available data allowed.

  9. Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD): An Analysis Tool for Spacecraft Safety Analysis and Ascent/Reentry Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of performing safety analysis and risk assessment for a potential off-nominal atmospheric reentry resulting in vehicle breakup, a synthesis of trajectory propagation coupled with thermal analysis and the evaluation of node failure is required to predict the sequence of events, the timeline, and the progressive demise of spacecraft components. To provide this capability, the Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD) analysis tool was developed. The software and methodology have been validated against actual flights, telemetry data, and validated software, and safety/risk analyses were performed for various programs using SPEAD. This report discusses the capabilities, modeling, validation, and application of the SPEAD analysis tool.

  10. A brief review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies in sport.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

    2014-05-01

    An athletic profile should encompass the physiological, biomechanical, anthropometric and performance measures pertinent to the athlete's sport and discipline. The measurement systems and procedures used to create these profiles are constantly evolving and becoming more precise and practical. This is a review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies used in sport, a critique of current maximum strength [one-repetition maximum (1RM) and isometric strength] and ballistic performance (bench throw and jump capabilities) assessments for the purpose of informing practitioners and evolving current assessment methodologies. The reliability of the various maximum strength and ballistic assessment methodologies were reported in the form of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficient of variation (%CV). Mean percent differences (Mdiff = [/Xmethod1 - Xmethod2/ / (Xmethod1 + Xmethod2)] x 100) and effect size (ES = [Xmethod2 - Xmethod1] ÷ SDmethod1) calculations were used to assess the magnitude and spread of methodological differences for a given performance measure of the included studies. Studies were grouped and compared according to their respective performance measure and movement pattern. The various measurement systems (e.g., force plates, position transducers, accelerometers, jump mats, optical motion sensors and jump-and-reach apparatuses) and assessment procedures (i.e., warm-up strategies, loading schemes and rest periods) currently used to assess maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull strength (ICC > 0.95; CV < 2.0%), 1RM bench press, back squat and clean strength (ICC > 0.91; CV < 4.3%), and ballistic (vertical jump and bench throw) capabilities (ICC > 0.82; CV < 6.5%) were deemed highly reliable. The measurement systems and assessment procedures employed to assess maximum isometric strength [M(Diff) = 2-71%; effect size (ES) = 0.13-4.37], 1RM strength (M(Diff) = 1-58%; ES = 0.01-5.43), vertical jump capabilities (M(Diff) = 2-57%; ES = 0.02-4.67) and bench throw capabilities (M(Diff) = 7-27%; ES = 0.49-2.77) varied greatly, producing trivial to very large effects on these respective measures. Recreational to highly trained athletes produced maximum isometric squat and mid-thigh pull forces of 1,000-4,000 N; and 1RM bench press, back squat and power clean values of 80-180 kg, 100-260 kg and 70-140 kg, respectively. Mean and peak power production across the various loads (body mass to 60% 1RM) were between 300 and 1,500 W during the bench throw and between 1,500 and 9,000 W during the vertical jump. The large variations in maximum strength and power can be attributed to the wide range in physical characteristics between different sports and athletic disciplines, training and chronological age as well as the different measurement systems of the included studies. The reliability and validity outcomes suggest that a number of measurement systems and testing procedures can be implemented to accurately assess maximum strength and ballistic performance in recreational and elite athletes, alike. However, the reader needs to be cognisant of the inherent differences between measurement systems, as selection will inevitably affect the outcome measure. The strength and conditioning practitioner should also carefully consider the benefits and limitations of the different measurement systems, testing apparatuses, attachment sites, movement patterns (e.g., direction of movement, contraction type, depth), loading parameters (e.g., no load, single load, absolute load, relative load, incremental loading), warm-up strategies, inter-trial rest periods, dependent variables of interest (i.e., mean, peak and rate dependent variables) and data collection and processing techniques (i.e., sampling frequency, filtering and smoothing options). PMID:24497158

  11. Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council

    E-print Network

    Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources ­ Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council This project addresses greenhouse gas reductions in GHG, and b) use analytical tools/methods to assess the emissions reductions possible through

  12. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic material that should try to protect from patenting and commercialisation. Finally, we should be aware of the requirements of movement of GMOs within borders, i.e. GMOs grown or used in other countries but which are not intended to cross into Greece, since Greece is very close to countries that are non-EU. This is where the development of a new, integrated, trustworthy and transparent food quality control system will help to satisfy the societal demands for safe and quality products. On the other hand, Greece should not be isolated from any recent scientific technological development and should assess the possible advantages for some cultivation using a case by case approach. Finally, the safety assessment of GM foods and feed has been discussed according to the risk assessment methodology applied by EFSA. PMID:17275157

  13. A Role for Risk Assessment in Dam Safety Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Bowles; Loren R. Anderson; Terry F. Glover

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine various factors which have lead to the trend for using the risk based approach to support dam safety decision making. The relationship between the standard s based and risk based approaches is reviewed. Dam safety management is cast in the context of comprehensive risk management. The importance of defining the decision process, the role of

  14. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  15. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-06-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  16. An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

    1992-06-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

  17. Test Methodology to Evaluate the Safety of Materials Using Spark Incendivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Ritz, Mindy; Starnes, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    For many years scientists and engineers have been searching for the proper test method to evaluate an electrostatic risk for materials used in hazardous environments. A new test standard created by the International Electrotechnical Commission is a promising addition to conventional test methods used throughout industry. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate this test into a proposed new methodology for the evaluation of materials exposed to flammable environments. However, initial testing using this new standard has uncovered some unconventional behavior in materials that conventional test methods were thought to have reconciled. For example some materials tested at higher humidities were more susceptible to incendive discharges than at lower humidity even though the surface resistivity was lower.

  18. Methodology for Collision Risk Assessment of an Airspace Flow Corridor Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin

    This dissertation presents a methodology to estimate the collision risk associated with a future air-transportation concept called the flow corridor. The flow corridor is a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept to reduce congestion and increase throughput in en-route airspace. The flow corridor has the potential to increase throughput by reducing the controller workload required to manage aircraft outside the corridor and by reducing separation of aircraft within corridor. The analysis in this dissertation is a starting point for the safety analysis required by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to eventually approve and implement the corridor concept. This dissertation develops a hybrid risk analysis methodology that combines Monte Carlo simulation with dynamic event tree analysis. The analysis captures the unique characteristics of the flow corridor concept, including self-separation within the corridor, lane change maneuvers, speed adjustments, and the automated separation assurance system. Monte Carlo simulation is used to model the movement of aircraft in the flow corridor and to identify precursor events that might lead to a collision. Since these precursor events are not rare, standard Monte Carlo simulation can be used to estimate these occurrence rates. Dynamic event trees are then used to model the subsequent series of events that may lead to collision. When two aircraft are on course for a near-mid-air collision (NMAC), the on-board automated separation assurance system provides a series of safety layers to prevent the impending NNAC or collision. Dynamic event trees are used to evaluate the potential failures of these layers in order to estimate the rare-event collision probabilities. The results show that the throughput can be increased by reducing separation to 2 nautical miles while maintaining the current level of safety. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most critical parameters in the model related to the overall collision probability are the minimum separation, the probability that both flights fail to respond to traffic collision avoidance system, the probability that an NMAC results in a collision, the failure probability of the automatic dependent surveillance broadcast in receiver, and the conflict detection probability.

  19. A methodology for assessing the impact of mutagens on aquatic ecosystems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Assessments of impacts of hazardous agents (i.e., chemical and physical mutagens) on human health have focused on defining the effects of chronic exposure on individuals, with cancer being the main effect of concern. In contrast, impacts on ecosystems have traditionally been gauged by the assessment of near-term organism mortality, which is clearly not a useful endpoint for assessing the long-term effects of chronic exposures. Impacts on individual organisms that affect the long-term survival of populations are much more important but are also more difficult to define. Therefore, methods that provide accurate measures of sub-lethal effects that are linked to population survival are required so that accurate assessments of environmental damage can be made and remediation efforts, if required, can be initiated. Radioactive substances have entered aquatic environments as a result of research and production activities, intentional disposal, and accidental discharges. At several DOE sites, surface waters and sediments are contaminated with radioactive and mutagenic materials. The accident at the Chernobyl power station in the former Soviet Union (FSU) has resulted in the contamination of biota present in the Kiev Reservoir. This documents presents a methodology which addresses the effects of a direct-acting mutagen (radiation) on aquantic organisms by applying sensitive techniques for assessing damage to genetic material.

  20. Incorporating river morphological changes to flood risk assessment: uncertainties, methodology and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, C.; Stanzel, P.; Nachtnebel, H. P.

    2009-05-01

    Risk zonation maps are mostly derived from design floods which propagate through the study area. The respective delineation of inundated flood plains is a fundamental input for the flood risk assessment of exposed objects. It is implicitly assumed that the river morphology will not vary, even though it is obvious that the river bed elevation can quickly and drastically change during flood events. The objectives of this study were to integrate the river bed dynamics into the flood risk assessment procedure and to quantify associated uncertainties. The proposed concept was applied to the River Ill in the Western Austrian Alps. In total, 138 flood and associated sediment transport scenarios were considered, simulated and illustrated for the main river stem. The calculated morphological changes of the river bed at the moment of peak flow provided a basis to estimate the variability of possible water surface levels and inundation lines which should be incorporated into flood hazard assessment. In the context of vulnerability assessment an advanced methodological approach to assess flood risk based on damage probability functions is described.

  1. The Self Diagnosis Method. A new methodology to assess environmental management in sea ports.

    PubMed

    Darbra, R M; Ronza, A; Casal, J; Stojanovic, T A; Wooldridge, C

    2004-03-01

    A methodology has been designed to assess the performance of the environmental management in sea ports. The Self Diagnosis Method, developed by two research teams and about sixty sea ports, allows the comparison of the current environmental situation with that corresponding to previous years and the assessment of the opportunities for improvement. The main objective is to review the management activities and procedures that affect the environment and the way the port authority handles significant environmental aspects. It has been designed as a "first level" tool: it can be applied in approximately six hours by a non-expert user. It is based on the ISO 14001 vocabulary, requirements and structure, and it can be considered as a first step in the voluntary implementation of an environmental management system for port communities. PMID:14980457

  2. Methodological guidance documents for evaluation of ethical considerations in health technology assessment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Goeree, Ron

    2014-04-01

    Despite the advances made in the development of ethical frameworks for health technology assessment (HTA), there is no clear agreement on the scope and details of a practical approach to address ethical aspects in HTA. This systematic review aimed to identify existing guidance documents for incorporation of ethics in HTA to provide an overview of their methodological features. The review identified 43 conceptual frameworks or practical guidelines, varying in their philosophical approach, structure, and comprehensiveness. They were designed for different purposes throughout the HTA process, ranging from helping HTA-producers in identification, appraisal and analysis of ethical data to supporting decision-makers in making value-sensitive decisions. They frequently promoted using analytical methods that combined normative reflection with participatory approaches. The choice of a method for collection and analysis of ethical data seems to depend on the context in which technology is being assessed, the purpose of analysis, and availability of required resources. PMID:24625039

  3. A Probabilistic-Micro-mechanical Methodology for Assessing Zirconium Alloy Cladding Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States); Chan, K.S.; Riha, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Cladding failure of fuel rods caused by hydride-induced embrittlement is a reliability concern for spent nuclear fuel after extended burnup. Uncertainties in the cladding temperature, cladding stress, oxide layer thickness, and the critical stress value for hydride reorientation preclude an assessment of the cladding failure risk. A set of micro-mechanical models for treating oxide cracking, blister cracking, delayed hydride cracking, and cladding fracture was developed and incorporated in a computer model. Results obtained from the preliminary model calculations indicate that at temperatures below a critical temperature of 318.5 deg. C [605.3 deg. F], the time to failure by delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5%Nb decreased with increasing cladding temperature. The overall goal of this project is to develop a probabilistic-micro-mechanical methodology for assessing the probability of hydride-induced failure in Zircaloy cladding and thereby establish performance criteria. (authors)

  4. Wildlife Strike Risk Assessment in Several Italian Airports: Lessons from BRI and a New Methodology Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

    2011-01-01

    The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

  5. Mathematical aspects of assessing extreme events for the safety of nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potempski, Slawomir; Borysiewicz, Mieczyslaw

    2015-04-01

    In the paper the review of mathematical methodologies applied for assessing low frequencies of rare natural events like earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or tornadoes, floods (in particular flash floods and surge storms), lightning, solar flares, etc., will be given in the perspective of the safety assessment of nuclear plants. The statistical methods are usually based on the extreme value theory, which deals with the analysis of extreme deviation from the median (or the mean). In this respect application of various mathematical tools can be useful, like: the extreme value theorem of Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko leading to possible choices of general extreme value distributions, or the Pickands-Balkema-de Haan theorem for tail fitting, or the methods related to large deviation theory. In the paper the most important stochastic distributions relevant for performing rare events statistical analysis will be presented. This concerns, for example, the analysis of the data with the annual extreme values (maxima - "Annual Maxima Series" or minima), or the peak values, exceeding given thresholds at some periods of interest ("Peak Over Threshold"), or the estimation of the size of exceedance. Despite of the fact that there is a lack of sufficient statistical data directly containing rare events, in some cases it is still possible to extract useful information from existing larger data sets. As an example one can consider some data sets available from the web sites for floods, earthquakes or generally natural hazards. Some aspects of such data sets will be also presented taking into account their usefulness for the practical assessment of risk for nuclear power plants coming from extreme weather conditions.

  6. Assessing the Effectiveness of Direct Gesture Interaction for a Safety Critical Maritime Application

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    1 Assessing the Effectiveness of Direct Gesture Interaction for a Safety Critical Maritime-touch interaction in the safety critical domain of maritime dynamic positioning (DP) vessels. We conducted initial situational awareness. 1 Introduction The maritime field is deeply rooted in tradition but has recently

  7. Study of a Comprehensive Assessment Method for Coal Mine Safety Based on a Hierarchical Grey Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-jing LIU; Shan-jun MAO; Mei LI; Ji-ming YAO

    2007-01-01

    Coal mine safety is a complex system, which is controlled by a number of interrelated factors and is difficult to estimate. This paper proposes an index system of safety assessment based on correlated factors involved in coal mining and a comprehensive evaluation model that combines the advantages of the AHP and a grey clustering method to guarantee the accuracy and

  8. Traffic safety assessment and development of predictive models for accidents on rural roads in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled A Abbas

    2004-01-01

    This paper starts by presenting a conceptualization of indicators, criteria and accidents’ causes that can be used to describe traffic safety. The paper provides an assessment of traffic safety conditions for rural roads in Egypt. This is done through a three-step procedure. First, deaths per million vehicle kilometers are obtained and compared for Egypt, three other Arab countries and six

  9. Food safety and the risk assessment of ethnic minority food retail businesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rudder

    2006-01-01

    Food safety compliance amongst ethnic minority food retail businesses has been identified as being less than satisfactory. In order to identify barriers to compliance, a research project was undertaken which identified 40 food retail businesses which had a record of nonconformance to acceptable food safety standards. These businesses were risk assessed by environmental health officers (EHOs) and given an appropriate

  10. Combining disparate sources of information in the safety assessment of software-based systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustav Dahll

    2000-01-01

    The main topic of the paper is a discussion on how to combine disparate sources of information in the safety assessment of software-based systems. This is based on experience gained through the licensing process of a programmable system in the Swedish nuclear power plant Ringhals, where a guideline for reviewing software in safety-related systems was applied. One lesson learned from

  11. STATE-OF-THE-ART ASSESSMENT OF PACKAGE DESIGN SAFETY ANALYSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Wille; B. Droste; F. Koch; S. Schubert; S. Komann

    The Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is one of the two German competent authorities responsible for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) assessment in conformity to the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1) (2) with respect to the mechanical and thermal safety analysis, the safe containment of the radioactive material and the quality assurance

  12. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  13. Assessing Patient Safety Culture: A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneesh K. Singla; Þ Barrett; T. Kitch; Joel S. Weissman; Eric G. Campbell

    Context: Interest in the measurement of organizational culture that supports patient safety has grown among health care providers. Objective: To review available quantitative instruments for the assessment of patient safety culture. Methods: Surveys were identified through a systematic review, which included a MEDLINE and internet search, expert input, and review of references from relevant articles. For each instrument, we examined

  14. Safety assessment of personal care products\\/cosmetics and their ingredients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard J. Nohynek; Eric Antignac; Thomas Re; Herve Toutain

    2010-01-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US

  15. Simulating Geriatric Home Safety Assessments in a Three-Dimensional Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Allen D.; Cifuentes, Pedro; Mintzer, Michael J.; Roos, Bernard A.; Anam, Ramanakumar; Ruiz, Jorge G.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds could offer inexpensive and safe three-dimensional environments in which medical trainees can learn to identify home safety hazards. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of virtual worlds for geriatric home safety assessments and to correlate performance efficiency in hazard identification with…

  16. CONFOUNDERS IN INTERPRETING PATHOLOGY FOR SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of pathology assessment to toxicity assessment is invaluable but often not clearly understood. Pathology endpoints are the central response around which human health risk assessment is frequently determined; therefore, it is important that the general toxicology ...

  17. Multi-criteria decision assessments using Subjective Logic: Methodology and the case of urban water strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moglia, Magnus; Sharma, Ashok K.; Maheepala, Shiroma

    2012-07-01

    SummaryPlanning of regional and urban water resources, and in particular with Integrated Urban Water Management approaches, often considers inter-relationships between human uses of water, the health of the natural environment as well as the cost of various management strategies. Decision makers hence typically need to consider a combination of social, environmental and economic goals. The types of strategies employed can include water efficiency measures, water sensitive urban design, stormwater management, or catchment management. Therefore, decision makers need to choose between different scenarios and to evaluate them against a number of criteria. This type of problem has a discipline devoted to it, i.e. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, which has often been applied in water management contexts. This paper describes the application of Subjective Logic in a basic Bayesian Network to a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis problem. By doing this, it outlines a novel methodology that explicitly incorporates uncertainty and information reliability. The application of the methodology to a known case study context allows for exploration. By making uncertainty and reliability of assessments explicit, it allows for assessing risks of various options, and this may help in alleviating cognitive biases and move towards a well formulated risk management policy.

  18. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

  19. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Crest, Marion, E-mail: marion.crest@suez-env.com [Suez Environnement, 38 rue du President Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq (France); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Spokas, Kurt A., E-mail: kurt.spokas@ars.usda.gov [United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Akerman, Anna, E-mail: anna.akerman@sita.fr [SITA France, Tour CB 21, 16 Place de l'Iris, 92040 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Yuan, Lei, E-mail: lyuan@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  20. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Kune-Woo Lee; Hyeon-Kyo Lim

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be

  1. Possibility of experimental validation of criticality safety methodology in support of underground fuel storage efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, M.N. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Physics and Power Engineering; Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering and Environment, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Critical systems which might be formed in geologic repositories as a result of long-term degradation of the storage media, leaching of plutonium from the storage media, and the redistribution of low concentrations of plutonium into underground sand layers or lenses can be characterized by positive reactivity feedback. Formation of such a systems can not be excluded when considering the burial of high enriched uranium or plutonium contaminated wastes or spent nuclear fuels. Although the probability of formation of a critical systems under such conditions is very low, the reliable prediction of neutron multiplication properties appears to be of great interest from a criticality safety view point. At the present time, all estimations of criticality are based only on evaluated neutron data because critical experiments are not available for large systems containing small quantities plutonium distributed throughout a typically encountered matrix material such as silicon dioxide. The possibility of providing such an experiment using the large Russian critical assemblies, BFS-1 or BFS-2, is considered. It is shown that critical systems containing small amounts of hydrogenous material (polyethylene) with positive reactivity feedback can by modeled in the BFS Facility.

  2. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Mink Oil.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Mink Oil, obtained from the fatty tissues of minks, is a mixture of the natural glycerides of 14 to 20 carbon chain fatty acids. There are 100 current reported uses as a hair-conditioning agent, an occlusive skin-conditioning agent, and as a surfactant; up to a maximum concentration of 3%. Mink Oil is manufactured by harvesting animal hides and scraping the fat layer from the hide. It is rendered and refined using high temperature processes (230 degrees F to 240 degrees F) and saponification to reduce free fatty acids. Analyses demonstrate that Mink Oil can be substantially free of impurities, including pesticides. Mink Oil does not absorb significant UVA or UVB radiation. In a clinical test of skin penetration, 1 h after application, Mink Oil was detected on the skin surface of all five panelists; it was detected within the stratum corneum in 2/5 panelists. Mink Oil has an oral LD50 of > 64.0 cc/kg in albino rats. No erythema or edema was noted after refined Mink Oil was applied for 24 h to intact and scarified area of albino rabbits. A 50% dilution of a Mink Oil cream did not sensitize guinea pigs in a maximization test. Mink Oil was not an ocular irritant to albino rabbits. Clinical studies using single occlusive patches found no irritation with up to 2.8% Mink Oil, although transient mild to no irritation was noted in two exaggerated-use studies. Mink Oil is used in aerosols and sprays. Although there are no inhalation toxicity data available on Mink Oil, the available data on particle sizes of cosmetic aerosols and sprays indicates diameters more than an order of magnitude larger than the diameter of respirable particles. Most of the glycerides in Mink Oil are triglycerides (glyceryl triesters), the safety of which has been substantiated in previous safety assessments; e.g., dermal absorption is nil to slight; there is little or no acute, subchronic, or chronic oral toxicity; dermal application was not associated with significant irritation or sensitization; ocular exposures were, at most, mildly irritating; most of the genotoxicity test systems are negative; use as vehicles in carcinogenicity testing of other chemicals has produced no adverse reaction; and clinical tests produce no irritation or sensitization reactions--but, they may enhance the of penetration of other chemicals. Formulators should be aware of the possible penetration-enhancing properties of Mink Oil. Although pesticide residues have been analyzed and found to be below levels of detection, the Panel is concerned that the available data suggesting the absence of pesticide residues in Mink Oil are limited. The Panel advised the industry that the total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/pesticide contamination should be limited to not more than 40 ppm, with not more than 10 ppm for any specific residue. PMID:16422264

  3. Safety Assessment of PowerBeam Flywheel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems is the issue of safety. The PowerBeam flywheel system concept, developed by HyKinesys Inc., employs a pair of high aspect ratio, counter-rotating flywheels to provide surge power for hybrid vehicle applications. The PowerBeam approach to safety is to design flywheels conservatively so as to avoid full rotor burst failure modes. A conservative point design was sized for use in a mid-size sedan such as a Chevrolet Malibu. The PowerBeam rotor rims were designed with a steel tube covered by a carbon fiber reinforced composite tube. ORNL conducted rotor design analyses using both nested ring and finite element analysis design codes. The safety factor of the composite material was 7, while that of the steel was greater than 3. The design exceeded the PNGV recommendation for a safety factor of at least 4 for composite material to prevent flywheel burst.

  4. Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

    2010-05-01

    If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment. PMID:20131973

  5. Quality assurance for psychiatric emergencies. An analysis of assessment and feedback methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sateia, M J; Gustafson, D H; Johnson, S W

    1990-03-01

    Improvement in the quality of evaluation and treatment of behavioral emergencies presenting to hospital emergency rooms requires a multicomponent assessment of resources, clinician performance, and outcome. The authors present a summary of data and conclusions derived from index-based assessment of quality of care in over 2000 psychiatric emergencies. The study revealed that emergency room physicians rendered high-quality medical care, but were deficient in crucial aspects of psychiatric evaluation and treatment including evaluation of dangerousness and substance abuse and provision of appropriate follow-up care. A positive association was observed between quality of care and compliance with referral. Subsequent review with the staff pointed to issues such as staffing, emergency room and community resources, and adequacy of documentation as significant influences on quality of care, as assessed by the chart-audit, index approach. A pilot study demonstrated uniform improvement of quality scores in a small group of physicians receiving written and oral feedback about their performance. The use of focused quality assessment studies that examine both structural and process factors, and their correlation with outcome, is discussed in light of the information obtained from the previously described study. A feedback methodology that emphasizes an interactive process to identify deficiencies in care and to explore their causes and remedies is presented. PMID:2156240

  6. Assessing Safety Culture in Pharmacies: The psychometric validation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in a national sample of community pharmacies in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Nordén-Hägg; J Bryan Sexton; Sofia Kälvemark-Sporrong; Lena Ring; Åsa Kettis-Lindblad

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented

  7. A Fire Safety Assessment System for Existing Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siu Ming Lo

    1999-01-01

    In Hong Kong which is characterized by its tall, reinforced-concrete buildings with multiple owners, most of the high-rise buildings constructed before the mid-1970s are dilapidated. In order to address this problem, the Hong Kong Government intends to introduce mandatory safety assurance requirements with its so-called “Building Safety Inspection Scheme,” under which building owners would be required to appoint building professionals

  8. Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

  9. The Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term: Conceptual and Methodological Continuity in the Course of Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Julie; Gahagan, Sheila; Amiel-Tison, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    The Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT) is part of a set of three different instruments based on a neuro-maturative framework. By sharing a same methodology and a similar scoring system, the use of these three assessments prevents any rupture in the course of high risk children follow-up from 32 weeks post-conception to 6 years of…

  10. Field Assessment Tool for Deep Peat This methodology is designed to be undertaken at a site which has already been

    E-print Network

    Field Assessment Tool for Deep Peat This methodology is designed to be undertaken at a site which peat (>50cm depth) needs to be assessed in order to decide what is the most appropriate management of the score. Tools you will require: Peat depth probe Pruning saw Clinometer Peat core sampler Map of the area

  11. On-the-Job Training: Development and Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warm, Ronnie; And Others

    This document describes the development and assessment of a methodology for generating on-the-job-training (OJT) task proficiency assessment instruments. The Task Evaluation Form (TEF) development procedures were derived to address previously identified deficiencies in the evaluation of OJT task proficiency. The TEF development procedures allow…

  12. Risk Assessment Methodology for Water utilities (RAM-W) : the foundation for emergency response planning.

    SciTech Connect

    Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2005-03-01

    Concerns about acts of terrorism against critical infrastructures have been on the rise for several years. Critical infrastructures are those physical structures and information systems (including cyber) essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government. The President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP) probed the security of the nation's critical infrastructures. The PCCIP determined the water infrastructure is highly vulnerable to a range of potential attacks. In October 1997, the PCCIP proposed a public/private partnership between the federal government and private industry to improve the protection of the nation's critical infrastructures. In early 2000, the EPA partnered with the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and Sandia National Laboratories to create the Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-W{trademark}). Soon thereafter, they initiated an effort to create a template and minimum requirements for water utility Emergency Response Plans (ERP). All public water utilities in the US serving populations greater than 3,300 are required to undertaken both a vulnerability assessment and the development of an emergency response plan. This paper explains the initial steps of RAM-W{trademark} and then demonstrates how the security risk assessment is fundamental to the ERP. During the development of RAM-W{trademark}, Sandia performed several security risk assessments at large metropolitan water utilities. As part of the scope of that effort, ERPs at each utility were reviewed to determine how well they addressed significant vulnerabilities uncovered during the risk assessment. The ERP will contain responses to other events as well (e.g. natural disasters) but should address all major findings in the security risk assessment.

  13. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  14. Finding the proper methodology for geodiversity assessment: a recent approach in Brazil and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D.; Santos, L.; Silva, J.; Pereira, P.; Brilha, J.; França, J.; Rodrigues, C.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of geodiversity is a quite new topic. A first set of assessment methodologies was developed during the last years, although with no fully satisfactory results. This is mainly because the whole concept of geodiversity does not tend to be considered, but also because the results are difficult to apply practically. Several major key-points remain unsolved, including the criteria to be used, the scale-factor to be dealt with, the influence of the size of the area under analysis in the type of criteria and indicators, and the graphic presentation of the results. A methodology for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was defined and tested at various scales. It was applied to the Xingu River Basin, Amazon, Brazil (about 510,000 km2), Paraná state, Brazil (about 200,000 km2), and Portugal mainland (about 89,000 km2). This method is intended to assess all geodiversity components and to avoid overrating any particular component, such as lithology or relief, a common weakness of other methods. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales that range according to the areas under analysis, with the final Geodiversity Index being the sum of five partial indexes calculated on the grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, namely geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, palaeontology and soils. Another partial index covers singular occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters and springs. Partial indexes were calculated using GIS software by counting all the occurrences present in the selected maps for each grid square. The Geodiversity Index can take the form of a GIS automatically generated isoline map, allowing an easy interpretation by those without or with little geological background. The map can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management and use of natural resources.

  15. Safety assessment for a side-by-side offloading mooring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liping; He, Qiang; Ai, Shangmao

    2011-09-01

    In order to improve the safety properties of an offloading system with side-by-side (SBS) mooring in which the FPSO is moored by a yoke system in the field of BZ25-1, it is necessary to analyze those properties. According to the experience of similar projects, tow strategies of different offloading arrangements were discussed by using the 3-D radiation/diffraction theory and quasi-static time domain method to assess their respective safety properties. Through the safety assessment analysis of different arrangement comparisons, various ways to improve the safety properties of offloading systems with side-by-side mooring were verified by analyzing the tension in the mooring lines and the fender deflection. Through comparison it can be concluded that by enlarging the key factors properly, including the size of the fenders and the hawsers as well as the number of hawsers, a better safety performance can be achieved.

  16. The development and validation of an assessment of safety awareness of science teachers using interactive videodisc technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal S. Lomask; Larry Jacobson; Laurin P. Hafner

    1995-01-01

    A new assessment of science teachers' knowledge of school lab safety management was developed and tested. The assessment, called the Safety Simulator, is based on Interactive Videodisc (IVD) technology and was developed as part of the Beginning Educator Support and Training program for beginning teachers in Connecticut. The Safety Simulator contains two phases: 1) A walk through the lab room,

  17. RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    1999-01-01

    RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

  18. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Gy?ri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic-tree procedure. Earlier studies have shown that the potentially liquefiable layer at Paks Nuclear Power Plant is situated in relatively large depth. Therefore the applicability and adequacy of the methods at high overburden pressure is important. In case of existing facilities, the geotechnical data gained before construction aren't sufficient for the comprehensive liquefaction analysis. Performance of new geotechnical survey is limited. Consequently, the availability of the data has to be accounted while selection the analysis methods. Considerations have to be made for dealing with aleatory uncertainty related to the knowledge of the soil conditions. It is shown in the paper, a careful comparison and analysis of the results obtained by different methodologies provides the basis of the selection of practicable methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant for beyond design basis liquefaction hazard.

  19. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities. PMID:22947476

  20. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamic models with site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities etc.) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected receptors (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritage) in the considered region. It further compares the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned and eventually implemented. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow one to identify and classify, on a relative scale, areas at risk which are more likely to be affected by floods and support the development of strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. In addition, the outcomes of the RRA can be eventually used for a further socio-economic assessment, considering the tangible and intangible costs as well as the human dimension of vulnerability.

  1. A novel safety assessment strategy applied to non-selective extracts.

    PubMed

    Koster, Sander; Leeman, Winfried; Verheij, Elwin; Dutman, Ellen; van Stee, Leo; Nielsen, Lene Munch; Ronsmans, Stefan; Noteborn, Hub; Krul, Lisette

    2015-06-01

    A main challenge in food safety research is to demonstrate that processing of foodstuffs does not lead to the formation of substances for which the safety upon consumption might be questioned. This is especially so since food is a complex matrix in which the analytical detection of substances, and consequent risk assessment thereof, is difficult to determine. Here, a pragmatic novel safety assessment strategy is applied to the production of non-selective extracts (NSEs), used for different purposes in food such as for colouring purposes, which are complex food mixtures prepared from reference juices. The Complex Mixture Safety Assessment Strategy (CoMSAS) is an exposure driven approach enabling to efficiently assess the safety of the NSE by focussing on newly formed substances or substances that may increase in exposure during the processing of the NSE. CoMSAS enables to distinguish toxicologically relevant from toxicologically less relevant substances, when related to their respective levels of exposure. This will reduce the amount of work needed for identification, characterisation and safety assessment of unknown substances detected at low concentration, without the need for toxicity testing using animal studies. In this paper, the CoMSAS approach has been applied for elderberry and pumpkin NSEs used for food colouring purposes. PMID:25792265

  2. HEALTH, SAFETY & INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    reporting · DSE Assessments · Risk Assessments · Electrical Safety #12;HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING POLICYHEALTH, SAFETY & WELLBEING NEW STAFF INDUCTION #12;INTRODUCTION · University Health, Safety and Wellbeing Policy · The role of the Health & Safety Office · School/Unit Health & Safety Management

  3. Ergonomic assessment methodologies in manual handling of loads--opportunities in organizations.

    PubMed

    Pires, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The present study was developed based on the analysis of workplaces in the engineering industry, particularly in automotive companies. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate the activities present in the workplace concerning manual handling, using assessment methodologies NIOSH Ergonomic Equation [1] and Manual Material Handling [2], present in ISO 11228 [3-4], and to consider the possibility of developing musculoskeletal injuries associated with these activities, an issue of great concern in all industrial sectors. Similarly, it was also shown the suitability of each method to the task concerned. The study was conducted in three steps. The first step was to collect images and information about the target tasks. As a second step proceeded to the analysis, determining the method to use and to evaluate activities. Finally, we found the results obtained and acted on accordingly. With the study observed situations considered urgent action, according to the methodologies used, and proceeded to develop solutions in order to solve the problems identified, eliminating and / or minimizing embarrassing situations and harmful to employees. PMID:22316787

  4. Methodology of Internal Assessment of Uncertainty and Extension to Neutron Kinetics/Thermal-Hydraulics Coupled Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Petruzzi, A. [Universita di Pisa (Italy); D'Auria, F. [Universita di Pisa (Italy); Giannotti, W. [Universita di Pisa (Italy); Ivanov, K. [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    2005-02-15

    The best-estimate calculation results from complex system codes are affected by approximations that are unpredictable without the use of computational tools that account for the various sources of uncertainty.The code with (the capability of) internal assessment of uncertainty (CIAU) has been previously proposed by the University of Pisa to realize the integration between a qualified system code and an uncertainty methodology and to supply proper uncertainty bands each time a nuclear power plant (NPP) transient scenario is calculated. The derivation of the methodology and the results achieved by the use of CIAU are discussed to demonstrate the main features and capabilities of the method.In a joint effort between the University of Pisa and The Pennsylvania State University, the CIAU method has been recently extended to evaluate the uncertainty of coupled three-dimensional neutronics/thermal-hydraulics calculations. The result is CIAU-TN. The feasibility of the approach has been demonstrated, and sample results related to the turbine trip transient in the Peach Bottom NPP are shown. Notwithstanding that the full implementation and use of the procedure requires a database of errors not available at the moment, the results give an idea of the errors expected from the present computational tools.

  5. Preliminary assessment of human exposure to ozone in Mexico City using a GIS-based methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Fernandez, P.; Winer, A.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Environmental Health Sciences; Otero-Delgado, A.; Sanchez-Martinez, S. [Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico). Dept. del Distrito Federal

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of ozone exposure experienced by the population of a large metropolitan zone encompassing Mexico City. Demographic geocoded databases from the Mexican National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information were acquired and analyzed to develop the required population spatial distributions. With the use of a geographic information system (GIS), and other statistical tools, it was possible to generate spatially- and temporally-resolved ozone distributions for indoor and outdoor microenvironments. The ozone levels were determined using various air quality metrics to assess extreme and average exposures for the demographic groups. Populations with the most time spent outdoors at high ozone concentration locations experienced ozone above the Mexican air quality standard as much as 80% of the days of the year, and more than one thousand hours annually. Co-located populations entirely indoors potentially experienced ozone above the Mexican air quality standard 16% of the days of the year, and more than one hundred hours annually. The basic methodology described in this paper integrates both demographic and air quality geocoded databases, allowing the evaluation of various air pollution scenarios. For the particular case of Mexico City, this methodology is starting to be used as a tool to support epidemiological surveillance and, during extreme episodes, to identify and implement mitigation actions

  6. [Application of a standardized-human biomonitoring methodology to assess prenatal exposure to mercury].

    PubMed

    Egorov, A I; Ilchenko, I N; Lyapunov, S M; Marochkina, E V; Okina, O I; Ermolaev, B V; Karamysheva, T V

    2014-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), has developed a standardized methodology for human biomonitoring (HBM) surveys in maternities in order to assess prenatal exposure to mercury. To test this standard methodology and adapt it to Russian settings, a cross-sectional HBM survey involving 120 parturient women was conducted in six maternities of the Moscow Region. Levels of total mercury in maternal hair (geometric mean: 0.21 ?g/g, 95th percentile: 0.54 ?g/g), cord blood (0.89 ?g/L and 2.38 ?g/L, respectively) and maternal urine (0.27 ?g/L and 0.94 ?g/L) in this population were similar to those in other European countries with relatively low fish consumption. Consumption of all types of fish at least once per week during the third trimester of pregnancy compared to fish consumption less than once per month was associated with the increase of geometric mean level of total mercury: in hair by 31% (95% confidence interval: 4%, 66%) higher, in cord blood--by 38% (9%, 74%) and in maternal urine--by 36% (2%, 81%). No biomarker values exceeded levels recommended by WHO or national agencies in the USA and Germany. However; at the population level, adverse effects of prenatal exposures to mercury can still be substantial. PMID:25831921

  7. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S., E-mail: Jermanto.kurniawan@inrets.fr; Khardi, S., E-mail: Salah.khardi@inrets.f

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  8. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers. PMID:23842183

  9. An efficient methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Bialkova; Hans C. M. van Trijp

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for assessing attention to and effect of nutrition information displayed front-of-pack is presented. The methodology is based on an integration of the visual search paradigm, the choice paradigm and eye-tracking measures, and moves beyond reliance on self-report measures for attention and choice. Rather the following measures are obtained: (1) respondents’ eye-movements, in terms of dwell time, fixation duration,

  10. Environmental risk assessment of water quality in harbor areas: a new methodology applied to European ports.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José A

    2015-05-15

    This work presents a standard and unified procedure for assessment of environmental risks at the contaminant source level in port aquatic systems. Using this method, port managers and local authorities will be able to hierarchically classify environmental hazards and proceed with the most suitable management actions. This procedure combines rigorously selected parameters and indicators to estimate the environmental risk of each contaminant source based on its probability, consequences and vulnerability. The spatio-temporal variability of multiple stressors (agents) and receptors (endpoints) is taken into account to provide accurate estimations for application of precisely defined measures. The developed methodology is tested on a wide range of different scenarios via application in six European ports. The validation process confirms its usefulness, versatility and adaptability as a management tool for port water quality in Europe and worldwide. PMID:25819350

  11. 1 INTRODUCTION Probabilistic risk (or safety) assessments (PRA) pro-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , that is, to treat system interactions both efficiently and realistically. In the seventies, the event tree/fault trees (e.g. DY- LAM, DETAM), the GO-FLOW methodology, Event Sequence Diagrams (ESD), the Dynamic of dynamic reliability was established under the name of Con- tinuous Event Tree (CET) theory, (Devooght

  12. Assessment of light water reactor safety since the Three Mile Island accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phung

    1984-01-01

    The NRC has completed 70% (as of 1983) of the TMI Action Plan, which is the combination of the Kemeny, Rogovin, and other recommendations. The industry has combined forces to achieve increased communication, high-quality and uniform operation, and better management of nuclear power. The state of the art of reactor safety was assessed by examining probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of

  13. Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Nahra, Henry K.

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA's program requirements.

  14. Process-based groundwater salinisation risk assessment methodology: Application to the Akrotiri aquifer (Southern Cyprus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milnes, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    SummaryGroundwater salinisation is a major groundwater contamination issue world-wide and can be caused by different processes, such as seawater intrusion, agrochemical pollution, geogenic contamination and irrigation-induced salinisation. In many areas, several salinisation processes are superimposed. Since remedial measures vary for different salinisation processes, correct identification is fundamental for adequate design of management strategies: different strategies may be required in one and the same aquifer, depending on which salinisation process is active where in the domain. A simulation-based salinisation risk assessment methodology is proposed, based on the principle of linear superposition of total dissolved solutes in groundwater. In a first step, the measured bulk salinity distribution is used to calibrate a numerical groundwater flow and transport model, accounting for all identified salinisation processes. Then, the bulk salinity distribution is decomposed into different salinity components by adapting the boundary conditions, running a simulation for each salinisation process separately. These simulation results yield the necessary components to calculate the risk index distributions, which are a measure of the respective future potential salinity increase. Overlaying the risk index distributions with a defined threshold concentration reveals risk areas requiring remediation or conservation measures with respect to each process. The risk area maps resulting from this methodology are a promising tool for the design of groundwater management schemes. They condense relevant information from complex dynamic processes obtained from numerical simulations and visualise the results in simple and static maps, accessible to decision makers who are not familiar with groundwater dynamics. The different steps of the salinisation risk assessment procedure are first described and illustrated on a synthetic example and then applied to a real aquifer system in Southern Cyprus (Akrotiri), where three major salinisation processes are superimposed.

  15. Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Economic Development Work Group

    2003-12-17

    OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

  16. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  17. LAVA (Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology): A conceptual framework for automated risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Phillips, J.R.; Tisinger, R.M.; Brown, D.C.; FitzGerald, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed an original methodology for performing risk analyses on subject systems characterized by a general set of asset categories, a general spectrum of threats, a definable system-specific set of safeguards protecting the assets from the threats, and a general set of outcomes resulting from threats exploiting weaknesses in the safeguards system. The Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Methodology (LAVA) models complex systems having large amounts of ''soft'' information about both the system itself and occurrences related to the system. Its structure lends itself well to automation on a portable computer, making it possible to analyze numerous similar but geographically separated installations consistently and in as much depth as the subject system warrants. LAVA is based on hierarchical systems theory, event trees, fuzzy sets, natural-language processing, decision theory, and utility theory. LAVA's framework is a hierarchical set of fuzzy event trees that relate the results of several embedded (or sub-) analyses: a vulnerability assessment providing information about the presence and efficacy of system safeguards, a threat analysis providing information about static (background) and dynamic (changing) threat components coupled with an analysis of asset ''attractiveness'' to the dynamic threat, and a consequence analysis providing information about the outcome spectrum's severity measures and impact values. By using LAVA, we have modeled our widely used computer security application as well as LAVA/CS systems for physical protection, transborder data flow, contract awards, and property management. It is presently being applied for modeling risk management in embedded systems, survivability systems, and weapons systems security. LAVA is especially effective in modeling subject systems that include a large human component.

  18. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:15806954

  19. An integrated quality function deployment and capital budgeting methodology for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach: the case of the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bas, Esra

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and a 0-1 knapsack model is proposed for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach. The House of Quality (HoQ) in QFD methodology is a systematic tool to consider the inter-relationships between two factors. In this paper, three HoQs are used to consider the interrelationships between tasks and hazards, hazards and events, and events and preventive/protective measures. The final priority weights of events are defined by considering their project-specific preliminary weights, probability of occurrence, and effects on the victim and the company. The priority weights of the preventive/protective measures obtained in the last HoQ are fed into a 0-1 knapsack model for the investment decision. Then, the selected preventive/protective measures can be adapted to the task design. The proposed step-by-step methodology can be applied to any stage of a project to design the workplace for occupational safety and health, and continuous improvement for safety is endorsed by the closed loop characteristic of the integrated methodology. PMID:24188741

  20. Development of a shallow-flaw fracture assessment methodology for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Dickson, T.L.; McAfee, W.J.; Pennell, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    Shallow-flaw fracture technology is being developed within the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program for application to the safety assessment of radiation-embrittled nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) containing postulated shallow flaws. Cleavage fracture in shallow-flaw cruciform beam specimens tested under biaxial loading at temperatures in the lower transition temperature range was shown to be strain-controlled. A strain-based dual-parameter fracture toughness correlation was developed and shown to be capable of predicting the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture toughness for strain-controlled fracture. A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model that includes both the properties of the inner-surface stainless-steel cladding and a biaxial shallow-flaw fracture toughness correlation gave a reduction in probability of cleavage initiation of more than two orders of magnitude from an ASME-based reference case.

  1. A 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianglu Rong; Gang Peng; Takuya Suzuki; Qinglin Yang; Johji Yamahara; Yuhao Li

    2009-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is one of the most commonly used spices around the world and a traditional medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani-Tibb medicines for several thousand years. However, there was still lack of systemic safety evaluation. We conducted a 35-day toxicity study on ginger in rats. Both male and female rats

  2. CASE STUDY: Safety assessment for new medical device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noveko, a leading manufacturer of medical devices, wanted to market a new surgical mask that contained several plastic additives, including two antimicrobial compounds. The registration of products with antimicrobial properties can be very challenging in the US and all claims of performance, efficacy and labeling are closely scrutinized by the EPA and FDA. The safety of such articles must also

  3. ASSESSING THE SAFETY IMPACT OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Ledoux; Jeffery Archer

    The seriousness of road traffic accidents in terms of personal injuries, fatalities, and property damage, has been recognised by the World Health Organisation as a social and public health problem. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), based on advanced telecommunication and information technology, offer a great potential for improving the road safety situation for all types of road-users. ITS can influence all

  4. Assessment of the Accuracy of Material Safety Data Sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Kolp; Phillip L. Williams; Rupert C. Burtan

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 150 material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for the accuracy and completeness of five areas of information: (1) chemical identification of hazardous ingredients; (2) reported health effects; (3) suggested first aid procedures; (4) recommended personal protective equipment; and (5) exposure level regulations and guidelines. The material from each MSDS was reviewed by both an industrial hygienist and an

  5. An assessment of risk and safety in civil aviation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Janic

    2000-01-01

    Risk and safety have always been important considerations in civil aviation. This is particularly so under current conditions of continuous growth in air transport demand, frequent scarcity of airport and infrastructure capacity, and thus permanent and increased pressure on the system components. There is also the growing public and operators’ awareness of these and other system externalities such as air

  6. [Safety assessment of nanomaterials using toxicokinetics and toxicoproteome analysis].

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2010-04-01

    With recent development of the nanotechnology, nanomaterials have been successfully employed in various industrial applications such as medicine and cosmetics. Nanomaterials show the useful properties such as electronic reactivity and the tissue permeability that were not provided by micromaterials. Thus, nanomaterials are expected as innovative materials for the development of medicine and cosmetics. However, these innovative properties may show unknown biological responses that could not been detected by the conventional toxicity assay. For industrial development and affluent society establishment that enjoyed only a benefit of nanomaterials, it is urgent to gather information of the properties and the biological effects, and to establish the standard safety evaluation method of nanomaterials. So, we are analyzing association among property, biodistribution and biological effects of nanomaterials to search for the safety biomarker (functional-, molecular- and biochemical-biomarker) using nanosilicas (nSP) as a standard nanomaterial. Because nSP shows high uniform dispersibility and is already used in medicine, cosmetics and food additive, the results of this study are useful to extrapolate it to other nanomaterials and to make practicable as safety biomarker. In this report, we show the latest knowledge about the linkage information among property, biodistribution and biological effects of nSP by toxicokinetics and toxicoproteomics, and the search study of safety biomarker based on these basic information. PMID:20371987

  7. Confined space manure storage and facilities safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D J; Manbeck, H B

    2014-07-01

    A mail survey of 1,200 farms across 16 states was conducted to identify the number, type, and size of manure storages per farm, as well as safety-related behaviors or actions related to entry into confined-space manure storage and handling facilities. Respondents provided data on 297 storage units and facilities, with approximately 75% reporting up to three storages per farm operation. Dimensions were provided for 254 manure pits: nearly 66% were less than or equal to 100 feet long, 75% were less than or equal to 40 feet wide, and 75% were less than or equal to 10 feet deep. Almost 14% of the reported storages were over 300 feet long, seven were wider than 100 feet, and 17 were more than 20 feet deep. Survey results suggest that most farm operations with confined-space manure storages do not follow best safety practices regarding their manure storages, including using gas detection equipment before entering a manure pit, using rescue lines when entering storages, or developing a written confined-space safety policy or plan. Survey results also suggest that few farmers post warning signs around their storages, post recommended ventilation times before entry, or conduct training for workers who enter confined-space manure storages. This article provides a benchmark against which the effectiveness of educational programs and design tools for confined-space manure pit ventilation systems and other confined-space manure pit safety interventions can be measured. PMID:25174151

  8. Integrated environmental and safety assessment of selected mechanical energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The environmental, safety, and social impacts of two mechanical storage systems, underground pumped hydro (UPH) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) are similar to those of existing peaking power plants. These impacts, with engineering factors, form a methodology for selecting sites for these two systems. Application of this methodology to a hypothetical case indicates that, although design alternatives which mitigate adverse environmental impacts are recommended, site selection effectively limits the environmental effect of CAES or UPH plants. Public perception of CAES and UPH energy storage facilities should generally be positive, provided that those affected are informed and allowed to participate in the siting process.

  9. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios. PMID:23619797

  10. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Basis and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Jim Kinsey; Dave Alberstein

    2014-01-01

    Various international efforts are underway to assess the safety of advanced nuclear reactor designs. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently held its first Consultancy Meeting on a new cooperative research program on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety. Furthermore, the Generation IV International Forum Reactor Safety Working Group has recently developed a methodology, called the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, for use in Generation IV advanced reactor technology development, design, and design review. A risk and safety assessment white paper is under development with respect to the Very High Temperature Reactor to pilot the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology and to demonstrate its validity and feasibility. To support such efforts, this information paper on the modular HTGR safety basis and approach has been prepared. The paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach. The paper gives those involved in the assessment of advanced reactor designs an opportunity to assess an advanced design that has already received extensive review by regulatory authorities and to judge the utility of recently proposed new methods for advanced reactor safety assessment such as the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology.

  11. Assessment of safety against derailment using simulations and vehicle acceptance tests: a worldwide comparison of state-of-the-art assessment methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Wilson; Robert Fries; Matthew Witte; Andreas Haigermoser; Mikael Wrang; Jerry Evans; Anna Orlova

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of derailment safety of new railway vehicle designs is a fundamental concern worldwide. Although the methods used for assessment in different countries and regions vary considerably, the fundamental mechanisms being addressed are the same. This paper provides a detailed review of the current state-of-the-art methods for derailment safety assessment in several regions and countries including Europe, UK, USA,

  12. Assessing an Assessment: Conceptual considerations, Methodological Issues, and a Perspective on the Future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise

    1978-01-01

    Describes the conceptual model of newborn organization underlying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Argues that while the NBAS allows for the identification of an individual's behavioral repertoire, attempts to synthesize the resulting data have been plagued with difficulties. Briefly outlines an alternative model for…

  13. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  14. An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity.

    PubMed

    Liau, Kai Ming; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Chen, Chee Keong; Rasool, Aida Hanum G

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86?cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P < .05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans. PMID:22164340

  15. An Open-Label Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Virgin Coconut Oil in Reducing Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Liau, Kai Ming; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Chen, Chee Keong; Rasool, Aida Hanum G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after VCO intake. Safety was assessed by comparing organ function tests one week before and one week after intake of VCO. Paired t-test was used to analyse any differences in all the measurable variables. Results. Only waist circumference (WC) was significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 2.86?cm or 0.97% from initial measurement (P = .02). WC reduction was only seen in males (P < .05). There was no change in the lipid profile. There was a small reduction in creatinine and alanine transferase levels. Conclusion. VCO is efficacious for WC reduction especially in males and it is safe for use in humans. PMID:22164340

  16. [Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management. PMID:22267026

  17. A Qualified Presumption of Safety approach for the safety assessment of Grana Padano whey starters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia Rossetti; Domenico Carminati; Miriam Zago; Giorgio Giraffa

    2009-01-01

    A Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach was applied to dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Thirty-two strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, and representing the overall genotypic LAB diversity associated with 24 previously collected whey starters [Rossetti, L., Fornasari, M.E., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Neviani,

  18. Measuring Safety Levels in Playgrounds Using Environment Assessment Scales: The Issue of Playground Safety in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsoglou, Kafenia; Hrisikou, Spyridoula; Kakana, Domna Mika

    2011-01-01

    Playgrounds beget an unrivalled context which, through play activity, can foster children's growth. The foremost function of all playgrounds is to provide for safety. In the present study, our primary focus is to determine the degree of adequacy as far as playground equipment is concerned, including estimates of imminent dangers and the level of…

  19. A Microbial Assessment Scheme to measure microbial performance of Food Safety Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Kussaga, J; Luning, P A; Van der Spiegel, M; Devlieghere, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2009-08-31

    A Food Safety Management System (FSMS) implemented in a food processing industry is based on Good Hygienic Practices (GHP), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles and should address both food safety control and assurance activities in order to guarantee food safety. One of the most emerging challenges is to assess the performance of a present FSMS. The objective of this work is to explain the development of a Microbial Assessment Scheme (MAS) as a tool for a systematic analysis of microbial counts in order to assess the current microbial performance of an implemented FSMS. It is assumed that low numbers of microorganisms and small variations in microbial counts indicate an effective FSMS. The MAS is a procedure that defines the identification of critical sampling locations, the selection of microbiological parameters, the assessment of sampling frequency, the selection of sampling method and method of analysis, and finally data processing and interpretation. Based on the MAS assessment, microbial safety level profiles can be derived, indicating which microorganisms and to what extent they contribute to food safety for a specific food processing company. The MAS concept is illustrated with a case study in the pork processing industry, where ready-to-eat meat products are produced (cured, cooked ham and cured, dried bacon). PMID:19327860

  20. Independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument T562

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). System Surety Assessment Dept.

    1995-02-01

    The System Surety Assessment Department 12332 of Sandia National Laboratories performed an independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument T562. The T562 was assessed for structural integrity, characteristics of its electrical circuits, and its Radiated Electrical Emissions. Department 12332 concluded that the T562 and its Operational Procedures are safe to use with war reserve weapons. However, strict adherence to the Operational Procedures for the T562 is needed to prevent tampering with the instrument.

  1. Reliability and Reproducibility of Novel Methodology for Assessment of Pressure Pain Sensitivity in Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Zolnoun, Denniz; Bair, Eric; Essicks, Greg; Gracely, Richard; Goyal, Vinita; Maixner, William

    2012-01-01

    Vestibulodynia, the most common type of chronic vulvovaginal pain, impairs the psychological, physical health of nearly 10% of women at some point in their lifetime. The aim of this investigation was to establish reliable standardized methodologies for assessment of pain sensitivity in vulvar mucosa and pelvic musculature. We enrolled 34 women with vestibulodynia and 21 pain-free controls. The participants underwent a nuanced exam that consisted of palpation of precisely located vulvar mucosal and pelvic muscle sites. These measurements remained highly stable when participants were reexamined after two weeks, with high within-examiner correlation. Vestibulodynia patients reported greater sensitivity than pain-free controls at the majority of examination sites, particularly at mucosal sites on the lower vestibule. The pain threshold measures at the lower mucosal sites were also associated with the participants’ self-reported pain levels during intercourse. These mucosal pain threshold measurements were used to discriminate between vestibulodynia cases and controls with high sensitivity and specificity. This data supports the feasibility of contemporaneous assessment of vulvar mucosa and underlying musculature in the pelvic region, offering the hope of a more precise case definition for vestibulodynia and related disorders. PMID:22958875

  2. User's guide for the UNIRAM availability assessment methodology: Version 2. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Juliano, J.; Neely, M.; Gardner, N.; Witt, J.; Hall, S.

    1988-08-01

    This User's Guide is intended to accompany Version 2.0 of a personal computer (PC) software package, UNIRAM, that is used to perform reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analyses of power generation systems. The UNIRAM package was designed as a means of implementing the availability assessment methodology presented in EPRI Report AP-2202, Guide for the Assessment of the Availability of Gasification-Combined-Cycle Power Plants. The outputs of the programs in this package include predictions of plant availability, equivalent availability, forced outage rate, and equivalent forced outage rate. The package also provides several PC-based tools that can be used for further analysis of these outputs. This guide presents the steps needed to develop a model of a power production system for input to the UNIRAM software. These steps include developing block diagrams, identifying subsystems, and developing subsystem fault trees to represent the unit under study. The guide explains the operational procedures for each of the four program modules used to create, manipulate, and analyze these system models, and describes each of the eleven execution options available to the user. A sample output of each execution option is also presented. Appendixes to the guide document modeling parameters and limits and provide a glossary of terms used throughout the guide. 8 refs., 94 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Holliman, Nick S.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Liversedge, Simon P.; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli.

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program load combination project, Task 3. Load combination methodology development. Interim report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.K.; Mensing, R.W.; Smith, P.D.; Vepa, K.; Collins, J.D.; Cornell, C.A.; Kennedy, R.P.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1980-01-31

    This is the first interim report giving the results to date on the development of a load combination methodology. After a brief background, the objectives and scope of the load combination methodology task are listed. This is followed by user oriented requirements on the methodology. The proposed methodology is then introduced and simply demonstrated. Examples of similar applications of the reliability based methodology are presented and accompanied by a listing of some of the unique considerations in applying this type of methodology to nuclear design. A fairly detailed exposition of a component reliability and design code optimization scheme is given along with a brief discussion of system and plant reliability considerations.

  5. Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Increasing the use of coal to replace oil and gas consumption is considered beneficial for economic and political reasons. The evaluation of this report, however, is that the shift to coal can involve significant health, safety, and environmental impacts compared to those from oil and natural gas systems, which are considerably less adverse than those of any coal energy system in use today. An evaluation and comparison of the potential impacts from the various alternative coal technologies would be useful to both governmental and industrial policy planners and would provide them with information relevant to a decision on assistance, incentives, and prioritization among the energy technologies. It is, therefore, the main objective of this report to review the key health, safety, and environmental impacts of some promising coal energy technologies and to compare them.

  6. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  7. A new methodology for non-contact accurate crack width measurement through photogrammetry for automated structural safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanshahi, Mohammad R.; Masri, Sami F.

    2013-03-01

    In mechanical, aerospace and civil structures, cracks are important defects that can cause catastrophes if neglected. Visual inspection is currently the predominant method for crack assessment. This approach is tedious, labor-intensive, subjective and highly qualitative. An inexpensive alternative to current monitoring methods is to use a robotic system that could perform autonomous crack detection and quantification. To reach this goal, several image-based crack detection approaches have been developed; however, the crack thickness quantification, which is an essential element for a reliable structural condition assessment, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a new contact-less crack quantification methodology, based on computer vision and image processing concepts, is introduced and evaluated against a crack quantification approach which was previously developed by the authors. The proposed approach in this study utilizes depth perception to quantify crack thickness and, as opposed to most previous studies, needs no scale attachment to the region under inspection, which makes this approach ideal for incorporation with autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile inspection systems. Validation tests are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, and the results show that the new proposed approach outperforms the previously developed one.

  8. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lakshmi Durairaj; Janice Launspach; Janet L Watt; Thomas R Businga; Joel N Kline; Peter S Thorne; Joseph Zabner

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl\\/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital.

  9. [Safety assessment of nanomaterials in reproductive developmental field].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kohei; Yoshioka, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    A diverse array of nanomaterials (NMs) such as amorphous nanosilica and carbon nanotubes have become widespread in use due to the development of nanotechnology. NMs are already being applied in universal fields because they have unique physicochemical properties. On the other hand, the increasing use of NMs has raised public concern about their potential risks to human health. In particular, recent reports indicated that carbon nanotubes induced mesothelioma-like lesions in mice, in a way similar to those induced by crocidolite asbestos. However, current knowledge of the potential risk of nanomaterials is considered insufficient. Because NMs have the potential to improve the quality of human life, it is essential to ensure the safety of NMs and provide information for designing NMs with safety. Especially, few studies have examined the effect of NMs on maintenance of pregnancy. Similar to the cases of thalidomide, a lot of evidence shows that fetuses are affected more than adults by a variety of environmental toxins because of physiological immaturity. Therefore it is essential to examine the effect of NMs on fetuses and pregnancies. Here we introduce the potential risk of amorphous nanosilica, most widely used NMs in food and the cosmetics field, to induce fetotoxicity and useful information for developing NMs with safety. PMID:22382838

  10. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  11. Assessing the patient safety competencies of healthcare professionals: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martowirono, Kartinie; Bijnen, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient safety training of healthcare professionals is a new area of education. Assessment of the pertinent competencies should be a part of this education. This review aims to identify the available assessment tools for different patient safety domains and evaluate them according to Miller's four competency levels. Methods The authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, psycINFO and the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) from the start of each database to December 2010 for English-language articles that evaluated or described tools for the assessment of the safety competencies of individual medical and/or nursing professionals. Reports on the assessment of technical, clinical, medication and disclosure skills were excluded. Results Thirty-four assessment tools in 48 studies were identified: 20 tools for medical professionals, nine tools for nursing professionals, and five tools for both medical and nursing professionals. Twenty of these tools assessed the two highest Miller levels (‘shows how’ and ‘does’) and four tools were directed at multiple levels. Most of the tools that aimed at the higher levels assessed the skills of working in teams (17 tools), risk management (15 tools), and communication (11 tools). Internal structure (reliability, 22 tools) and content validity (14 tools) when described were found to be moderate. Only a small number of tools addressed the relationship between the tool itself and (1) other assessments (concurrent, predictive validity, eight tools), and (2) educational outcomes (seven tools). Conclusions There are many tools designed to assess the safety competencies of healthcare professionals. However, a reliable and valid toolbox for summative testing that covers all patient safety domains at Miller's four competency levels cannot yet be constructed. Many tools, however, are useful for formative feedback. PMID:21880646

  12. Methodological Challenges in Assessing the Environmental Status of a Marine Ecosystem: Case Study of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity), less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances). The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure. PMID:21559423

  13. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  14. Adaptation of the ToxRTool to assess the reliability of toxicology studies conducted with genetically modified crops and implications for future safety testing.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce

    2014-09-10

    Abstract To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators. PMID:25208336

  15. Sustainability assessment of future scenarios: methodology and application to mountain areas of Europe.

    PubMed

    Sheate, William R; do Partidário, Maria Rosário; Byron, Helen; Bina, Olivia; Dagg, Suzan

    2008-02-01

    BioScene (scenarios for reconciling biodiversity conservation with declining agriculture use in mountain areas in Europe) was a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, and aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe. The research took a case study approach to the analysis of the biodiversity processes and outcomes of different scenarios of agri-environmental change in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) covering the major biogeographical regions of Europe. The project was coordinated by Imperial College London, and each study area had a multidisciplinary team including ecologists and social and economic experts, which sought a comprehensive understanding of the drivers for change and their implications for sustainability.A key component was the sustainability assessment (SA) of the alternative scenarios. This article discusses the development and application of the SA methodology developed for BioScene. While the methodology was objectives-led, it was also strongly grounded in baseline ecological and socio-economic data. This article also describes the engagement of stakeholder panels in each study area and the use of causal chain analysis for understanding the likely implications for land use and biodiversity of strategic drivers of change under alternative scenarios for agriculture and rural policy and for biodiversity management. Finally, this article draws conclusions for the application of SA more widely, its use with scenarios, and the benefits of stakeholder engagement in the SA process. PMID:18167020

  16. Sustainability Assessment of Future Scenarios: Methodology and Application to Mountain Areas of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheate, William R.; Partidário, Maria Rosário Do; Byron, Helen; Bina, Olivia; Dagg, Suzan

    2008-02-01

    BioScene (scenarios for reconciling biodiversity conservation with declining agriculture use in mountain areas in Europe) was a three-year project (2002 2005) funded by the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme, and aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe. The research took a case study approach to the analysis of the biodiversity processes and outcomes of different scenarios of agri-environmental change in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) covering the major biogeographical regions of Europe. The project was coordinated by Imperial College London, and each study area had a multidisciplinary team including ecologists and social and economic experts, which sought a comprehensive understanding of the drivers for change and their implications for sustainability. A key component was the sustainability assessment (SA) of the alternative scenarios. This article discusses the development and application of the SA methodology developed for BioScene. While the methodology was objectives-led, it was also strongly grounded in baseline ecological and socio-economic data. This article also describes the engagement of stakeholder panels in each study area and the use of causal chain analysis for understanding the likely implications for land use and biodiversity of strategic drivers of change under alternative scenarios for agriculture and rural policy and for biodiversity management. Finally, this article draws conclusions for the application of SA more widely, its use with scenarios, and the benefits of stakeholder engagement in the SA process.

  17. Sustainability of Italian Agriculture: A Methodological Approach for Assessing Crop Water Footprint at Local Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Cimino, O.; Orlandini, S.; Natali, F.

    2014-12-01

    In a world where population is rapidly growing and where several planetary boundaries (i.e. climate change, biodiversity loss and nitrogen cycle) have already been crossed, agriculture is called to respond to the needs of food security through a sustainable use of natural resources. In particular, water is one of the main elements of fertility so the agricultural activity, and the whole agro-food chain, is one of the productive sectors more dependent on water resource and it is able to affect, at regional level, its availability for all the other sectors. In this study, we proposed a methodology for assessing the green and blue water footprint of the main Italian crops typical of the different geographical areas (northwest, northeast, center, and south) based on data extracted from Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). FADN is an instrument for evaluating the income of agricultural holdings and the impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy. Crops were selected based on incidence of cultivated area on the total arable land of FADN farms net. Among others, the database contains data on irrigation management (irrigated surface, length of irrigation season, volumes of water, etc.), and crop production. Meteorological data series were obtained by a combination of local weather stations and ECAD E-obs spatialized database. Crop water footprints were evaluated against water availability and risk of desertification maps of Italy. Further, we compared the crop water footprints obtained with our methodology with already existing data from similar studies in order to highlight the effects of spatial scale and level of detail of available data.

  18. Use of Q methodology to assess the concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Linjie; Xu, Xingqiao; Ni, Zhenyu; Zheng, Minling; Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Background Orthodontic treatment may cause functional restrictions, discomfort, and pain, which may lead to dental anxiety and noncooperation among patients. This study aimed to assess the concerns of adult female patients with respect to such treatment. Patients and methods We conducted an explorative study using Q methodology among 40 adult female patients with different educational and social backgrounds in Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China. We asked participants to rank a set of 41 statements about seeking orthodontic treatment on an 11-point scale from “agree most” to “disagree most”. The collected data were analyzed using the PQ Method 2.35 program. We extracted significant viewpoints using centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation. Results We identified major factors based on how the patients ranked statements. Patients in group 1 worried about lack of information about orthodontic treatment, and may have suffered from dental phobia; patients in group 2 were all single women, and they were worried that the braces might lower their chances of finding a partner; patients in group 3 worried about appearance and speech with braces; and patients in group 4 worried about cost, pain, and dental hygiene. The remaining participants who had other viewpoints did not load to any of these four groups. Conclusion The concerns of adult female individuals seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. A significant feature of this study was using Q methodology to analyze the psychological characteristics of the patients. This study identified four typical characterizations that are associated with each group, and our findings may aid orthodontists in improving doctor–patient relationships. PMID:25609926

  19. Safety propensity index for signalized and unsignalized intersections: exploration and assessment.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Justin P; Hamdar, Samer H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a safety propensity index (SPI) for both signalized and unsignalized intersections. Through the use of a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach safety is quantified in terms of multiple endogenous variables and related to various dimensions of exogenous variables. The singular valued SPI allows for identification of relationships between variables and lends itself well to a comparative analysis between models. The data provided by the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) for the California transportation network was utilized for analysis. In total 22,422 collisions at unsignalized intersections and 20,215 collisions at signalized intersections (occurring between 2006 and 2010) were considered in the final models. The main benefits of the approach and the subsequent development of an SPI are (1) the identification of pertinent variables that effect safety at both intersection types, (2) the identification of similarities and differences at both types of intersections through model comparison, and (3) the quantification of safety in the form of an index such that a ranking system can be developed. If further developed, the adopted methodology may assist in safety related decision making and policy analysis. PMID:24892876

  20. [Venous thromboembolism's risk assessment: rationale, objectives, and methodology--the ARTE study].

    PubMed

    França, Ana; De Sousa, Joaquim Abreu; Felicíssimo, Paulo; Ferreira, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a frequent clinical condition with high impact on both morbidity and mortality. Venous thromboembolism risk is particularly high in hospitalized patients as well as in oncologic patients, being a factor of poor prognosis for the oncologic disease. Several clinical studies have shown the need to develop effective hospital strategies using a systematic and individualized assessment of venous thromboembolism risk, and additionally to optimize the institution of prophylaxis treatment and its proper use in the context of in-hospital and outpatient management. The ARTE national study is a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective study which is divided in two phases. In the first phase patients are followed in the hospital; in the second phase patients are followed in ambulatory context for a period of 6 months after discharge. Four thousand patients will be included, equally distributed over medical, surgical, oncologic and orthopaedic patients. Data will be collected from the patient's clinical files and through direct clinical evaluation of risk factors for venous thromboembolism, in the departments of medicine, oncology, surgery, and orthopaedics of the participating centres. The main objectives of the study are to assess the risk profile of venous thromboembolism of the study population using a risk assessment model adapted from the Caprini and Khorana et al models, and the validation of the score for the Portuguese population. Simultaneously, the secondary objectives are as follows: to determine the proportion of patients with venous thromboembolism risk, according to the risk assessment model, that are doing prophylaxis; to determine the duration of prophylaxis during the hospitalization; to determine the proportion of patients doing long-term prophylaxis, at the moment of the discharge; to determine the incidence of thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis; stroke; pulmonary thromboembolism; transient ischemic attack), haemorrhagic events (major and minor haemorrhages) and death at 6 months after discharge. Each patient will be contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 months after discharge, in order to assess the occurrence of thromboembolic and haemorrhagic events, as well as any readmission. This article describes the ARTE study's rationale, objectives, and methodology. PMID:22849949

  1. Organizational Change EffortsMethodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs Versus Benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry A. Macy; Philip H. Mirvis

    1982-01-01

    This article presents two methodologies for evaluating organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. The first methodology describes the development of a standardized approach for identifying, defining, and measuring indicators of work behavior and performance that fit a broader concept of organizational effectiveness than traditional production and financial outcomes. The second methodology describes methods used to

  2. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic operation while maintaining adequate safety margins.

  3. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    FRMAC Health and Safety Working Group

    2012-03-20

    This manual is a tool to provide information to all responders and emergency planners and is suggested as a starting point for all organizations that provide personnel/assets for radiological emergency response. It defines the safety requirements for the protection of all emergency responders. The intent is to comply with appropriate regulations or provide an equal level of protection when the situation makes it necessary to deviate. In the event a situation arises which is not addressed in the manual, an appropriate management-level expert will define alternate requirements based on the specifics of the emergency situation. This manual is not intended to pertain to the general public.

  4. Methodology for assessing the risk from the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranwell, R. M.; Ortiz, N. R.; Runkle, G. E.

    A risk assessment methodology for use in assessing the post closure, long term risk from the disposal of high level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. This methodology consists of: (1) techniques for selecting and screening scenarios; (2) models for use in simulating the physical processes and estimating the consequences associated with the occurrence of these scenarios; (3) probabilistic and statistical techniques for use in risk estimates and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses; (4) a procedure for utilizing these models and techniques to arrive at estimates of consequences and risk. The methodology was demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical site containing a bedded salt formation as the host medium for the waste repository. In this demonstration analysis, consequences resulting from the occurrence of several hypothetical scenarios were determined. These consequences were expressed in terms of radionuclide discharges to the biosphere and health effects resulting from these discharges.

  5. Methodologies for evaluating performance and assessing uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Joseph C.

    This thesis describes methodologies to evaluate the performance and to assess the uncertainty of atmospheric dispersion models, tools that predict the fate of gases and aerosols upon their release into the atmosphere. Because of the large economic and public-health impacts often associated with the use of the dispersion model results, these models should be properly evaluated, and their uncertainty should be properly accounted for and understood. The CALPUFF, HPAC, and VLSTRACK dispersion modeling systems were applied to the Dipole Pride (DP26) field data (˜20 km in scale), in order to demonstrate the evaluation and uncertainty assessment methodologies. Dispersion model performance was found to be strongly dependent on the wind models used to generate gridded wind fields from observed station data. This is because, despite the fact that the test site was a flat area, the observed surface wind fields still showed considerable spatial variability, partly because of the surrounding mountains. It was found that the two components were comparable for the DP26 field data, with variability more important than uncertainty closer to the source, and less important farther away from the source. Therefore, reducing data errors for input meteorology may not necessarily increase model accuracy due to random turbulence. DP26 was a research-grade field experiment, where the source, meteorological, and concentration data were all well-measured. Another typical application of dispersion modeling is a forensic study where the data are usually quite scarce. An example would be the modeling of the alleged releases of chemical warfare agents during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, where the source data had to rely on intelligence reports, and where Iraq had stopped reporting weather data to the World Meteorological Organization since the 1981 Iran-Iraq-war. Therefore the meteorological fields inside Iraq must be estimated by models such as prognostic mesoscale meteorological models, based on observational data from areas outside of Iraq, and using the global fields simulated by the global meteorological models as the initial and boundary conditions for the mesoscale models. It was found that while comparing model predictions to observations in areas outside of Iraq, the predicted surface wind directions had errors between 30 to 90 deg, but the inter-model differences (or uncertainties) in the predicted surface wind directions inside Iraq, where there were no onsite data, were fairly constant at about 70 deg. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part II: a methodological case study for pesticide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Peter B; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert; Espinosa, Gabriela; Münier, Bernd; Gyldenkaerne, Steen; Thomsen, Marianne

    2010-08-15

    This paper illustrates, by a case study, how to apply the conceptual Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model, developed in the methodological paper in the current journal, by Sørensen et al. (2010-this issue). The case is about eco-toxicological risk assessment of pesticides under Danish conditions. Cumulative aspects are included on a conceptual basis as elements of the worst-case conditions. This defines factors that govern the risk assessment, including location in time and space of risk "hotspots". Two pillars of concern drive the conceptual modelling: (1) What to protect (denoted Protected Units (PUs)) and (2) the reason for increased risk level (denoted Causes of Risks (CRs)). Both PUs and CRs are analysed using hierarchical procedures that facilitate a complete listing of concrete factors governing increased risk for adverse effect due to agricultural usage of pesticide. The factors governing pesticide risk are combined in a context that combines the protection of relevant groupings of organisms with the factors for increased risk level for each of these. Identification of the most important relations between defined types of PUs and CRs is illustrated using expert knowledge. Existing databases are used to form spatial distributed risk indicators as estimators for a selection of important relations between PUs and CRs. This paper illustrates how the WCD model can break down the complex issue of uncertainty into fractions that are more open for evaluations. Finally, it shows application of risk indicators in a multi-criterion analysis using respectively self organizing mapping and partial order technique in a comparative analysis that highlights critical aspects of uncertainty, due to the ambiguity between single risk indicator rankings. PMID:20015539

  7. Ex-ante institutional compatibility assessment of policy options -Methodological insights from a case study on the Nitrate Directive in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    a case study on the Nitrate Directive in Auvergne, France Laurence Amblarda and Carsten Mannb a Cemagref implementation. As a first empirical test of the tool, PICA was applied to the implementation of the EU Nitrate assessment, institutional compatibility, EU Nitrate Directive, integrative methodology in : Journal

  8. Determining associations and assessing methodological issues in a case-control study of hazardous air pollutants and neural tube defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Joseph Lupo

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have reported positive associations between maternal exposures to air pollutants and several adverse birth outcomes. However, there have been no assessments of the association between environmental hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and neural tube defects (NTDs) a common and serious group of congenital malformations. Before examining this association, two important methodological

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 123 Methodology for Assessing Adaptive Cruise Control

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    Methodology for Assessing Adaptive Cruise Control Behavior Zevi Bareket, Paul S. Fancher, Huei Peng, Kangwon the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports Terms--Adaptive cruise control (ACC), clearance, global positioning system (GPS), range measurement

  10. Vulnerability assessment and earthquake damage scenarios of the building stock of Potenza (Southern Italy) using Italian and Greek methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Dolce; Andreas Kappos; Angelo Masi; Gregory Penelis; Marco Vona

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing Italian and Greek methodologies for seismic risk assessment are used herein to construct loss scenarios for the building stock of a small city (Potenza, Southern Italy). The inventory of buildings of interest is obtained from a survey carried out after the 1990 earthquake that struck Potenza and its hinterland, subsequently updated in 1999. About 12,000 buildings were surveyed

  11. O'Hagan, Stevens MEDICAL DECISION MAKINGVOL 21/NO 3, MAYJUNE 2001 Bayesian Assessment of Sample Size Methodology

    E-print Network

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    Size Methodology Bayesian Assessment of Sample Size for Clinical Trials of Cost-Effectiveness ANTHONY O'HAGAN, JOHN W. STEVENS The authors present an analysis of the choice of sample sizes for demonstrating cost into the sample size problem and offers a very flexible formulation. Key words: Bayesian statistics; cost

  12. Assessing gaps in the maternal and child health safety net.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Arlesia; Barnes, Priscilla A; Shah, Gulzar H

    2013-08-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 proposed sweeping changes to health insurance and health care delivery systems. As a result, local health departments, community health centers, and other safety net providers are expected to play a role in providing access to care for millions of individuals. This study examines the availability of population-based services by local health departments and community health centers in the Midwest/Great Lakes region. For this study, the authors used secondary data on location of community health centers collected by the Health Resources and Services Administration and local health department services delivery from the 2008 National Profile of Local Health Departments. To simultaneously examine the geospatial patterns of service delivery and location of community health centers, the geographic information system shape files of local health department jurisdictions were used to examine prenatal care services. Additionally, the effect of service availability was examined by analyzing the rate of low birth weight births within the service areas of these facilities. Results show large variation in the distribution of community health centers. Additionally, the analysis of local health department services shows that prenatal care services are not available in every jurisdiction. Furthermore, the rates of low birth weight births in these areas are significantly higher than in areas where prenatal care is available. Future studies are needed to examine the relationship between safety net providers as well as their role in improving population health. PMID:23437869

  13. Microbiological quality and safety assessment of lettuce production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuppens, Siele; Hessel, Claudia Titze; de Quadros Rodrigues, Rochele; Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo César; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality and safety of lettuce during primary production in Brazil were determined by enumeration of hygiene indicators Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci and detection of enteric pathogens Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, lettuce crops, harvest boxes and worker's hands taken from six different lettuce farms throughout the crop growth cycle. Generic E. coli was a suitable indicator for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, while coliforms and enterococci were not. Few pathogens were detected: 5 salmonellae and 2 E. coli O157:H7 from 260 samples, of which only one was lettuce and the others were manure, soil and water. Most (5/7) pathogens were isolated from the same farm and all were from organic production. Statistical analysis revealed the following environmental and agro-technical risk factors for increased microbial load and pathogen prevalence in lettuce production: high temperature, flooding of lettuce fields, application of contaminated organic fertilizer, irrigation with water of inferior quality and large distances between the field and toilets. Control of the composting process of organic fertilizers and the irrigation water quality appear most crucial to improve and/or maintain the microbiological quality and safety during the primary production of lettuce. PMID:24829142

  14. Nonclinical safety assessment of Efinaconazole Solution (10%) for onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Jo, William; Glynn, Marian; Nejishima, Hiroaki; Sanada, Hisakazu; Minowa, Kenji; Calvarese, Barry; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Mutter, Linda

    2014-10-01

    Efinaconazole is a triazole developed as a 10% solution for topical treatment of onychomycosis, a common fungal nail infection. Efinaconazole solution and topical formulation vehicle administered dermally to mice (13weeks), rats (6months) and minipigs (9months) produced transient erythema, minimal to modest hyperkeratosis, and mild microscopic skin inflammation. The liver was the target organ of systemic toxicity; reversible, minimal to moderate vacuolated changes were noted in the rat dermal study at 15 and 50mg/kg/day. No systemic toxicity was observed in mice and minipigs, at approximate high dermal doses of 930 and 170mg/kg/day, respectively. Daily subcutaneous injection of propylene glycol vehicle or efinaconazole to rats for 6months produced severe local inflammation and systemic spread, evidenced by peritoneal adhesions, spinal cord necrosis and urinary tract disease. Mortalities occurred in all groups but were increased at the high dose (30 or 40mg/kg/day), suggesting that vehicle effects were exacerbated by efinaconazole. Efinaconazole was not carcinogenic in a 2-year mouse dermal study and was not genotoxic. Exposure-based safety margins at the NOAEL were 70-698 relative to onychomycosis patients. In conclusion, efinaconazole demonstrated low/moderate toxicity, consistent with other azole antifungals, and high safety margins for topical onychomycosis therapy. PMID:25038564

  15. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

  16. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  17. Neuropsychological Assessment of Driving Safety Risk in Older Adults With and Without Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Steven W.; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Decline in cognitive abilities can be an important contributor to the driving problems encountered by older adults, and neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical approach to evaluating this aspect of driving safety risk. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate several commonly used neuropsychological tests in the assessment of driving safety risk in older adults with and without neurological disease. A further goal of this study was to identify brief combinations of neuropsychological tests that sample performances in key functional domains and thus could be used to efficiently assess driving safety risk. 345 legally licensed and active drivers over the age of 50, with either no neurologic disease (N=185), probable Alzheimer's disease (N=40), Parkinson's disease (N=91), or stroke (N=29), completed vision testing, a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests, and an 18 mile drive on urban and rural roads in an instrumented vehicle. Performances on all neuropsychological tests were significantly correlated with driving safety errors. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify 3 key cognitive domains assessed by the tests (speed of processing, visuospatial abilities, and memory), and several brief batteries consisting of one test from each domain showed moderate corrected correlations with driving performance. These findings are consistent with the notion that driving places demands on multiple cognitive abilities that can be affected by aging and age-related neurological disease, and that neuropsychological assessment may provide a practical off-road window into the functional status of these cognitive systems. PMID:22943767

  18. Environmental and climate security: improving scenario methodologies for science and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, C. M.; Carlsen, H.

    2010-12-01

    Governments and popular discussions have increasingly referred to concepts of ‘climate security’, often with reference to IPCC data. Development of effective methodologies to translate complex, scientific data into risk assessments has lagged, resulting in overly simplistic political assumptions of potential impacts. Climate security scenarios have been developed for use by security and military agencies, but effective engagement by scientific communities requires an improved framework. Effective use of data requires improvement both of climate projections, and the mapping of cascading impacts across interlinked, complex systems. In this research we propose a process for systematic generation of subsets of scenarios (of arbitrary size) from a given set of variables with possible interlinkages. The variables could include climatic changes as well as other global changes of concerns in a security context. In coping with possible challenges associated with the nexus of climate change and security - where deep structural uncertainty and possible irreversible changes are of primary interest - it is important to explore the outer limits of the relevant uncertainties. Therefore the proposed process includes a novel method that will help scenario developers in generating scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best ‘span’ the whole set of scenarios. When downscaled onto a regional level, this process can provide guidance to potentially significant and abrupt geophysical changes, where high uncertainty has often prevented communication of risks. Potential physical changes can then be used as starting points for mapping cascading effects across networks, including topological analysis to identify critically vulnerable nodes and fragile systems, the existence of positive or negative feedback loops, and possible intervention points. Advanced knowledge of both potential geo-physical shifts and related non-linear threshold responses, can help in communicating potential stability concerns from a political/social/economic/security perspective. This research illustrates scenario improvements that approach critical climate uncertainties from a risk assessment perspective, without losing traceability of related scientific data.

  19. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, D. W.; Brenza, P. T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus - Venus - Earth - Jupiter gravity assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study, which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR), are discussed in this document.

  20. The Development and Validation of an Assessment of Safety Awareness of Science Teachers Using Interactive Videodisc Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomask, Michal S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Developed and tested the Safety Simulator, a new assessment of science teachers' knowledge of school lab safety management based on Interactive Videodisc Technology. Reports that reliability of scores for the four different categories of lab safety (physical facilities, chemicals, lab techniques, and students' behavior) were found to be moderate…

  1. Assessment methodology for new cooling lakes. Volume 3. Limnological and fisheries data and bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This is the data volume of the report entitled Assessment Methodology for New Cooling Lakes. Limnological and fisheries data were compiled in this volume for potential users in the utility industry. Published papers, reports, other written information, computer files, and direct contracts were used to compile a matrix of information. This volume presents data and the bibliographic sources of the power plant and geographical, limnological, and fisheries information for 181 lakes and reservoirs, of which 134 were used for cooling purposes. Data for 65 lakes were completed with respect to the limnology and fisheries parameters so that complete statistical analysis could be performed. Of these 65 lakes, 42 are used for cooling. Tables in this report contain data arranged by utility, power plant, limnology, water quality, morphoedaphic, and fishery categories. The data in the tables are keyed to a lake code. The references for the data shown are keyed to a numerical listing of the bibliography. Author, state, lake, and subject indexes facilitate searching for bibliographic information.

  2. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, E. J.; Chu, M. S. Y.; Cranwell, R. M.; Davis, P. A.

    The burial of nuclear wastes in deep geologic formations as a means for their disposal is an issue of significant technical and social impact. The analysis of the processes involved can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are ground-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  3. Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ?1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics. PMID:21164074

  4. Applications of Emerging Technologies in Toxicology and Safety Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent L. Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Standardized protocols for repeat-dose toxicity studies have many advantages, including experimental redundancy (i.e., the use of more than a single experimental approach in the assessment of a given organ or tissue) and evaluation of numerous tissues to ensure detection of adverse effects, as well as the ability to develop robust historical control databases. However, traditional toxicology study designs may not

  5. Confounders in interpreting pathology for safety and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Douglas C. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)]. E-mail: wolf.doug@epa.gov; Mann, Peter C. [Experimental Pathology Laboratory NorthEast, Galena, MD (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The contribution of pathology to toxicity assessment is invaluable but often not clearly understood. Pathology endpoints are the central response around which human health risk assessment is frequently determined; therefore, it is important that the general toxicology community understand current concepts and nomenclature of toxicologic pathology. Toxicologic pathology encompasses the study of changes in tissue morphology that help define the risk of exposure to xenobiotics. Toxicologic pathology is a discipline that has changed and adapted over time including methods of analysis and nomenclature of lesions. As risk assessments are updated for chemicals in commerce, frequently the older literature must be reviewed and reevaluated. When interpreting pathology data from animal studies, it is important to consider the biological significance of a lesion as well as its relationship to the ultimate adverse health effect. Assessing the potential for a chemical to cause harm to humans must include the examination of the entire pathology database in context of the study design, the mode of action of the chemical of concern, and using the most current interpretation of a lesion to determine the significance for human health effects of a particular tissue response.

  6. Methodology, status, and plans for development and assessment of the TRAC code

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B.E.; Nelson, R.A.; Jolly-Woodruff, S.

    1996-12-31

    The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) is a state-of-the-art, best-estimate, transient system analysis computer code for analyzing geometrically complex multidimensional thermal hydraulic systems, primarily nuclear reactor power plants. TRAC is used by government and industry organizations for design and safety analysis, phenomenological studies, operational transient analysis, evaluating emergency operating procedures, simulator support and operator training, and for assessment of data involving basic experiments, separate effects tests, and plant operations. TRAC will calculate one- and three-dimensional (rectilinear and cylindrical coordinates) fluid flow involving gas, liquid, and mixture states. Although TRAC has many capabilities, it also has limitations. Some limitations arise from its implementation, dating from the 1970s. Rapid advances in hardware and software engineering highlight TRAC`s inefficiencies; however, other limitations relate to the level of scientific knowledge regarding two-phase flow physics. These limitations will continue until such time as the fundamental understanding of two-phase flows is extended. Presently, several development activities are either in progress or soon to begin that will fundamentally improve TRAC. Foremost among these are reimplementation of the current TRAC data structures in Fortran 90 and the integrated development of closure packages for large-break loss-of-coolant accident applications.

  7. Assessing fault rapture hazard for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Demonstration of a methodology using expert judgements

    SciTech Connect

    Perman, R.C.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Shaw, R.A. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    As part of the Electric Power Research Institute`s High Level Waste (EPRI HLW) performance assessment, we have developed and demonstrated a methodology to estimate the magnitude and likelihood of earthquake-related fault rupture that could affect the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A panel of seven earth sciences experts was selected to develop estimates of the probability of fault displacement through the repository, as well as to quantify the uncertainties associated with the assessment. A series of technical workshops focusing on the issues and involving expert judgement elicitation were conducted. Each expert was individually interviewed to elicit his judgement regarding the technical issues and to provide the technical basis for his assessment. The study illustrates a methodology for quantifying uncertainties associated with a complex technical issue that has been the subject of diversity of opinion.

  8. Methodologies to assess potential lifetime limits for extended burnup nuclear fuel 

    E-print Network

    De Vore, Curtis Vincent

    1986-01-01

    AND OBJECTIVES. CHAPTER II. HIGH BURNUP DATA DISTRIBUTION INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 12 23 CONCLUSIONS 71 CHAPTER III. COMBINED HIGH AND LOW BURNUP DATA DISTRIBUTION. INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY 75 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 80... CONCLUSIONS 116 CHAPTER IV. HIGH BURNUP DATA RESPONSE TRENDS. . 121 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY. 121 122 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 123 Page CONCLUSIONS. 152 CHAPTER V. POTENTIAL FOR CLADDING FAILURE DURING TRANSIENT EVENTS AT EXTENDED BURNUPS. . . 159...

  9. Application of risk assessment in upgrading safety and quality of radiochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, K.H.; Hightower, J.R.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1990-01-01

    A Comprehensive Safety Assessment and Upgrade Program (CSAUP) was commenced by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve excellence in the safety and quality of its operations and condition of its facilities. In the course of conducting CSAUP, a number of issues of concern were identified. The safety risk of these issues has been assessed, and planned actions were prepared for those issues that require corrective actions or improvement/upgrading. The planned actions were evaluated on consideration for the uniqueness of Chem Tech facilities and operations to determine the risks (high, moderate or low) involved by failure to implement the actions. The risk was defined in terms of the frequency and severity of impact. Priority of categorized actions was based on the urgency of the actions. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. An integrated methodology for quantitative assessment of proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear systems using probabilistic methods

    E-print Network

    Ham, Hyeongpil

    2005-01-01

    Proliferation is the results of a competition between the proliferating country (proliferation) and the party to resist the proliferation efforts (safeguarder). An integrated evaluation methodology to evaluate proliferation ...

  11. Safety assessment for hot test of the light duty utility arm in Hanford tank 241-T-106

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, E.C.

    1996-06-28

    This safety assessment describes the proposed initial test of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA), as it relates to the Tank Farms authorization basis and the previously analyzed safety basis.The LDUA will be tested in tank 241-T-106. A companion document(not included as part of the safety assessment), USQ Evaluation TF-96-0171, concludes that the test of the LDUA in tank 241-T-106 is within the current Tank Farms authorization basis. The conclusions of the safety assessment show that the test can be performed safely, using presently implemented controls.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43.

    PubMed

    Fiume, M Z

    2001-01-01

    Acid Violet 43 is an anthraquinone color that may be used as a colorant in cosmetic formulations that are hair dyes, colors, and coloring rinses. Batches of Acid Violet 43 that are certified to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) specifications are termed Ext. D & C Violet No. 2. Hair dyes and colors containing Acid Violet 43 are considered coal tar ingredients and, as such, routinely bear a caution statement regarding potential skin irritation and instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation in any given individual. Expected concentrations of use are less than or equal to 1%. Impurities include anthracenedione derivatives, p-toluidine, and p-toluidine sulfonic acid, as well as heavy metals. Based on extensive safety test data, the U.S. FDA has established specifications (including limits on impurities) for Ext. D & C Violet No. 2 that allow its use in any cosmetic. It is the certified color (Ext. D & C Violet No. 2) that has been evaluated in the following safety tests. Oral toxicity tests do not demonstrate significant acute toxicity. In a short-term dermal toxicity study using guinea pigs and a subchronic dermal toxicity study using rabbits, no signs of systemic toxicity and no significant local skin reactions were noted. This ingredient was not genotoxic in bacterial assays, nor was it carcinogenic when applied to mouse skin at a 1% concentration. Accordingly, Acid Violet 43 was determined to be safe for use in hair dye formulations, when impurities are limited as follows: < or = 18% volatile matter (at 135 degrees C) and chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts); < or = 0.4% water-insoluble matter; < or = 0.2% 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.2% 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.1% p-toluidine; < or = 0.2% p-toluidine sulfonic acids, sodium salts; < or = 1% subsidiary colors; < or = 20 ppm lead (as Pb); < or = 3 ppm arsenic (as As); < or = 1 ppm mercury (as Hg); and with > or = 80% total color. PMID:11766130

  13. Assessing the usefulness of a safety climate questionnaire in UK healthcare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hutchinson; J. E. Dean; K. L. Cooper; M. Patterson; A. McIntosh; C. B. Stride; C. M. Smith; B. E. Laurence

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of a safety climate questionnaire in UK primary and secondary healthcare settings. Surveys were sent to four Acute Trusts and nine Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and responses were received from 722 hospital and 585 primary care staff. Factor analysis and reliability analyses were undertaken, with the result that 2 Teamwork factors were

  14. DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Bowles, David S.

    DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION David S. Bowles breaching a dam; so drop the matter before a dispute breaks out. Proverbs 17:14 (NIV) ABSTRACT A decision recommendation justification matrix is proposed as an effective tool for presenting decision justifications

  15. Product Safety, Risk Assessment, and Responsible Care in the Biocide Chemical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Weiler; M. A. Jayjock; H. C. Levy

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturers of biocides recognize a need to control the risk from their products. This paper discusses some of the history and critical aspects of these activities and outlines the needs under the current initiatives of Responsible Care. Biocide product safety risk assessment is operationally defined in this context and presented as the fundamental tool of the process. The need for

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, L.H.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM).

  17. Learning from the application of nuclear probabilistic safety assessment to the chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyril Charvet; Jean-Luc Chambon; François Corenwinder; Jérôme Taveau

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the new approach of risk analysis established by the French Ministry of the Environment and develops the benefits of applying nuclear probabilistic safety assessment approaches to the chemical industry.In the aftermath of the AZF disaster in Toulouse on 21 September 2001, a new law was proposed by the French government asking for the investigation of all representative

  18. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Odell; H. E. Pfeifer

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including

  19. Dynamic fault tree analysis using Monte Carlo simulation in probabilistic safety assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Durga Rao; V. Gopika; V. V. S. Sanyasi Rao; H. S. Kushwaha; A. K. Verma; A. Srividya

    2009-01-01

    Traditional fault tree (FT) analysis is widely used for reliability and safety assessment of complex and critical engineering systems. The behavior of components of complex systems and their interactions such as sequence- and functional-dependent failures, spares and dynamic redundancy management, and priority of failure events cannot be adequately captured by traditional FTs. Dynamic fault tree (DFT) extend traditional FT by

  20. Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

    1999-01-01

    Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

  1. Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

  2. Safety assessment of chronic oral exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, Susana; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Vaquero, María Pilar; Verdoy, Dolores; Salas, Gorka; Luengo, Yurena; Brenes, Agustín; José Teran, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles with engineered physical and biochemical properties are finding a rapidly increasing number of biomedical applications. However, a wide variety of safety concerns, especially those related to oral exposure, still need to be addressed for iron oxide nanoparticles in order to reach clinical practice. Here, we report on the effects of chronic oral exposure to low doses of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in growing chickens. Animal observation, weight, and diet intake reveal no adverse signs, symptoms, or mortality. No nanoparticle accumulation was observed in liver, spleen, and duodenum, with feces as the main excretion route. Liver iron level and duodenal villi morphology reflect the bioavailability of the iron released from the partial transformation of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the acid gastric environment. Duodenal gene expression studies related to the absorption of iron from ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles indicate the enhancement of a ferric over ferrous pathway supporting the role of mucins. Our findings reveal that oral administration of iron oxide nanoparticles is a safe route for drug delivery at low nanoparticle doses.

  3. Diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography: Assessment of safety and prevention of complications

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Christian; Alvarez-Sánchez, Maria Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand; Faiss, Siegbert

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained wide acceptance as an important, minimally invasive diagnostic tool in gastroenterology, pulmonology, visceral surgery and oncology. This review focuses on data regarding risks and complications of non-interventional diagnostic EUS and EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB). Measures to improve the safety of EUS und EUS-FNB will be discussed. Due to the specific mechanical properties of echoendoscopes in EUS, there is a low but noteworthy risk of perforation. To minimize this risk, endoscopists should be familiar with the specific features of their equipment and their patients’ specific anatomical situations (e.g., tumor stenosis, diverticula). Most diagnostic EUS complications occur during EUS-FNB. Pain, acute pancreatitis, infection and bleeding are the primary adverse effects, occurring in 1% to 2% of patients. Only a few cases of needle tract seeding and peritoneal dissemination have been reported. The mortality associated with EUS and EUS-FNB is 0.02%. The risks associated with EUS-FNB are affected by endoscopist experience and target lesion. EUS-FNB of cystic lesions is associated with an increased risk of infection and hemorrhage. Peri-interventional antibiotics are recommended to prevent cyst infection. Adequate education and training, as well consideration of contraindications, are essential to minimize the risks of EUS and EUS-FNB. Restricting EUS-FNB only to patients in whom the cytopathological results may be expected to change the course of management is the best way of reducing the number of complications. PMID:23002335

  4. Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Report Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Scott

    2011-03-23

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program was established to ensure that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The ES&H Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contractor Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The primary objective of the program is to ensure that work is conducted safely and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. Self-assessment follows the five core functions and guiding principles of ISM. Self-assessment is the mechanism used to promote the continuous improvement of the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The process is described in the Environment, Safety, and Health Assurance Plan (PUB-5344) and is composed of three types of self-assessments: Division ES&H Self-Assessment, ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment, and Division ES&H Peer Review. The Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual (PUB-3105) provides the framework by which divisions conduct formal ES&H self-assessments to systematically identify program deficiencies. Issue-specific assessments are designed and implemented by the divisions and focus on areas of interest to division management. They may be conducted by teams and involve advance planning to ensure that appropriate resources are available. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Manual (PUB-913E) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment is designed to evaluate whether ES&H programs and processes are compliant with guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Division ES&H Peer Review Manual provides the framework by which division ISM systems are evaluated and improved. Peer Reviews are conducted by teams under the direction of senior division management and focus on higher-level management issues. Peer Review teams are selected on the basis of members knowledge and experience in the issues of interest to the division director. LBNL periodically requests in-depth independent assessments of selected ES&H programs. Such assessments augment LBNL's established assessment processes and provide an objective view of ES&H program effectiveness. Institutional Findings, Observations, and Noteworthy Practices identified during independent assessments are specifically intended to help LBNL identify opportunities for program improvement. This report includes the results of the Division ES&H Self-Assessment, ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment, and Division ES&H Peer Review, respectively.

  5. Teaching Safety Skills to Children: Prevention of Firearm Injury as an Exemplar of Best Practice in Assessment, Training, and Generalization of Safety Skills

    PubMed Central

    Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on teaching safety skills to children with an emphasis on recent research on behavioral skills training for the prevention of firearm injury. Following a discussion of safety skills and methods for assessing these skills, the paper reviews recent research on behavioral skills training and in situ training for teaching safety skills to prevent firearm injury. Strategies for promoting generalization and increasing the efficiency of training are then discussed, along with a summary of conclusions that can be drawn from the research and guidelines for best practices in teaching safety skills to children. PMID:22477677

  6. Teaching safety skills to children: prevention of firearm injury as an exemplar of best practice in assessment, training, and generalization of safety skills.

    PubMed

    Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on teaching safety skills to children with an emphasis on recent research on behavioral skills training for the prevention of firearm injury. Following a discussion of safety skills and methods for assessing these skills, the paper reviews recent research on behavioral skills training and in situ training for teaching safety skills to prevent firearm injury. Strategies for promoting generalization and increasing the efficiency of training are then discussed, along with a summary of conclusions that can be drawn from the research and guidelines for best practices in teaching safety skills to children. PMID:22477677

  7. A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment Methodology and Its Application to Crescent City, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Leveque, R. J.; Waagan, K.; Adams, L.; Lin, G.

    2012-12-01

    A PTHA methodology, based in large part on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment methods (e.g., Cornell, 1968; SSHAC, 1997; Geist and Parsons, 2005), was previously applied to Seaside, OR (Gonzalez, et al., 2009). This initial version of the method has been updated to include: a revised method to estimate tidal uncertainty; an improved method for generating stochastic realizations to estimate slip distribution uncertainty (Mai and Beroza, 2002; Blair, et al., 2011); additional near-field sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, based on the work of Goldfinger, et al. (2012); far-field sources in Japan, based on information updated since the 3 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami (Japan Earthquake Research Committee, 2011). The GeoClaw tsunami model (Berger, et. al, 2011) is used to simulate generation, propagation and inundation. We will discuss this revised PTHA methodology and the results of its application to Crescent City, CA. Berger, M.J., D. L. George, R. J. LeVeque, and K. T. Mandli, The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement, Adv. Water Res. 34 (2011), pp. 1195-1206. Blair, J.L., McCrory, P.A., Oppenheimer, D.H., and Waldhauser, F. (2011): A Geo-referenced 3D model of the Juan de Fuca Slab and associated seismicity: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 633, v.1.0, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/633/. Cornell, C. A. (1968): Engineering seismic risk analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 58, 1583-1606. Geist, E. L., and T. Parsons (2005): Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards, Nat. Hazards, 37 (3), 277-314. Goldfinger, C., Nelson, C.H., Morey, A.E., Johnson, J.E., Patton, J.R., Karabanov, E., Gutiérrez-Pastor, J., Eriksson, A.T., Gràcia, E., Dunhill, G., Enkin, R.J., Dallimore, A., and Vallier, T. (2012): Turbidite event history—Methods and implications for Holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia subduction zone: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-F, 170 p. (Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1661f/). González, F.I., E.L. Geist, B. Jaffe, U. Kânoglu, H. Mofjeld, C.E. Synolakis, V.V Titov, D. Arcas, D. Bellomo, D. Carlton, T. Horning, J. Johnson, J. Newman, T. Parsons, R. Peters, C. Peterson, G .Priest, A. Venturato, J. Weber, F. Wong, and A. Yalciner (2009): Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for Near- and Far-Field Seismic Sources, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C11023, doi:10.1029/2008JC005132. Japan Earthquake Research Committee, (2011): http://www.jishin.go.jp/main/p_hyoka02.htm Mai, P. M., and G. C. Beroza (2002): A spatial random field model to characterize complexity in earthquake slip, J. Geophys. Res., 107(B11), 2308, doi:10.1029/2001JB000588. SSHAC (Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee) (1997): Recommendations for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts, Main Report Rep. NUREG/CR-6372 UCRL-ID-122160 Vol. 1, 256 pp, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  8. Randomized clinical trials in infancy: methodologic issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn T. Singer

    2002-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of early nutritional interventions in infants are necessary to establish safety and efficacy of supplementation of infant formulas with LCPUFAS for term and preterm infants. Such trials pose significant methodologic difficulties when applied to infants because of the rapidly changing development of the infant's central nervous system and its interdependence with multiple environmental factors. Current assessments of

  9. Assessment of low back muscle fatigue by surface EMG signal analysis: methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Farina, Dario; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto

    2003-08-01

    This paper focuses on methodological issues related to surface electromyographic (EMG) signal detection from the low back muscles. In particular, we analysed (1) the characteristics (in terms of propagating components) of the signals detected from these muscles; (2) the effect of electrode location on the variables extracted from surface EMG; (3) the effect of the inter-electrode distance (IED) on the same variables; (4) the possibility of assessing fatigue during high and very low force level contractions. To address these issues, we detected single differential surface EMG signals by arrays of eight electrodes from six locations on the two sides of the spine, at the levels of the first (L1), the second (L2), and the fifth (L5) lumbar vertebra. In total, 42 surface EMG channels were acquired at the same time during both high and low force, short and long duration contractions. The main results were: (1) signal quality is poor with predominance of non-travelling components; (2) as a consequence of point (1), in the majority of the cases it is not possible to reliably estimate muscle fiber conduction velocity; (3) despite the poor signal quality, it was possible to distinguish the fatigue properties of the investigated muscles and the fatigability at different contraction levels; (4) IED affects the sensitivity of surface EMG variables to electrode location and large IEDs are suggested when spectral and amplitude analysis is performed; (5) the sensitivity of surface EMG variables to changes in electrode location is on average larger than for other muscles with less complex architecture; (6) IED influences amplitude initial values and slopes, and spectral variable initial values; (7) normalized slopes for both amplitude and spectral variables are not affected by IED and, thus, are suggested for fatigue analysis at different postures or during movement, when IED may change in different conditions (in case of separated electrodes); (8) the surface EMG technique at the global level of amplitude and spectral analysis cannot be used to characterize fatigue properties of low back muscles during very low level, long duration contractions since in these cases the non-stable MU pool has a major influence on the EMG variables. These considerations clarify issues only partially investigated in past studies. The limitations indicated above are important and should be carefully discussed when presenting surface EMG results as a means for low back muscle assessment in clinical practice. PMID:12832163

  10. BEHAVIOURAL-BASED SAFETY IN THE MINERALS INDUSTRY: A RESEARCH BASED METHODOLOGY CARRIED OUT IN THE UK QUARRYING SECTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anam Parand; Patrick Foster

    Behavioural-based safety (BBS) initiatives have proved to be successful across a wide variety of industries, through their unique bottom-up approach to health and safety management in the workplace. Whilst BBS has been identified as a possible tool to break through the accident plateau of the minerals industry, there is a lack of research into its effectiveness within this industry. Moreover,

  11. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.). PMID:18604233

  12. Independent nuclear safety assessment of the non-nuclear verification instrument NNV-470AS

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    The System Surety Assessment Department 12332 of Sandia National Laboratories performed an independent nuclear safety assessment of the Non-nuclear Verification Instrument NNV-470AS. The NNV-470AS was assessed for structural integrity, characteristics of its electrical circuits, and its Radiated Electrical Emissions. Department 12332 concluded that the NNV-470AS and its Operational Procedures are safe to use with war reserve weapons. However, strict adherence to the Operational Procedures for the NNV-470AS is needed to prevent tampering with the instrument.

  13. A framework for chemical plant safety assessment under uncertainty.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.; Anitescu, M.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.

    2009-03-01

    We construct a framework for assessing the risk that the uncertainty in the plant feed and physical parameters may mask the loss of a reaction product. To model the plant, we use a nonlinear, quasi-steady-state model with stochastic input and parameters. We compute the probability that more than a certain product amount is diverted, given the statistics of the uncertainty in the plant feed, in the values of the chemical parameters, and in the output measurement. The uncertainty in the physical parameters is based on the one provided by the recently developed concept of thermochemical tables. We use Monte Carlo methods to compute the probabilities, based on a Cauchy-theorem-like approach to avoid making anything but the safest asymptotic assumptions, as well as to avoid the excessive noise in the region of low-probability events.

  14. A DETAILED SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF A SAW PALMETTO EXTRACT

    PubMed Central

    Avins, Andrew L.; Bent, Stephen; Staccone, Suzanne; Badua, Evelyn; Padula, Amy; Goldberg, Harley; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther; Shinohara, Katusto; Kane, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Background Saw palmetto is commonly used by men for lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite its widespread use, very little is known about the potential toxicity of this dietary supplement. Methods The Saw palmetto for Treatment of Enlarged Prostates (STEP) study was a randomized clinical trial performed among 225 men with moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, comparing a standardized extract of the saw palmetto berry (160mg twice daily) with a placebo over a one-year period. As part of this study, detailed data were collected on serious and non-serious adverse events, sexual functioning, and laboratory tests of blood and urine. Between-group differences were assessed with mixed-effects regression models. Results There were no significant differences observed between the saw palmetto and placebo-allocated participants in the risk of suffering at least one serious adverse event (5.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; p = 0.31) or non-serious symptomatic adverse event (34.8% vs. 30.1%; p = 0.48). There were few significant between-group differences in sexual functioning or for most laboratory analyses, with only small differences observed in changes over time in total bilirubin (p = 0.001), potassium (p = 0.03), and the incidence of glycosuria (0% in the saw palmetto group vs. 3.7% in the placebo group, p = 0.05). Conclusions Despite careful assessment, no evidence for serious toxicity of saw palmetto was observed in this clinical trial. Given the sample size and length of this study, however, these data do not rule out potential rare adverse effects associated with the use of saw palmetto. PMID:18534327

  15. How to assess solid waste management in armed conflicts? A new methodology applied to the Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Caniato, Marco; Vaccari, Mentore

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new methodology for assessing solid waste management in a situation of armed conflict. This methodology is composed of six phases with specific activities, and suggested methods and tools. The collection, haulage, and disposal of waste in low- and middle-income countries is so complicated and expensive task for municipalities, owing to several challenges involved, that some waste is left in illegal dumps. Armed conflicts bring further constraints, such as instability, the sudden increase in violence, and difficulty in supplying equipment and spare parts: planning is very difficult and several projects aimed at improving the situation have failed. The methodology was validated in the Gaza Strip, where the geopolitical situation heavily affects natural resources. We collected information in a holistic way, crosschecked, and discussed it with local experts, practitioners, and authorities. We estimated that in 2011 only 1300?tonne?day(-1) were transported to the three disposal sites, out of a production exceeding 1700. Recycling was very limited, while the composting capacity was 3.5?tonnes?day(-1), but increasing. We carefully assessed system elements and their interaction. We identified the challenges, and developed possible solutions to increase system effectiveness and robustness. The case study demonstrated that our methodology is flexible and adaptable to the context, thus it could be applied in other areas to improve the humanitarian response in similar situations. PMID:25106536

  16. Framework for Continuous Assessment and Improvement of Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Construction Companies

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Shahram; Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soleimani, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Background Construction industry is among the most hazardous industries, and needs a comprehensive and simple-to-administer tool to continuously assess and promote its health and safety performance. Methods Through the study of various standard systems (mainly Health, Safety, and Environment Management System; Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 180001; and British Standard, occupational health and safety management systems-Guide 8800), seven main elements were determined for the desired framework, and then, by reviewing literature, factors affecting these main elements were determined. The relative importance of each element and its related factors was calculated at organizational and project levels. The provided framework was then implemented in three construction companies, and results were compared together. Results The results of the study show that the relative importance of the main elements and their related factors differ between organizational and project levels: leadership and commitment are the most important elements at the organization level, whereas risk assessment and management are most important at the project level. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the framework is easy to administer, and by interpreting the results, the main factors leading to the present condition of companies can be determined. PMID:25379325

  17. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C. A.

    1998-02-10

    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments.

  18. Aspects of environmental and safety analysis of fusion reactors

    E-print Network

    Kazimi, Mujid S.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made between October 1976 and September 1977 in studies of some environmental and safety considerations in fusion reactor plants. A methodology to assess the admissible occurrence rate ...

  19. Recent developments in hyperspectral imaging for assessment of food quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Li; Ngadi, Michael O

    2014-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging which combines imaging and spectroscopic technology is rapidly gaining ground as a non-destructive, real-time detection tool for food quality and safety assessment. Hyperspectral imaging could be used to simultaneously obtain large amounts of spatial and spectral information on the objects being studied. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the recent development of hyperspectral imaging applications in food and food products. The potential and future work of hyperspectral imaging for food quality and safety control is also discussed. PMID:24759119

  20. Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2009-02-27

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program ensures that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contract Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The functions of the program are to ensure that work is conducted safely, and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. The Self-Assessment Program is also the mechanism used to institute continuous improvements to the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The program is described in LBNL/PUB 5344, Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Program and is composed of four distinct assessments: the Division Self-Assessment, the Management of Environment, Safety, and Health (MESH) review, ES&H Technical Assurance, and the Appendix B Self-Assessment. The Division Self-Assessment uses the five core functions and seven guiding principles of ISM as the basis of evaluation. Metrics are created to measure performance in fulfilling ISM core functions and guiding principles, as well as promoting compliance with applicable regulations. The five core functions of ISM are as follows: (1) Define the Scope of Work; (2) Identify and Analyze Hazards; (3) Control the Hazards; (4) Perform the Work; and (5) Feedback and Improvement. The seven guiding principles of ISM are as follows: (1) Line Management Responsibility for ES&H; (2) Clear Roles and Responsibilities; (3) Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities; (4) Balanced Priorities; (5) Identification of ES&H Standards and Requirements; (6) Hazard Controls Tailored to the Work Performed; and (7) Operations Authorization. Performance indicators are developed by consensus with OCA, representatives from each division, and Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division program managers. Line management of each division performs the Division Self-Assessment annually. The primary focus of the review is workplace safety. The MESH review is an evaluation of division management of ES&H in its research and operations, focusing on implementation and effectiveness of the division's ISM plan. It is a peer review performed by members of the LBNL Safety Review Committee (SRC), with staff support from OCA. Each division receives a MESH review every two to four years, depending on the results of the previous review. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program (TAP) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The intent of ES&H Technical Assurance assessments is to provide assurance that ES&H programs and processes comply with their guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Appendix B Performance Evaluation and Measurement Plan (PEMP) requires that LBNL sustain and enhance the effectiveness of integrated safety, health, and environmental protection through a strong and well-deployed system. Information required for Appendix B is provided by EH&S Division functional managers. The annual Appendix B report is submitted at the close of the fiscal year. This assessment is the Department of Energy's (DOE) primary mechanism for evaluating LBNL's contract performance in ISM.

  1. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  2. Mobile Augmented Reality in support of building damage and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kerle, N.; Gerke, M.

    2015-04-01

    Rapid and accurate assessment of the state of buildings in the aftermath of a disaster event is critical for an effective and timely response. For rapid damage assessment of buildings, the utility of remote sensing (RS) technology has been widely researched, with focus on a range of platforms and sensors. However, RS-based approach still have limitations to assess structural integrity and the specific damage status of individual buildings. Consequently, ground-based assessment conducted by structural engineers and first responders is still required. This paper demonstrates the concept of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) to improve performance of building damage and safety assessment in situ. Mobile AR provides a means to superimpose various types of reference or pre-disaster information (virtual data) on actual post-disaster building data (real building). To adopt mobile AR, this study defines a conceptual framework based on Level of Complexity (LOC). The framework consists of four LOCs, and for each of these the data types, required processing steps, AR implementation, and use for damage assessment, are described. Based on this conceptualization we demonstrate prototypes of mAR for both indoor and outdoor purposes. Finally, we conduct a user evaluation of the prototypes to validate the mAR approach for building damage and safety assessment.

  3. Quality of Life Assessment as a Preliminary Study on the Spatial Appraisal and Valuation of Environment and Ecosystems Methodology

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ross Hunter

    2011-02-22

    of Committee, Douglas Koushen Loh Committee Members, Georgianne W. Moore Emily M. Zechman Head of Department, Steven G. Whisenant December 2010 Major Subject: Rangeland Ecology and Management iii ABSTRACT Quality of Life Assessment as a... to carry over into future research. The framework that he provided to me to base this thesis on proved extremely helpful in developing this conceptual methodology. I?d like to thank my committee members, Dr. Georgianne Moore and Dr. Emily Zechman. I am...

  4. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct disruption of the walls as well as transportation of a large amount of loose sediments along the slopes and channels as induced consequence of the event. Application of a spatial analysis detected ca. 400 critical point along the road network with an average length of about 200 m. Over 1,000 buildings were affected and damaged by the event. The exposed population in the area involved by the event has been estimated in ca. 2,600 inhabitants (people?). In the pilot area, 19 different typologies of Cultural Heritage were affected by landslide phenomena or located in zones classified as high landslide hazard. The final scope of the landslide scenario is to improve the awareness on hazard, exposure, vulnerability and landslide risk in the Cinque Terre National Park to the benefit of local authorities and population. In addition, the results of the application will be used for updating the land planning process in order to improve the resilience of local communities, ii) implementing cost-benefit analysis aimed at the definition of guidelines for sustainable landslide risk mitigation strategies, iii) suggesting a general road map for the implementation of a local adaptation plan.

  5. Development of a Quantitative Methodology to Assess the Impacts of Urban Transport Interventions and Related Noise on Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project “Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe” (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26016437

  6. Development of a quantitative methodology to assess the impacts of urban transport interventions and related noise on well-being.

    PubMed

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project "Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe" (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26016437

  7. Analysis of Third-Party Certification Approaches Using an Occupational Health and Safety Conformity-Assessment Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Redinger; Steven P. Levine

    1998-01-01

    The occupational health and safety conformity-assessment model presented in this article was developed (1) to analyze 22 public and private programs to determine the extent to which these programs use third parties in conformity-assessment determinations, and (2) to establish a framework to guide future policy developments related to the use of third parties in occupational health and safety conformity-assessment activities.

  8. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  9. Operational Safety Assessment of Turbo Generators with Wavelet Rényi Entropy from Sensor-Dependent Vibration Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Baojian; Chen, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sensor technology, various professional sensors are installed on modern machinery to monitor operational processes and assure operational safety, which play an important role in industry and society. In this work a new operational safety assessment approach with wavelet Rényi entropy utilizing sensor-dependent vibration signals is proposed. On the basis of a professional sensor and the corresponding system, sensor-dependent vibration signals are acquired and analyzed by a second generation wavelet package, which reflects time-varying operational characteristic of individual machinery. Derived from the sensor-dependent signals’ wavelet energy distribution over the observed signal frequency range, wavelet Rényi entropy is defined to compute the operational uncertainty of a turbo generator, which is then associated with its operational safety degree. The proposed method is applied in a 50 MW turbo generator, whereupon it is proved to be reasonable and effective for operation and maintenance. PMID:25894934

  10. Operational safety assessment of turbo generators with wavelet Rényi entropy from sensor-dependent vibration signals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Baojian; Chen, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sensor technology, various professional sensors are installed on modern machinery to monitor operational processes and assure operational safety, which play an important role in industry and society. In this work a new operational safety assessment approach with wavelet Rényi entropy utilizing sensor-dependent vibration signals is proposed. On the basis of a professional sensor and the corresponding system, sensor-dependent vibration signals are acquired and analyzed by a second generation wavelet package, which reflects time-varying operational characteristic of individual machinery. Derived from the sensor-dependent signals' wavelet energy distribution over the observed signal frequency range, wavelet Rényi entropy is defined to compute the operational uncertainty of a turbo generator, which is then associated with its operational safety degree. The proposed method is applied in a 50 MW turbo generator, whereupon it is proved to be reasonable and effective for operation and maintenance. PMID:25894934

  11. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of phytantriol.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Phytantriol is an alcohol used in around 100 cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from 0.0002% to 1.0%, although uses at concentrations up to 3% are under development. Phytanriol is supplied at 95.2% and 96.0% purity. Impurities include water, sulphated ash, heavy metals, and a diastereomer of Phytantriol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxyhexadecane. Dermal penetration is low; skin permeability was calculated as log Kp = - 1.734. Oral LD50 values in mice and rats were reported to be > 5000 mg/kg. Ocular application of 100% Phytantriol did cause severe corneal damage in some animals, at 23% in diethyl phthalate only slight corneal opacity was seen, and at 10% transient opacity was seen, which resolved by 48 h. Phytantriol at 100% was a severe skin irritant in animal tests. Phytantriol at 3% and 10% in diethyl phthalate produced only slight erythema, which cleared by 48 h. Phytantriol, in the Longhorn egg chorioallantoic membrane assay, was found to have almost no irritation potential when tested at 3% concentration in corn oil. Phytantriol at 25% did produce sensitization in a maximization test, but concentrations of 1% and lower did not cause a sensitization response. Phytantriol is neither phototoxic nor photoallergenic. Phytantriol did not induce aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes, when tested within cytotoxicity limits, nor was it mutagenic in Ames tests, with or without metabolic activation. None of 101 human volunteers reacted initially or to challenge patches of 3% Phytantriol in corn oil. In another investigation of 227 volunteers induced and challenged with 3% Phytantriol in 70:30 ethyl alcohol/water, one person had a mild reaction to the first induction patch; this was the only positive reaction during the induction and challenge phases for all of the volunteers. Phytantriol had no adverse effects in any of 206 volunteer subjects in a repeat insult patch test at 5%. Although data were not available with which to assess reproductive and developmental toxicity and carcinogenic potential, there were no structural alerts suggesting that these end points should be of concern. Dermal penetration is low, and Phytantriol is not genotoxic. Although products containing this ingredient may be aerosolized, typical particle sizes for cosmetic aerosol products are larger than are respirable. Although this ingredient can be irritating and produce sensitization reactions at high concentrations, such effects are absent at lower concentrations. The Panel concluded that cosmetic products could be formulated at concentrations as high as 3% without significant irritation or sensitization. PMID:17365138

  13. Treatment of uncertainty and developing conceptual models for environmental risk assessments and radioactive waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    El-Ghonemy, Hamdi; Watts, Len; Fowler, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The common approach to performing quantitative risk assessments in the contaminated land industry in the UK lacks a formal methodology for the treatment of the full range of uncertainties and for documenting decisions regarding the development of conceptual models and the selection of computer codes. The approach presented here represents an alternative, more detailed, and systematic approach for developing conceptual models and addressing uncertainties when undertaking contaminated land risk assessments. It is intended that the advantages of this approach are recognised by practitioners in the contaminated land industry and adopted, where appropriate, to help improve the quality of contaminated land risk assessments. The identification of features, events, and processes (FEPs) has been applied to safety assessments of deep geological and near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes. One of the primary benefits of using this approach is in the development of conceptual models. The approach identifies the FEPs that need to be addressed during the development of conceptual models and in the selection of suitable computer codes that can be used to represent the conceptual models. This approach has been applied by BNFL at the low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria and is currently being adopted for a contaminated land study at the Sellafield site, also in Cumbria. This paper presents the advantages of using FEPs in the development of conceptual models and the treatment of uncertainties. The paper also discusses the application of this approach to contaminated land studies and provides an example to demonstrate the application of the approach. BNFL's approach at the Drigg site involves the identification of components (features) and phenomena (events and processes) that govern interactions and dependencies between the components by arranging them in a matrix format. PMID:15607782

  14. Methodology to Measure the Costs and Benefits of Technology to Improve Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety and Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. DeLorenzo; John C. Allen; Mark A. Jensen

    The Hazardous Materials Safety and Security Technology Operation Test is a project funded by the U.S. Department of Transportation's, Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office and the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. The project is testing commercial off-the-shelf technology on vehicles transporting hazardous materials by highway. The goal of the project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of these technologies to

  15. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  16. Nuclear power and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA): past through future applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatelatos, M. G.; Moieni, P.; Everline, C. J.

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear power reactor safety in the United States is about to enter a new era -- an era of risk- based management and risk-based regulation. First, there was the age of `prescribed safety assessment,' during which a series of design-basis accidents in eight categories of severity, or classes, were postulated and analyzed. Toward the end of that era, it was recognized that `Class 9,' or `beyond design basis,' accidents would need special attention because of the potentially severe health and financial consequences of these accidents. The accident at Three Mile Island showed that sequences of low-consequence, high-frequency events and human errors can be much more risk dominant than the Class 9 accidents. A different form of safety assessment, PSA, emerged and began to gain ground against the deterministic safety establishment. Eventually, this led to the current regulatory requirements for individual plant examinations (IPEs). The IPEs can serve as a basis for risk-based regulation and management, a concept that may ultimately transform the U.S. regulatory process from its traditional deterministic foundations to a process predicated upon PSA. Beyond the possibility of a regulatory environment predicated upon PSA lies the possibility of using PSA as the foundation for managing daily nuclear power plant operations.

  17. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries. PMID:23153286

  18. Use and Misuse of MotorVehicle Crash Death Rates in Assessing Highway-Safety Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian ONeill; Sergey Y. Kyrychenko

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of the article are to assess the extent to which comparisons of motor-vehicle crash death rates can be used to determine the effectiveness of highway-safety policies over time in a country or to compare policy effectiveness across countries.Methods. Motor-vehicle crash death rates per mile traveled in the 50 U.S. states from 1980 to 2003 are used to

  19. Safety assessment studies of a damaged high-energy solid propellant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Zhang; S. Y. Wang; P. D. Liu

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a study of the effects of damage on the thermal decomposition, combustion and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) of the NEPE (Nitrate Ester Plasticized Polyether) propellant in order to assess its safety. The study includes: (1) to induce damage into the propellants by means of a large-scale drop-weight apparatus; (2) to observe microstructural variations of the propellant with a

  20. Structural analysis and safety assessment of submerged floating tunnel prototype in Qiandao Lake (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuangyin Zhang; Lei Wang; Youshi Hong

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the structural analysis and the safety assessment of the submerged floating tunnel (SFT) prototype, which is designed to be built in Qiandao Lake (China). Based on the principle of bending stiffness equivalence, a homogenized equivalent single-layered-tube model is established. The effective beam bending stiffness and the corresponding Young’s modulus are deduced. By using lamination theory of composite