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1

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type facility, when the facility is struck by lightning. In the following examples we will use Dr. Merewether's calculations from a poor quality Faraday cage as the input for the RF coupling analysis. coupling of radio frequency (RF) energy to explosive components is an indirect effect of currents [1]. If HE is adequately separated from the walls of the facility that is struck by disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightning is initiation of the HE. last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or lightning. The most sensitive component is typically a detonator, and the safety concern lightning, electrons discharged from the clouds should not reach the HE components. radio receiver, the metal cable of a detonator can extract energy from the EM fields. This to the earth will create electromagnetic (EM) fields in the facility. Like an antenna in a

Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

2009-04-24

2

An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

Timothy J. Leahy

2010-06-01

3

Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)  

SciTech Connect

FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1990-11-09

4

Assessment methodology for confidence in safety margin for large break loss of coolant accident sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deterministic Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) analyses are used to assess the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety. The conventional deterministic analysis is conservative. The best estimate plus uncertainty analysis (BEPU) is increasingly being used for deterministic calculation in NPPs. The PSA methodology integrates information about the postulated accident, plant design, operating practices, component reliability and human behavior. The

Mahendra Prasad; R. S. Rao; S. K. Gupta

2011-01-01

5

Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety  

SciTech Connect

The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subject to analyses consisting of Failure Modes. Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications.

Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroeger, P.

1993-01-01

6

Methodology used in the integrated assessment of PIUS-600 safety  

SciTech Connect

The revolutionary reactor design, PIUS-600 as described in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSID) was subject to analyses consisting of Failure Modes. Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) analysis, and conventional engineering review of the stress, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and corrosion. These results were integrated in the PIUS Intermediate Table (PIT) from which accident initiators and mitigators were identified and categorized into seven estimated frequency intervals. Accident consequences were classified as: CC-1, minor radiological release, CC-2, clad release, CC-3, major release. The systems were analyzed using event sequence diagrams (ESDs) and event trees (ETs). The resulting accident sequences of the ET, were categorized into Event conditions (ECs) based on initiator frequency and combinations of failures. System interactions were considered in the FMECAs, ESDs, ETs and in an interaction table that also identified system safety classifications.

Fullwood, R.; Higgins, J.; Kroeger, P.

1993-06-01

7

Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project  

SciTech Connect

Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years.

Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

2003-02-25

8

Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

1993-01-01

9

Safety Assessment for a Surface Repository in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - Methodology for Assessing Disposal under Intervention Conditions - 13476  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (RWDF) Buryakovka was constructed in 1986 as part of the intervention measures after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (ChNPP). Today, RWDF Buryakovka is still being operated but its maximum capacity is nearly reached. Plans for enlargement of the facility exist since more than 10 years but have not been implemented yet. In the framework of an European Commission Project DBE Technology GmbH prepared a safety analysis report of the facility in its current state (SAR) and a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) based on the planned enlargement. Due to its history RWDF Buryakovka does not fully comply with today's best international practices and the latest Ukrainian regulations in this area. The most critical aspects are its inventory of long-lived radionuclides, and the non-existent multi-barrier waste confinement system. A significant part of the project was dedicated, therefore, to the development of a methodology for the safety assessment taking into consideration the facility's special situation and to reach an agreement with all stakeholders involved in the later review and approval procedure of the safety analysis reports. Main aspect of the agreed methodology was to analyze the safety, not strictly based on regulatory requirements but on the assessment of the actual situation of the facility including its location within the Exclusion Zone. For both safety analysis reports, SAR and PSAR, the assessment of the long-term safety led to results that were either within regulatory limits or within the limits allowing for a specific situational evaluation by the regulator. (authors)

Haverkamp, B.; Krone, J. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Shybetskyi, I. [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ul. O. Gonchara 55 b, 01054 Kiev (Ukraine)] [Radioenvironmental Centre at Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ul. O. Gonchara 55 b, 01054 Kiev (Ukraine)

2013-07-01

10

Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew [Atomic Energy Licensing Board, MOSTI, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Faizal [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-02-12

11

Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

2014-02-01

12

A Safety Risk Assessment Methodology for Decision Support Systems with an Application to the Expedite Departure Path Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center has developed a methodology to perform safety risk assessments for air traffic control/air traffic management decision Support systems and concepts. Changes in controller, pilot, and/or airline dispatcher tasks that are affected by the decision support system are related to associated hazards. These hazards are then assessed either qualitatively or quantitatively in terms of likelihood of occurring and the impact if they do occur. Those items that show a potential safety hazard level increase can then have research plans developed to address those safety risks areas. An application of this methodology will he demonstrated using the AATT decision support tool Expedite Departure Path.

Snyder, Phillip T.; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

13

Methodological aspects in the assessment of safety culture in the hospital setting: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

A thematic literature review was undertaken to identify methodological aspects in the assessment of safety culture and critically examine how these have been addressed in hospital-based studies of safety culture, for the period 1999-2012. The literature search included an electronic database search (BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO), access to websites of organizations dedicated to the enhancement of patient safety, and a manual search of reference lists of the papers included. The analysis of the 43 records included in the review revealed that discussion regarding the measurement of safety culture in the hospital setting revolves around three methodological areas, namely: research approaches; survey tools for data collection; and levels of data aggregation. To advance these discussions, robust research is needed to clarify what dimensions belong to the core of safety culture and what the main sources of safety culture variability are. Studies using a mixed methods approach to assess safety culture would be useful, since they permit the in-depth research necessary to depict the multiple components of this construct. PMID:24011753

Pumar-Méndez, María J; Attree, Moira; Wakefield, Ann

2014-02-01

14

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2006-09-01

15

From technological acceptability to appropriation by users: methodological steps for device assessment in road safety.  

PubMed

This article presents the methodology developed within the framework of the research project SARI (Automated Road Surveillance for Driver and Administrator Information). This methodology is based on the logic of action research. The article presents the different stages in the development of technological innovation addressing vehicle control loss when driving on a curve. The results observed in speed reduction illustrate that no matter how optimal an innovation may be technologically speaking, it is only as effective as it is acceptable from a user standpoint. This acceptability can only be obtained if the technology is developed by engineers in liaison with social science specialists. PMID:24508421

Bordel, Stéphanie; Somat, Alain; Barbeau, Hervé; Anceaux, Françoise; Greffeuille, Catherine; Menguy, Gaëlle; Pacaux, Marie-Pierre; Subirats, Peggy; Terrade, Florence; Gallenne, Marie-Line

2014-06-01

16

Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic methodologies developed originally for one area of application may be applicable in another area. Therefore, it is extremely important to communicate across disciplines. Of course, a physical reinterpretation is necessary and perhaps some modification of the methodology. This seems to be the situation in applying resource assessment methodologies as environmental assessment methodologies. In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment

Robert A. Crovelli

1995-01-01

17

Full-scale plant safety and availability assessment: a demonstration of GO system analysis methodology. Volume 2. Appendix: system-level detailed models. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the completion of a research project to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the GO methodology, originally developed by Kaman Sciences Corporation, to assess the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. The technical approach was to develop limited scope and availability assessment models patterned after a nuclear power plant design similar to the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Unit 1 and to demonstrate that these models could be quantified using hypothetical data for a partially complete list of risk and loss of productivity contributors. The basic capabilities of quantification of large plant level models and determination of contributors was demonstrated. Important insights about strengths, limitations, and ways to circumvent these limitations of the GO methodology in large, plant level applications were identified.

Raabe, P.H.; Reny, D.A.; Fleming, K.N.

1985-07-01

18

Full-scale plant safety and availability assessment: a demonstration of GO system analysis methodology. Volume 1. Plant-level models. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report marks the completion of a research project to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the GO methodology, originally developed by Kaman Sciences Corporation, to assess the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. The technical approach was to develop limited scope and availability assessment models patterned after a nuclear power plant design similar to the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Unit 1 and to demonstrate that these models could be quantified using hypothetical data for a partially complete list of risk and loss of productivity contributors. The basic capabilities of quantification of large plant level models and determination of contributors was demonstrated. Important insights about strengths, limitations, and ways to circumvent these limitations of the GO methodology in large, plant level applications were identified.

Raabe, P.H.; Reny, D.A.; Fleming, K.N.

1985-07-01

19

Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

Crovelli, R.A.

1995-01-01

20

Methodological Questions Concerning Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants during Loss of Power and Disruption of Communications with the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabalistic analysis of the safety of power-generating units at nuclear power plants is now an integral part of all work at the design level and during equipment operation. In many countries the maximum rate of core damage as estimated according to such analysis does not exceed 10 ?4 (reactor·years) ?1 (US, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and others). The likely

R. Z. Aminov; V. I. Ignatov

2002-01-01

21

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis within the post closure Performance and Safety Assessment of the French deep geological radwaste disposal: methodology, tool and examples of results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the December 30, 1991 french act, Andra submitted to the French Parliament in December 2005 a report on the feasibility of a high-level and long-lived radwaste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfodien clay layer (Meuse/Haute-Marne site). Further to 2006 french act, Andra is now involved in licensing of the reversible disposal up to 2015, which requires a great scientific and technical knowledge. Studies are based on many years of research carried out in France, in particular in Andra's Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (MHM URL), and international programs on radwastes, engineered barriers and deep clay formations. Intensive programs on hydraulic, solute transfer and radionuclides behaviour (solubility, retention) were and are carried out on Callovo-Oxfordian argilites (undisturbed and damaged), concrete materials and swelling clay based material, in order to provide a sound database. All these data allowed to perform firstly a sound description of the expected phenomenological evolution of the repository and its geological environment (including release and migration of radionuclides) from operating period to post closure period up to one million years, secondly a sound post-closure performance and safety assessment covering the different waste types (ILLW, HLW). Various safety scenarii were defined to quantify radiological impacts and to evaluate performance of the components and safety functions in post closure using specific indicators (concentration, molar rate, water flux…). According to the RFS III2.f (french safety rule related to deep geological radwaste disposad), there is no risk analysis in post closure and assessments are performed using deterministic situations, models and values. To complete analysis, propagation of uncertainties from models and input data in Performance and Safey Assessment (PA/SA) models is done using both deterministic and multiparametric probabilistic approach, with two main objectives: (i) to quantify the dispersion of results (time, maximum...); this part deals with uncertainty analysis, and (ii) to identify relevant models and input data whose uncertainty manages uncertainty of the results; this part deals with sensitivity analysis. First this paper describes Andra's methodology and numerical tool used. Then it presents results applied to Monte-Carlo probabilistic multi-parametric study on HLW (vitrified waste) disposal, in order to study propagation of uncertainties of input data (Callovo-Oxfordian, EDZ (Excavated Damaged Zone), and Engineering components) on various radionuclide pathways within the disposal. The methodology consists of (i) setting up probabilistic distribution function (pdf), according to the level of knowledge, (ii) sampling all pdf with Latin Hypercube Sampling methods, (iii) ensuring physical coherence in sets of input data, using correlations and constraints, (iv) using integrated computing tool (Alliances platform) to perform calculations. Results focus on: - uncertainty analysis: multi-parametric study shows (i) that transfer through undisturbed argillites remains the main pathway, (ii) a large dispersion (several orders of magnitude) of molar rate at the top of clay layer for the two pathways (undisturbed argillites, and repository structures), which includes reference point of altered scenario, such as seal failure one, and which is close to worst case one. - sensitivity analysis: for undisturbed argillites pathway, calculations highlight that uncertainty on some input data such as adsorption of Iodine, solubility limit of Selenium, diffusion and vertical permeability of undisturbed argillites, manages dispersion of the results. For repository structures pathway, uncertainty on hydraulic properties, such as permeabilities of EDZ, are relevant. This study is important to identify knowledge of parameters which has to be increased in order to reduce dispersion (uncertainty) of each performance assessment indicator. Lessons learnt lead Andra to be involved now in a sound work of setting up new methods and tools to treat uncert

Pepin, G.

2009-04-01

22

Safety Auditing and Assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

2005-01-01

23

Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.  

PubMed

Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. PMID:22617368

Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

2012-09-01

24

Safety methodology in pediatric psychopharmacology trials.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been an increase in pediatric clinical trials as the result of an identified need for greater research with this population. Given the potential risks, and the vulnerability of the population, there has also been an identified need for greater safety elicitation and monitoring in pediatric psychopharmacology trials, for example, through the use of a data and safety monitoring board (DSMB). However, research indicates that pediatric trials and psychiatric trials are less likely to use a DSMB. The rationale for the current study was to determine what safety methodologies have been reported in pediatric psychopharmacology trials over the past 10 years. A literature review was conducted of all pediatric psychopharmacology trials published since 2001. Results indicated that the most common elicitation method was collecting laboratory information and vital signs. Six percent of trials solely relied on spontaneous reporting of adverse events, and only 11.8% reported using a DSMB. These results suggest that elicitation methods and use of DSMBs are still low. Practical considerations, affected stakeholders, and barriers are discussed. Recommendations for moving forward include the use of multiple elicitation methods and automatic requirement of a DSMB for pediatric psychopharmacology trials, required completion of a standardized safety reporting form, and engaging multiple interested parties in these processes. PMID:23607408

Yuill, Kathryn; Carandang, Carlo

2013-04-01

25

SAFETY ASSESSMENT & CERTIFICATION FOR UAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the certification process to gain clearance to operate in unsegregated airspace, new UASs will require a robust Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined in ARP 4761 and the safety certi fication process in ARP4754, as used to demonstrate compliance with EASA \\/ FAA safety target requirements, in

Andrew R Evans; Mark Nicholson

26

[Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be comparable to their nontransgenic counterparts and safe . The crops upon which GM development are based are generally considered safe. PMID:25876504

McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

2015-01-01

27

Environmental Health and Safety Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual 7/15/2013 #12;Environmental Health/26/2013. The most recent version of this document is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/general-environmental-management/environmental.........................................................................................................................4 #12;Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual Approved by: (Barb English) Last

Pawlowski, Wojtek

28

A global non-destructive damage assessment methodology for civil engineering structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a potential methodology to continuously assess the safety of civil engineering structures, e.g. bridges, frames and offshore platforms. The proposed damage assessment methodology not only detects and sizes damage, but also evaluates the impact of the damage on the performance of the structure. The proposed methodology deals with two broad activities: (i) periodic non-destructive damage localization and

N. Stubbs; C. Sikorsky; S. Choi

2000-01-01

29

IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

Spitalnik, J.

2004-10-06

30

HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

EVANS, C B

2004-12-21

31

Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

Beyma, R. J.

1986-01-01

32

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

33

Risk assessment and laser safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic tenets of risk assessment have always been applied in laser safety during the development of safety standards. For example, statistical methods were used in the probit analysis of the threshold of ocular injury; concepts of risk analysis were employed in the development of hazard classes, where the increased risk of exposure and potential for injury from increasing laser

D. H. Sliney

1995-01-01

34

Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents

R. J. Beyma

1986-01-01

35

Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements  

SciTech Connect

A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

1980-01-01

36

Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current decision making involves numerous possible combinations of technology elements, safety and health issues, operational aspects and process considerations to satisfy program goals. Identifying potential risk considerations as part of the management decision making process provides additional tools to make more informed management decision. Adapting and using risk assessment methodologies can generate new perspectives on various risk and safety concerns that are not immediately apparent. Safety and operational risks can be identified and final decisions can balance these considerations with cost and schedule risks. Additional assessments can also show likelihood of event occurrence and event consequence to provide a more informed basis for decision making, as well as cost effective mitigation strategies. Methodologies available to perform Risk Assessments range from qualitative identification of risk potential, to detailed assessments where quantitative probabilities are calculated. Methodology used should be based on factors that include: 1) type of industry and industry standards, 2) tasks, tools, and environment 3) type and availability of data and 4) industry views and requirements regarding risk & reliability. Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures.

DeMott, D. L.

2015-01-01

37

Methodological assessment of HCC literature  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health problem, very few interventions are available for this disease, and only sorafenib is approved for the treatment of advanced disease. Of note, only very few interventions have been thoroughly evaluated over time for HCC patients compared with several hundreds in other, equally highly lethal, tumours. Additionally, clinical trials in HCC have often been questioned for poor design and methodological issues. As a consequence, a gap between what is measured in clinical trials and what clinicians have to face in daily practice often occurs. As a result of this scenario, even the most recent guidelines for treatment of HCC patients use low strength evidence to make recommendations. In this review, we will discuss some of the potential methodological issues hindering a rational development of new treatments for HCC patients. PMID:23715943

Daniele, G.; Costa, N.; Lorusso, V.; Costa-Maia, J.; Pache, I.; Pirisi, M.

2013-01-01

38

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

1993-01-10

39

Assessment Methodology in Technical Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Columbus State Community College is committed to assessment (measurement) of student achievement of academic outcomes. This process addresses the issues of what each student needs to learn in his or her program of study and if each student is learning what they need to learn. The assessment program at Columbus State Community College has four…

Fogle, Ty; Insabella, Mary

2004-01-01

40

Safety Evaluation Methodology for Mining Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodolgy evaluates design of proposed mining systems. Analysis tests proposed mining systems against specifications and hazards of existing similar systems, examines soundness of new design in terms of reducing or eliminating major health and safety hazards, and identifies major design weaknesses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1985-01-01

41

Safety Assessment of Probiotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

42

Gaseous-fuel safety assessment. Status report  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory, in support of studies sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine Research and Development in the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a safety assessment of selected gaseous fuels for use in light automotive transportation. The purpose is to put into perspective the hazards of these fuels relative to present day fuels and delineated criteria for their safe handling. Fuels include compressed and liquified natural gas (CNG and LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and for reference gasoline and diesel. This paper is a program status report. To date, physicochemical property data and general petroleum and transportation information were compiled; basic hazards defined; alternative fuels were safety-ranked based on technical properties alone; safety data and vehicle accident statistics reviewed; and accident scenarios selected for further analysis. Methodology for such analysis is presently under consideration.

Krupka, M.C.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Bartlit, J.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

1982-01-01

43

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

44

h~EPA Risk Assessments Methodology  

E-print Network

, process description, control technology, health impact assessment,supplementalcontroltechnology,and cost three volumes: VOLUME I - Risk Assessment Methodology This document contains chapters on hazard the risk of health effects resulting from expose to low levels of ionizing radiation, and a summary

45

Development of methodologies for ensuring structural safety of gas turbines and launch vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this dissertation involves two distinct areas. In both cases, optimization techniques provided an important tool to achieve the goal of ensuring structural integrity and safety of gas turbine and launch vehicle systems. In the first area, a novel testing methodology has been developed to assess turbine engine materials fatigue strength. The idea is to accumulate fatigue

Thomas Joe George Jr.

2002-01-01

46

Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

Cross, Kenneth D.

1992-01-01

47

45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Self-assessment implementation methodology. 308.1 Section 308.1 Public...1 Self-assessment implementation methodology. (a) The IV-D agency must...following conditions: (1) The sampling methodology maintains a minimum confidence...

2010-10-01

48

An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

2003-09-01

49

A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet, multiple networks that innervate the city are particularly sensitive to flooding, through their structures and geographic constraints. Because societal functions are highly dependent on networked systems and the operability of these systems can be vulnerable to disasters, there is a need to understand how networked systems are resilient. That is why, considering that networks can be regarded as the "flood gateway" [Lhomme et al., 2009], we will focus on the resilience assessment of these critical networks before urban resilience assessment. The first part of this paper introduce resilience concept to well understand the importance of this concept to manage flood risk and of assessing this resilience. In a second part, this paper presents the use of safety methods to model network system dysfunctions during flood and then to produce resilience indicators. Finally it presents use of graph theory to assess adaptive capacity of these networks. These researches are the first steps toward the development of a GIS tool to optimize preparedness and recovery after a flood event.

Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

2010-05-01

50

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

51

GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar  

E-print Network

-logging nor excessive lowering of groundwater table. It is necessary to maintain the groundwater reservoir1 GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar Scientist `F', National Institute of Hydrology is groundwater resources. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall both in time and space, the surface water

Kumar, C.P.

52

Air pollution. Assessment methodology and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are presented: air quality management systems; introduction to air quality modelling; uses and needs for air quality modelling; fundamentals for the application of a Gaussian plume model; practical demonstration of multiple-source urban air quality simulation models; air pollution emissions inventory systems; and air pollution emissions projecting. A glossary of terms used in air pollution assessment methodology and

1982-01-01

53

Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

2006-10-01

54

Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1981-01-01

55

Flammability Assessment Methodology Program Phase I: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Flammability Assessment Methodology Program (FAMP) was established to investigate the flammability of gas mixtures found in transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The FAMP results provide a basis for increasing the permissible concentrations of flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in TRU waste containers. The FAMP results will be used to modify the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (TRUPACT-II SARP) upon acceptance of the methodology by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Implementation of the methodology would substantially increase the number of drums that can be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without repackaging or treatment. Central to the program was experimental testing and modeling to predict the gas mixture lower explosive limit (MLEL) of gases observed in TRU waste containers. The experimental data supported selection of an MLEL model that was used in constructing screening limits for flammable VOC and flammable gas concentrations. The MLEL values predicted by the model for individual drums will be utilized to assess flammability for drums that do not meet the screening criteria. Finally, the predicted MLEL values will be used to derive acceptable gas generation rates, decay heat limits, and aspiration time requirements for drums that do not pass the screening limits. The results of the program demonstrate that an increased number of waste containers can be shipped to WIPP within the flammability safety envelope established in the TRUPACT-II SARP.

C. A. Loehr; S. M. Djordjevic; K. J. Liekhus; M. J. Connolly

1997-09-01

56

Assessments of ‘Greenhouse Insurance’: A Methodological Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I review methodologies to assess strategies of greenhouse gas emissions reduction by installing existing technologies\\u000a and by investing in research and development of advanced technologies, expressed as ‘greenhouse insurance’ by Manne and Richels\\u000a (Buying greenhouse insurance: the economic costs of CO2 emissionlimits. The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1992), under several sorts of uncertainty. While the authors of some

Takanobu Kosugi

2010-01-01

57

Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.

2014-09-01

58

Process waste assessment methodology development to improve waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated to determine the methodology of process waste assessments (PWAS) and to develop departmental Pollution Prevention Plans at the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. A process waste assessment is a systematic approach to perform material balances around processes which generate waste (hazardous and nonhazardous); to identify waste minimization opportunities; to evaluate those opportunities for technical, safety, and cost feasibility, to establish a baseline to monitor the progress of waste minimization; and to accumulate data to satisfy federal, state, and local Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) reporting requirements. Implementation of Pollution Prevention (PP) and PWA activities at the KCD was organized through six major business units. To establish the PWA methodology, eight pilot projects were selected for completion and evaluation. The evaluation of the pilot PWAs resulted in the following accomplishments: lessons learned, PWA Guidance and worksheet revisions, final report format and minimum requirements, identification of training needs, suggestions for an activity index to normalize the waste data to production, ``De minimis`` criteria, PWA approach in laboratories, and independent audit of the pilot PWAs and Guidance. Also, the PWA team activities led to the development of a Model Departmental Pollution Prevention Plan for a manufacturing department This plan was distributed to other business units to satisfy a requirement from DOE Order 5400.1.

Pemberton, S.E.

1992-08-01

59

Process waste assessment methodology development to improve waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated to determine the methodology of process waste assessments (PWAS) and to develop departmental Pollution Prevention Plans at the Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal Inc. A process waste assessment is a systematic approach to perform material balances around processes which generate waste (hazardous and nonhazardous); to identify waste minimization opportunities; to evaluate those opportunities for technical, safety, and cost feasibility, to establish a baseline to monitor the progress of waste minimization; and to accumulate data to satisfy federal, state, and local Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) reporting requirements. Implementation of Pollution Prevention (PP) and PWA activities at the KCD was organized through six major business units. To establish the PWA methodology, eight pilot projects were selected for completion and evaluation. The evaluation of the pilot PWAs resulted in the following accomplishments: lessons learned, PWA Guidance and worksheet revisions, final report format and minimum requirements, identification of training needs, suggestions for an activity index to normalize the waste data to production, De minimis'' criteria, PWA approach in laboratories, and independent audit of the pilot PWAs and Guidance. Also, the PWA team activities led to the development of a Model Departmental Pollution Prevention Plan for a manufacturing department This plan was distributed to other business units to satisfy a requirement from DOE Order 5400.1.

Pemberton, S.E.

1992-08-01

60

Comparative safety assessment for biotech crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first discussions on strategies to assess the food safety of genetically modified (GM) crop plants, assessment of GM plants and derived tissues has been based on comparisons with their traditionally bred counterparts. This was termed the Principle of Substantial Equivalence. However, implementation of the principle led to controversy and hampered the precision of the actual safety assessment. Here,

Esther J Kok; Harry A Kuiper

2003-01-01

61

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

de Gispert, Adrià

62

Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment PI, through holes in walls or in any other manner that might expose them to damage. Power supply or other high. (wide and deep) of clear floor space in front of all electrical panels and main electrical shutoff

63

Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

1984-03-01

64

Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

2014-01-01

65

Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity  

E-print Network

Report IEA-PVPS T12-03:2011 #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity #12;IEA-PVPS-TASK 12 Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment Guidelines on Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity IEA PVPS Task 12, Subtask 20, LCA

66

ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES FOR DEEPLY EMBEDDED NPP STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Several of the new generation nuclear power plant designs have structural configurations which are proposed to be deeply embedded. Since current seismic analysis methodologies have been applied to shallow embedded structures (e.g., ASCE 4 suggest that simple formulations may be used to model embedment effect when the depth of embedment is less than 30% of its foundation radius), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory with the objective of investigating the extent to which procedures acceptable for shallow embedment depths are adequate for larger embedment depths. This paper presents the results of a study comparing the response spectra obtained from two of the more popular analysis methods for structural configurations varying from shallow embedment to complete embedment. A typical safety related structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized in the study and the depths of burial (DOB) considered range from 25-100% the height of the structure. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of a simplified analysis and a detailed approach for the SSI analyses of a structure with various DOB, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different DOBs between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of deeply embedded structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU, J.; MILLER, C.; COSTANTINO, C.; HOFMAYER, C. (BNL); GRAVES, H. (US NRC).

2005-07-01

67

Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites  

SciTech Connect

Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

NONE

1997-06-01

68

A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

2009-06-01

69

Failure-current based oxide reliability assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and robust reliability assessment methodology based on failure-current criteria is presented for ultra-thin gate oxides. This methodology only employs two parameters in the final failure distribution analogous to the standard first breakdown methodology. A method to extract these two parameters from the experimental stress test data is also presented which successfully reduces the difficulties and uncertainties related to

Jordi Suñé; Ernest Wu; Santi Tous

2008-01-01

70

Conceptual, methodological, and clinical issues in cognitive-behavioral assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews cognitive-behavioral assessment principles and procedures. The functions of such assessments are noted, and issues and advances in cognitive assessment are discussed. The need for integrated cognitive, behavioral, and affective assessments is then explored. Finally, conceptual methodological, and clinical issues in the integration of assessments and study of reciprocal determinants are presented.

Karen R. Harris

1985-01-01

71

Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health Safety (EH&S). The Safety Training Self-Assessment is required for: · All UC employees the Safety Training Self-Assessment: 1. Log into the UC Learning Center at http://www.uclc.uci.edu. 2

Rose, Michael R.

72

Seabrook Station probabilistic safety assessment. Summary report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an independent probabilistic safety assessment of the twin nuclear power plants under construction near Seabrook, New Hampshire. This assessment quantified the risk to public health and safety associated with potential accidents during the period of operation of the station. The project employed an advanced safety assessment discipline known as probabilistic risk assessment and included within its scope all known causes of potential accidents including human error, earthquakes, aircraft crashes, hurricanes, equipment malfunctions, and other causes of potential accidents. The study concluded that when the reactor units are put into operation, there will be a very small increase in both the individual and societal risks within the population surrounding the station. A full quantification of the effects of these uncertainties in the risk estimates has been provided. The most important results of the study are insights about the importance to safety of the design and operation of the plant, and insights about the effectiveness of emergency plans.

Not Available

1983-12-01

73

RADIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT/IMPROVEMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The office is developing improved methodologies and guidance for evaluating human health risks associated with exposure to environmental radiological contaminants. These activities involve coordination with numerous federal agencies and the development and communication of vari...

74

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

75

Risk and Safety Assessment in Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of risk is a critical part of child welfare agency practice. This review of the research literature on different instruments for assessing risk and safety in child welfare focuses on instrument reliability, validity, outcomes, and use with children and families of color. The findings suggest that the current actuarial instruments have stronger predictive validity than consensus-based instruments. This

Amy Dandrade; Michael J. Austin; Amy Benton

2008-01-01

76

System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

2003-01-01

77

Employee Turnover: An Empirical and Methodological Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on the prediction of employee turnover. Groups predictor variables into five general categories: attitudinal (job satisfaction), biodata, work-related, personal, and test-score predictors. Consistent relationships between common predictor variables and turnover were found for four categories. Eight methodological problems/issues…

Muchinsky, Paul M.; Tuttle, Mark L.

1979-01-01

78

A bulk power system reliability assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology to evaluate the reliability of bulk power systems. The method encompasses the systematic enumeration of contingencies and the evaluation of their effects on the system over a range of system load levels. Contingencies and electric load states are described with Markov models. Reliability indices are computed using these models. Both adequacy and a simplified security

Fang Yang; A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos; George J. Cokkinides; George Stefopoulos

2004-01-01

79

Methodological Issues in Assessing AIDS Prevention Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has chal lenged the ingenuity of behavioral researchers to develop effective AIDS prevention programs that extend beyond the transmission of factual knowledge alone. Four potential methodological barriers to program de velopment and evaluation were identified during the pilot stages of pro ducing a comprehensive AIDS prevention program for adolescents. These include: (a) the

David E. Sandberg; Mary J. Rotheram-Borus; Jon Bradley; Jacqueline Martin

1988-01-01

80

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

Not Available

1992-12-01

81

Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

Woods, Stephen

2009-01-01

82

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

83

Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-03-01

84

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an improved methodology for estimating volumes of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources within the United States and around the world. The methodology is based on previously developed U.S. Geological Survey methodologies that rely on well-scale production data. Improvements were made primarily to how the uncertainty about estimated ultimate recoveries is incorporated in the estimates. This is particularly important when assessing areas with sparse or no production data, because the new methodology allows better use of analog data from areas with significant discovery histories.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

2010-01-01

85

Assessment of RAMONA-3B methodology with FRIGG dynamic tests  

SciTech Connect

The computer codes used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compute BWR safety parameters are the Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and RAMONA-3B/MOD1. Both codes have the same methodology for modeling thermal hydraulic phenomena: drift-flux formulation, two-phase multipliers for the wall friction and form losses calculations, and the momentum integral approach for spatial integration of the loop momentum equations. Both codes use explicit integration methods for solving ordinary differential equations. It is concluded that both the codes are capable of modelling the instability problems for a BWR. The accuracy of thermohydraulics codes predictions was assessed by modelling oscillatory FRIGG tests. Nodalizations studies showed that 24 axial nodes were sufficient for a converged solution, 12 axial nodes produced an error of 4.4% in the gain of the power to flow transfer function. The code predicted consistently the effects of power and inlet subcooling on gain and system resonance frequency. The comparisons showed that the code predicted the peak gains with a mean difference from experiments of 7% {plus_minus} 30% for all the tests modeled. The uncertainty in the experimental data is {minus}11% to +12%. The mean difference in the predicted frequency at the peak gain is {minus}6% {plus_minus} 14%.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Wulff, W.

1990-12-31

86

Assessment of RAMONA-3B methodology with FRIGG dynamic tests  

SciTech Connect

The computer codes used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compute BWR safety parameters are the Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and RAMONA-3B/MOD1. Both codes have the same methodology for modeling thermal hydraulic phenomena: drift-flux formulation, two-phase multipliers for the wall friction and form losses calculations, and the momentum integral approach for spatial integration of the loop momentum equations. Both codes use explicit integration methods for solving ordinary differential equations. It is concluded that both the codes are capable of modelling the instability problems for a BWR. The accuracy of thermohydraulics codes predictions was assessed by modelling oscillatory FRIGG tests. Nodalizations studies showed that 24 axial nodes were sufficient for a converged solution, 12 axial nodes produced an error of 4.4% in the gain of the power to flow transfer function. The code predicted consistently the effects of power and inlet subcooling on gain and system resonance frequency. The comparisons showed that the code predicted the peak gains with a mean difference from experiments of 7% {plus minus} 30% for all the tests modeled. The uncertainty in the experimental data is {minus}11% to +12%. The mean difference in the predicted frequency at the peak gain is {minus}6% {plus minus} 14%.

Rohatgi, U.S.; Neymotin, L.Y.; Wulff, W.

1990-01-01

87

Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

Smith, Mark A.

2000-03-01

88

Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.  

PubMed

The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country. PMID:22083084

Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

2012-08-01

89

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-09-01

90

SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17

91

Learning Potential Assessment: Theoretical, Methodological and Practical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this volume is concerned with theoretical and conceptual issues concerning learning potential assessment. The second part deals with methodological and measurement issues in learning potential assessment, and the third part is devoted to research projects and practical applications of learning potential tests. The following…

Hamers, J. H. M., Ed.; Sijtsma, K., Ed.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M., Ed.

92

Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

93

Q Methodology to Assess Child-Father Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work aims to highlight the relevance of Stephenson's Q methodology (QM) for improving the assessment of child-father attachment relationships. We argue that reconceptualising the relationship can enhance the validity of assessment techniques and help in identifying the paternal behaviours that predict a secure child-father attachment pattern.…

John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.

2010-01-01

94

76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 [Docket No. NHTSA 2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2011-12-01

95

Draft report: a selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals  

SciTech Connect

The results of work done to develop a methodology for selecting LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. A critical survey of relevant decision analysis methods is provided including the specifics of multiattribute utility theory. This latter method forms the basis of the developed selection methodology. Details of the methodology and its use are provided along with a sample illustration of its application.

Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

1980-03-01

96

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources using analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The currently used U.S. Geological Survey methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) petroleum resources of the United States was developed in the 1990s. This methodology poorly incorporates uncertainty about the estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs). This is especially problematic for hypothetical assessment units where this may be the largest source of uncertainty that needs to be reflected in the estimates. An improved methodology estimates the uncertainty of mean EUR directly. It uses analog data that have been compiled from production histories of many developed U.S. continuous assessment units. The analog databases provide a way of estimating the variability of not just EURs but other production parameters useful in assessing continuous resources.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

2010-01-01

97

Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

1996-08-01

98

Methodology for Assessing Bodily Expression of Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop methods for assessing bodily expression and to provide a preliminary description\\u000a of movement characteristics associated with positive and negative emotions during a single movement task—knocking. We used\\u000a an autobiographical memories paradigm for elicitation, observer rating of emotion intensities for recognition, and Effort-Shape\\u000a and kinematic analyses for movement description. Actors felt the target

M. Melissa Gross; Elizabeth A. Crane; Barbara L. Fredrickson

2010-01-01

99

Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

1998-01-01

100

78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...safety of its airlines. It does not assess the safety compliance of any particular air carrier (nor does it address aviation security, airports, or air traffic management). Although the FAA assessment team typically visits one or more air...

2013-03-08

101

Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report  

SciTech Connect

The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

Not Available

1980-01-01

102

A Mixed Methodology Analysis of Co-Teacher Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mixed methodology approach was used to study the relationship between general and special educators who were co-teaching. On two co-teacher assessment instruments, sums of ratings from special educators and general elementary and secondary educators in an urban multicultural school district in the southeastern USA were similar to those obtained…

Cramer, Elizabeth; Nevin, Ann

2006-01-01

103

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLING  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

104

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

105

Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

2008-01-01

106

Critical Inquiry and Writing Centers: A Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining one writing center's role in student success, this project offers two examples of the way writing centers impact student engagement. This analysis models a methodology that writing and learning center directors can utilize in order to foster effective communication with stakeholders. By conducting data-driven assessment, directors can…

Bell, Diana Calhoun; Frost, Alanna

2012-01-01

107

Assessing Competition Policy: Methodologies, Gaps and Agenda for  

E-print Network

1 Assessing Competition Policy: Methodologies, Gaps and Agenda for Future Research Stephen Davies* and Peter Ormosi** *ESRC Centre for Competition Policy and School of Economics, University of East Anglia **ESRC Centre for Competition Policy and Norwich Business School CCP Working Paper 10-19 Abstract

Feigon, Brooke

108

Reliability assessment of avionic device based on GO methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the reliability assessment of avionic device. A method based on GO Methodology is proposed to the relative field, the state cumulative probability is introduced to simplify the operation, GO model is built with the consideration of shared signals, finally, an example is given as a illustration and the results is compared with the reliability parameters derived from

Zong-run Yin; Xiao-dong Mu

2008-01-01

109

A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economical manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, distributed generation (DG), is forecasted to increase in distribution networks. This paper presents a new methodology that can be used to quantitatively analyze the reliability of such distribution systems

Suchismita S. Duttagupta; Chanan Singh

2006-01-01

110

A methodology for availability assessment of tunnel designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The reliability and maintainability of tunnel infrastructure and systems is an important factor in assuring normal operation of a tunnel. Evaluating availability of a large-scale tunnel that includes civil, electrical, mechanical and electronic systems is a difficult task. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for performing such assessments, featuring the use of the Markov

Clement L. W. Wong; Albert H. C. Tsang; T. S. Chung

2006-01-01

111

A Methodological Proposal for Learning Games Selection and Quality Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a methodological proposal elaborated in the framework of two European projects dealing with game-based learning, both of which have focused on "quality" aspects in order to create suitable tools that support European educators, practitioners and lifelong learners in selecting and assessing learning games for use in teaching and…

Dondi, Claudio; Moretti, Michela

2007-01-01

112

Space Shuttle probabilistic risk assessment: methodology and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology and processes used for the probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle vehicle to systematically quantify the risk incurred during a nominal Shuttle mission and rank the risk driving components to allow for a concerted risk and cost reduction effort. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology

G. Maggio

1996-01-01

113

Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

NONE

1994-08-01

114

Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.  

PubMed

The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates. PMID:17588645

Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

2007-10-01

115

Post-mining predictive visual quality assessment: A methodology  

SciTech Connect

The study of landscape aesthetics has recently been brought into the forefront of research through the passage of various federal legislative acts which mandate the consideration of the quality of surroundings as a natural resource. Based upon relatively recent results, the authors believe that science based visual quality modeling has applications in reclamation projects. They developed a visual quality prediction methodology to assess various post-mining land-use treatments (housing development, agriculture, open water, naturalized vegetation, and existing condition) for surface mining applications. The methodology allows an investigator to quantitatively assess visual quality treatments through inferential statistics. To conduct the assessment, one must be able to digitize photographic images and construct the treatments with an imaging software package.

Keefe, P.S. [Keefe (Peter S.), Portland, OR (United States); Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geography

1998-12-31

116

Assessment the safety performance of nuclear power plants using Global Safety Index (GSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety performance of the nuclear power plant is a very important factor enhancing the nuclear energy option. It is vague to evaluate the nuclear power plant performance but it can be measured through measuring the safety performance of the plant.In this work, the safety of nuclear power plants is assessed by developing a “Global Safety Index” (GSI).The GSI is

Ayah E. Abouelnaga; Abdelmohsen Metwally; Naguib Aly; Mohammad Nagy; Saeed Agamy

2010-01-01

117

Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E. C.

1983-01-01

118

Efficiency analysis & safety assessment of automatic testing for safety-critical software [railway control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure the quality of safety-critical software in the field of railway safety control and protection, safety test and assessment are of great importance besides functional test. The system structure and application of a testing and assessment platform for railway computer or microprocessor interlocking software are described in this paper. Sufficient testing data and its analysis are presented

Fangmei Wu; Lei Huang

2003-01-01

119

Radiological safety assessment of Brazilian industrial facilities with electron accelerators.  

PubMed

Industrial electron accelerators are used by eight installations in Brazil, with a total of 14 machines generating electron beams. These facilities are classified into categories I or II, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system. In category I are included the facilities with an integrally shielded unit with interlocks, where human access during operation is not physically possible owing to the configuration of the shielding. In category II are included the facilities with a unit housed in a shielded room that is kept inaccessible during operation by an entry control system. Of the 14 accelerators operational in Brazil, 11 belong to category I and three to category II. In the present work a methodology for the assessment of the radiological safety of these accelerator facilities was developed and applied, mainly on the basis of specific recommendations from the IAEA. The main safety items were evaluated at those eight installations. According to the results obtained here, no inadequacies were observed at the three installations in category II, from the radiological safety and radioprotection points of view. Nevertheless, two out of the five installations in category I showed several deficiencies. Most of these inadequacies have been corrected during this work, and the rest are in the course of being corrected. PMID:15942060

Lourenço, M J M; Ramalho, A T; Da Silva, F C A; Godoy, J M O

2005-06-01

120

Examination of change factor methodologies for climate change impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods are available to estimate values of meteorological variables at future times and at spatial scales that are appropriate for local climate change impact assessment. One commonly used method is Change Factor Methodology (CFM), sometimes referred to as delta change factor methodology. Although more sophisticated methods exist, CFM is still widely applicable and used in impact analysis studies. While there are a number of different ways by which change factors (CFs) can be calculated and used to estimate future climate scenarios, there are no clear guidelines available in the literature to decide which methodologies are most suitable for different applications. In this study several categories of CFM (additive versus multiplicative and single versus multiple) for a number of climate variables are compared and contrasted. The study employs several theoretical case studies, as well as a real example from Cannonsville watershed, which supplies water to New York City, USA. Results show that in cases when the frequency distribution of Global Climate Model (GCM) baseline climate is close to the frequency distribution of observed climate, or when the frequency distribution of GCM future climate is close to the frequency distribution of GCM baseline climate, additive and multiplicative single CFMs provide comparable results. Two options to guide the choice of CFM are suggested. The first option is a detailed methodological analysis for choosing the most appropriate CFM. The second option is a default method for use under circumstances in which a detailed methodological analysis is too cumbersome.

Anandhi, Aavudai; Frei, Allan; Pierson, Donald C.; Schneiderman, Elliot M.; Zion, Mark S.; Lounsbury, David; Matonse, Adao H.

2011-03-01

121

Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

2012-01-01

122

Assessment methodology for computer-based instructional simulations.  

PubMed

Computer-based instructional simulations are becoming more and more ubiquitous, particularly in military and medical domains. As the technology that drives these simulations grows ever more sophisticated, the underlying pedagogical models for how instruction, assessment, and feedback are implemented within these systems must evolve accordingly. In this article, we review some of the existing educational approaches to medical simulations, and present pedagogical methodologies that have been used in the design and development of games and simulations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. In particular, we present a methodology for how automated assessments of computer-based simulations can be implemented using ontologies and Bayesian networks, and discuss their advantages and design considerations for pedagogical use. PMID:24084305

Koenig, Alan; Iseli, Markus; Wainess, Richard; Lee, John J

2013-10-01

123

PWR integrated safety analysis methodology using multi-level coupling algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled three-dimensional (3D) neutronics/thermal-hydraulic (T-H) system codes give a unique opportunity for a realistic modeling of the plant transients and design basis accidents (DBA) occurring in light water reactors (LWR). Examples of such DBAs are the rod ejection accidents (REA) and the main steam line break (MSLB) that constitute the bounding safety problems for pressurized water reactors (PWR). These accidents involve asymmetric 3D spatial neutronic and T-H effects during the course of the transients. The thermal margins (the peak fuel temperature, and departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR)) are the measures of safety at a particular transient and need to be evaluated as accurate as possible. Modern 3D neutronics/T-H coupled codes estimate the safety margins coarsely on an assembly level, i.e. for an average fuel pin. More accurate prediction of the safety margins requires the evaluation of the transient fuel rod response involving locally coupled neutronics/T-H calculations. The proposed approach is to perform an on-line hot-channel safety analysis not for the whole core but for a selected local region, for example for the highest power loaded fuel assembly. This approach becomes feasible if an on-line algorithm capable to extract the necessary input data for a sub-channel module is available. The necessary input data include the detailed pin-power distributions and the T-H boundary conditions for each sub-channel in the considered problem. Therefore, two potential challenges are faced in the development of refined methodology for evaluation of local safety parameters. One is the development of an efficient transient pin-power reconstruction algorithm with a consistent cross-section modeling. The second is the development of a multi-level coupling algorithm for the T-H boundary and feed-back data exchange between the sub-channel module and the main 3D neutron kinetics/T-H system code, which already uses one level of coupling scheme between 3D neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics models. The major accomplishment of the thesis is the development of an integrated PWR safety analysis methodology with locally refined safety evaluations. This involved introduction of an improved method capable of efficiently restoring the fine pin-power distribution with a high degree of accuracy. In order to apply the methodology to evaluate the safety margins on a pin level, a refined on-line hot channel model was developed accounting for the cross-flow effects. Finally, this methodology was applied to best estimate safety analysis to more accurately calculate the thermal safety margins occurring during a design basis accident in PWR.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri Nickolaevich

124

Rapid Assessment of Plant Diversity Patterns: A Methodology for Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a rapid, cost-efficient methodology to link plantdiversity surveys from plots to landscapes using: (1) unbiasedsite selection based on remotely sensed information; (2) multi-scale field techniques to assess plant diversity; (3)mathematical models (species-area curves) to estimate thenumber of species in larger areas corrected for within-typeheterogeneity; and (4) mathematical techniques to estimatetotal species richness and patterns of plant diversity in

Thomas J. Stohlgren; Geneva W. Chong; Mohammed a. Kalkhan; Lisa D. Schell

1997-01-01

125

Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

Levin, H.A. [Synergy Consulting Services Corp., Great Falls, VA (United States); McGehee, R.B. [Wise Carter Child & Caraway, Jackson, MS (United States); Cottle, W.T. [Houston Lighting & Power, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

126

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2012-05-31

127

Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner. The methodology described is designed to review the entire waste management system, assess its performance, ensure that the performance objectives are met, compare different LLW management alternatives, and select the optimal alternative. The methodology is based on decision analysis approach, in which costs and risk are considered for various LLW management alternatives, a comparison of costs, risks, and benefits is made, and an optimal system is selected which minimizes costs and risks and maximizes benefits. A ''zoom-lens'' approach is suggested, i.e., one begins by looking at gross features and gradually proceeds to more and more detail. Performance assessment requires certain information about the characteristics of the waste streams and about the various components of the waste management system. Waste acceptance criteria must be known for each component of the waste management system. Performance assessment for each component requires data about properties of the waste streams and operational and design characteristics of the processing or disposal components. 34 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

1988-01-01

128

Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Armstrong, D.L.

1994-08-01

129

National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake, Ronald M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, Philip A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; and Varela, Brian A.

2013-01-01

130

75 FR 10740 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NHTSA-2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling...Safety Administration (NHTSA) under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). This information...ratings assigned by NHTSA under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), or a...

2010-03-09

131

Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

Brooker, Peter

2004-05-01

132

Overall safety assessment of multistory steel buildings subjected to earthquake loads. Evaluation of seismic safety of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of 140 earthquake records was used to assess the uncertainties involved in ground motion representation. Based on the method of spectral moments, key Kanai-Tajimi parameters were determined for the set of records. The statistics and interdependencies of these parameters were evaluated. The correlation between these K-T parameters, strong motion duration, peak ground acceleration, epicentral distance and local magnitude was investigated. Semi-empirical modifications were made to an existing random vibration solution for single-degree-of-freedom elastoplastic systems. Similar modifications were incorporated in an approximate multi-degree-of-freedom elastoplastic random vibration methodology for shear beam systems, and its validity was assessed by a series of compatibility studies. By using the random vibration methodology, the degree of overall seismic safety was assessed quantitatively for several multistory steel buildings designed by different procedures.

Lai, S. S. P.

1980-06-01

133

Constantly evolving safety assessment protocols for GM foods.  

PubMed

he introduction of GM foods has led to the evolution of a food safety assessment paradigm that establishes safety of the GM food relative to its conventional counterpart. The GM foods currently approved and marketed in several countries have undergone extensive safety testing under a structured safety assessment framework evolved by international organizations like FAO, WHO, Codex and OECD. The major elements of safety assessment include molecular characterization of inserted genes and stability of the trait, toxicity and allergenicity potential of the expressed substances, compositional analysis, potential for gene transfer to gut microflora and unintentional effects of the genetic modification. As more number and type of food crops are being brought under the genetic modification regime, the adequacy of existing safety assessment protocols for establishing safety of these foods has been questioned. Such crops comprise GM crops with higher agronomic vigour, nutritional or health benefit/ by modification of plant metabolic pathways and those expressing bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals. The safety assessment challenges of these foods are the potential of the methods to detect unintentional effects with higher sensitivity and rigor. Development of databases on food compositions, toxicants and allergens is currently seen as an important aid to development of safety protocols. With the changing global trends in genetic modification technology future challenge would be to develop GM crops with minimum amount of inserted foreign DNA so as to reduce the burden of complex safety assessments while ensuring safety and utility of the technology. PMID:18296346

Sesikeran, B; Vasanthi, Siruguri

2008-01-01

134

Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.  

PubMed

The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. PMID:20435414

Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

2010-08-15

135

Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations  

SciTech Connect

Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

2010-08-30

136

Development of methodologies for ensuring structural safety of gas turbines and launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this dissertation involves two distinct areas. In both cases, optimization techniques provided an important tool to achieve the goal of ensuring structural integrity and safety of gas turbine and launch vehicle systems. In the first area, a novel testing methodology has been developed to assess turbine engine materials fatigue strength. The idea is to accumulate fatigue energy on a base-excited plate specimen at high frequency resonant modes and to complete a fatigue test in a few hours at very low cost. The methodology consists of: (1) a topological design procedure, incorporating a finite element model, to characterize the shape of the specimens for ensuring the required stress state/pattern, (2) a vibration feedback empirical procedure for achieving the high cycle fatigue experiments with variable-amplitude loading, and (3) a fatigue strength implementation scheme for calculating effective stresses and effective number of cycles to failure. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated by the experimental results from steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Ti-6Al-4V plate specimens subjected to fully reversed bending for both uniaxial and biaxial stress states. Furthermore, a technique has been developed to produce residual stress enabling vibration-based fatigue testing at various stress ratios. Additionally, this vibration-based fatigue method has the advantage of being able to produce a fatigue crack in the test specimen while it is still in the initiation stage. In the second area, an optimization procedure has been developed to uniquely and efficiently determine the "best" local geometry design of a new composite ChamberCore structure. This procedure is based on minimization of the total mass of a single composite ChamberCore, subject to a set of design and stress constraints. The stress constraints are obtained in closed-form based on the composite box-beam model for various composite lamination designs and loading conditions. The optimization problem statement is constructed and then solved using the VMCON optimization program. As a supplement to the above sizing/geometry optimization the application of topology optimization to the ChamberCore geometry has been investigated. These two techniques, sizing optimization and topology optimization, provide an avenue for achieving an optimized ChamberCore structure.

George, Thomas Joe, Jr.

137

ASSESSMENT OF TOXICANT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN OVARIAN STEROIDOGENESIS: A METHODOLOGICAL OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

RTD-03-035 Assessment of Toxicant-induced Alterations in Ovarian Steroidogenesis: A Methodological Overview Jerome M. Goldman, Susan C. Laws and Ralph L. Cooper Abstract A variety of methodological approaches have been used for the assessment of tox...

138

Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for safety assessment.  

PubMed

Integrated testing strategies (ITS), as opposed to single definitive tests or fixed batteries of tests, are expected to efficiently combine different information sources in a quantifiable fashion to satisfy an information need, in this case for regulatory safety assessments. With increasing awareness of the limitations of each individual tool and the development of highly targeted tests and predictions, the need for combining pieces of evidence increases. The discussions that took place during this workshop, which brought together a group of experts coming from different related areas, illustrate the current state of the art of ITS, as well as promising developments and identifiable challenges. The case of skin sensitization was taken as an example to understand how possible ITS can be constructed, optimized and validated. This will require embracing and developing new concepts such as adverse outcome pathways (AOP), advanced statistical learning algorithms and machine learning, mechanistic validation and "Good ITS Practices". PMID:25413849

Rovida, Costanza; Alépée, Nathalie; Api, Anne M; Basketter, David A; Bois, Frédéric Y; Caloni, Francesca; Corsini, Emanuela; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Ezendam, Janine; Fuchs, Horst; Hayden, Patrick; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hubesch, Bruno; Jacobs, Miriam N; Jaworska, Joanna; Kleensang, André; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Lalko, Jon; Landsiedel, Robert; Lebreux, Frédéric; Luechtefeld, Thomas; Locatelli, Monica; Mehling, Annette; Natsch, Andreas; Pitchford, Jonathan W; Prater, Donald; Prieto, Pilar; Schepky, Andreas; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Smirnova, Lena; Toole, Colleen; van Vliet, Erwin; Weisensee, Dirk; Hartung, Thomas

2015-01-01

139

Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  

PubMed

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

2014-05-01

140

Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health  

PubMed Central

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

141

Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.  

PubMed

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

2014-01-01

142

Fundamentals of Clinical Outcomes Assessment for Spinal Disorders: Study Designs, Methodologies, and Analyses  

PubMed Central

Study Design?A broad narrative review. Objective?Management of spinal disorders is continuously evolving, with new technologies being constantly developed. Regardless, assessment of patient outcomes is key in understanding the safety and efficacy of various therapeutic interventions. As such, evidence-based spine care is an essential component to the armamentarium of the spine specialist in an effort to critically analyze the reported literature and execute studies in an effort to improve patient care and change clinical practice. The following article, part one of a two-part series, is meant to bring attention to the pros and cons of various study designs, their methodological issues, as well as statistical considerations. Methods?An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language of publication, addressing study designs and their methodologies as well as statistical concepts. Results?Numerous articles and concepts addressing study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analytical concepts have been reported. Their applications in the context of spine-related conditions and disorders were noted. Conclusion?Understanding the fundamental principles of study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analyses can further advance and improve future spine-related research.

Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B.; Shen, Francis H.; Chapman, Jens R.; Samartzis, Dino

2015-01-01

143

Fundamentals of clinical outcomes assessment for spinal disorders: study designs, methodologies, and analyses.  

PubMed

Study Design?A broad narrative review. Objective?Management of spinal disorders is continuously evolving, with new technologies being constantly developed. Regardless, assessment of patient outcomes is key in understanding the safety and efficacy of various therapeutic interventions. As such, evidence-based spine care is an essential component to the armamentarium of the spine specialist in an effort to critically analyze the reported literature and execute studies in an effort to improve patient care and change clinical practice. The following article, part one of a two-part series, is meant to bring attention to the pros and cons of various study designs, their methodological issues, as well as statistical considerations. Methods?An extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language of publication, addressing study designs and their methodologies as well as statistical concepts. Results?Numerous articles and concepts addressing study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analytical concepts have been reported. Their applications in the context of spine-related conditions and disorders were noted. Conclusion?Understanding the fundamental principles of study designs and their methodological considerations as well as statistical analyses can further advance and improve future spine-related research. PMID:25844291

Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B; Shen, Francis H; Chapman, Jens R; Samartzis, Dino

2015-04-01

144

Track train dynamics analysis and test program: Methodology development for the derailment safety analysis of six-axle locomotives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational safety of six axle locomotives is analyzed. A locomotive model with corresponding data on suspension characteristics, a method of track defect characterization, and a method of characterizing operational safety are used. A user oriented software package was developed as part of the methodology and was used to study the effect (on operational safety) of various locomotive parameters and operational conditions such as speed, tractive effort, and track curvature. The operational safety of three different locomotive designs was investigated.

Marcotte, P. P.; Mathewson, K. J. R.

1982-01-01

145

Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance.

Wendland, W.G. (American Nuclear Insurers, Farmington, CT (United States))

1992-01-01

146

Systematic assessment of laser safety in otolaryngology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk management of lasers can be broadly define das a process of identification of the risk, assessment of the risk and steps taken to avert the risk. The risk management may be divided into: Risk inherent to the technology and risk in clinical use. Within the National Health Service in the UK, a useful document, which provides hospital laser users with advice on safety, is the 'Guidance on the Safe Use of Lasers in Medical and Dental Practice' issued by the Medical Devices Agency for the Department of Health in the UK. It recommends the appointment of a Laser Protection Adviser (LPA) who is knowledgeable in the evaluation of laser hazards. One of the duties LPA is to ensure that Local Rules are drawn up for each specific application of a laser. A Laser Protection Supervisor (LPS) should also be appointed with responsibility to ensure that the Local Rules are observed. It is a sensible precaution that laser users should be those approved by the Laser Protection Supervisor in consultation with the Laser Protection Advisor. All laser users should sign a statement that they have read and understood the Local Rules.

Oswal, V. H.

2001-01-01

147

Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E.C.

1983-10-15

148

An ABET assessment model using Six Sigma methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical fields are changing so rapidly that even the core of an engineering education must be constantly reevaluated. Graduates of today give more dedication and, almost certainly, more importance to continued learning than to mastery of specific technical concepts. Continued learning shapes a high-quality education, which is what an engineering college must offer its students. The question is how to guarantee the quality of education. In addition, the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology is asking that universities commit to continuous and comprehensive education, assuming quality of the educational process. The research is focused on developing a generic assessment model for a college of engineering as an annual cycle that consists of a systematic assessment of every course in the program, followed by an assessment of the program and of the college as a whole using Six Sigma methodology. This unique approach to assessment in education will provide a college of engineering with valuable information regarding many important curriculum decisions in every accreditation cycle. The Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering (IME) Program in the College of Engineering at the University of Cincinnati will be used as a case example for a preliminary test of the generic model.

Lalovic, Mira

149

Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.  

PubMed

International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available. PMID:11576435

Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

2001-09-01

150

Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses, was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes the preliminary safety assessment results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP).

Marshall, A.C.

1993-07-01

151

ITER plasma safety interface models and assessments  

SciTech Connect

Physics models and requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics specifications are provided for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event). A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to investigate plasma anomaly events. The plasma response to ex-vessel component failure and machine response to plasma transients are considered.

Uckan, N.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bartels, H-W. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States); Honda, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Putvinski, S. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States); Amano, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Boucher, D.; Post, D.; Wesley, J. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

152

Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.  

PubMed

Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666

Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

2010-11-01

153

Developing a Methodology for Eliciting Subjective Probability Estimates During Expert Evaluations of Safety Interventions: Application for Bayesian Belief Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has defined several products that will potentially modify airline and/or ATC operations, enhance aircraft systems, and improve the identification of potential hazardous situations within the National Airspace System (NAS). Consequently, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the judgments to develop Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN's) that model the potential impact that specific interventions may have. Specifically, the present report summarizes methodologies for improving the elicitation of probability estimates during expert evaluations of AvSP products for use in BBN's. The work involved joint efforts between Professor James Luxhoj from Rutgers University and researchers at the University of Illinois. The Rutgers' project to develop BBN's received funding by NASA entitled "Probabilistic Decision Support for Evaluating Technology Insertion and Assessing Aviation Safety System Risk." The proposed project was funded separately but supported the existing Rutgers' program.

Wiegmann, Douglas A.a

2005-01-01

154

A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

1993-07-01

155

Assessing safety culture in nuclear power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of safety culture abound, but they variously refer to the safety-related values, attitudes, beliefs, risk perceptions and behaviours of all employees. This assembly may seem too inclusive to be meaningful, but each represents a different level of processing and the choice for measurement (or intervention) is more pragmatic than theoretical. The present study addresses mainly attitudes, but also reported

T Lee; K Harrison

2000-01-01

156

Safety Assessment & Certification for UAS Bristol UAV Systems Conference April 2007  

E-print Network

Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined and clearance from 1998, he developed Safety Management Systems and safety cases for legacy aircraft platforms Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process

Nicholson, Mark

157

Q methodology: a new way of assessing employee satisfaction.  

PubMed

As yet another nursing shortage faces the country, the issue of the satisfaction of nurses again becomes of critical concern to nursing managers in the interest of staff retention. The authors describe the use of the statistical technique Q methodology to assess the needs of nurses and other medical staff at a level one, tertiary care emergency department in the United States. Using the Q method, the authors were able to identify different, unique viewpoints concerning employee needs among the study population, as well as commonly shared views. This level of detail, not obtainable using more traditional statistical techniques, can aid in the design of more effective strategies aimed at fulfilling the needs of an organization's staff to increase their satisfaction. PMID:11388161

Chinnis, A S; Summers, D E; Doerr, C; Paulson, D J; Davis, S M

2001-05-01

158

A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

159

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

160

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING RISK ASSESSMENT WHEN SLUDGE IS APPLIED TO LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This project explored the feasibility of developing a risk assessment methodology that could be applied to sludge management decision making. It examined cadmium, since this substance is one of the best studied and most extensively reported contaminants. The methodology developed...

161

AN ASSESSMENT OF SIMPLIFIED VS. DETAILED METHODOLOGIES FOR SSI ANALYSES OF DEEPLY EMBEDDED STRUCTURES.  

SciTech Connect

Sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a research program to develop a technical basis to support the safety evaluation of deeply embedded and/or buried (DEB) structures as proposed for advanced reactor designs. In this program, the methods and computer programs established for the assessment of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects for the current generation of light water reactors are evaluated to determine their applicability and adequacy in capturing the seismic behavior of DEB structures. This paper presents an assessment of the simplified vs. detailed methodologies for seismic analyses of DEB structures. In this assessment, a lump-mass beam model is used for the simplified approach and a finite element representation is employed for the detailed method. A typical containment structure embedded in a soil profile representative of a typical nuclear power plant site was utilized, considering various embedment depths from shallow to full burial. BNL used the CARES program for the simplified model and the SASSI2000 program for the detailed analyses. The calculated response spectra at the key locations of the DEB structure are used for the performance assessment of the applied methods for different depths of burial. Included in the paper are: (1) the description of both the simplified and detailed models for the SSI analyses of the DEB structure, (2) the comparison of the analysis results for the different depths of burial between the two methods, and (3) the performance assessment of the analysis methodologies for SSI analyses of DEB structures. The resulting assessment from this study has indicated that simplified methods may be capable of capturing the seismic response for much deeper embedded structures than would be normally allowed by the standard practice.

XU,J.MILLER,C.HOFMAYER,C.GRAVES,H.

2004-03-04

162

Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

2014-01-01

163

Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE

K. Jamali; D. W. Stack; L. H. Sullivan; D. L. Sanzo

1997-01-01

164

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

165

Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller  

SciTech Connect

CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.

Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

166

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

167

Bayesian methodology to estimate and update safety performance functions under limited data conditions: a sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

In road safety studies, decision makers must often cope with limited data conditions. In such circumstances, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), which relies on asymptotic theory, is unreliable and prone to bias. Moreover, it has been reported in the literature that (a) Bayesian estimates might be significantly biased when using non-informative prior distributions under limited data conditions, and that (b) the calibration of limited data is plausible when existing evidence in the form of proper priors is introduced into analyses. Although the Highway Safety Manual (2010) (HSM) and other research studies provide calibration and updating procedures, the data requirements can be very taxing. This paper presents a practical and sound Bayesian method to estimate and/or update safety performance function (SPF) parameters combining the information available from limited data with the SPF parameters reported in the HSM. The proposed Bayesian updating approach has the advantage of requiring fewer observations to get reliable estimates. This paper documents this procedure. The adopted technique is validated by conducting a sensitivity analysis through an extensive simulation study with 15 different models, which include various prior combinations. This sensitivity analysis contributes to our understanding of the comparative aspects of a large number of prior distributions. Furthermore, the proposed method contributes to unification of the Bayesian updating process for SPFs. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the developed methodology. Therefore, the suggested approach offers considerable promise as a methodological tool to estimate and/or update baseline SPFs and to evaluate the efficacy of road safety countermeasures under limited data conditions. PMID:24316506

Heydari, Shahram; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Lord, Dominique; Fu, Liping

2014-03-01

168

Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.

Cooper, J. Arlin

1999-06-10

169

Methodological issues in trials assessing primary prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Many trials have been conducted to assess the efficacy of various strategies in the prevention of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). Some of these trials have been subject to methodological criticisms. We aimed to assess the methodological issues raised by VTE trials. Methods and results We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles assessing primary thromboprophylaxis

Gabriel Thabut; Candice Estellat; Isabelle Boutron; Charles Marc Samama; Philippe Ravaud

2006-01-01

170

AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

171

Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.  

PubMed

The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In this article, we present a case study at the macroscale for the European Union, in which the chemical footprint according to step 1 is calculated for the year 2005. A proposal for extending this approach toward step 2 is presented and discussed, complemented by a discussion on the challenges and the use of appropriate methodologies for assessing chemical footprints to stimulate further research and discussion on the topic. PMID:23907984

Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

2013-10-01

172

Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

1992-12-01

173

Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1998-09-01

174

Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1998-09-01

175

Current methodological issues in the economic assessment of personalized medicine.  

PubMed

There is a need for methodological scrutiny in the economic assessment of personalized medicine. In this article, we present a list of 10 specific issues that we argue pose specific methodological challenges that require careful consideration when designing and conducting robust model-based economic evaluations in the context of personalized medicine. Key issues are related to the correct framing of the research question, interpretation of test results, data collection of medical management options after obtaining test results, and expressing the value of tests. The need to formulate the research question clearly and be explicit and specific about the technology being evaluated is essential because various test kits can have the same purpose and yet differ in predictive value, costs, and relevance to practice and patient populations. The correct reporting of sensitivity/specificity, and especially the false negatives and false positives (which are population dependent), of the investigated tests is also considered as a key element. This requires additional structural complexity to establish the relationship between the test result and the consecutive treatment changes and outcomes. This process involves translating the test characteristics into clinical utility, and therefore outlining the clinical and economic consequences of true and false positives and true and false negatives. Information on treatment patterns and on their costs and outcomes, however, is often lacking, especially for false-positive and false-negative test results. The analysis can even become very complex if different tests are combined or sequentially used. This potential complexity can be handled by explicitly showing how these tests are going to be used in practice and then working with the combined sensitivities and specificities of the tests. Each of these issues leads to a higher degree of uncertainty in economic models designed to assess the added value of personalized medicine compared with their simple pharmaceutical counterparts. To some extent, these problems can be overcome by performing early population-level simulations, which can lead to the identification and collection of data on critical input parameters. Finally, it is important to understand that a test strategy does not necessarily lead to more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is possible that the test will lead to not only fewer QALYs but also fewer costs, which can be defined as "decremental" cost per QALYs. Different decision criteria are needed to interpret such results. PMID:24034308

Annemans, Lieven; Redekop, Ken; Payne, Katherine

2013-01-01

176

Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that mitigation measures are not conducted. The effects of long-term climate change are considered. The potential for seismically induced geological changes is considered, but is not being actively evaluated during this iteration of the safety assessment. Drilling intrusion and post-intrusion resident scenarios are included. Conceptual models to represent the behavior of the repository under these scenarios have been implemented. A characteristic feature of the Vaalputs repository is its extreme aridity. Observations at the site suggest that recharge at the site is extremely low, and that the predominant moisture movement is upwards in the first few meters below the ground surface, following infrequent episodic precipitation. This means that waste packages in the upper few meters experience different release and transport mechanisms than deeper waste packages. The paper describes the Vaalputs repository, and approaches taken for the safety assessment. The paper also presents results of the safety assessment, and describes the implications of those results on waste management activities at Vaalputs. References IAEA, Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities, Results of a Coordinated Research Project, Volume 1: Review and Enhancement of Safety Assessment Approaches and Tools, IAEA- ISAM, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2004.

Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

2006-12-01

177

Methodology for the application of hydrogen flux monitoring devices to assess equipment operating in wet H{sub 2} service  

SciTech Connect

To date, hydrogen flux monitoring devices have been only quantitatively used in the field to gauge environmental severity with respect to identifying changes from normal operating conditions. This paper discusses a methodology for extending the use of hydrogen flux monitoring equipment to quantitatively assess the severity of hydrogen charging and relate the response directly to the materials resistance or susceptibility to wet H{sub 2}S cracking, This methodology incorporates the value of measured hydrogen flux, operating equipment variables, material of construction and its inherent susceptibility to cracking to determine the risk of cracking based on the severity of the operating environment. This methodology will allow more applicability of the hydrogen flux monitoring equipment to determine safety margins with respect to intermittent upset conditions or more prolonged changes in hydrogen charging severity resulting from changing production or process conditions.

Cayard, M.S.; Kane, R.D. [InterCorr/CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Joia, C.J.B. [Petrobras/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Correia, L.A. [Petrobras/REPAR, Araucaria, Parana (Brazil)

1998-12-31

178

Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in basalt formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes a performance assessment methodology developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository mined in deep basalt formations. This methodology is an extension of an earlier one applicable to bedded salt. The differences between the two methodologies arise primarily in the modeling of round-water flow and radionuclide transport. Bedded salt was assumed to be a porous medium, whereas basalt

E. J. Bonano; P. A. Davis; L. R. Shipers; K. F. Brinster; W. E. Beyler; C. D. Updegraff; E. R. Shepherd; L. M. Tilton; K. K. Wahi

1989-01-01

179

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

180

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable

Keith T. Atherton

2002-01-01

181

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

182

Methodology For Assessing Local Seismic Hazard Maps For Urban Areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a methodology for assessing local seismic hazard maps for urban areas (L.S.H.M.U.A) The necessity derive from the accelerated economical and social de- velopment as well as from the urge of the technical settlement reconsideration in the field of building, the development of the territory and urbanism, as it results from last decade researches in the related scientifically and technical domains. The complexity of this elaboration results from the large volume of knowledge involved from subdo- mains of Geoscience, mostly from Solid Earth Physics as a part of Geophysics, from which Seismology, Tectonophysics, Gravimetry, Geomagnetism and Geochronology belong. In order to elaborate the hazard maps, not only information furnished by seis- mological researches are sufficient, but also the analysis and interpretation of all re- sults of the complex seismotectonical and geological researches, making use of the re- lations between physical measurement that express properties of the rocks, the dynam- ics of tectonically structures and the geological characteristics allowing the knowledge of laws that govern the seismogenesis process.

Pantea, A.; Constantin, A.; Moldovan, I.

183

Groundwater Quality Safety Evaluation Based on Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water safety is an important part in water scientific field. The traditional living drinking-water quality assessment can not evaluate wholly the impacts of groundwater quality on human body. The groundwater health risk assessment is applied to evaluate the quality of groundwater providing to an important city in west of China in this paper. The analysis shows that health risk

Duan Lei; Wang Wenke

2010-01-01

184

INTERPRETING SPONTANEOUS RENAL LESIONS IN SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Interpreting Spontaneous Renal Lesions in Safety and Risk Assessment Douglas C. Wolf, D.V.M., Ph.D. Introduction Risk assessment is a process whereby the potential adverse health effects from exposure to a xenobiotic are predicted after evaluation of the availab...

185

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

186

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition  

PubMed Central

The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-01-01

187

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

188

NextGen Future Safety Assessment Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful implementation of the next generation infrastructure systems requires solid understanding of their technical, social, political and economic aspects along with their interactions. The lack of historical data that relate to the long-term planning of complex systems introduces unique challenges for decision makers and involved stakeholders which in turn result in unsustainable systems. Also, the need to understand the infrastructure at the societal level and capture the interaction between multiple stakeholders becomes important. This paper proposes a methodology in order to develop a holistic approach aiming to provide an alternative subject-matter expert (SME) elicitation and data collection method for future sociotechnical systems. The methodology is adapted to Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) decision making environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of this holistic approach.

Ancel, Ersin; Gheorghe, Adian; Jones, Sharon Monica

2010-01-01

189

STATUS OF IERL-RTP ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR FOSSIL ENERGY PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the status of the following environmental assessment (EA) methodologies: current process technology background, environmental data acquisition, current environmental background, environmental objectives development, control technology assessment, and environ...

190

Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research conducted within the framework of this PhD thesis is devoted to the high-fidelity multi-physics (based on neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling) analysis of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a HTR design. The core design and safety analysis methods are considerably less developed and mature for HTR analysis than those currently used for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Compared to LWRs, the HTR transient analysis is more demanding since it requires proper treatment of both slower and much longer transients (of time scale in hours and days) and fast and short transients (of time scale in minutes and seconds). There is limited operation and experimental data available for HTRs for validation of coupled multi-physics methodologies. This PhD work developed and verified reliable high fidelity coupled multi-physics models subsequently implemented in robust, efficient, and accurate computational tools to analyse the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic behaviour for design optimization and safety evaluation of PBMR concept The study provided a contribution to a greater accuracy of neutronics calculations by including the feedback from thermal hydraulics driven temperature calculation and various multi-physics effects that can influence it. Consideration of the feedback due to the influence of leakage was taken into account by development and implementation of improved buckling feedback models. Modifications were made in the calculation procedure to ensure that the xenon depletion models were accurate for proper interpolation from cross section tables. To achieve this, the NEM/THERMIX coupled code system was developed to create the system that is efficient and stable over the duration of transient calculations that last over several tens of hours. Another achievement of the PhD thesis was development and demonstration of full-physics, three-dimensional safety analysis methodology for the PBMR to provide reference solutions. Investigation of different aspects of the coupled methodology and development of efficient kinetics treatment for the PBMR were carried out, which accounts for all feedback phenomena in an efficient manner. The OECD/NEA PBMR-400 coupled code benchmark was used as a test matrix for the proposed investigations. The integrated thermal-hydraulics and neutronics (multi-physics) methods were extended to enable modeling of a wider range of transients pertinent to the PBMR. First, the effect of the spatial mapping schemes (spatial coupling) was studied and quantified for different types of transients, which resulted in implementation of improved mapping methodology based on user defined criteria. The second aspect that was studied and optimized is the temporal coupling and meshing schemes between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics time step selection algorithms. The coupled code convergence was achieved supplemented by application of methods to accelerate it. Finally, the modeling of all feedback phenomena in PBMRs was investigated and a novel treatment of cross-section dependencies was introduced for improving the representation of cross-section variations. The added benefit was that in the process of studying and improving the coupled multi-physics methodology more insight was gained into the physics and dynamics of PBMR, which will help also to optimize the PBMR design and improve its safety. One unique contribution of the PhD research is the investigation of the importance of the correct representation of the three-dimensional (3-D) effects in the PBMR analysis. The performed studies demonstrated that explicit 3-D modeling of control rod movement is superior and removes the errors associated with the grey curtain (2-D homogenized) approximation.

Mkhabela, Peter Tshepo

191

Asset Analysis of Risk Assessment for IEC 61850Based Power Control Systems—Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security risk assessment of IEC 61850-based power control systems is currently an unsolved problem. One of the reasons is a lack of methodology for asset analysis, which is an important process of risk assessment. As the features of IEC 61850-based power control systems are different from general IT systems, a specific methodology of asset analysis is introduced. Based on

Nian Liu; Jianhua Zhang; Xu Wu

2011-01-01

192

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy,  

E-print Network

Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy-Cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Criteria of California, Berkeley Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Institute of Transportation Studies

California at Berkeley, University of

193

Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants  

SciTech Connect

Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (US). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-08-01

194

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

195

Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. PMID:24335966

Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2013-01-01

196

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

Not Available

1992-12-01

197

Rethinking cultural safety while waiting to do fieldwork: methodological implications for nursing research.  

PubMed

The concept of culture has been widely applied as an explanatory concept within health care, often within a framework representing culture as a fixed, reified entity, with cultural groups existing in a binary sense vis-;-vis mainstream culture. However, if our scholarship is to generate knowledge that addresses longstanding patterns of inclusion and exclusion along lines such as race, ethnicity, class, and gender, interpretive frames are needed that account for culture as embedded in fields of power relations; as mediated by social forces such as economics, politics, and historical patterns of oppression and colonization; and as being constantly renegotiated. In this article we trace a series of theoretical explorations, centered on the concept of cultural safety, with corresponding methodological implications, engaged in during preparation for an intensive period of fieldwork to study the hospitalization and help-seeking experiences of diverse ethnocultural populations. PMID:12015784

Kirkham, Sheryl Reimer; Smye, Vicki; Tang, Sannie; Anderson, Joan; Blue, Connie; Browne, Annette; Coles, Ruth; Dyck, Isabel; Henderson, Angela; Lynam, M Judith; Perry, JoAnn; Semeniuk, Pat; Shapera, Leah

2002-06-01

198

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

199

Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.  

PubMed

Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. PMID:22342958

Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

2012-07-01

200

RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION FROM LANDFILL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Contaminant concentration criteria are required to prevent contaminant infiltration from leading to conditions which exceed health criteria. A methodology of groundwater has been described which may be used to select those criteria and quantify concentrations associated with plac...

201

A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

Fournier, Laëtitia

2005-01-01

202

Condition assessment methodologies for maintenance and repair decisions  

E-print Network

Structures like embankment dams gradually deteriorate with time. For safety reasons, among others, those structures have to be maintained. However, the institutions responsible for those structures, like the Corps of Engineers, or Hydro-Quebec, have...

Bouvier, Charles

1997-01-01

203

A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

2014-01-01

204

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

2008-01-01

205

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

206

Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods.  

PubMed

The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting plant products. In part of the cases the same crop plant can, however, also be obtained by 'conventional' breeding strategies. The breeder will decide on a case-by-case basis what will be the best strategy to reach the set target and whether genetic modification will form part of this strategy. This article discusses important aspects of the safety assessment of complex products derived from newly bred plant varieties obtained by different breeding strategies. On the basis of this overview, we conclude that the current process of the safety evaluation of GM versus conventionally bred plants is not well balanced. GM varieties are elaborately assessed, yet at the same time other crop plants resulting from conventional breeding strategies may warrant further food safety assessment for the benefit of the consumer. We propose to develop a general screening frame for all newly developed plant varieties to select varieties that cannot, on the basis of scientific criteria, be considered as safe as plant varieties that are already on the market. PMID:17983697

Kok, E J; Keijer, J; Kleter, G A; Kuiper, H A

2008-02-01

207

Quantitative risk assessment—a place in laser safety?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976 the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (MOD) has used quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as a tool to manage the risks involved with airborne laser rangefinders and target designators. It has done this against the background of the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the regulations made under this act. These apply equally to MOD and civilian

R. Gardner; P. A. Smith

1995-01-01

208

Abstract -Preliminary risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology used in critical systems safety studies. It is primarily used at  

E-print Network

Abstract - Preliminary risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology used in critical systems safety studies the severity of the accident). The preliminary risk analysis was largely used in several industrial fields, Preliminary risk analysis (PRA), risk, potential accident, feared events, Automatic Train Control. I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Increasing accuracy in the assessment of motion sickness: A construct methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to introduce a new methodology that should improve the accuracy of the assessment of motion sickness. This construct methodology utilizes both subjective reports of motion sickness and objective measures of physiological correlates to assess motion sickness. Current techniques and methods used in the framework of a construct methodology are inadequate. Current assessment techniques for diagnosing motion sickness and space motion sickness are reviewed, and attention is called to the problems with the current methods. Further, principles of psychophysiology that when applied will probably resolve some of these problems are described in detail.

Stout, Cynthia S.; Cowings, Patricia S.

1993-01-01

210

Guiding principles of USGS methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last 30 years, the methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources used by the Geological Survey has undergone considerable change. This evolution has been based on five major principles. First, the U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for a wide range of U.S. and world assessments and requires a robust methodology suitable for immaturely explored as well as maturely explored areas. Second, the assessments should be based on as comprehensive a set of geological and exploration history data as possible. Third, the perils of methods that solely use statistical methods without geological analysis are recognized. Fourth, the methodology and course of the assessment should be documented as transparently as possible, within the limits imposed by the inevitable use of subjective judgement. Fifth, the multiple uses of the assessments require a continuing effort to provide the documentation in such ways as to increase utility to the many types of users. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are those recoverable volumes in undiscovered, discrete, conventional structural or stratigraphic traps. The USGS 2000 methodology for these resources is based on a framework of assessing numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations and the associated risks. The input is standardized on a form termed the Seventh Approximation Data Form for Conventional Assessment Units. Volumes of resource are then calculated using a Monte Carlo program named Emc2, but an alternative analytic (non-Monte Carlo) program named ASSESS also can be used. The resource assessment methodology continues to change. Accumulation-size distributions are being examined to determine how sensitive the results are to size-distribution assumptions. The resource assessment output is changing to provide better applicability for economic analysis. The separate methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) resources also has been evolving. Further studies of the relationship between geologic models of conventional and continuous resources will likely impact the respective resource assessment methodologies. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Charpentier, R.R.; Klett, T.R.

2005-01-01

211

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES: NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this task were to: (1) consider alternative methodologies for information collection, analysis, and presentation; (2) design a system for maintaining current awareness of the environmental implications of technology in the non-ferrous metals industry; and, (3) e...

212

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology  

Cancer.gov

A-1 APPENDIX A A-2 Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology Reference Manager Database A Reference Manager 10.0 database for this literature search and review was created to ensure that all of the references from the search strings in Exhibit

213

Development of a standard methodology for assessing the satiating effect of foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No standard methodology is currently utilized for assessing the relative satiating value of food items. Our goal was to evaluate the validity and reliability of satiety responses in order to develop a standardized methodology for determining the relative satiating capacity of specific food items. A ...

214

Organizational capabilities assessment: a dynamic methodology, methods and a tool for supporting  

E-print Network

Organizational capabilities assessment: a dynamic methodology, methods and a tool for supporting, and therefore the organizational diagnosis. This paper proposes a methodology, some methods and a tool, to make for improving the evaluation given by the methods of the state of the art. The second section formalizes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

MODEL BASED METHODOLOGY FOR REMEDIAL ACTION ASSESSMENT AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a remedial action assessment methodology for uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The model-based methodology consists of three key elements: a set of sophisticated models (one for each hydrologic zone), a data base structure and associated programs to transmit...

216

The accidental risk assessment methodology for industries (ARAMIS)/layer of protection analysis (LOPA) methodology: a step forward towards convergent practices in risk assessment?  

PubMed

In the last ten years, layer of protection analysis (LOPA) emerged as a simplified form of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The European Commission funded project Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries in the context of the Seveso 2 Directive (ARAMIS) has recently been completed. ARAMIS has several modules which give a consistent simplified approach to risk assessment which does not approach the complexity or expense of full QRA. LOPA is potentially a means of carrying out the assessment of barriers required in ARAMIS. This paper attempts to explain the principles of LOPA and the means by which it can be used within ARAMIS. PMID:16139426

Gowland, Richard

2006-03-31

217

EMERGING METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPLEX MIXTURES; THE INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment of complex mixtures of environmental pollutants requires new interdisciplinary strategies. The integration of bioassay methodologies into these strategies is an important tool which provides direct evidence of the toxicity of a mixture. Short-term genetic bioassays...

218

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

219

A computer-based Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation - SAFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Safety Assessment for Flight Evacuation (SAFE) system has been developed for the computerized evaluation of safety in civil Emergency Medical Service (EMS) operations. The speed of the microprocessor used to analyze data allows many individual factors to be considered, as well as the interactions among those factors. SAFE's data base is structured as if-then conditional statements. SAFE also allows the most important of the factors to be given greater weight in the final score. The questionnaire filled by EMS crews encompassed mission-, crew-, organization-, environment-, and aircraft-related factors; each of these was subdivided into as many as eight variables affecting the EMS-mission risk of that factor.

Shively, Robert J.

1988-01-01

220

Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-02-01

221

Panoral dose assessment: a comparative report of methodologies.  

PubMed

National guidance from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM Report 91) currently recommends that the patient dose for a panoral X-ray unit is measured as dose area product (DAP) replacing dose width product described in earlier guidance. An investigation identifying different methods available to carry out this measurement has been undertaken and errors in the methodologies analysed. It has been shown that there may be up to a 30 % variation in DAP measurement between methods. This paper recommends that where possible a DAP meter is used to measure the dose-area product from a panoral X-ray unit to give a direct DAP measurement. However, by using a solid-state dose measurement and film/ruler to calculate DAP the authors have established a conversion factor of 1.4. It is strongly recommended that wherever a DAP value is quoted the methodology used to obtain that value is also reported. PMID:24707002

Shafford, J; Pryor, M; Hollaway, P; Peet, D; Oduko, J

2015-01-01

222

A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.  

PubMed

The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

2014-02-01

223

Behavioral assessment of joint attention: A methodological report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures. Children with autism had relatively minor deficits in joint attention responding and

Rebecca MacDonald; Jennifer Anderson; William V. Dube; Amy Geckeler; Gina Green; William Holcomb; Renee Mansfield; June Sanchez

2006-01-01

224

Methodologies for assessing performance of irrigation and drainage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework irrigation managers can use in assessing performance of irrigation, and recommends a specific set of indicators for measuring performance that the authors believe are practical, useful, and generally applicable. Although the primary focus is on the management of canal systems for agricultural production, the paper also discusses indicators that can be used for assessing longer

M. G. Bos; D. H. Murray-Rust; D. J. Merrey; H. G. Johnson; W. B. Snellen

1993-01-01

225

Application of risk assessment methodology to transborder data flow  

SciTech Connect

The formal application of risk assessment to computer systems first gained popularity in 1975. As a result, many business organizations and government agencies have established policies and regulations governing the conditions and procedures that are used in limiting their exposure to risks. This report describes the benefits that may arise from applying a formal risk assessment technique to transborder data flow (TDF) issues.

Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Lobel, J.

1985-01-01

226

Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention: A Methodological Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures.…

MacDonald, Rebecca; Anderson, Jennifer; Dube, William V.; Geckeler, Amy; Green, Gina; Holcomb, William; Mansfield, Renee; Sanchez, June

2006-01-01

227

Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

Hassan, O. A. B.

2011-01-01

228

Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources  

SciTech Connect

Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty surrounding potential unconventional gas resources.

Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A., E-mail: mcvay@pe.tamu.edu; Lee, W. John [Texas A and M University, Department of Petroleum Engineering, 3116 TAMU (United States)

2010-12-15

229

Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

230

Respondent-Driven Sampling: An Assessment of Current Methodology*  

PubMed Central

Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) employs a variant of a link-tracing network sampling strategy to collect data from hard-to-reach populations. By tracing the links in the underlying social network, the process exploits the social structure to expand the sample and reduce its dependence on the initial (convenience) sample. The current estimators of population averages make strong assumptions in order to treat the data as a probability sample. We evaluate three critical sensitivities of the estimators: to bias induced by the initial sample, to uncontrollable features of respondent behavior, and to the without-replacement structure of sampling. Our analysis indicates: (1) that the convenience sample of seeds can induce bias, and the number of sample waves typically used in RDS is likely insufficient for the type of nodal mixing required to obtain the reputed asymptotic unbiasedness; (2) that preferential referral behavior by respondents leads to bias; (3) that when a substantial fraction of the target population is sampled the current estimators can have substantial bias. This paper sounds a cautionary note for the users of RDS. While current RDS methodology is powerful and clever, the favorable statistical properties claimed for the current estimates are shown to be heavily dependent on often unrealistic assumptions. We recommend ways to improve the methodology. PMID:22969167

Gile, Krista J.; Handcock, Mark S.

2010-01-01

231

A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig.

Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

1991-07-01

232

A Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first year of that activity was specified for development of a methodology to estimate storage potential that could be applied uniformly to geologic formations across the United States. After its release, the methodology was to receive public comment and external expert review. An initial methodology was developed and published in March 2009 (Burruss and others, 2009), and public comments were received. The report was then sent to a panel of experts for external review. The external review report was received by the USGS in December 2009. This report is in response to those external comments and reviews and describes how the previous assessment methodology (Burruss and others, 2009) was revised. The resource that is assessed is the technically accessible storage resource, which is defined as the mass of CO2 that can be stored in the pore volume of a storage formation. The methodology that is presented in this report is intended to be used for assessments at scales ranging from regional to subbasinal in which storage assessment units are defined on the basis of common geologic and hydrologic characteristics. The methodology does not apply to site-specific evaluation of storage resources or capacity.

Brennan, Sean T.; Burruss, Robert C.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

2010-01-01

233

Safety analysis, risk assessment, and risk acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a number of topics that relate safety analysis as documented in the Department of Energy (DOE) safety analysis reports (SARs), probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) as characterized primarily in the context of the techniques that have assumed some level of formality in commercial nuclear power plant applications, and risk acceptance criteria as an outgrowth of PRA applications. DOE SARs of interest are those that are prepared for DOE facilities under DOE Order 5480.23 and the implementing guidance in DOE STD-3009-94. It must be noted that the primary area of application for DOE STD-3009 is existing DOE facilities and that certain modifications of the STD-3009 approach are necessary in SARs for new facilities. Moreover, it is the hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis (AA) portions of these SARs that are relevant to the present discussions. Although PRAs can be qualitative in nature, PRA as used in this paper refers more generally to all quantitative risk assessments and their underlying methods. HA as used in this paper refers more generally to all qualitative risk assessments and their underlying methods that have been in use in hazardous facilities other than nuclear power plants. This discussion includes both quantitative and qualitative risk assessment methods. PRA has been used, improved, developed, and refined since the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) was published in 1975 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Much debate has ensued since WASH-1400 on exactly what the role of PRA should be in plant design, reactor licensing, `ensuring` plant and process safety, and a large number of other decisions that must be made for potentially hazardous activities. Of particular interest in this area is whether the risks quantified using PRA should be compared with numerical risk acceptance criteria (RACs) to determine whether a facility is `safe.` Use of RACs requires quantitative estimates of consequence frequency and magnitude.

Jamali, K. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Core Technical Support and Facility Transition; Stack, D.W.; Sullivan, L.H.; Sanzo, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-08-01

234

Safety and immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development are indicated for treatment of patients with cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune disease and as such, are designed to directly interact with the immune system. A major hurdle for the development and early clinical investigation of many of these immunomodulatory mAbs is their inherent risk for adverse immune-mediated drug reactions in humans such as infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the immunopharmacology of a mAb in humans and animals is required to both anticipate the clinical risk of adverse immunotoxicological events and to select a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical studies. This review summarizes the most common adverse immunotoxicological events occurring in humans with immunomodulatory mAbs and outlines non-clinical strategies to define their immunopharmacology and assess their immunotoxic potential, as well as reduce the risk of immunotoxicity through rational mAb design. Tests to assess the relative risk of mAb candidates for cytokine release syndrome, innate immune system (dendritic cell) activation and immunogenicity in humans are also described. The importance of selecting a relevant and sensitive toxicity species for human safety assessment in which the immunopharmacology of the mAb is similar to that expected in humans is highlighted, as is the importance of understanding the limitations of the species selected for human safety assessment and supplementation of in vivo safety assessment with appropriate in vitro human assays. A tiered approach to assess effects on immune status, immune function and risk of infection and cancer, governed by the mechanism of action and structural features of the mAb, is described. Finally, the use of immunopharmacology and immunotoxicity data in determining a minimum anticipated biologic effect Level (MABEL) and in the selection of safe human starting dose is discussed. PMID:20421713

Morton, Laura Dill; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Kiessling, Andrea; Allenspach, Roy; Hey, Adam; Muller, Patrick Y; Frings, Werner; Sims, Jennifer

2010-01-01

235

Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-19

236

Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems. These efforts have produced a generic PA methodology for the evaluation of waste management systems that has gained wide acceptance within the international community. This report documents how this methodology has been used as an effective management tool to evaluate different disposal designs and sites; inform development of regulatory requirements; identify, prioritize, and guide research aimed at reducing uncertainties for objective estimations of risk; and support safety assessments.

Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-11-01

237

Guidelines and methodological reviews concerning drug abuse liability assessment.  

PubMed

Regulatory control of drugs with abuse liability is an important component of drug control policy and is believed to help prevent nonmedical use. To be maximally effective, this requires a scientific assessment of abuse liability of drugs considered for regulatory control. These assessments have relied extensively on laboratory-based animal and human testing, but also utilize information from clinical trials, actual abuse and other sources. Here, we discuss recommendations and guidelines that have been proposed for abuse liability assessment and describe important review papers and conference proceedings that have addressed this matter, focusing primarily on drugs with medical usefulness. Historically, there is substantial consensus about how to approach abuse liability evaluation of drugs with actions similar to those of abused opiates, stimulants, depressants, and to a somewhat lesser extent, cannabinoids and hallucinogens, and much of what has been recommended for abuse potential assessment in the past remains valid and useful. On the other hand, novel CNS-active medications which cannot be readily classified with these traditional drugs of abuse are increasingly under development. In addition, advances in the science of abuse liability assessment need to be incorporated into future guidelines and recommendations on this subject. Developers of new medications need guidance on how to utilize scientific research to maximize therapeutic benefit while minimizing risk for abuse. Thus, another goal of this review has been to identify areas where critical thinking and new guideline development are needed. PMID:12759195

Balster, Robert L; Bigelow, George E

2003-06-01

238

Assessment of trends in desertification: A proposed methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is most commonly accepted as "land degradation that occurs in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas as a result of climatic variations and human activities." Primary influences include over-grazing, over-cultivation, exploitation of water resources and climate. Such influences lead to reduced productive capacity of land and potentially, desert-like conditions. Once degraded, the recovery of these natural systems may take decades or centuries. This research focused on two environments as case studies, Saskatchewan, Canada, and Bangladesh. Forecasts of desertification were depicted by integrating observed meteorological data, general circulation model (GCM) projections and a range of physical, biological and social indicators to create maps that depict the regions at greatest risk of desertification. Using GIS software, a thematic layer was employed for each indicator and they were integrated to form a single map of desertification. This methodology was found capable for identifying areas at risk of desertification in Saskatchewan and Bangladesh.

Dejong, Andrew Gordon

239

Assessing avian richness in remnant wetlands: Towards an improved methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because the North American Breeding Bird Survey provides inadequate coverage of wetland habitat, the Wetland Breeding Bird Survey was recently established in Ohio, USA. This program relies on volunteers to conduct 3 counts at each monitored wetland. Currently, all counts are conducted during the morning. Under the premise that volunteer participation could be increased by allowing evening counts, we evaluated the potential for modifying the methodology. We evaluated the sampling efficiency of all 3-count combinations of morning and evening counts using data collected at 14 wetlands. Estimates of overall species richness decreased with increasing numbers of evening counts. However, this pattern did not hold when analyses were restricted to wetland-dependent species or those of conservation concern. Our findings suggest that it would be reasonable to permit evening counts, particularly if the data are to be used to monitor wetland dependent species and those of concern.

Krzys, Greg; Waite, Thomas A.; Stapanian, Martin; Vucetich, John A.

2002-01-01

240

A Methodology for assessing Agile Software Development Approaches  

E-print Network

Agile methods provide an organization or a team the flexibility to adopt a selected subset of principles and practices based on their culture, their values, and the types of systems that they develop. More specifically, every organization or team implements a customized agile method, tailored to better accommodate its needs. However, the extent to which a customized method supports the organizational objectives, or rather the 'goodness' of that method is questionable. Existing agile assessment approaches focus on a comparative analysis, or are limited in scope and application. In this research, we propose a structured, systematic and comprehensive approach to assess the 'goodness' of agile methods. We examine an agile method based on (1) its adequacy, (2) the capability of the organization to support the adopted principles and practices specified by the method, and (3) the method's effectiveness. We propose the Objectives, Principles and Practices (OPP) Framework to guide our assessment. The Framework identif...

Soundararajan, Shvetha

2011-01-01

241

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01

242

SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200). Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

243

A critical review of three generic methodologies of environmental impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines three generic methods that can be used in conducting an environmental impact assessment (EIA) within the impact identification stage, with a view to its applicability and capability in the assessment and determination of sustainability\\/sustainable development. The paper contains a brief overview of each type of generic methodology, followed by an examination of their respective strengths and weaknesses

Jason Phillips

244

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Methodological Approach for Assessing  

E-print Network

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 281 Methodological Approach for Assessing the Economic Impact resources due to fire impact have been obtained, the assessment can be made immediately with the help of a geographic information system and the corresponding "fire impact depreciation matrix." The ability

Standiford, Richard B.

245

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and  

E-print Network

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage as the possibility of regeneration, into opera- tional availability assessment. This modeling method uses a unified failure/damage approach based on state-space modeling. Key words: Damage, failure, regeneration

Boyer, Edmond

246

Methodology for retinal photography and assessment of diabetic retinopathy: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We present the methodology for 45 retinal photography and detail the development, application and validation of a new system of 45 field grading standards for the assessment of diabetic retinopathy. The systems were developed for the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study, part of a European Community funded Concerted Action Programme into the epidemiology and prevention of diabetes (EURODIAB). Assessment of diabetic

S. J. Aldington; E. M. Kohner; S. Meuer; R. Klein; A. K. SjØlie

1995-01-01

247

Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

2014-01-01

248

Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

Craig, Robert J.

2005-01-01

249

Methodology for the pressurized thermal shock evaluation: recent improvements in French RPV PTS assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive work was conducted in France related to the structural integrity re-assessment of the French 900 and 1300MW reactor pressure vessels in order to increase their lifetime. Within the framework of this programme, numerous developments have been implemented related to the methodology used for the assessment of flaws during a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event. This extensive work includes

D. Moinereau; G. Bezdikian; C. Faidy

2001-01-01

250

Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach  

PubMed Central

We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease. PMID:23890489

2013-01-01

251

Methodological Considerations in Developing the Timber Assessment Projection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers the major modeling issues that arise in development of a resource and market projection system. It\\u000a reviews recent evolution in policy and scenario planning and forest sector market modeling. It presents a basic outline of\\u000a the Timber Assessment Projection System and compares its structure to that of other contemporary modeling approaches.

Darius M. Adams; Richard W. Haynes

252

Needs Assessment: Combining Qualitative Interviews and Concept Mapping Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Naturalistic and traditional social science models were used to conduct a needs assessment in which 35 stakeholders were interviewed about their perceptions of the functioning of a crisis agency and the needs of the community and the agency. Concept mapping (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical analysis) was used to establish need categories…

Wiener, Richard L.; And Others

1994-01-01

253

Comparing monitoring methodologies for assessing restoration success in peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Restoration specialists are often criticised for not establishing a proper monitoring program that would help judging the success of a restoration project. Here, we present a study case where monitoring has taken place for seven years after restoring a cut-over bog. The aim of this presentation is 1) to assess peatland restoration success when using the Sphagnum moss transfer

Line Rochefort; Francis Isselin-Nondedeu; Monique Poulin

254

A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people

N. D. Kelley; R. R. Hemphill; H. E. McKenna

1982-01-01

255

USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

256

Using Tropos Methodology to Model an Integrated Health Assessment System  

E-print Network

health assessment of health and social care needs of older people is used as the case study throughout is the Health Care sector. Health Care information systems are becoming more and more computerised. A huge this can be done faster and more efficiently. One of the areas within the Health Care sector that can take

257

STREAM, AN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure assessments for pesticides used in agriculture require the estimation of both pesticide runoff from fields and resulting concentrations in streams in order to predict the potential aquatic and/or health risk posed by pesticide usage. he and duration of pesticide concentr...

258

An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

Janic, Milan

2003-01-01

259

[Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].  

PubMed

Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p< 0.001). After the implementation of 5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on employees, and some sufficient satisfaction was observed. In addition, the non-conformity score, which was identified in the laboratory during the previous years, was significantly reduced at a rate of 69.7% after the implementation of 5S. 5S practices have successfully contributed to the establishment and to the sustainability of laboratory safety systems in the first public ISO 15189 accredited public clinical laboratory in Turkey. It is concluded that 5S methods can be used as an effective improvement tool in order to maintain a safe environment, to facilitate the job, and to encourage employees to participate in the management process. PMID:24819267

Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

2014-04-01

260

Integrating groundwater into land planning: A risk assessment methodology.  

PubMed

Generally, groundwater is naturally of good quality for human consumption and represents an essential source of drinking water. In Canada, small municipalities and individuals are particularly reliant on groundwater, since they cannot afford complex water treatment installations. However, groundwater is a vulnerable resource that, depending on its characteristics, can be contaminated by almost any land use. In recent decades, governments have launched programs to acquire more information on groundwater, in order to better protect it. Nevertheless, the data produced are rarely adequate to be understood and used by land planners. The aim of this study was to develop a method that helps planners interpret hydrogeological data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Based on the requests and needs of planners during semi-directed interviews, a methodology was developed to qualitatively evaluate groundwater contamination risk by land uses. The method combines land planning data and hydrogeological data through the MACBETH multicriteria analysis method, to obtain maps of groundwater contamination risk. The method was developed through group and individual meetings with numerous hydrogeology, land planning, water's economics and drinking water specialists. The resulting maps allow planners to understand the dynamics of groundwater within their territory, identify problem areas where groundwater is threatened and analyse the potential impact of planning scenarios on the risk of groundwater contamination. PMID:25768713

Lavoie, Roxane; Joerin, Florent; Vansnick, Jean-Claude; Rodriguez, Manuel J

2015-05-01

261

A methodology for tsunami hazard assessment using Green functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose a methodology for fast computation of offshore wave heights of tsunamis generated by a specific initial water disturbance. The method includes the following steps: the source area is discretized into a grid of unity water sources, a linear shallow water (LSW) numerical model is used to pre-compute the corresponding Green functions, the reconstitution of the tsunami waveform is made for a set of possible earthquake sources. We compare these results with the direct LSW computation, to check for the accuracy of the method. We present a case study for the coast of Oman. The Makran subduction zone is used as potential source area, and Green summation is used to produce rapid estimations of water heights at a number of virtual tide gauges located along the shoreline. The results show the effectiveness of the method to save computation time and its use in estimations of tsunami hazard, when there is a need to compute a very large number of potential sources. This work was funded by projects: TAGUS DELTA, CONDRIBER, GEONUM of FCT Portugal, Avaliação do Risco Sísmico e de Tsunami no Concelho de Cascais (IDL-UL); and GTIMS tender no. JRC/IPR/2013/G.2/13/NC.

Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.

2013-12-01

262

A methodological approach towards the design of a highly innovative wheelchair with enhanced safety, manoeuvrability and comfort.  

PubMed

This paper presents the methodological framework for the development of an innovative wheelchair able to solve the problem of use within all transportation modes (car, bus, train, ship, aeroplane). This task calls for a multi-step integrated methodology in order to gather and reconciliate conflicting user needs and requirements regarding safety, manoeuvrability and comfort. The paper describes also the methodology adopted for the system architecture of a modular design wheelchair as well as for its evaluation, ranging from crash tests (both simulations and real tests) to vibration and comfort studies. The work stems from the research conducted in the TRANSWHEEL project (DE 3013), partly financed by the European Union's DE/TAP programme. PMID:10218599

Papaioannou, G; Naniopoulos, A; Bekiaris, E; Spaepen, A

1999-01-01

263

12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.  

PubMed Central

The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

1997-01-01

264

Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a “dirty bomb”. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

2007-07-09

265

Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

2012-08-01

266

Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

NONE

1997-10-01

267

Monitoring the safety of vaccines: assessing the risks.  

PubMed

The safety of vaccines, particularly the most widely used vaccines to which most children are exposed as infants and toddlers, has always been an extremely high priority for vaccine manufacturers and government agencies. Products intended for healthy people must be held to a high standard of safety assurance. In addition to the intense safety assessments conducted prior to licensure, post-marketing surveillance programmes are essential to identify and study possible risks that occur too rarely to have been identified in pre-licensure studies or that occur in populations not studied in pre-licensure studies. Studying rare risks of vaccines is more complex than for therapeutic products because the exposure is virtually universal for many vaccines, ensuring occurrence simply by chance of many adverse outcomes in temporal association with vaccination. In the US the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), a consortium of managed care organisations, has been established to study more rigourously possible vaccine-associated risks. These risks may be identified through reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the nationwide passive surveillance programme, as well as other sources. The combination of passive surveillance and more structured case-control or cohort studies possible in the VSD has helped to both identify new vaccine risks and to provide reassuring evidence of lack of risk in other situations where concerns have been raised. PMID:11945111

Ellenberg, Susan S; Braun, Miles M

2002-01-01

268

Safety/risk assessment of pesticides: principles, procedures and examples.  

PubMed

The principles and procedures for the assessment of the safety/risk of chemical used by the relevant WHO and EPA expert groups are outlined. The assessment in terms of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and reference doses (RfDs) of 25 pesticides is listed. The pesticides assessed are acephate, alachlor, amitrole, azinphos-methyl, benomyl, biphenthrin, bromophos, chlordane, chlorthalonil, cyhalothrin, DDT, EPTC, ethion, folpet, fosetyl-al, glyphosate, isofenphos, methomyl, methyl mercury, paraquat, phosphamidon, systhane, terbutyn, tribultyltin oxide, and vinclozin. In addition, their critical effects, the no-observed-effect levels and the size of the safety/uncertainty factors used are also listed to illustrate the diversity of the toxic effects and the resulting assessments. Furthermore, the enormous amount of data reviewed and the complex scientific judgement involved are also indicated. Considering the various uncertainties existing, the ADIs and RfDs do not differ appreciably in most instances. However, marked differences exist between the ADIs and RfDs of DDT and chlordane. It is suggested that re-evaluation be done on these, and perhaps other, chemicals. PMID:1471237

Lu, F C; Dourson, M L

1992-12-01

269

Assessing cardiovascular drug safety for clinical decision-making.  

PubMed

Optimal therapeutic decision-making requires integration of patient-specific and therapy-specific information at the point of care, particularly when treating patients with complex cardiovascular conditions. The formidable task for the prescriber is to synthesize information about all therapeutic options and match the best treatment with the characteristics of the individual patient. Computerized decision support systems have been developed with the goal of integrating such information and presenting the acceptable therapeutic options on the basis of their effectiveness, often with limited consideration of their safety for a specific patient. Assessing the safety of therapies relative to each patient is difficult, and sometimes impossible, because the evidence required to make such an assessment is either imperfect or does not exist. In addition, many of the alerts sent to prescribers by decision-support systems are not perceived as credible, and 'alert fatigue' causes warnings to be ignored putting patients at risk of harm. The CredibleMeds.org and BrugadaDrugs.org websites are prototypes for evidence-based sources of safety information that rank drugs for their risk of a specific form of drug toxicity-in these cases, drug-induced arrhythmias. Broad incorporation of this type of information in electronic prescribing algorithms and clinical decision support could speed the evolution of safe personalized medicine. PMID:23591268

Woosley, Raymond L; Romero, Klaus

2013-06-01

270

An ecological and economic assessment methodology for coastal ecosystem management.  

PubMed

An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR (DeltaDPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The aim of the DeltaDPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation of the present approach is to provide an explicit link between ecological and economic information related to the use and management of a coastal ecosystem within a specific timeframe. The application of DeltaDPSIR is illustrated through an analysis of developments in a Southwest European coastal lagoon between 1985 and 1995. The value of economic activities dependent on the lagoon suffered a significant reduction (ca. -60%) over that period, mainly due to a decrease in bivalve production. During that decade the pressures from the catchment area were managed (ca. 176 million Euros), mainly through the building of waste water treatment plants. Notwithstanding this, the ecosystem state worsened with respect to abnormal clam mortalities due to a parasite infection and to benthic eutrophication symptoms in specific problematic areas. The negative economic impacts during the decade were estimated between -565 and -315 million Euros, of which 9-49% represent the cost of environmental externalities. Evaluation of these past events indicates that future management actions should focus on reducing the limitation on local clam seeds, which should result in positive impacts to both the local socio-economy and biodiversity. PMID:19471999

Nobre, Ana M

2009-07-01

271

Methodology for estimating extreme winds for probabilistic risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Reguulatory Commission (NRC) assesses the risks associated with nuclear faciliies using techniques that fall under a generic name of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. In these assessments, potential accident sequences are traced from initiating event to final outcome. At each step of the sequence, a probability of occurrence is assigned to each available alternative. Ultimately, the probability of occurrence of each possible outcome is determined from the probabilities assigned to the initiating events and the alternative paths. Extreme winds are considered in these sequences. As a result, it is necessary to estimate extreme wind probabilities as low as 10/sup -7/yr/sup -1/. When the NRC staff is called on to provide extreme wind estimates, the staff is likely to be subjected to external time and funding constraints. These constraints dictate that the estimates be based on readily available wind data. In general, readily available data will be limited to the data provided by the facility applicant or licensee and the data archived at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. This report describes readily available data that can be used in estimating extreme wind probabilities, procedures of screening the data to eliminate erroneous values and for adjusting data to compensate for differences in data collection methods, and statistical methods for making extreme wind estimates. Supporting technical details are presented in several appendices. Estimation of extreme wind probabilities at a given location involves many subjective decisions. The procedures described do not eliminate all of the subjectivity, but they do increase the reproducibility of the analysis. They provide consistent methods for determining probabilities given a set of subjective decisions. By following these procedures, subjective decisions can be identified and documented.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.; Hubbe, J.M.

1986-10-01

272

Reducing attrition in drug development: smart loading preclinical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Entry into the crucial preclinical good laboratory practice (GLP) stage of toxicology testing triggers significant R&D investment yet >20% of AstraZeneca's potential new medicines have been stopped for safety reasons in this GLP phase alone. How could we avoid at least some of these costly failures? An analysis of historical toxicities that caused stopping ('stopping toxicities') showed that >50% were attributable to target organ toxicities emerging within 2 weeks of repeat dosing or to acute cardiovascular risks. By frontloading 2-week repeat-dose toxicity studies and a comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular safety, we anticipate a potential 50% reduction in attrition in the GLP phase. This will reduce animal use overall, save significant R&D costs and improve drug pipeline quality. PMID:24269835

Roberts, Ruth A; Kavanagh, Stefan L; Mellor, Howard R; Pollard, Christopher E; Robinson, Sally; Platz, Stefan J

2014-03-01

273

Preliminary Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the IRIS Plant  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary level-1 probabilistic safety assessment of the IRIS plant has been performed. The first focus is on five internal initiating events, such as primary system break (loss-of-coolant accident and steam generator tube rupture) and transients (secondary system line break and loss-of-off-site power). In this study, the event tree for each initiating event was developed and the fault tree analysis of the event tree headings was carried out. In particular, since one of the IRIS safety systems, the passive emergency heat removal system, is unique to the IRIS plant and its reliability is key to the core damage frequency evaluation, it received more extensive fault-tree development. Finally the dominant sequences that lead to severe accidents and the failures in the main and support systems are identified. (authors)

Mizuno, Yuko O.; Ogura, Katsunori; Ninokata, Hisashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Conway, Lawrence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

2002-07-01

274

Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

Guarro, Sergio B.

2010-01-01

275

Who can help me? The Safety Office offers ergonomic assessments for  

E-print Network

Who can help me? The Safety Office offers ergonomic assessments for all University of Winnipeg employees. Call 786.9894 to arrange an appointment. For more information on ergonomics, visit the Safety Office website at www. uwinnipeg.ca/index/safety-safety. ERGONOMICS OFFICE What is ergonomics? Ergonomics

Martin, Jeff

276

Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

2010-01-01

277

A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test misinterpretation. Finally, a rational decision making model is introduced to quantify a section of the developed conceptual framework in the previous step and analyze the impact of different decision making biases on negative pressure test results. Along with the corroborating findings of previous studies, the analysis of the developed conceptual framework in this paper indicates that organizational factors are root causes of accumulated errors and questionable decisions made by personnel or management. Further analysis of this framework identifies procedural issues, economic pressure, and personnel management issues as the organizational factors with the highest influence on misinterpreting a negative pressure test. It is noteworthy that the captured organizational factors in the introduced conceptual framework are not only specific to the scope of the NPT. Most of these organizational factors have been identified as not only the common contributing causes of other offshore drilling accidents but also accidents in other oil and gas related operations as well as high-risk operations in other industries. In addition, the proposed rational decision making model in this research introduces a quantitative structure for analysis of the results of a conducted NPT. This model provides a structure and some parametric derived formulas to determine a cut-off point value, which assists personnel in accepting or rejecting an implemented negative pressure test. Moreover, it enables analysts to assess different decision making biases involved in the process of interpreting a conducted negative pressure test as well as the root organizational factors of those biases. In general, although the proposed integrated research methodology in this dissertation is developed for the risk assessment of human and organizational factors contributions in negative pressure test misinterpretation, it can be generalized and be potentially useful for other well control situations, both offshore and onshore; e.g. fracking. In addition, this methodology can be applied for the analysis

Tabibzadeh, Maryam

278

A rapid usability assessment methodology to support the choice of clinical information systems: a case study.  

PubMed Central

We present here an adapted methodology integrating usability engineering and early evaluation procedures to support the choice of a Clinical Information System in the context of a standard Call for Tender. We illustrate the application of this methodology with a case study. We integrated a standard 'contextual task and activity analysis' into the choice process and then drew up usability recommendations for the choice of an application. We organized a one-week on-site exhibition and test for each candidate company. During the test sessions, we performed a rapid usability assessment. The final choice of the application is strongly and positively influenced by the results of the usability assessment. PMID:12463784

Beuscart-Zéphir, M. C.; Watbled, L.; Carpentier, A. M.; Degroisse, M.; Alao, O.

2002-01-01

279

An approach for assessing ALWR passive safety system reliability  

SciTech Connect

Many advanced light water reactor designs incorporate passive rather than active safety features for front-line accident response. A method for evaluating the reliability of these passive systems in the context of probabilistic risk assessment has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This method addresses both the component (e.g. valve) failure aspect of passive system failure, and uncertainties in system success criteria arising from uncertainties in the system's underlying physical processes. These processes provide the system's driving force; examples are natural circulation and gravity-induced injection. This paper describes the method, and provides some preliminary results of application of the approach to the Westinghouse AP600 design.

Hake, T M

1991-01-01

280

History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years  

SciTech Connect

From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

Spray, S.D.

1996-06-01

281

Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)  

SciTech Connect

A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

1981-11-24

282

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

1992-01-01

283

A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

1982-05-01

284

Methodological Consequences of Situation Specificity: Biases in Assessments  

PubMed Central

Social research is plagued by many biases. Most of them are due to situation specificity of social behavior and can be explained using a theory of situation specificity. The historical background of situation specificity in personality social psychology research is briefly sketched, then a theory of situation specificity is presented in detail, with as centerpiece the relationship between the behavior and its outcome which can be described as either “the more, the better” or “not too much and not too little.” This theory is applied to reliability and validity of assessments in social research. The distinction between “maximum performance” and “typical performance” is shown to correspond to the two behavior-outcome relations. For maximum performance, issues of reliability and validity are much easier to be solved, whereas typical performance is sensitive to biases, as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is suggested that biases in social research are not just systematic error, but represent relevant features to be explained just as other behavior, and that the respective theories should be integrated into a theory system. PMID:21713072

Patry, Jean-Luc

2011-01-01

285

Methodology for Assessing Radiation Detectors Used by Emergency Responders  

SciTech Connect

The threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism resulted in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security deploying large quantities of radiation detectors throughout the emergency responder community. However, emergency responders specific needs were not always met by standard health physics instrumentation used in radiation facilities. Several American National Standards Institute standards were developed and approved to evaluate the technical capabilities of detection equipment. Establishing technical capability is a critical step, but it is equally important to emergency responders that the instruments are easy to operate and can withstand the rugged situations they encounter. The System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program (managed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Grants and Training, Systems Support Division) focuses predominantly on the usability, ergonomics, readability, and other features of the detectors, rather than performance controlled by industry standards and the manufacturers. National Security Technologies, LLC, as a SAVER Technical Agent, conducts equipment evaluations using active emergency responders who are familiar with the detection equipment and knowledgeable of situations encountered in the field, which provides more relevant data to emergency responders.

Piotr Wasiolek; April Simpson

2008-03-01

286

A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

Quintana, Rolando

2003-01-01

287

Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

1994-06-01

288

Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

2013-01-01

289

Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

Jaeger, Calvin D.; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

2008-12-01

290

Assessment of the physical flood susceptibility of buildings on a large scale - conceptual and methodological frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various approaches available for assessing the flood vulnerability and damage to buildings and critical infrastructure. They cover pre- and post-event methods for different scales. However, there can hardly be found any method that allows for a large-scale pre-event assessment of the built structures with a high resolution. To make advancements in this respect, the paper presents, first, a conceptual framework for understanding the physical flood susceptibility of buildings and, second, a methodological framework for its assessment. The latter ranges from semi-automatic extraction of buildings, mainly from remote sensing with a subsequent classification and systematic characterisation, to the assessment of the physical flood susceptibility on the basis of depth-impact functions. The work shows results of the methodology's implementation and testing in a settlement of the city of Magangué, along the Magdalena River in Colombia.

Blanco-Vogt, A.; Schanze, J.

2014-08-01

291

United States Environmental Protection Agency: Use of risk assessment and risk management methodologies. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Make a full investigation of the policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management in regulatory programs under various Federal laws to prevent cancer and other chronic health effects which may result from exposure to hazardous substances. This is the primary mission of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission (Risk Commission). The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), created the Risk Commission reflecting Congress' concern over agency use of risk assessment and risk management techniques and methodologies to implement federal laws protective of human health. The Risk Commission is to consider: methods for measuring and describing risks of chronic health effects from hazardous substances; methods to reflect uncertainties associated with estimation techniques, and whether it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology or a consistent standard of acceptable risk for various federal programs.

Lamuro, R.J.

1992-09-30

292

Advanced Korean Industrial Safety and Health Policy with Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed. PMID:22953160

Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

2010-01-01

293

Methodological aspects of life cycle assessment of integrated solid waste management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) developed rapidly during the 1990s and has reached a certain level of harmonisation and standardisation. LCA has mainly been developed for analysing material products, but can also be applied to services, e.g. treatment of a particular amount of solid waste. This paper discusses some methodological issues which come into focus when LCAs are applied to

Göran Finnveden

1999-01-01

294

REVISION AND UPDATE OF METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND RISK FROM LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of their regulatory reform efforts, the Office of Solid Waste (OS) has recently (11/99) introduced a new open-architecture, multimedia, multi-pathway, and multi-receptor exposure and risk assessment methodology designed to support their Hazardous Waste Identification ...

295

Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that

Jean-Pierre Dupuy; Alexei Grinbaum

2005-01-01

296

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SURFACE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include distribution and marketing programs, landfi...

297

Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for Land Application and Distribution and Marketing of Municipal Sludge  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution a...

298

MULTI-MEDIA MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to reduce the risk of municipal sludge to acceptable levels, the U.S. EPA has undertaken a regulatory program based on risk assessment and risk management. The key to such a program is the development of a methodology which allows the regulatory agency to quantify the re...

299

A multiple-criteria environmental impact assessment for the plastic injection molding process: a methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a multiple-criteria methodology for evaluating environmental impacts in the plastic injection molding process (PIMP) and incorporates the findings of an empirical study conducted in Hong Kong. The paper identifies and explains various indicators of environmental impact assessment and establishes a multiple-criteria rating matrix. It then elaborates on the implementation of a pilot program and discusses the relevance

Kit-Fai Pun; Ip-Kee Hui; Winston G. Lewis; Henry C. W. Lau

2003-01-01

300

Environmental Impact Assessment in Ghana: Current administration and procedures — towards an appropriate methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) now enjoys at least statutory status in a number of Third World Countries (TWCs), including Ghana. Indeed, it is now considered an important tool of policy and control, both at the central government and local\\/district government levels. One of the difficulties, however, in implementing EIA has been the design of an appropriate methodology, in view

Sam Cudjoe Ofori

1991-01-01

301

Couple Attachment and Relationship Duration in Psychotherapy Patients: Exploring a New Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief…

Sochos, Antigonos

2014-01-01

302

Statistical Test of the Rule Assessment Methodology by Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of Siegler's (1981) rule assessment methodology is that the assignment of subjects to rules takes place by an arbitrary criterion. This problem can be solved by latent class analysis by which we can test statistically how many rules are needed to fit the data and which these rules are. Two data sets of the balance scale test are

Brenda R. J. Jansen

1997-01-01

303

Market Segmentation in Practice: Review of Empirical Studies, Methodological Assessment, and Agenda for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although segmentation decisions are critical for achieving differential advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace, the empirical investigation of how segmentation decisions are actually conducted by firms in business practice has not been a major focus of extant research. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is threefold: first, the identified empirical studies are assessed in terms of their methodological characteristics in

Eva K. Foedermayr; Adamantios Diamantopoulos

2008-01-01

304

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION MEANS  

E-print Network

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

Assessing effectiveness of home care for persons with AIDS: Analysis of methodological problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to assess the methodological problems of an unsuccessful randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to evaluate the effectiveness, in terms of survival and quality of life, of the early offer of home care (HC) to persons with AIDS (PWA). The study carried out was an intention-to-treat RCT. Persons in the treatment group (TG) received the

P. Borgia; P. Schifano; T. Spadea; G. Milanese; E. Fabrizi; D. Abeni; C. Perucci; G. Rocchi

2002-01-01

306

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION OF COAL: METHODOLOGY AND INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), aimed at complete environmental assessment (EA) of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal. It reviews the EA methodology being developed by EPA: identification of current technolo...

307

Maine Assessment of Educational Progress, Report 5: Methodology; Citizenship and Writing, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodology used in the Maine Assessment of Educational Progress in Citizenship and Writing is described in this report. The chapters of the report are: I. Introduction--background and purpose of the project, sampling considerations, Exercise Package development, administration and scoring, and data analysis plan; II. Sample Design--general…

Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

308

METHODOLOGY FOR OVERLAND AND INSTREAM MIGRATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide planners and decision makers in government and industry with a sound basis for decision making, the Chemical Migration and Risk Assessment (CMRA) Methodology was developed to predict the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving ru...

309

Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

310

Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

Burruss, Robert C.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, Philip A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

311

The SEURAT-1 approach towards animal free human safety assessment.  

PubMed

SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action framework to describe how any substance may adversely affect human health.The proof of the initiative will be in demonstrating the applicability of the concepts on which SEURAT-1 is built on three levels:(i) Theoretical prototypes for adverse outcome pathways are formulated based on knowledge already available in the scientific literature on investigating the toxicological mode-of-actions leading to adverse outcomes (addressing mainly liver toxicity);(ii)adverse outcome pathway descriptions are used as a guide for the formulation of case studies to further elucidate the theoretical model and to develop integrated testing strategies for the prediction of certain toxicological effects (i.e., those related to the adverse outcome pathway descriptions);(iii) further case studies target the application of knowledge gained within SEURAT-1 in the context of safety assessment. The ultimate goal would be to perform ab initio predictions based on a complete understanding of toxicological mechanisms. In the near-term, it is more realistic that data from innovative testing methods will support read-across arguments. Both scenarios are addressed with case studies for improved safety assessment. A conceptual framework for a rational integrated assessment strategy emerged from designing the case studies and is discussed in the context of international developments focusing on alternative approaches for evaluating chemicals using the new 21st century tools for toxicity testing. PMID:25372315

Gocht, Tilman; Berggren, Elisabet; Ahr, Hans Jürgen; Cotgreave, Ian; Cronin, Mark T D; Daston, George; Hardy, Barry; Heinzle, Elmar; Hescheler, Jürgen; Knight, Derek J; Mahony, Catherine; Peschanski, Marc; Schwarz, Michael; Thomas, Russell S; Verfaillie, Catherine; White, Andrew; Whelan, Maurice

2015-01-01

312

Applicability and feasibility of systematic review for performing evidence-based risk assessment in food and feed safety.  

PubMed

Food and feed safety risk assessment uses multi-parameter models to evaluate the likelihood of adverse events associated with exposure to hazards in human health, plant health, animal health, animal welfare, and the environment. Systematic review and meta-analysis are established methods for answering questions in health care, and can be implemented to minimize biases in food and feed safety risk assessment. However, no methodological frameworks exist for refining risk assessment multi-parameter models into questions suitable for systematic review, and use of meta-analysis to estimate all parameters required by a risk model may not be always feasible. This paper describes novel approaches for determining question suitability and for prioritizing questions for systematic review in this area. Risk assessment questions that aim to estimate a parameter are likely to be suitable for systematic review. Such questions can be structured by their "key elements" [e.g., for intervention questions, the population(s), intervention(s), comparator(s), and outcome(s)]. Prioritization of questions to be addressed by systematic review relies on the likely impact and related uncertainty of individual parameters in the risk model. This approach to planning and prioritizing systematic review seems to have useful implications for producing evidence-based food and feed safety risk assessment. PMID:25191830

Aiassa, E; Higgins, J P T; Frampton, G K; Greiner, M; Afonso, A; Amzal, B; Deeks, J; Dorne, J-L; Glanville, J; Lövei, G L; Nienstedt, K; O'connor, A M; Pullin, A S; Raji?, A; Verloo, D

2015-06-01

313

A Methodological Approach to Non-invasive Assessments of Vascular Function and Morphology  

PubMed Central

The endothelium is the innermost lining of the vasculature and is involved in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. Damage to the endothelium may predispose the vessel to atherosclerosis and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Assessments of peripheral endothelial function are good indicators of early abnormalities in the vascular wall and correlate well with assessments of coronary endothelial function. The present manuscript details the important methodological steps necessary for the assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis, large vessel endothelial function using flow-mediated dilatation, and carotid atherosclerosis using carotid artery ultrasound. A discussion on the methodological considerations for each of the techniques is also presented, and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:25741637

Sandoo, Aamer; Kitas, George D.

2015-01-01

314

Annotated bibliography of methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An annotated bibliography of methodology of assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources is presented as a useful reference for those engaged in resource assessment. The articles that are included deal only with quantitative assessment of undiscovered or inferred resources. the articles in this bibliography are classified largely according to the major assessment method that was applied in each situation. Major assessment methods include areal and volumetric yield methods, field size distributions, historical extrapolation, deposit modeling, organic geochemical mass balance methods, and direct expert assessment. Other categories include mathematical tools, reserve growth/confirmation, quantitative characterization of undiscovered resources, and general topics. For the purpose of future updates, we solicit contributions of articles that may have been missed in the preparation of this bibliography. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

Charpentier, R.R.; Dolton, G.L.; Ulmishek, G.F.

1995-01-01

315

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs describes the purpose, data and methods used to calculate ranges or rankings for research-doctorate programs that participated in the NRC Assessment of Research-Doctorate programs. It is intended for those at universities who will have to explain the NRC Assessment to others at their university, to potential students, and to the press. Although the main text is fairly non-technical, it includes a technical description of the statistical methods used to derive rankings of over 5000 doctoral programs in 61 fields.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-07-22

316

Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette  

PubMed Central

Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(?)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of all types of herbal cigarettes available on the market.

Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

2015-01-01

317

A Geospatial Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing Campus Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of…

Hites, Lisle S.; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

2013-01-01

318

Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document  

SciTech Connect

The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

1980-02-01

319

Earthquake safety assessment of concrete arch and gravity dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on research studies currently being carried out at Dalian University of Technology, some important aspects for the earthquake safety assessment of concrete dams are reviewed and discussed. First, the rate-dependent behavior of concrete subjected to earthquake loading is examined, emphasizing the properties of concrete under cyclic and biaxial loading conditions. Second, a modified four-parameter Hsieh-Ting-Chen viscoplastic consistency model is developed to simulate the rate-dependent behavior of concrete. The earthquake response of a 278m high arch dam is analyzed, and the results show that the strain-rate effects become noticeable in the inelastic range. Third, a more accurate non-smooth Newton algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional frictional contact problems is developed to study the joint opening effects of arch dams during strong earthquakes. Such effects on two nearly 300m high arch dams have been studied. It was found that the canyon shape has great influence on the magnitude and distribution of the joint opening along the dam axis. Fourth, the scaled boundary finite element method presented by Song and Wolf is employed to study the dam-reservoir-foundation interaction effects of concrete dams. Particular emphases were placed on the variation of foundation stiffness and the anisotropic behavior of the foundation material on the dynamic response of concrete dams. Finally, nonlinear modeling of concrete to study the damage evolution of concrete dams during strong earthquakes is discussed. An elastic-damage mechanics approach for damage prediction of concrete gravity dams is described as an example. These findings are helpful in understanding the dynamic behavior of concrete dams and promoting the improvement of seismic safety assessment methods.

Lin, Gao; Hu, Zhiqiang

2005-12-01

320

Assessing the state of organizational safety—culture or climate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concepts of safety culture and safety climate in an attempt to determine which is the more useful\\u000a for describing an organization's “state of safety.” From a review of the literature purporting to measure safety culture or\\u000a safety climate, it is argued that, although the two terms are often interchangeable, they are actually distinct but related\\u000a concepts

Kathryn J. Mearns; Rhona Flin

1999-01-01

321

Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Herbicide Roundup and Its Active Ingredient, Glyphosate, for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews on the safety of glyphosate and Roundup herbicide that have been conducted by several regulatory agencies and scientific institutions worldwide have concluded that there is no indication of any human health concern. Nevertheless, questions regarding their safety are periodically raised. This review was undertaken to produce a current and comprehensive safety evaluation and risk assessment for humans. It includes

Gary M. Williams; Robert Kroes; Ian C. Munro

2000-01-01

322

Hypothesis testing on the fractal structure of behavioral sequences: the Bayesian assessment of scaling methodology.  

PubMed

I introduce the Bayesian assessment of scaling (BAS), a simple but powerful Bayesian hypothesis contrast methodology that can be used to test hypotheses on the scaling regime exhibited by a sequence of behavioral data. Rather than comparing parametric models, as typically done in previous approaches, the BAS offers a direct, nonparametric way to test whether a time series exhibits fractal scaling. The BAS provides a simpler and faster test than do previous methods, and the code for making the required computations is provided. The method also enables testing of finely specified hypotheses on the scaling indices, something that was not possible with the previously available methods. I then present 4 simulation studies showing that the BAS methodology outperforms the other methods used in the psychological literature. I conclude with a discussion of methodological issues on fractal analyses in experimental psychology. PMID:24417750

Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

2013-12-01

323

A methodology for post-mainshock probabilistic assessment of building collapse risk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a methodology for post-earthquake probabilistic risk (of damage) assessment that we propose in order to develop a computational tool for automatic or semi-automatic assessment. The methodology utilizes the same so-called risk integral which can be used for pre-earthquake probabilistic assessment. The risk integral couples (i) ground motion hazard information for the location of a structure of interest with (ii) knowledge of the fragility of the structure with respect to potential ground motion intensities. In the proposed post-mainshock methodology, the ground motion hazard component of the risk integral is adapted to account for aftershocks which are deliberately excluded from typical pre-earthquake hazard assessments and which decrease in frequency with the time elapsed since the mainshock. Correspondingly, the structural fragility component is adapted to account for any damage caused by the mainshock, as well as any uncertainty in the extent of this damage. The result of the adapted risk integral is a fully-probabilistic quantification of post-mainshock seismic risk that can inform emergency response mobilization, inspection prioritization, and re-occupancy decisions.

Luco, N.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

2011-01-01

324

A methodological frame for assessing benzene induced leukemia risk mitigation due to policy measures.  

PubMed

The study relies on the development of a methodology for assessing the determinants that comprise the overall leukemia risk due to benzene exposure and how these are affected by outdoor and indoor air quality regulation. An integrated modeling environment was constructed comprising traffic emissions, dispersion models, human exposure models and a coupled internal dose/biology-based dose-response risk assessment model, in order to assess the benzene imposed leukemia risk, as much as the impact of traffic fleet renewal and smoking banning to these levels. Regarding traffic fleet renewal, several "what if" scenarios were tested. The detailed full-chain methodology was applied in a South-Eastern European urban setting in Greece and a limited version of the methodology in Helsinki. Non-smoking population runs an average risk equal to 4.1·10(-5) compared to 23.4·10(-5) for smokers. The estimated lifetime risk for the examined occupational groups was higher than the one estimated for the general public by 10-20%. Active smoking constitutes a dominant parameter for benzene-attributable leukemia risk, much stronger than any related activity, occupational or not. From the assessment of mitigation policies it was found that the associated leukemia risk in the optimum traffic fleet scenario could be reduced by up to 85% for non-smokers and up to 8% for smokers. On the contrary, smoking banning provided smaller gains for (7% for non-smokers, 1% for smokers), while for Helsinki, smoking policies were found to be more efficient than traffic fleet renewal. The methodology proposed above provides a general framework for assessing aggregated exposure and the consequent leukemia risk from benzene (incorporating mechanistic data), capturing exposure and internal dosimetry dynamics, translating changes in exposure determinants to actual changes in population risk, providing a valuable tool for risk management evaluation and consequently to policy support. PMID:23220388

Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis ?; Gotti, Alberto; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Pilidis, Georgios A

2013-01-15

325

Safety indices and their application to nuclear waste management safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen indices have been examined to determine their potential applicability to operational waste management safety assessment. Two waste streams are presented on a normalized basis. These are the packaged spent fuel from the once-through fuel cycle and solidified high-level waste from a coprocessed UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/ fuel cycle. Seven of the indices are then calculated for a hypothetical surface storage scenario of the two wastes. The indices are examined on a consistent basis to identify any biases built into them, and to determine the sensitivities of each to various waste situations. The two waste streams are then compared on the basis of the indices to extend the understanding of the analysis techniques. The results of the analysis fall into two categories, index evaluation and fuel cycle waste comparison. Only five of the indices are determined to be applicable to operational waste management safety assessment. The remainder are rejected either because they require very detailed input data; they are specifically designed for geologic isolation; they are extremely controversial in their application; or because they are particularly sensitive to a few specific radionuclides. The waste stream comparison yields three results: (1) the solidified high-level waste from the coprocessed UO/sub 2/--PuO/sub 2/ fuel cycle may be potentially less hazardous than the packaged spent fuel from the once-through fuel cycle; (2) the removal of actinides, and especially plutonium, from spent fuel may reduce the potent hazard associated with the waste; and (3) after one million years of decay, the packaged spent fuel and solidified high-level waste are nearly the same on a hazard potential basis.

Voss, J.W.

1979-04-01

326

Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and medium-sized mines. The accident rates (NDL IR, NFDL IR, SM/100) of very small and small mines in 2008 and 2009 were less than those of medium and large mines. The data indicates a heavy occurrence of very severe injuries in a number of very small and small mines. In another application which is a part of this research, the six normalized safety measures and the SPI are used to evaluate the risk that existed at mines in the two years preceding the occurrence of a fatality. This mine safety performance tracking method could have been helpful to the companies, state agency, or MSHA in recognizing and addressing emerging problems with actions that may have been able to prevent high-risk conditions, the fatality, and/or other serious injuries. The approach would have given scrutiny to the risk of mines that encompassed 74% of the fatalities during 2007-2010. In order to assess the SPI as a comparable risk measurement tool, a traditional risk approach is also developed using data embracing frequency and severity in the final equation to analyze the relative risk for all underground coal mines for the years 2007--2010. Then, the SPI is compared with this traditional risk analysis method to demonstrate that the results attained by either method provide the relative safety-related risk of underground coal mines regarding injuries and citations for violations of regulations. The comparison reveals that the SPI does emulate a traditional approach to risk analysis. A correlation coefficient of --0.89 or more was observed between the results of these two methodologies and either can be used to assist companies, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), or state agencies in target-ing mines with high risk for serious injuries and elevated citations for remediation of their injury and/or violation experience. The SPI, however, provides a more understandable approach for mine operators to apply using measures compatible with MSHA's enforcement tools. These methodologies form an all-encompassing approach that can be used to assist companies, the MSHA, or state agencies in t

Kinilakodi, Harisha

327

Final Action Plan to Tiger Team. Environmental, safety and health assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit.

Not Available

1992-02-28

328

Environmental risk assessment and optimisation modelling: Methodology and applications for Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental risk and impact assessment and prediction modelling are one of the most important instruments in the environmental management, mitigations and preparedness, and these need further development in a quickly changing world and society. Many previous studies in this field, as a rule, have considered only separate aspects of both the risk and impact assessments. New realities and problems in the environmental security, as well as increasing scientific knowledge and power of modern supercomputer facilities, request a new generation of assessments, prediction and optimisation tools. New trends, advantages and perspectives in assessment and forecasting methodology (including integrated and multidisciplinary approaches, health and combined effects of different risk and impact factors, source-receptor, sensitivity and vulnerability problems, and meteorological advances for urban air quality forecasting and assessments) are discussed. The methodology has been developed to build the combined methods of forward and inverse modelling for the air quality problems, environmental risk assessment and control. It is based on variational principles and methods of adjoint sensitivity theory. This allows obtaining the optimal numerical schemes and universal algorithm of the forward-inverse modelling. The concept of environmental modelling and its applications for the North-European and Siberian regions are discussed and presented.

Baklanov, Alexander; Penenko, Vladimir; Mahura, Alexander; Tsvetova, Elena; Nuterman, Roman; Starchenko, Alexander; Penenko, Alexey; Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Tridvornov, Alexander

2010-05-01

329

The damage assessment methodology in cooperation with smart sensors and inspection robots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a damage assessment methodology for the non-structural elements, especially the ceiling, in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot with the Wi-Fi camera. The developed smart sensors use the infrared LEDs in sending the measured data to the inspection blimp robot. The inspection blimp robot integrated in the proposed system has a Wi-Fi camera and an infrared remote control receiver for receiving the data from the smart sensor. In the proposed methodology, the distributed smart sensors firstly detect the damage occurrence. Next, the inspection blimp robots can gather the data from the smart sensors, which transmit the measured data by using an infrared remote control receiver and LED signals. The inspection blimp robot also can inspect the damage location and captures the photographic image of the damage condition. The inspection blimp robot will be able to estimate the damage condition without any process of engineers' on-site-inspection involved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the inspection blimp robot, the blimp robot is utilized to estimate the aging ceiling of a real structure. For demonstrating the feasibility or possibility of the proposed damage assessment methodology in cooperation with the smart sensors and the inspection blimp robot, the conceptual laboratory experiment is conducted. The proposed methodology will provide valuable information for the repair and maintenance decision making of a damaged structure.

Nitta, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Masami; Onai, Toshio; Watakabe, Morimasa; Nishitani, Akira; Matsui, Chisa

2014-03-01

330

Department of Defense methodology guidelines for High Power Microwave (HPM) susceptibility assessments  

SciTech Connect

It is the intention of the National HPM Program to complete a series of tests over the next two years to validate the methodology described in these guidelines. When those tests are completed and results analyzed, this document will be revised to reflect lessons learned during the validation process. In addition, the Methodology Sub-Panel is compiling a second volume on specific measurement techniques. This volume (Volume 1) is intended to provide guidance to the Program Manager on the critical steps in a well-conceived test program. Volume 2 will provide detailed step-by-step information to the engineer who is responsible for performing the tests. The body of this volume is divided into seven sections. Sections 2 through 7 provide detailed descriptions of the activities within each of the modular steps which comprise the methodology schematically; Section 2: pre-test system analysis; Section 3: low power microwave tests -- coupling/subsystem component tests; Section 5: susceptibility assessment and test planning; Section 6: high power microwave tests; and Section 7: susceptibility assessment and test evaluation. The executive summary reviews the reasons for development of the methodology and provides brief descriptions of each module. Appendix B provides definitions of special terms and acronyms which are used throughout the document. 41 refs., 22 figs.

Chesser, N.J. (ed.) (Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (USA))

1990-01-01

331

Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1994-05-01

332

No Time To Lose - High Throughput Screening To Assess Nanomaterial Safety  

PubMed Central

Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as asset the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field – we have literally no time to lose. PMID:21301704

Damoiseaux, R; George, S; Li, M; Pokhrel, S; Ji, Z; France, B; Xia, T; Suarez, E; Rallo, R; Mädler, L; Cohen, Y; Hoek, EMV; Nel, A

2014-01-01

333

A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

2011-01-01

334

Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report  

SciTech Connect

This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

None

1980-10-01

335

Methodological proposals for improved assessments of the impact of traffic noise upon human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Several methodological shortcomings still hinder the inclusion of transport noise as an established impact category within\\u000a life cycle assessment (LCA). Earlier attempts to quantify the health damages caused by traffic noise yielded valuable results\\u000a from an academic point of view, but these were of limited use in the context of everyday LCA practice. An enhanced understanding\\u000a of

Vicente Franco; Daniel Garraín; Rosario Vidal

2010-01-01

336

Development Of Advanced Risk Assessment Methodologies For Aircraft Structures Containing Msd\\/Med  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of IAR\\/NRC research on developing risk assessment methodologies and tools for aircraft structures\\u000a containing multiple site fatigue damage (MSD) \\/ multiple element damage (MED) to support the structural life cycle management\\u000a for Canadian Forces air fleet. The lower surface panel of the CC-130 centre wing structure was used as a case study to demonstrate\\u000a the

Min Liao; Yan Bombardier; Guillaume Renaud; Nick Bellinger; Terence Cheung

337

Pinellas Plant final action plan: environmental, safety and health assessment of Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida  

SciTech Connect

This document contains responses and planned actions and their estimated costs for addressing the findings presented in the Tiger Team Environment, Safety, and Health Compliance Assessment of the Pinellas Plant. The assessment presented 170 findings in three general categories: environment, safety and health, and management and organization.

Not Available

1990-12-03

338

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

339

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

340

Methodology for back-contamination risk assessment for a Mars sample return mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risk of back-contamination from Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) missions is assessed. The methodology is designed to provide an assessment of the probability that a given mission design and strategy will result in accidental release of Martian organisms acquired as a result of MSSR. This is accomplished through the construction of risk models describing the mission risk elements and their impact on back-contamination probability. A conceptual framework is presented for using the risk model to evaluate mission design decisions that require a trade-off between science and planetary protection considerations.

Merkhofer, M. W.; Quinn, D. J.

1977-01-01

341

Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854  

SciTech Connect

A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

1981-12-11

342

Assessing multimodal school travel safety in North Carolina.  

PubMed

School transportation has been the subject of numerous federal and state policies since the early twentieth century-the Safe Routes to School program is the most recent example. However, few recent studies have thoroughly analyzed the risks and costs associated with different modes of transportation to school. Our descriptive study assessed the injury and fatality rates and related safety costs of different modes of school transportation using crash and exposure data from North Carolina, USA from 2005 to 2012. We found that riding with a teen driver is the most dangerous mode on a per trip basis with injury rates 20 times higher and fatality rates 90 times higher than school buses, which had the lowest injury rates. Non-motorized modes had per trip injury rates equivalent to school buses but per trip fatality rates were 15 times higher than for school buses. The economic costs of school travel-related injuries and fatalities for walking, biking, and teen drivers were substantially higher than other modes. This research has important policy implications because it quantified the risks of different school travel modes which allows policymakers to consider how safety investments can reduce risks. Decades of effort by schools, communities, and the government have made school buses a very safe mode and endeavored to reduce risks to teen drivers. This study highlighted the need for these same actors to reduce the risks of injury for walking and bicycling. As more improvements are made to infrastructure around schools, repeated studies of this type will allow practitioners to examine whether the improvements help mitigate the risks. PMID:25463952

McDonald, Noreen C; McGrane, Ann B; Rodgman, Eric A; Steiner, Ruth L; Palmer, W Mathew; Lytle, Benjamin F

2015-01-01

343

Innovative modeling approaches for risk assessment in food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food safety involves preventing foodborne illness by describing ways to properly handle, prepare and store food. Regulation of food safety is applied to companies that produce food. Thus, the goal of food safety regulation is to reduce human pathogens to acceptable levels at the processing plant t...

344

Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

Gunn, Jill, E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.c [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada); Noble, Bram F. [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, Kirk Hall, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

2011-03-15

345

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

2010-03-01

346

Assessing the performance of a consultant anaesthetist by control chart methodology.  

PubMed

The performance of trainee anaesthetists has been assessed by control chart methodology, but while assessment of consultants' performance has been suggested, published reports are rare. In order to test the value of control charts, I monitored my insertion of arterial and central venous cannulae over 3 years, documenting success or failure both for the first pass of the needle and for the intended site of cannulation. The resultant control charts clearly show episodes of changed performance. It was necessary to modify the technique used to assess trainees, specifically with relation to definitions of success, failure and 'acceptable' failure rates. The information obtained from these charts is well suited to inform an appraisal or revalidation discussion with both reflective and assessment elements. PMID:19302643

Runcie, C J

2009-03-01

347

Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items. PMID:24786942

Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

2014-01-01

348

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

PubMed

Context Healthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety. Objective The purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals. Data Collection A survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to 223 health professionals including nurses, technicians, managers and medical staff. Measurement The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to identify dimensions of patient safety culture. Results Overall Patient Safety Grade was rated as excellent or very good by 60% of respondents, acceptable by 33% and failing or poor by 7%. More than half of respondents thought that managers overlook safety problems that happen over and over. Areas of strength for most hospitals were organisational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork within units, feedback and communication about errors. Areas with potential for improvement for most hospitals were under-reporting of events, non-punitive response to error, staffing, teamwork across hospital units. Conclusion Leadership is a critical element to the effectiveness of patient safety initiatives. Response to errors is an important determinant of safety culture in healthcare organisations. In order for healthcare organisations to create a culture of safety and improvement, they must eliminate fear of blame and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning. PMID:20430929

Alahmadi, H A

2010-10-01

349

Application of a Comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis Method on the Safety Assessment of TRU Waste Disposal in Japan  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive sensitivity analysis method has been developed with the aim of providing quantitative information in an efficient manner. This methodology is composed of the following two components: (1) a statistical method with random sampling of independent parameters, which identifies important parameters and extracts threshold values of parameters and/or combinations yielding a 'successful condition' where maximum dose does not exceed a target value, (2) A nuclide migration model that as far as possible incorporates a comprehensive set of phenomena occurring within the repository. This approach was applied as part of a safety assessment of the geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in Japan (TRU-2). It was shown that the concept of TRU waste disposal is robust from the point of view of safety. (authors)

Takao Ohi; Manabu Inagaki; Tomoyuki Sone; Morihiro Mihara; Takeshi Ebashi [JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Hiroyasu Takase [Quintessa K. K, Queen's Tower A 7-707, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawaken, 220-6007 (Japan); Kiyoshi Oyamada [JGC Corporation, 2-3-1 Minatomirai Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa-ken, 220-6001 (Japan); Kunihiko Nakajima [NESI Inc., 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1112 (Japan)

2007-07-01

350

Revealing and Resolving Patient Safety Defects: The Impact of Leadership WalkRounds on Frontline Caregiver Assessments of Patient Safety  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the impact of rigorous WalkRounds on frontline caregiver assessments of safety climate, and to clarify the steps and implementation of rigorous WalkRounds. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary outcome variables were baseline and post WalkRounds safety climate scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Secondary outcomes were safety issues elicited through WalkRounds. Study period was August 2002 to April 2005; seven hospitals in Massachusetts agreed to participate; and the project was implemented in all patient care areas. Study Design Prospective study of the impact of rigorously applied WalkRounds on frontline caregivers assessments of safety climate in their patient care area. WalkRounds were conducted weekly and according to the seven-step WalkRounds Guide. The SAQ was administered at baseline and approximately 18 months post-WalkRounds implementation to all caregivers in patient care areas. Results Two of seven hospitals complied with the rigorous WalkRounds approach; hospital A was an academic teaching center and hospital B a community teaching hospital. Of 21 patient care areas, SAQ surveys were received from 62 percent of respondents at baseline and 60 percent post WalkRounds. At baseline, 10 of 21 care areas (48 percent) had safety climate scores below 60 percent, whereas post-WalkRounds three care areas (14 percent) had safety climate scores below 60 percent without improving by 10 points or more. Safety climate scale scores in hospital A were 62 percent at baseline and 77 percent post-WalkRounds (t=2.67, p=.03), and in hospital B were 46 percent at baseline and 56 percent post WalkRounds (t=2.06, p=.06). Main safety issues by category were equipment/facility (A [26 percent] and B [33 percent]) and communication (A [24 percent] and B [18 percent]). Conclusions WalkRounds implementation requires significant organizational will; sustainability requires outstanding project management and leadership engagement. In the patient care areas that rigorously implemented WalkRounds, frontline caregiver assessments of patient safety increased. SAQ results such as safety climate scores facilitate the triage of quality improvement efforts, and provide consensus assessments of frontline caregivers that identify themes for improvement. PMID:18671751

Frankel, Allan; Grillo, Sarah Pratt; Pittman, Mary; Thomas, Eric J; Horowitz, Lisa; Page, Martha; Sexton, Bryan

2008-01-01

351

Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. PMID:24418571

Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

2014-04-01

352

Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: coagulase-negative staphylococci.  

PubMed

The genus Staphylococcus is made up of 36 validated species which contain strains that are pathogenic, saprophytic, or used as starter cultures for the food industry. Staphylococci species used in cheese-making are novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative and are not usually identified at species level by routine laboratories. A bibliographic survey was conducted to assess safety status of CNS used in fermented dairy foods. Commercial kits based on phenotypic discrimination can't reliably identify these species because of the variable expression of some phenotypic traits. Several molecular targets, including 16S rRNA, hsp60, tuf, SodA and rpoB genes can be used for identifying species of the Staphylococcus genus. No coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from milk or dairy products has ever been involved in a case of food poisoning or human pathology following ingestion of dairy products. Nevertheless, a few case of nosocomial infection caused by some species (S. caprae, S. capitis, S. sciuri) have been reported in patients with depressed immune systems or who have undergone long severe hospital treatments, or in the presence of an indwelling catheter or foreign materials such as cardiac prostheses. They may therefore be regarded as exceptional opportunistic pathogens in certain clinical situations. PMID:17869361

Irlinger, Françoise

2008-09-01

353

Impact of biomarker development on drug safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Drug safety has always been a key aspect of drug development. Recently, the Vioxx case and several cases of serious adverse events being linked to high-profile products have increased the importance of drug safety, especially in the eyes of drug development companies and global regulatory agencies. Safety biomarkers are increasingly being seen as helping to provide the clarity, predictability, and certainty needed to gain confidence in decision making: early-stage projects can be stopped quicker, late-stage projects become less risky. Public and private organizations are investing heavily in terms of time, money and manpower on safety biomarker development. An illustrative and 'door opening' safety biomarker success story is the recent recognition of kidney safety biomarkers for pre-clinical and limited translational contexts by FDA and EMEA. This milestone achieved for kidney biomarkers and the 'know how' acquired is being transferred to other organ toxicities, namely liver, heart, vascular system. New technologies and molecular-based approaches, i.e., molecular pathology as a complement to the classical toolbox, allow promising discoveries in the safety biomarker field. This review will focus on the utility and use of safety biomarkers all along drug development, highlighting the present gaps and opportunities identified in organ toxicity monitoring. A last part will be dedicated to safety biomarker development in general, from identification to diagnostic tests, using the kidney safety biomarkers success as an illustrative example.

Marrer, Estelle, E-mail: estelle.marrer@novartis.co [Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Dieterle, Frank [Molecular Diagnostics, Novartis Pharma, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-03-01

354

RIVER BASIN VALIDATION OF THE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SCREENING NONDESIGNATED 208 AREAS. VOLUME II: CHESAPEAKE-SANDUSKY NONDESIGNATED 208 SCREENING METHODOLOGY DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In earlier work under the sponsorship of EPA, a screening methodology was produced by Tetra Tech, Inc., for assessing water quality problems in areas not covered under Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and loading functions were developed ...

355

Evaluation Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment of Industrial Wastes Used as Highway Materials: An Overview with Respect to U.S. EPA’s Environmental Risk Assessment Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation methodology was developed for assessing potential ecological risks posed by constituents released from waste and industrial byproducts used in highway construction. This methodology is discussed in the context of United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) environmental risk assessment framework. Concerted efforts have been made to incorporate important components of the U.S. EPA’s risk assessment framework with the

Peter O. Nelson; Pugazhendhi Thayumanavan; Mohammad F. Azizian; Kenneth J. Williamson

356

Landscape modeling for dose calculations in the safety assessment of a repository for spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.,(SKB), pursues site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at two sites in the south eastern part of Sweden, the Forsmark- and the Laxemar site. Data from the two site investigations are used to build site descriptive models of the areas. These models describe the bedrock and surface system properties important for designing the repository, the environmental impact assessment, and the long-term safety, i.e. up to 100,000 years, in a safety assessment. In this paper we discuss the methodology, and the interim results for, the landscape model, used in the safety assessment to populate the Forsmark site in the numerical dose models. The landscape model is built upon ecosystem types, e.g. a lake or a mire, (Biosphere Objects) that are connected in the landscape via surface hydrology. Each of the objects have a unique set of properties derived from the site description. The objects are identified by flow transport modeling, giving discharge points at the surface for all possible flow paths from the hypothetical repository in the bedrock. The landscape development is followed through time by using long-term processes e.g. shoreline displacement and sedimentation. The final landscape model consists of a number of maps for each chosen time period and a table of properties that describe the individual objects which constitutes the landscape. The results show a landscape that change over time during 20,000 years. The time period used in the model equals the present interglacial and can be used as an analogue for a future interglacial. Historically, the model area was covered by sea, and then gradually changes into a coastal area and, in the future, into a terrestrial inland landscape. Different ecosystem types are present during the landscape development, e.g. sea, lakes, agricultural areas, forest and wetlands (mire). The biosphere objects may switch from one ecosystem type to another during the modeled time period, from sea to lake, and from lake to mire and finally, some objects are transformed into agricultural area due to favorable farming characteristics. (authors)

Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), PO Box 5864, 102 40 Stockholm (Sweden); Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)

2007-07-01

357

Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper provides,guidance,on how,to assess the safety of foods derived from,genetically modified,crops (GM crops); it sum- marises conclusions,and recommendations,of Working,Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed,approach,to safety assessment,starts

A. Ko Nig; A. Cockburn; R. w. r. Crevel; E. Debruyne; R. Grafstroem; U. Hammerling; I. Kimber; I. Knudsen; H. a. Kuiper; A. a. c. m. Peijnenburg; A. h. Penninks; M. Poulsen; M. Schauzu; J. m. Wal

358

Test Methodology to Evaluate the Safety of Materials Using Spark Incendivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years scientists and engineers have been searching for the proper test method to evaluate an electrostatic risk for materials used in hazardous environments. A new test standard created by the International Electrotechnical Commission is a promising addition to conventional test methods used throughout industry. The purpose of this paper is to incorporate this test into a proposed new methodology for the evaluation of materials exposed to flammable environments. However, initial testing using this new standard has uncovered some unconventional behavior in materials that conventional test methods were thought to have reconciled. For example some materials tested at higher humidities were more susceptible to incendive discharges than at lower humidity even though the surface resistivity was lower.

Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Ritz, Mindy; Starnes, Jeff

2007-01-01

359

Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

2013-01-01

360

77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Although absolute uniformity is not possible, the Agency seeks to solicit information and feedback about valid survey methods that can improve the quality and consistency of REMS assessment surveys. In addition, FDA seeks feedback on...

2012-05-03

361

Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, M.E.

2011-01-01

362

Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

2013-11-01

363

A new methodology for deterministic landslide risk assessment at the local scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper discusses the formulation of a methodology that is being developed for regional landslide risk assessment within geologically complex areas and some preliminary results of its application at the intermediate scale (i.e. between the regional and the slope scale). In particular, the methodology is the subject of an on-going multidisciplinary research project, which aims at the assessment of the landslide hazard, of the corresponding vulnerability of structures and of their exposition, involving different expertises. As such, both the landslide hazard and the structure vulnerability assessments are meant to be based upon the knowledge of the failure mechanisms and to benefit from scientific knowledge in the fields of both geotechnical engineering and structural mechanics. At the same time, the exposure of the elements at risk is to be investigated according to analyses of the socio-economical context where the risk is being evaluated. In the present paper only the work relating to landslide hazard is presented. This work aims at the further development of Quantitative Landslide Hazard Assessment, QHA, following a deterministic approach. As such, it is aimed at exporting the geo-mechanical interpretation of slope stability and landslide mechanisms from the slope scale (site-specific) to the regional scale. The results of such a methodology will be implemented in a GIS system and reported in guidelines. As concerns the landslide hazard assessment, the proposed methodology involves two interconnected working phases, the first one at regional scale and the second one at town scale. During the first phase, an analytical database of all the factors affecting the slope equilibrium is created and a geo-hydro-mechanical classification of the soil masses is defined together with the definition of the main landslide typologies present in the region. Thereafter, the connections existing among the sets of internal factors of landslides, which characterise the geo-hydro-mechanical classes, the external factors and the landslide typologies are recognised and formulated. These connections may be recognized as result of phenomenological studies, limit equilibrium analyses of the slopes, in-situ monitoring and numerical modelling of the landslide processes. The application of the procedure to the hazard assessment within a given portion of the region represents the second phase of the methodology. The research work is developed with reference to a test-site area, the Daunia region, located at the eastern margin of the southern Apennines, which is a portion of the chain belt along the subduction zone between the African and the Euro-Asiatic plates, where slopes are made up of tectonised and fissured soils and rocks. Here, frequent and intense landsliding involve the slopes extensively and repeatedly, restraining urban development. The research is currently investigating the applicability of the deterministic methodology to the landslide hazard assessment of the urban territories in the region.

Cotecchia, F.; Santaloia, F.; Lollino, P.; Vitone, C.; Mitaritonna, G.; Parise, M.

2009-04-01

364

Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators  

PubMed Central

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21655127

Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

2011-01-01

365

The Issues and Methodologies in Sustainability Assessment Tools for Higher Education Institutions: A Review of Recent Trends and Future Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment tools influence incentives to higher education institutions by encouraging them to move towards sustainability. A review of 16 sustainability assessment tools was conducted to examine the recent trends in the issues and methodologies addressed in assessment tools quantitatively and qualitatively. The characteristics of the current…

Yarime, Masaru; Tanaka, Yuko

2012-01-01

366

The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice  

SciTech Connect

A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

1997-04-01

367

Bayesian-network-based safety risk assessment for steel construction projects.  

PubMed

There are four primary accident types at steel building construction (SC) projects: falls (tumbles), object falls, object collapse, and electrocution. Several systematic safety risk assessment approaches, such as fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect criticality analysis (FMECA), have been used to evaluate safety risks at SC projects. However, these traditional methods ineffectively address dependencies among safety factors at various levels that fail to provide early warnings to prevent occupational accidents. To overcome the limitations of traditional approaches, this study addresses the development of a safety risk-assessment model for SC projects by establishing the Bayesian networks (BN) based on fault tree (FT) transformation. The BN-based safety risk-assessment model was validated against the safety inspection records of six SC building projects and nine projects in which site accidents occurred. The ranks of posterior probabilities from the BN model were highly consistent with the accidents that occurred at each project site. The model accurately provides site safety-management abilities by calculating the probabilities of safety risks and further analyzing the causes of accidents based on their relationships in BNs. In practice, based on the analysis of accident risks and significant safety factors, proper preventive safety management strategies can be established to reduce the occurrence of accidents on SC sites. PMID:23499984

Leu, Sou-Sen; Chang, Ching-Miao

2013-05-01

368

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

369

STREAM TRANSPORT AND AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF OF PESTICIDES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A METHODOLOGY. PART A. TEXT AND APPENDICES A THROUGH F  

EPA Science Inventory

To predict the potential environmental or human health risk posed by agricultural pesticides, exposure assessments require the estimation of chemical concentrations in field runoff and in associated streams. In the report, a methodology is described for estimating the mean, maxim...

370

STREAM TRANSPORT AND AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF OF PESTICIDES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A METHODOLOGY. PART B. APPENDICES G THROUGH K  

EPA Science Inventory

To predict the potential environmental or human health risk posed by agricultural pesticides, exposure assessments require the estimation of chemical concentrations in field runoff and in associated streams. In the report, a methodology is described for estimating the mean, maxim...

371

Execution of a self-directed risk assessment methodology to address HIPAA data security requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes the method and training of a self directed risk assessment methodology entitled OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat Asset and Vulnerability Evaluation) at over 170 DOD medical treatment facilities. It focuses specifically on how OCTAVE built interdisciplinary, inter-hierarchical consensus and enhanced local capabilities to perform Health Information Assurance. The Risk Assessment Methodology was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University as part of the Defense Health Information Assurance Program (DHIAP). The basis for its success is the combination of analysis of organizational practices and technological vulnerabilities. Together, these areas address the core implications behind the HIPAA Security Rule and can be used to develop Organizational Protection Strategies and Technological Mitigation Plans. A key component of OCTAVE is the inter-disciplinary composition of the analysis team (Patient Administration, IT staff and Clinician). It is this unique composition of analysis team members, along with organizational and technical analysis of business practices, assets and threats, which enables facilities to create sound and effective security policies. The Risk Assessment is conducted in-house, and therefore the process, results and knowledge remain within the organization, helping to build consensus in an environment of differing organizational and disciplinary perspectives on Health Information Assurance.

Coleman, Johnathan

2003-05-01

372

Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

Dahl, Megan M. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Pikas, Joseph [Schiff Associates, Sugar Land TX (United States); Edgemon, Glenn L. [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States); Philo, Sarah [ARES Corporation, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-22

373

Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD): An Analysis Tool for Spacecraft Safety Analysis and Ascent/Reentry Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the purpose of performing safety analysis and risk assessment for a potential off-nominal atmospheric reentry resulting in vehicle breakup, a synthesis of trajectory propagation coupled with thermal analysis and the evaluation of node failure is required to predict the sequence of events, the timeline, and the progressive demise of spacecraft components. To provide this capability, the Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD) analysis tool was developed. The software and methodology have been validated against actual flights, telemetry data, and validated software, and safety/risk analyses were performed for various programs using SPEAD. This report discusses the capabilities, modeling, validation, and application of the SPEAD analysis tool.

Ling, Lisa

2014-01-01

374

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-11-08

375

Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

2012-01-01

376

ITER physics-safety interface: models and assessments  

SciTech Connect

Plasma operation conditions and physics requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics guidelines and specifications for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event) are characterized. Safety related physics areas that are considered are: (i) effect of plasma on machined and safety (disruptions, runaway electrons, fast plasma shutdown) and (ii) plasma response to ex-vessel LOCA from first wall providing a potential passive plasma shutdown due to Be evaporation. Physics models and expressions developed are implemented in safety analysis code (SAFALY, couples 0-D dynamic plasma model to thermal response of the in-vessel components). Results from SAFALY are presented.

Uckan, N.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Putvinski, S.; Wesley, J.; Bartels, H-W. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, CA (United States); Honda, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Amano, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Boucher, D.; Fujisawa, N.; Post, D.; Rosenbluth, M. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, CA (United States)

1996-10-01

377

Ex-ante assessment of the safety effects of intelligent transport systems.  

PubMed

There is a need to develop a comprehensive framework for the safety assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). This framework should: (1) cover all three dimensions of road safety-exposure, crash risk and consequence, (2) cover, in addition to the engineering effect, also the effects due to behavioural adaptation and (3) be compatible with the other aspects of state of the art road safety theories. A framework based on nine ITS safety mechanisms is proposed and discussed with regard to the requirements set to the framework. In order to illustrate the application of the framework in practice, the paper presents a method based on the framework and the results from applying that method for twelve intelligent vehicle systems in Europe. The framework is also compared to two recent frameworks applied in the safety assessment of intelligent vehicle safety systems. PMID:20441853

Kulmala, Risto

2010-07-01

378

Hybrid methodology for situation assessment model development within an air operations center domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the dynamic environment of an Air Operations Center (AOC), effective decision-making is highly dependent on timely and accurate situation assessment. In previous research efforts the capabilities and potential of a Bayesian belief network (BN) model-based approach to support situation assessment have been demonstrated. In our own prior research, we have presented and formalized a hybrid process for situation assessment model development that seeks to ameliorate specific concerns and drawbacks associated with using a BN-based model construct. Specifically, our hybrid methodology addresses the significant knowledge acquisition requirements and the associated subjective nature of using subject matter experts (SMEs) for model development. Our methodology consists of two distinct functional elements: an off-line mechanism for rapid construction of a Bayesian belief network (BN) library of situation assessment models tailored to different situations and derived from knowledge elicitation with SMEs; and an on-line machine-learning-based mechanism to learn, tune, or adapt BN model parameters and structure. The adaptation supports the ability to adjust the models over time to respond to novel situations not initially available or anticipated during initial model construction, thus ensuring that the models continue to meet the dynamic requirements of performing the situation assessment function within dynamic application environments such as an AOC. In this paper, we apply and demonstrate the hybrid approach within the specific context of an AOC-based air campaign monitoring scenario. We detail both the initial knowledge elicitation and subsequent machine learning phases of the model development process, as well as demonstrate model performance within an operational context.

Ho, Stephen; Gonsalves, Paul; Call, Catherine

2007-04-01

379

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.  

PubMed

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic material that should try to protect from patenting and commercialisation. Finally, we should be aware of the requirements of movement of GMOs within borders, i.e. GMOs grown or used in other countries but which are not intended to cross into Greece, since Greece is very close to countries that are non-EU. This is where the development of a new, integrated, trustworthy and transparent food quality control system will help to satisfy the societal demands for safe and quality products. On the other hand, Greece should not be isolated from any recent scientific technological development and should assess the possible advantages for some cultivation using a case by case approach. Finally, the safety assessment of GM foods and feed has been discussed according to the risk assessment methodology applied by EFSA. PMID:17275157

Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

2007-04-01

380

Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control  

SciTech Connect

The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

DeSteese, J.G.

1982-05-01

381

An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

1992-01-01

382

An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

1992-01-01

383

[Assessment of the methodological quality of theses submitted to the Faculty of Medicine Fez].  

PubMed

A thesis in medicine is a scientific work which allows a medical student to acquire a Doctor of Medicine degree. It is therefore recommended that theses presented by students fulfill essential methodological criteria in order to obtain scientifically credible results and recommendations. The aim of this study was to assess the methodology of thesis presented to the Faculty of Medicine in Fez in 2008. We developed an evaluation table containing questions on the different sections of the IMRAD structure on which these theses were based and we estimated the proportion of theses that conformed to each criterion. There were 160 theses on various specialties presented in 2008. The majority of the theses (79.3%) were case series. Research questions were clearly expressed in 62.0% but the primary objectives were pertinent in only 52.0%. Our study shows that there were important deficiencies in the methodological rigor of the theses and very little representation of the theses in publications. PMID:24952292

Boly, A; Tachfouti, N; Zohoungbogbo, I S S; Achhab, Y El; Nejjari, C

2014-05-01

384

DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION  

E-print Network

DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION David S. Bowles breaching a dam; so drop the matter before a dispute breaks out. Proverbs 17:14 (NIV) ABSTRACT A decision assessments and risk assessments. The approach can be adapted to any dam owner's unique decision context

Bowles, David S.

385

Probabilistic safety assessment model for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic safety assessment model has been developed for assessing the performance of near surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. Two modes of disposal such as single dump and multiple dump are considered in the model. The model is composed of four components: source term, repository failure, geosphere transport and radiological assessment. The source term contains low-level radioactive waste

R. N. Nair; T. M. Krishnamoorthy

1999-01-01

386

A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential approaches to capability-gaps can be identified with respect to effectiveness, cost, and time. When implemented, this methodology offers the opportunity to achieve system capabilities in a new way, improve the design of acquisition programs, and field the right combination of ways and means to address future challenges to national security.

Tangen, Steven Anthony

387

Respondent-driven sampling to assess outcomes of sexual violence: a methodological assessment.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is pervasive in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Survivors of sexual violence encounter numerous challenges, and women with a sexual violence-related pregnancy (SVRP) face even more complex sequelae. Because of the stigma associated with SVRP, there is no conventional sampling frame and, therefore, a paucity of research on SVRP outcomes. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), used to study this "hidden" population, uses a peer recruitment sampling system that maintains strict participant privacy and controls and tracks recruitment. If RDS assumptions are met and the sample attains equilibrium, sample weights to correct for biases associated with traditional chain referral sampling can be calculated. Questionnaires were administered to female participants who were raising a child from a SVRP and/or who terminated a SVRP. A total of 852 participants were recruited from October 9, 2012, to November 7, 2012. There was rapid recruitment, and there were long referral chains. The majority of the variables reached equilibrium; thus, trends established in the sample population reflected the target population's trends. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use RDS to study outcomes of sexual violence. RDS was successfully applied to this population and context and should be considered as a sampling methodology in future sexual violence research. PMID:25073471

Greiner, Ashley L; Albutt, Katherine; Rouhani, Shada A; Scott, Jennifer; Dombrowski, Kirk; VanRooyen, Michael J; Bartels, Susan A

2014-09-01

388

A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover, population density, economic activities) of several case studies in order to develop risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk at the regional scale. The main outputs of the RRA are receptor-based maps of risks useful to communicate the potential implications of floods in non-monetary terms to stakeholders and administrations. These maps can be a basis for the management of flood risks as they can provide information about the indicative number of inhabitants, the type of economic activities, natural systems and cultural heritages potentially affected by flooding. Moreover, they can provide suitable information about flood risk in the considered area in order to define priorities for prevention measures, for land use planning and management. Finally, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used as data input in the Socio- Economic Regional Risk Assessment methodology for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity). Within the KULTURisk project, the methodology has been applied and validated in several European case studies. Moreover, its generalization to address other types of natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, forest fires) will be evaluated. The preliminary results of the RRA application in the KULTURisk project will be here presented and discussed.

Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

2013-04-01

389

A methodology for assessing the impact of mutagens on aquatic ecosystems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Assessments of impacts of hazardous agents (i.e., chemical and physical mutagens) on human health have focused on defining the effects of chronic exposure on individuals, with cancer being the main effect of concern. In contrast, impacts on ecosystems have traditionally been gauged by the assessment of near-term organism mortality, which is clearly not a useful endpoint for assessing the long-term effects of chronic exposures. Impacts on individual organisms that affect the long-term survival of populations are much more important but are also more difficult to define. Therefore, methods that provide accurate measures of sub-lethal effects that are linked to population survival are required so that accurate assessments of environmental damage can be made and remediation efforts, if required, can be initiated. Radioactive substances have entered aquatic environments as a result of research and production activities, intentional disposal, and accidental discharges. At several DOE sites, surface waters and sediments are contaminated with radioactive and mutagenic materials. The accident at the Chernobyl power station in the former Soviet Union (FSU) has resulted in the contamination of biota present in the Kiev Reservoir. This documents presents a methodology which addresses the effects of a direct-acting mutagen (radiation) on aquantic organisms by applying sensitive techniques for assessing damage to genetic material.

Knezovich, J.P.; Martinelli, R.E.

1995-03-01

390

Recent developments in Topaz-II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate nuclear electric propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety analysis was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes preliminary safety analysis results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the NEP space test (NEPST).

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01

391

Assessing Patient Safety Culture: A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Interest in the measurement of organizational culture that supports patient safety has grown among health care providers. Objective: To review available quantitative instruments for the assessment of patient safety culture. Methods: Surveys were identified through a systematic review, which included a MEDLINE and internet search, expert input, and review of references from relevant articles. For each instrument, we examined

Eric G

392

Application of total uncertainty theory in radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment requires the interaction of a large number of disciplines to model the environmental phenomena necessary to evaluate the safety of the disposal system. In this complex process, the identification and quantification of both types of uncertainties, random and epistemic, plays a very important role for confidence building. In this work an application of the concept of total uncertainty

Francisco Luiz de Lemos; Timothy Ross; Terry Sullivan

2007-01-01

393

Assessing the Effectiveness of Direct Gesture Interaction for a Safety Critical Maritime Application  

E-print Network

1 Assessing the Effectiveness of Direct Gesture Interaction for a Safety Critical Maritime-touch interaction in the safety critical domain of maritime dynamic positioning (DP) vessels. We conducted initial situational awareness. 1 Introduction The maritime field is deeply rooted in tradition but has recently

Hornecker, Eva

394

ANALYSIS OF SEQUENTIAL FAILURES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY AND SAFETY OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS. (R828541)  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment of reliability and safety of a manufacturing system with sequential failures is an important issue in industry, since the reliability and safety of the system depend not only on all failed states of system components, but also on the sequence of occurrences of those...

395

ASSESSING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SAFETY AND RECOVERY FROM EARTHQUAKES USING A SYSTEM-OF-SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

of industrial accidents, including the recent Fukushima nuclear disaster [1], has shown us that the safetyASSESSING NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SAFETY AND RECOVERY FROM EARTHQUAKES USING A SYSTEM in which the plant is embedded. As a test system, we consider the impacts produced on a nuclear power plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

Safety and Tolerability Assessment of Intrastriatal Neural Allografts in Five Patients with Huntington's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes issues related to the safety and tolerability of fetal striatal neural allografts as assessed in five patients with Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances. The latter include psychological disturbances and, as a consequence, we took particular care to analyze behavioral changes, in addition to the usual “safety” follow-up. We conducted

A.-C. Bachoud-Lévi; C. Bourdet; P. Brugières; J.-P. Nguyen; T. Grandmougin; B. Haddad; R. Jény; P. Bartolomeo; M.-F. Boissé; G. Dalla Barba; J.-D. Degos; A.-M. Ergis; J.-P. Lefaucheur; F. Lisovoski; E. Pailhous; P. Rémy; S. Palfi; G. L. Defer; P. Cesaro; P. Hantraye; M. Peschanski

2000-01-01

397

Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

2012-01-01

398

Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge of High School and Transition Teachers of Special Needs Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…

Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena

2009-01-01

399

Safety assessment of smoked fish related to Listeria monocytogenes prevalence using risk management metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fundamental objectives of European food law is the protection of human health. In this framework, the administration has to ensure that there are control measures from “farm to fork”, which maintain product safety in each stage of the food chain. With this in mind, the objective of this paper was to assess the level of safety of

E. Domenech; J. A. Amorós; S. Martorell; I. Escriche

400

Wildlife Strike Risk Assessment in Several Italian Airports: Lessons from BRI and a New Methodology Implementation  

PubMed Central

The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

2011-01-01

401

A Probabilistic-Micro-mechanical Methodology for Assessing Zirconium Alloy Cladding Failure  

SciTech Connect

Cladding failure of fuel rods caused by hydride-induced embrittlement is a reliability concern for spent nuclear fuel after extended burnup. Uncertainties in the cladding temperature, cladding stress, oxide layer thickness, and the critical stress value for hydride reorientation preclude an assessment of the cladding failure risk. A set of micro-mechanical models for treating oxide cracking, blister cracking, delayed hydride cracking, and cladding fracture was developed and incorporated in a computer model. Results obtained from the preliminary model calculations indicate that at temperatures below a critical temperature of 318.5 deg. C [605.3 deg. F], the time to failure by delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5%Nb decreased with increasing cladding temperature. The overall goal of this project is to develop a probabilistic-micro-mechanical methodology for assessing the probability of hydride-induced failure in Zircaloy cladding and thereby establish performance criteria. (authors)

Pan, Y.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States); Chan, K.S.; Riha, D.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, 78238 (United States)

2007-07-01

402

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

1980-01-01

403

Hospitals Safety from Disasters in I.R.Iran: The Results from Assessment of 224 Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background and objective: Iran’s hospitals have been considerably affected by disasters during last decade. To address this, health system of I.R.Iran has taken an initiative to assess disaster safety of the hospitals using an adopted version of Hospital Safety Index (HSI). This article presents the results of disaster safety assessment in 224 Iran’s hospitals. Methods: A self-assessment approach was applied to assess the disaster safety in 145 items categorized in 3 components including structural, non-structural and functional capacity. For each item, safety level was categorized to 3 levels: not safe (0), average safe (1) and high safe (2). A raw score was tallied for each safety component and its elements by a simple sum of all the corresponding scores. All scores were normalized on a 100 point scale. Hospitals were classified to three safety classes according to their normalized total score: low (?34.0), average (34.01-66.0) and high (>66.0). Results: The average score of all safety components were 32.4 out of 100 (± 12.7 SD). 122 hospitals (54.5%) were classified as low safe and 102 hospitals (45.5%) were classified as average safe. No hospital was placed in the high safe category. Average safety scores out of 100 were 27.3 (±14.2 SD) for functional capacity, 36.0 (±13.9 SD) for non-structural component and 36.0 (±19.0 SD) for structural component. Neither the safety classes nor the scores of safety components were significantly associated with types of hospitals in terms of affiliation, function and size (P>0.05). Conclusions: To enhance the hospitals safety for disaster in Iran, we recommend: 1) establishment of a national committee for hospital safety in disasters; 2) supervision on implementation of the safety standards in construction of new hospitals; 3) enhancement of functional readiness and safety of non-structural components while structural retrofitting of the existing hospitals is being taken into consideration, whenever is cost-effective; 4) considering the disaster safety status as the criteria for licensing and accreditation of the hospitals. Key words: Hospital, safety, disaster, emergency, Iran Correspondence to: Ali Ardalan MD, PhD. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Email: aardalan@tums.ac.ir, ardalan@hsph.harvard.edu PMID:24596661

Ardalan, Ali; Kandi, Maryam; Talebian, Mohammad Taghi; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Reza; Maleknia, Samaneh; Miadfar, Jafar; Mobini, Atieh; Mehranamin, Sara

2014-01-01

404

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum  

E-print Network

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect Silicate, Magnesium Silicate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Sodium Magnesium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate

Ahmad, Sajjad

405

Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program  

SciTech Connect

The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

Marshall, A.C.

1993-01-01

406

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

407

Analysis and evaluation of methodologies to assess technical urban water systems.  

PubMed

The paper reports on the methodology and findings of a recent project on behalf of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. The Ministry is seeking procedures for combining ecological and economic criteria to assess which technical urban water alternatives shall receive funding. To this end the current decision making process (DMP) for implementing urban water alternatives in Austria has been analyzed and compared with the situation elsewhere, e.g. in Sweden. The DMP entails specific requirements on assessment, whence the most common decision aid methodologies, ranging from LCA-based to multi-criteria methods, have been described and evaluated from an environmental, economic, legal and practical point of view, turning out recommendations to the Ministry. Their main points are: First the DMP should be kept as simple as possible in order to make it transparent. Second the aggregation of different criteria groups should and can be avoided. Therefore the stakeholders should not be allowed to make trade-offs. Finally clear objectives need to be stated. PMID:16445172

Starkl, M; Brunner, N; Grasser, U; Moog, O; Stagl, S; Kärrman, E; Wimmer, J; Szewieczek, R; Haberl, R

2005-01-01

408

Safety Assessment of PowerBeam Flywheel Technology  

SciTech Connect

The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems is the issue of safety. The PowerBeam flywheel system concept, developed by HyKinesys Inc., employs a pair of high aspect ratio, counter-rotating flywheels to provide surge power for hybrid vehicle applications. The PowerBeam approach to safety is to design flywheels conservatively so as to avoid full rotor burst failure modes. A conservative point design was sized for use in a mid-size sedan such as a Chevrolet Malibu. The PowerBeam rotor rims were designed with a steel tube covered by a carbon fiber reinforced composite tube. ORNL conducted rotor design analyses using both nested ring and finite element analysis design codes. The safety factor of the composite material was 7, while that of the steel was greater than 3. The design exceeded the PNGV recommendation for a safety factor of at least 4 for composite material to prevent flywheel burst.

Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

2009-11-01

409

Assessing benefits of coordination on safety in automated highway systems  

E-print Network

Safety is one of the critical issues in the design of an Automated Highway System (AHS). In this thesis, we are interested in intervehicular collisions in automated vehicle platoons. Specifically, we consider collisions arising from a maneuver where...

Choi, Woosuk

2000-01-01

410

Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach  

SciTech Connect

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. As the lead Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for this Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with developing and deploying methods and tools that support the quantification and management of safety margin and uncertainty.

Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

2013-03-01

411

Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People’s Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of

Pingjian Deng; Xiangyang Zhou; Peng Zhou; Zhong Du; Hongli Hou; Dongyan Yang; Jianjun Tan; Xiaojin Wu; Jinzhou Zhang; Yongcun Yang; Jin Liu; Guihua Liu; Yonghong Li; Jianjun Liu; Lei Yu; Shisong Fang; Xiaoke Yang

2008-01-01

412

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (increase elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it becomes urgent and dramatically relevant the need of promoting and developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threats different relevant receptors. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). The present study is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The methodology, developed within the recently phased out FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region, by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow to identify and prioritize relative hotspots and targets which are more likely to be affected by flood and support the development of relevant and strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. Moreover, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity).

Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

2014-07-01

413

[Use of threshold of toxicological concern for chemical substances safety assessment].  

PubMed

The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach is a risk assessment tool of toxicology. When the exposure dose of human body is below the TTC of chemicals, the likelihood of that chemical causing negative influence on the human health is very low. Earliest, TTC approach was used in the risk assessment of in the respect of the food packing materials. Currently, TTC approach is used for safety assessment in the fields of food packing material, flavoring agents, medicine, industry chemicals, cosmetics, and etc. TTC approach provides useful assessment tool for the safety evaluation for the chemical substances. PMID:21033448

Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Shaoying; Liu, Xuejun; Zhou, Zhijun

2010-09-01

414

Designing reasonable accommodation of the workplace: a new methodology based on risk assessment.  

PubMed

If working tasks are carried out in inadequate conditions, workers with functional limitations may, over time, risk developing further disabilities. While several validated risk assessment methods exist for able-bodied workers, few studies have been carried out for workers with disabilities. This article, which reports the findings of a Study funded by the Italian Ministry of Labour, proposes a general methodology for the technical and organisational re-design of a worksite, based on risk assessment and irrespective of any worker disability. To this end, a sample of 16 disabled workers, composed of people with either mild or severe motor disabilities, was recruited. Their jobs include business administration (5), computer programmer (1), housewife (1), mechanical worker (2), textile worker (1), bus driver (1), nurse (2), electrical worker (1), teacher (1), warehouseman (1). By using a mix of risk assessment methods and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) taxonomy, their worksites were re-designed in view of a reasonable accommodation, and prospective evaluation was carried out to check whether the new design would eliminate the risks. In one case - a man with congenital malformations who works as a help-desk operator for technical assistance in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) department of a big organisation - the accommodation was actually carried out within the time span of the study, thus making it possible to confirm the hypotheses raised in the prospective assessment. PMID:20131973

Pigini, L; Andrich, R; Liverani, G; Bucciarelli, P; Occhipinti, E

2010-05-01

415

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

SciTech Connect

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

Not Available

1993-08-01

416

Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

2011-01-01

417

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. Risk maps, along with related statistics, provide crucial information about flood risk pattern, and allow the development of relevant and strategic mitigation and prevention measures to minimizing flood risk in urban areas. The present study applied and validated the KULTURisk RRA methodology to the Sihl river case study in Zurich (Switzerland). Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl river valley, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. The total risk maps obtained under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as the reference one) have highlighted that the area is associated with the lower class of risk. Moreover, the relative risk is higher in Zurich city centre, in the few residential areas around the city centre and within the districts that rely just beside to the Sihl river course.

Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-05-01

418

Double-balloon endoscopy in the diagnosis and management of GI tract diseases: Methodology, indications, safety, and clinical impact  

PubMed Central

AIM: To prospectively evaluate the indications, methodology, safety, and clinical impact of double-balloon endoscopy. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with suspected or documented small- or large-bowel diseases were investigated by double balloon endoscopy. A total of 103 procedures were performed (42 from the oral route, 60 from the anal route, and 1 from the stoma route). The main outcome measurements were the time of insertion and the entire examination, complications, diagnostic yields, and the ability to successfully perform treatment. RESULTS: Observation of the entire small intestine was possible in 10 (40%) of 25 patients with total enteroscopy. The median insertion time was 122 min (range, 74-199 min). Observation of the entire colon was possible in 13 (93%) of 14 patients after failure of total colonoscopy using a conventional colonoscope. Small-intestine abnormalities were found in 20 (43%) of 46 patients with indications of suspected or documented small bowel diseases, obscure GI tract bleeding, or a history of ileus. Endoscopic procedures including tattooing (n = 33), bite biopsy (n = 17), radiographic examination (n = 7), EUS (n = 5), hemostasis (n = 1), polypectomy (n = 5), balloon dilatation (n = 1), endoscopic mucosal resection (n = 1) and lithotripsy (n = 1) were all successfully performed. No relevant technical problems or severe complications were encountered. CONCLUSION: Double balloon endoscopy is a feasible technique that allows adequate small and large bowel examination and potentially various endoscopic procedures of small-intestinal lesions. It is safe, useful, and also provides a high clinical impact. PMID:17171795

Akahoshi, Kazuya; Kubokawa, Masaru; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Endo, Shingo; Motomura, Yasuaki; Ouchi, Jiro; Kimura, Mitsuhide; Murata, Atsuhiko; Murayama, Michiaki

2006-01-01

419

Finding the proper methodology for geodiversity assessment: a recent approach in Brazil and Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of geodiversity is a quite new topic. A first set of assessment methodologies was developed during the last years, although with no fully satisfactory results. This is mainly because the whole concept of geodiversity does not tend to be considered, but also because the results are difficult to apply practically. Several major key-points remain unsolved, including the criteria to be used, the scale-factor to be dealt with, the influence of the size of the area under analysis in the type of criteria and indicators, and the graphic presentation of the results. A methodology for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was defined and tested at various scales. It was applied to the Xingu River Basin, Amazon, Brazil (about 510,000 km2), Paraná state, Brazil (about 200,000 km2), and Portugal mainland (about 89,000 km2). This method is intended to assess all geodiversity components and to avoid overrating any particular component, such as lithology or relief, a common weakness of other methods. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales that range according to the areas under analysis, with the final Geodiversity Index being the sum of five partial indexes calculated on the grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, namely geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, palaeontology and soils. Another partial index covers singular occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters and springs. Partial indexes were calculated using GIS software by counting all the occurrences present in the selected maps for each grid square. The Geodiversity Index can take the form of a GIS automatically generated isoline map, allowing an easy interpretation by those without or with little geological background. The map can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management and use of natural resources.

Pereira, D.; Santos, L.; Silva, J.; Pereira, P.; Brilha, J.; França, J.; Rodrigues, C.

2012-04-01

420

On-the-Job Training: Development and Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the development and assessment of a methodology for generating on-the-job-training (OJT) task proficiency assessment instruments. The Task Evaluation Form (TEF) development procedures were derived to address previously identified deficiencies in the evaluation of OJT task proficiency. The TEF development procedures allow…

Warm, Ronnie; And Others

421

The GO-FLOW methodology  

SciTech Connect

A reliability analysis using the GO-FLOW methodology is given for the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of a marine reactor experiencing either a collision or a grounding accident. The analysis is an example of a phased mission problem, and the system is a relatively large system with 90 components. An overview of the GO-FLOW methodology, a description of the ECCS, and the analysis procedure are given. Time-dependent mission unreliabilities under three accident conditions are obtained by one GO-FLOW chart with one computer run. The GO-FLOW methodology has proved to be a useful tool for probabilistic safety assessments of actual systems.

Matsuoka, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Takemura, K.

1989-03-01

422

An integrated quality function deployment and capital budgeting methodology for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach: the case of the construction industry.  

PubMed

In this paper, an integrated methodology for Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and a 0-1 knapsack model is proposed for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach. The House of Quality (HoQ) in QFD methodology is a systematic tool to consider the inter-relationships between two factors. In this paper, three HoQs are used to consider the interrelationships between tasks and hazards, hazards and events, and events and preventive/protective measures. The final priority weights of events are defined by considering their project-specific preliminary weights, probability of occurrence, and effects on the victim and the company. The priority weights of the preventive/protective measures obtained in the last HoQ are fed into a 0-1 knapsack model for the investment decision. Then, the selected preventive/protective measures can be adapted to the task design. The proposed step-by-step methodology can be applied to any stage of a project to design the workplace for occupational safety and health, and continuous improvement for safety is endorsed by the closed loop characteristic of the integrated methodology. PMID:24188741

Bas, Esra

2014-07-01

423

RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific  

E-print Network

RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

Barker, Jon

424

Clinical Practice Guidelines and Consensus Statements in Oncology – An Assessment of Their Methodological Quality  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine’s standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Findings Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice guidelines. One journal scored consistently lower than the others over both domains. No journals adhered to all the items related to the transparency of document development. One journal’s consensus statements endorsed a product made by the sponsoring pharmaceutical company in 64% of cases. Conclusion Guidance documents are an essential part of oncology care and should be subjected to a rigorous and validated development process. Consensus statements had lower methodological quality than clinical practice guidelines using AGREE II. At a minimum, journals should ensure that that all consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines adhere to AGREE II criteria. Journals should consider explicitly requiring guidelines to declare pharmaceutical company sponsorship and to identify the sponsor’s product to enhance transparency. PMID:25329669

Jacobs, Carmel; Graham, Ian D.; Makarski, Julie; Chassé, Michaël; Fergusson, Dean; Hutton, Brian; Clemons, Mark

2014-01-01

425

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazards has increased, and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade, causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing in frequency as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in flood-prone area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the undeniable effect of climate change is projected to strongly modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events at the local, regional and global scale. Within this context, the need for developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow one to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threatens different relevant receptors becomes urgent. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). This paper is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to appraise the risk posed by floods from a physical-environmental perspective. The methodology, developed within the recently completed FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. plain rivers, mountain torrents, urban and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from catchment to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamic models with site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities etc.) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected receptors (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritage) in the considered region. It further compares the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned and eventually implemented. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Par