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1

Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type facility, when the facility is struck by lightning. In the following examples we will use Dr. Merewether's calculations from a poor quality Faraday cage as the input for the RF coupling analysis. coupling of radio frequency (RF) energy to explosive components is an indirect effect of currents [1]. If HE is adequately separated from the walls of the facility that is struck by disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightning is initiation of the HE. last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or lightning. The most sensitive component is typically a detonator, and the safety concern lightning, electrons discharged from the clouds should not reach the HE components. radio receiver, the metal cable of a detonator can extract energy from the EM fields. This to the earth will create electromagnetic (EM) fields in the facility. Like an antenna in a

Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

2009-04-24

2

Methodology to assess clinical liver safety data.  

PubMed

Analysis of liver safety data has to be multivariate by nature and needs to take into account time dependency of observations. Current standard tools for liver safety assessment such as summary tables, individual data listings, and narratives address these requirements to a limited extent only. Using graphics in the context of a systematic workflow including predefined graph templates is a valuable addition to standard instruments, helping to ensure completeness of evaluation, and supporting both hypothesis generation and testing. Employing graphical workflows interactively allows analysis in a team-based setting and facilitates identification of the most suitable graphics for publishing and regulatory reporting. Another important tool is statistical outlier detection, accounting for the fact that for assessment of Drug-Induced Liver Injury, identification and thorough evaluation of extreme values has much more relevance than measures of central tendency in the data. Taken together, systematical graphical data exploration and statistical outlier detection may have the potential to significantly improve assessment and interpretation of clinical liver safety data. A workshop was convened to discuss best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials. PMID:25352326

Merz, Michael; Lee, Kwan R; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Brueckner, Andreas; Watkins, Paul B

2014-11-01

3

CO2 geological storage safety assessment: methodological developments , G. Bellenfanta  

E-print Network

qualitative and quantitative elements for guaranteeing safety. This approach is flexible; it can be used in an early phase or for reviewing a risk assessment. Though not a complete risk assessment workflow, it thus acknowledged methodology in this field have emerged. We propose a simple and flexible approach to determine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

A PRACTICAL RISK AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SAFETY CRITICAL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical methodology for a) assessment of risks associated with the intended application of a safety-critical system, and b) verification that the system meets the safety design requirements that enable the risks to be kept at acceptable levels throughout its lifecycle. The methodology consists of the following steps: 1) Define the system and analyze its intended operation

Chinnarao Mokkapati; Ansaldo Signal; Union Switch

5

Drug safety assessment in clinical trials: methodological challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Randomized controlled trials are the principal means of establishing the efficacy of drugs. However pre-marketing trials are limited in size and duration and exclude high-risk populations. They have limited statistical power to detect rare but potentially serious adverse events in real-world patients. We summarize the principal methodological challenges in the reporting, analysis and interpretation of safety data in clinical trials using recent examples from systematic reviews. These challenges include the lack of an evidentiary gold standard, the limited statistical power of randomized controlled trials and resulting type 2 error, the lack of adequate ascertainment of adverse events and limited generalizability of trials that exclude high risk patients. We discuss potential solutions to these challenges. Evaluation of drug safety requires careful examination of data from heterogeneous sources. Meta-analyses of drug safety should include appropriate statistical methods and assess the optimal information size to avoid type 2 errors. They should evaluate outcome reporting biases and missing data to ensure reliable and accurate interpretation of findings. Regulatory and academic partnerships should be fostered to provide an independent and transparent evaluation of drug safety. PMID:22906139

Singh, Sonal; Loke, Yoon K

2012-01-01

6

Evaluation of safety assessment methodologies in Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide (1985) and Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report (1987)  

SciTech Connect

FSARs. Rockwell International, as operating contractor at the Rocky Flats plant, conducted a safety analysis program during the 1980s. That effort resulted in Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARs) for several buildings, one of them being the Building 707 Final Safety Analysis Report, June 87 (707FSAR) and a Plant Safety Analysis Report. Rocky Flats Risk Assessment Guide, March 1985 (RFRAG85) documents the methodologies that were used for those FSARs. Resources available for preparation of those Rocky Flats FSARs were very limited. After addressing the more pressing safety issues, some of which are described below, the present contractor (EG&G) intends to conduct a program of upgrading the FSARs. This report presents the results of a review of the methodologies described in RFRAG85 and 707FSAR and contains suggestions that might be incorporated into the methodology for the FSAR upgrade effort.

Walsh, B.; Fisher, C.; Zigler, G.; Clark, R.A. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1990-11-09

7

Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

1993-01-01

8

A Safety Risk Assessment Methodology for Decision Support Systems with an Application to the Expedite Departure Path Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the NASA Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center has developed a methodology to perform safety risk assessments for air traffic control/air traffic management decision Support systems and concepts. Changes in controller, pilot, and/or airline dispatcher tasks that are affected by the decision support system are related to associated hazards. These hazards are then assessed either qualitatively or quantitatively in terms of likelihood of occurring and the impact if they do occur. Those items that show a potential safety hazard level increase can then have research plans developed to address those safety risks areas. An application of this methodology will he demonstrated using the AATT decision support tool Expedite Departure Path.

Snyder, Phillip T.; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

9

Methodological aspects in the assessment of safety culture in the hospital setting: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

A thematic literature review was undertaken to identify methodological aspects in the assessment of safety culture and critically examine how these have been addressed in hospital-based studies of safety culture, for the period 1999-2012. The literature search included an electronic database search (BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO), access to websites of organizations dedicated to the enhancement of patient safety, and a manual search of reference lists of the papers included. The analysis of the 43 records included in the review revealed that discussion regarding the measurement of safety culture in the hospital setting revolves around three methodological areas, namely: research approaches; survey tools for data collection; and levels of data aggregation. To advance these discussions, robust research is needed to clarify what dimensions belong to the core of safety culture and what the main sources of safety culture variability are. Studies using a mixed methods approach to assess safety culture would be useful, since they permit the in-depth research necessary to depict the multiple components of this construct. PMID:24011753

Pumar-Méndez, María J; Attree, Moira; Wakefield, Ann

2014-02-01

10

A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic, iterative process that continually evolves with the design.

T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

2006-05-01

11

Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many thousands of possible event sequences and to build up a statistical representation of the releases for each accident case. A code to carry out this process will have to be developed or adapted from previous MMRTG missions. Finally, Level C translates the release (or ''source term'') information from Level B into public risk by applying models for atmospheric transport and the health consequences of exposure to the released plutonium dioxide. A number of candidate codes for this level of analysis are available. This report surveys the range of available codes and tools for each of these levels and makes recommendations for which choices are best for the MSL mission. It also identities areas where improvements to the codes are needed. In some cases a second tier of codes may be identified to provide supporting or clarifying insight about particular issues. The main focus of the methodology assessment is to identify a suite of computational tools that can produce a high quality SAR that can be successfully reviewed by external bodies (such as the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel) on the schedule established by NASA and DOE.

Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2006-09-01

12

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Northern British Columbia, University of

13

Evaluation of replacement tritium facility (RTF) compliance with DOE safety goals using probabilistic consequence assessment methodology. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), is a major center for the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, deep-space exploration, and medical treatment applications in the United States. As an integral part of the DOE`s effort to modernize facilities, implement improved handling and processing technology, and reduce operational risk to the general public and onsite workers, transition of tritium processing at SRS from the Consolidated Tritium Facility to the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) began in 1993. To ensure that operation of new DOE facilities such as RTF present minimum involuntary and voluntary risks to the neighboring public and workers, indices of risk have been established to serve as target levels or safety goals of performance for assessing nuclear safety. These goals are discussed from a historical perspective in the initial part of this paper. Secondly, methodologies to quantify risk indices are briefly described. Lastly, accident, abnormal event, and normal operation source terms from RTF are evaluated for consequence assessment purposes relative to the safety targets.

O`Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.; Moore, M.L.

1993-12-31

14

Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Food Products: An Evaluation of Developed Approaches and Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic modifications of food products are gaining more and more interest, since they represent an effective and promising way to improve a wide range of food characteristics, including production, nutritive value, and shelf life. On the other hand, concern has been raised about the safety aspects of food derived through genetically modified products. Since 1990 continuously evolving guidelines and recommendations

M. Miraglia; R. Onori; C. Brera; E. Cava

1998-01-01

15

Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced for the first time heat transfer and thermal-hydraulics calculations as part of a state-of-the-art set of codes and libraries in order to establish an updated methodology for IFE safety analysis. We have focused our efforts primarily on two IFE power plant conceptual designs: HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO. To some degree, these designs represent the extremes in IFE power plant designs. Also, a preliminary safety assessment has been performed for a generic target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production techniques. Although this study cannot address all issues and hazards posed by an IFE power plant, it advances our understanding of radiological safety of such facilities. This will enable better comparisons between IFE designs and competing technologies from the safety point of view.

Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Gomez del Rio, J.

2001-06-01

16

Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

Crovelli, R.A.

1995-01-01

17

Methodological Questions Concerning Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants during Loss of Power and Disruption of Communications with the System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabalistic analysis of the safety of power-generating units at nuclear power plants is now an integral part of all work at the design level and during equipment operation. In many countries the maximum rate of core damage as estimated according to such analysis does not exceed 10 ?4 (reactor·years) ?1 (US, Japan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and others). The likely

R. Z. Aminov; V. I. Ignatov

2002-01-01

18

WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (WQAM)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Quality Assessment Methodology (WQAM) is a screening procedure for toxic and conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters and is a collection of formulas, tables, and graphs that planners can use for preliminary assessment of surface and ground water quality in ...

19

Safety Auditing and Assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

2005-01-01

20

Methodology for qualitative urban flooding risk assessment.  

PubMed

Pluvial or surface flooding can cause significant damage and disruption as it often affects highly urbanised areas. Therefore it is essential to accurately identify consequences and assess the risks associated with such phenomena. The aim of this study is to present the results and investigate the applicability of a qualitative flood risk assessment methodology in urban areas. This methodology benefits from recent developments in urban flood modelling, such as the dual-drainage modelling concept, namely one-dimensional automatic overland flow network delineation tools (e.g. AOFD) and 1D/1D models incorporating both surface and sewer drainage systems. To assess flood risk, the consequences can be estimated using hydraulic model results, such as water velocities and water depth results; the likelihood was estimated based on the return period of historical rainfall events. To test the methodology two rainfall events with return periods of 350 and 2 years observed in Alcântara (Lisbon, Portugal) were used and three consequence dimensions were considered: affected public transportation services, affected properties and pedestrian safety. The most affected areas in terms of flooding were easily identified; the presented methodology was shown to be easy to implement and effective to assess flooding risk in urban areas, despite the common difficulties in obtaining data. PMID:23985513

Leitão, João P; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Simões, Nuno E; Martins, André

2013-01-01

21

Evaluation Methodologies for Traffic Safety Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the impact of Traffic Safety Programs (TSPs) on motor vehicle crash rates forces the evaluator to utilize N of 1 quasi-experimental designs. A variety of procedures which take into account the serial dependency frequently observed in such data is described, and their application to assessment of change in crash time series is illustrated.

Vernon S. Ellingstad; Daniel P. Westra

1976-01-01

22

SAFETY ASSESSMENT & CERTIFICATION FOR UAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the certification process to gain clearance to operate in unsegregated airspace, new UASs will require a robust Safety Assessment process. The authors have looked at the civil manned aircraft safety assessment process defined in ARP 4761 and the safety certi fication process in ARP4754, as used to demonstrate compliance with EASA \\/ FAA safety target requirements, in

Andrew R Evans; Mark Nicholson

23

Transportation safety and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this work is to create and test a military application of a transportation safety assessment tool for industry. The industry tool, the Fleet Operations Safety Assessment Tool (FOSAT) is being refined and is scheduled for implementation by an insurance company. The same process for evaluating safety in industry can aid the military in assessing and improving

J. R. Drake; J. T. Mulligan; S. Williamson; T. E. Trainor

2005-01-01

24

Environmental Health and Safety Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual 7/15/2013 #12;Environmental Health/26/2013. The most recent version of this document is available electronically at: http://sp.ehs.cornell.edu/env/general-environmental-management/environmental-health-and-safety.........................................................................................................................4 #12;Environmental Health and Safety Assessment Program Manual Approved by: (Barb English) Last

Pawlowski, Wojtek

25

Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns the Risk Assessment Methodology for Software Supportability (RAMSS), the overall approach being tested for use by the US Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center. Although the RAMSS is not a mature methodology, elements of the methodology have been used since 1979. The derived baseline database of maintenance actions across 80 systems and more than 300 block releases is

D. E. Peercy

1988-01-01

26

Sounding rocket and balloon flight safety philosophy and methodologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's sounding rocket and balloon goal is to successfully and safely perform scientific research. This is reflected in the design, planning, and conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the sounding rocket and balloon scientific community with flight safety philosophy and methodologies, and how range safety affects their programs. This paper presents the flight safety philosophy for protecting the public against the risk created by the conduct of sounding rocket and balloon operations. The flight safety criteria used to implement this philosophy are defined and the methodologies used to calculate mission risk are described.

Beyma, R. J.

1986-01-01

27

IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

Spitalnik, J.

2004-10-06

28

Environmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

. First aid kits are clearly visible, unobstructed and well stocked. #12;Electrical Safety # ComplianceEnvironmental Health and Safety Fire and Life Safety Laboratory Assessment PI: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety

29

HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

EVANS, C.B.

2004-12-21

30

JOB SAFETY ASSESSMENT ENVIRONMENTAL  

E-print Network

GFCI use in Wet Locations Heavy Equipment Use Ladder/Scaffold Erection/Inspection Manlift (Travel Helmet/Hood/Gloves/Apron Gloves (specific to the hazards present) Safety Shoes/Boots Hard Hat/Logging Hat/Coat Fall Protection Equipment Traction Devices Cooling Vest High Visibility Clothing/Safety Vest MSDS (for

Hartman, Chris

31

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

32

Methodological assessment of HCC literature  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health problem, very few interventions are available for this disease, and only sorafenib is approved for the treatment of advanced disease. Of note, only very few interventions have been thoroughly evaluated over time for HCC patients compared with several hundreds in other, equally highly lethal, tumours. Additionally, clinical trials in HCC have often been questioned for poor design and methodological issues. As a consequence, a gap between what is measured in clinical trials and what clinicians have to face in daily practice often occurs. As a result of this scenario, even the most recent guidelines for treatment of HCC patients use low strength evidence to make recommendations. In this review, we will discuss some of the potential methodological issues hindering a rational development of new treatments for HCC patients. PMID:23715943

Daniele, G.; Costa, N.; Lorusso, V.; Costa-Maia, J.; Pache, I.; Pirisi, M.

2013-01-01

33

Airport vulnerability assessment-a methodology evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of several different approaches to conducting quantitative airport vulnerability and risk assessment. Field tests of seven methodologies applied to a total of thirteen major US domestic airports provided the results and reports used to evaluate the various methodologies. The process of evaluation used a rigorous decision technology approach, which involves evaluation criteria,

R. Lazarick

1999-01-01

34

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be cond...

A. C. Marshall, V. Standley, S. S. Voss, E. Haskin

1992-01-01

35

SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident — prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps — risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures — are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety

Faisal I Khan; Asad Iqbal; N Ramesh; S. A Abbasi

2001-01-01

36

Safety Assessment of Probiotics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

37

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

1993-01-01

38

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Haskin, E. (Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Institute for Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110 (United States))

1993-01-10

39

Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer  

PubMed Central

This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments. PMID:20049237

Simoens, Steven

2009-01-01

40

Topaz II preliminary safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Standley, V. (Air Force Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Voss, S.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Haskin, E. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

1992-01-01

41

Training effectiveness assessment: Methodological problems and issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. military uses a large number of simulators to train and sustain the flying skills of helicopter pilots. Despite the enormous resources required to purchase, maintain, and use those simulators, little effort has been expended in assessing their training effectiveness. One reason for this is the lack of an evaluation methodology that yields comprehensive and valid data at a practical cost. Some of these methodological problems and issues that arise in assessing simulator training effectiveness, as well as problems with the classical transfer-of-learning paradigm were discussed.

Cross, Kenneth D.

1992-01-01

42

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

43

An object-oriented approach to risk and reliability analysis : methodology and aviation safety applications.  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how features of event tree analysis and Monte Carlo-based discrete event simulation can be combined with concepts from object-oriented analysis to develop a new risk assessment methodology, with some of the best features of each. The resultant object-based event scenario tree (OBEST) methodology enables an analyst to rapidly construct realistic models for scenarios for which an a priori discovery of event ordering is either cumbersome or impossible. Each scenario produced by OBEST is automatically associated with a likelihood estimate because probabilistic branching is integral to the object model definition. The OBEST methodology is then applied to an aviation safety problem that considers mechanisms by which an aircraft might become involved in a runway incursion incident. The resulting OBEST model demonstrates how a close link between human reliability analysis and probabilistic risk assessment methods can provide important insights into aviation safety phenomenology.

Dandini, Vincent John; Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

2003-09-01

44

HSEHealth & Safety Preliminary assessment of Linux  

E-print Network

HSEHealth & Safety Executive Preliminary assessment of Linux for safety related systems Prepared & Safety Executive Preliminary assessment of Linux for safety related systems Eur Ing R H Pierce MSc CEng United Kingdom The Linux operating system is in widespread use, and there is now interest in using Linux

Nicholson, Mark

45

SCAP: a new methodology for safety management based on feedback from credible accident-probabilistic fault tree analysis system.  

PubMed

As it is conventionally done, strategies for incorporating accident--prevention measures in any hazardous chemical process industry are developed on the basis of input from risk assessment. However, the two steps-- risk assessment and hazard reduction (or safety) measures--are not linked interactively in the existing methodologies. This prevents a quantitative assessment of the impacts of safety measures on risk control. We have made an attempt to develop a methodology in which risk assessment steps are interactively linked with implementation of safety measures. The resultant system tells us the extent of reduction of risk by each successive safety measure. It also tells based on sophisticated maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA) and probabilistic fault tree analysis (PFTA) whether a given unit can ever be made 'safe'. The application of the methodology has been illustrated with a case study. PMID:11566400

Khan, F I; Iqbal, A; Ramesh, N; Abbasi, S A

2001-10-12

46

Challenges in Implementing Methodologies for Nonproliferation Assessments  

SciTech Connect

A handful of models for explaining and predicting States’ development of nuclear weapons programs have been proposed since the 1970s. Despite the array of techno-social variables and computational concepts employed in these models, no model has yet been established as an agreed-upon standard. Likewise, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)—one of the main institutions evaluating social, political, and technological information for assessments of States’ current nuclear capabilities—uses only a qualitative framework by which to evaluate such information to assess the correctness and completeness of a State’s declaration. In this paper, analysts familiar with both the development of techno-social modelling and the IAEA’s implementation of a safeguards system that is information driven discuss the challenges faced in the development, implementation, and evaluation of models and methodologies for nonproliferation assessments, based on experiences at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the IAEA.

Gastelum, Zoe N.; Dalton, Angela C.; Coles, Garill A.

2011-07-17

47

The System Safety Assessment by the Use of Programming Tools during the Licensing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programming tools for a software safety assessment support during licensing of digital systems are addressed. Expediency and necessity of the use of such tools, its functions, and methodology of the software safety assessment are considered. The paper is based on the experience with the ExpertPro tool, developed by Ukrainian State Scientific and Technical Center on Nuclear and Radiation Safety for

Sergiy A. Vilkomir; Vjacheslav S. Kharchenko; Alexander S. Ponomaryev; A. L. Gorda

1999-01-01

48

Measuring the Impacts of Food Safety Regulations: A Methodological Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with a call for more effective and efficient regulations in the EU, there is a growing demand for transparency in the evaluation methods used to assess their effects. This paper proposes a classification of the impacts that food safety regulations can produce and discusses the quantitative methods that are used in the literature to measure those impacts. Along with

Maddalena Ragona; Mario Mazzocchi

2008-01-01

49

Using video vignettes to evaluate children’s personal safety knowledge: methodological and ethical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study aimed to assess children’s personal safety knowledge by seeking their responses to video-delivered simulations of child maltreatment.Method: In seeking to do this, methodological and ethical difficulties were encountered. These arose during several phases of consultation, the refinement of an interview protocol to be used with the vignettes, and during discussions over the ethical integrity of the research.Results:

Bruce Johnson

2000-01-01

50

Safety Culture Assessment: A Mission Impossible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How, if at all, is it possible to assess aspects of organizational culture and the way culture influences safety? This question concerns the possibility of proactive assessments: whether it is possible to ‘predict’ if an organization is prone to having major accidents on the basis of safety culture assessments. The article presents an empirical analysis of this question by comparing

Stian Antonsen

2009-01-01

51

Epigenetics and chemical safety assessment.  

PubMed

Epigenetics, as it pertains to biology and toxicology, can be defined as heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve mutations and are propagated without continued stimulus. Although potentially reversible, these heritable changes may be classified as mitotic, meiotic, or transgenerational, implicating the wide-ranging impact of epigenetic control in cellular function. A number of biological responses have been classified as being caused by an "epigenetic alteration," sometimes based on sound scientific evidence and often in lieu of an identified genetic mutation. Complicating the understanding and interpretation of perceived epigenetic alterations is an incomplete understanding of the normal state and dynamic variation of the epigenome, which can differ widely between cell and tissue types and stage of development or age. This emerging field is likely to have a profound impact on the study and practice of toxicology in coming years. This document reviews the current state of the science in epigenetic modifications, techniques used to measure these changes, and evaluates the current toxicology testing battery with respect to strengths and potential weaknesses in the identification of epigenetics changes. In addition, case studies implicating transgenerational effects induced by diethylstilbestrol, vinclozolin, and bisphenol A were reviewed to illustrate the application of epigenetics in safety assessment and the strengths and limitations of the study designs. An assessment of toxicology tests currently used in safety evaluation revealed that these tests are expected to identify any potential adverse outcomes resulting from epigenetic changes. Furthermore, in order to increase our understanding of the science of epigenetics in toxicology, this review has revealed that a solid understanding of the biology and variation in the epigenome is essential to contextualize concerns about possible adverse health effects related to epigenetic changes. Finally, the fundamental principles guiding toxicology studies, including relevant doses, dose-rates, routes of exposure, and experimental models, need to be taken into consideration in the design and interpretation of studies within this emerging area of science. PMID:20399890

LeBaron, Matthew J; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Klapacz, Joanna; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Hollnagel, Heli M; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

2010-10-01

52

Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

1984-03-01

53

Assessment of rural energy resources; Methodological guidelines  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11016 (IN))

1990-01-01

54

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment  

E-print Network

Health and Safety Office Risk Assessment and Afterwards #12;University of Cambridge Health and Safety Division #12;Health and Safety Office Taking risks is a vital part of modern life and Health't do that!" But "How can you do that reasonably safely?" Sensible Risk management #12;Health

de Gispert, Adrià

55

Probabilistic safety assessment for the Savannah River Site K reactor  

SciTech Connect

A probabilistic study of the overall safety of the special materials production reactors located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) has been performed. Assessments of the risk associated with reactor operation that is posed to the work force at SRS and to the surrounding population are among the results obtained. Safety assessment methodology that has evolved from applications in the commercials nuclear power industry over the past 20 yr, and has recently been employed in two other major studies was used for the analysis. The results of the study indicate that risks from severe reactor accidents to individuals in the neighboring populace are within levels that have been found to be acceptable for commercial nuclear power plants. The objectives of the SRS probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were as follows: (1) to assess the margin of safety of the reactor system design; (2) to calculate risk measures as a means of assessment of safety in terms of levels of risk to socity; (3) to identify the equipment, human actions, and plant design features that contribute in greatest measure to assurance of overall safety by exercising the analytical models that constitute the PSA.

Brandyberry, M.D.; Woody, N.D.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; Wittman, R.S. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

56

A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

2009-06-01

57

Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of CSAU (Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty) methodology to LBLOCA: Part 3, Assessment and ranging of parameters for the uncertainty analysis of LBLOCA codes  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of results from TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations with measurements from Separate Effects Tests, and published experimental data for modeling parameters have been used to determine the uncertainty ranges of code input and modeling parameters which dominate the uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for a postulated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in a four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The uncertainty ranges are used for a detailed statistical analysis to calculate the probability distribution function for the TRAC code-predicted Peak Clad Temperature, as is described in an attendant paper. Measurements from Separate Effects Tests and Integral Effects Tests have been compared with results from corresponding TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code calculations to determine globally the total uncertainty in predicting the Peak Clad Temperature for LBLOCAs. This determination is in support of the detailed statistical analysis mentioned above. The analyses presented here account for uncertainties in input parameters, in modeling and scaling, in computing and in measurements. The analyses are an important part of the work needed to implement the Code Scalability, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology. CSAU is needed to determine the suitability of a computer code for reactor safety analyses and the uncertainty in computer predictions. The results presented here are used to estimate the safety margin of a particular nuclear reactor power plant for a postulated accident. 25 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

Wulff, W.; Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Zuber, N.

1988-01-01

58

ASSESSMENT OF TWO ACCIDENTS INVOLVING SAFETY DEVICES  

E-print Network

98-14 ASSESSMENT OF TWO ACCIDENTS INVOLVING SAFETY DEVICES J.F. Lechaudel. S. Bauchet INERIS Verneuil-en-Halatte, France. ABSTRACT This paper mainly aims at describing and analysing two accidents : an ammonia leakage and an explosion in a chemical unit. These accidents are in connection with safety

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Ethical assessment of new technologies: a meta-methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set out a structured meta-methodology, named DIODE, for the ethical assessment of new and emerging technologies. DIODE has been designed by a mixture of academics, governmental people and commercial practitioners. It is designed to help diverse organisations and individuals conduct ethical assessments of new and emerging technologies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A framework

Ian Harris; Richard C. Jennings; David Pullinger; Simon Rogerson; Penny Duquenoy

2011-01-01

60

Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health  

E-print Network

Safety Training Self-Assessment The UC Irvine Safety Training Self-Assessment (STSA) is provided by Environmental Health Safety (EH&S). The Safety Training Self-Assessment is required for: · All UC employees the Safety Training Self-Assessment: 1. Log into the UC Learning Center at http://www.uclc.uci.edu. 2

Rose, Michael R.

61

Food Safety Assessment and Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

1994-01-01

62

Process waste assessment methodology for lab equipment and glassware cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for conducting process waste assessments (PWAs) was investigated, and a PWA was conducted for lab equipment cleaning. The worksheets set forth in the Process Waste Assessment Guidance issued by Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) were modified to lead a team through a PWA with minimal training and to consolidate repetitive information. This information was presented to a working subcommittee of the plant-wide PWA team for further refinement and is near completion.

Jones, L.A.

1992-12-01

63

QAM: A Competency Based Need Assessment Methodology and Computer Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A needs assessment methodology is described which can be used (1) to assess the competencies required for functioning in a particular position, (2) to provide data for planning inservice and preservice educational programs, (3) to assess job performance, and (4) to provide information for personnel planners. Quadrants are formed using four…

Gale, Larrie E.

64

Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

Woods, Stephen

2009-01-01

65

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

Not Available

1992-12-01

66

Hanford Site baseline risk assessment methodology. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This methodology has been developed to prepare human health and environmental evaluations of risk as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act remedial investigations (RIs) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facility investigations (FIs) performed at the Hanford Site pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement. Development of the methodology has been undertaken so that Hanford Site risk assessments are consistent with current regulations and guidance, while providing direction on flexible, ambiguous, or undefined aspects of the guidance. The methodology identifies Site-specific risk assessment considerations and integrates them with approaches for evaluating human and environmental risk that can be factored into the risk assessment program supporting the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Consequently, the methodology will enhance the preparation and review of individual risk assessments at the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-03-01

67

Challenges and methodology for safety analysis of a high-level waste tank with large periodic releases of flammable gas  

SciTech Connect

Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 10,000 ft{sup 3} of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest-priority DOE operational safety problems. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The mitigation method selected for the tank was to install a pump that would mix the tank contents and eliminate the sludge layer believed to be responsible for the gas retention and periodic releases. This report will describe the principal analysis methodologies used to prepare the safety assessment for the installation and operation of the pump, and because this activity has been completed, it will describe the results of pump operation.

Edwards, J.N.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; White, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stewart, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-07-01

68

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

69

Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

Heimdahl, Olaf E. R. (Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA); LaHoud, Paul (Athens, AL); Chapman, Leon Darrel

2004-08-01

70

Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

Joglekar, Prafulla

2002-01-01

71

Safety assessment of the NET Predesign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work carried out by European Associations on Safety and Environment inside the EC Fusion Technology Programme and by NET has been concentrated on safety-related guidance and on safety assessment of the NET Predesign. Emphasis has been put on analysis of accident sequences of regulatory concern up to worst case accidents, including quantification of consequences to components, systems, and plant, and of doses to the public. Probabilistic safety studies for the most important systems and broadly for the entire plant have been performed to supplement the calculated accidental doses by expectation values for their occurrence rate, and to check the relevance of the reference accident sequences selected initially by judgment. Waste masses per year of operation and for decommissioning have been quantified. For two countries and according to the practices and regulations of these countries, volumes of radioactive waste packaged for final disposal have been determined.

Gulden, W.; Raeder, J.; Ebert, E.; Bartels, H.-W.

1994-03-01

72

Helping High School Students Assess Campus Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes campus violence found on college campus, including rape, assault, hazing, harassment, and bias-related violence. Offers set of guidelines to assist high school students in assessing campus safety at colleges and universities they may be considering. Discusses high school counselor's role in providing information and perspectives that…

Roark, Mary L.

1992-01-01

73

Enhancing the Assessment of Verbal Aggression through Observational Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating…

van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Mata, Andrea D.; Klipfel, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

74

Improved USGS methodology for assessing continuous petroleum resources using analogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The currently used U.S. Geological Survey methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) petroleum resources of the United States was developed in the 1990s. This methodology poorly incorporates uncertainty about the estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs). This is especially problematic for hypothetical assessment units where this may be the largest source of uncertainty that needs to be reflected in the estimates. An improved methodology estimates the uncertainty of mean EUR directly. It uses analog data that have been compiled from production histories of many developed U.S. continuous assessment units. The analog databases provide a way of estimating the variability of not just EURs but other production parameters useful in assessing continuous resources.

Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

2010-01-01

75

Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.  

SciTech Connect

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

2010-09-01

76

Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

1996-08-01

77

Reliability Modeling Methodology for Independent Approaches on Parallel Runways Safety Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an adjunct to the final report An Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology for Emerging Air Transport Technologies. That report presents the results of our analysis of the problem of simultaneous but independent, approaches of two aircraft on parallel runways (independent approaches on parallel runways, or IAPR). This introductory chapter presents a brief overview and perspective of approaches and methodologies for performing safety analyses for complex systems. Ensuing chapter provide the technical details that underlie the approach that we have taken in performing the safety analysis for the IAPR concept.

Babcock, P.; Schor, A.; Rosch, G.

1998-01-01

78

Enhancing the assessment of verbal aggression through observational methodology.  

PubMed

The assessment of verbal aggression in adolescent and young adult dating relationships has largely relied on self-report methodology. We investigated whether information on verbal aggression derived from an observational assessment would enhance the prediction of romantic relationship satisfaction and dissolution in a sample of young adult dating relationships (N = 113). Observationally assessed verbal aggression was moderately associated with self-reported verbal aggression. Consistent with previous findings, neither self-reported nor observationally assessed verbal aggression was associated with relationship dissolution. Observationally assessed verbal aggression and self-reported verbal aggression each uniquely accounted for a substantial amount of variability in romantic relationship satisfaction. The findings of this study provide additional support for conducting multimethod assessments of verbal aggression and incorporating observational methodology in the study of aggression in young adult dating relationships. PMID:22007111

van Dulmen, Manfred H M; Mata, Andrea D; Klipfel, Katherine M

2012-03-01

79

Assessment of methodologies for colorimetric cholesterol assay of meats  

E-print Network

ASSESSiiT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COLORDQTRIC CHOLESTEROL ASSAY OF MEATS A Thesis CYNTHIA RAY EDWARDS BOHAC Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1987 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology ASSESSMENT OF METHODOLOGIES 1 OR COLORIMETRIC CHOLESTEROL ASSAY OF MEATS A Thesis by CYNTHIA KAY EDWARDS BOHAC Approved as to style and content by: K. S. Rhee (Co-Chair of Committee) K. S...

Bohac, Cynthia Kay Edwards

2012-06-07

80

Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Health Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Environmental Health Laboratory Assessment PI: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. B. Items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. C

81

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment  

E-print Network

Environmental Health and Safety Chemical Hygiene Laboratory Assessment PI: _________________________________ Date: ______________________________________ Inspection Finding Categories: A. No items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. B. Items of safety or environmental concerns were identified. C

82

76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 [Docket No. NHTSA 2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),...

2011-12-01

83

Methodology to Achieve Safety and Energy Savings in Laboratory Buildings  

E-print Network

Most of laboratories are highly energy consuming buildings, which have many mechanical exhaust equipments to ensure safety of human body from toxic substances. Air change rate of fresh air intake caused by exhaust for lab facility comes up to 20~ 60...

Odajima, T.; Numanaka, S.

84

New methodology for assessing the probability of contaminating Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methodology is proposed to assess the probability that the planet Mars will be contaminated by terrestrial microorganisms aboard a spacecraft. The present NASA methods are extended to permit utilization of detailed information on microbial characteristics, the lethality of release and transport mechanisms, and of other information about the Martian environment. Different types of microbial release are distinguished, and for each release mechanism a probability of growth is computed. Using this new methodology, an assessment was carried out for the 1975 Viking landings on Mars. The resulting probability of contamination for each Viking lander is 6 x 10 to the -6 power, and is amenable to revision as additional information becomes available.

North, D. W.; Judd, B. R.; Pezier, J. P.

1974-01-01

85

Safety assessment of probiotics for human use  

PubMed Central

The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hormannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

2010-01-01

86

Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment in Italy: A Methodological Proposal Adapted to Regulatory Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related stress is one of the major causes of occupational ill health. In line with the regulatory framework on occupational health and safety (OSH), adequate models for assessing and managing risk need to be identified so as to minimize the impact of this stress not only on workers' health, but also on productivity. Methods After close analysis of the Italian and European reference regulatory framework and work-related stress assessment and management models used in some European countries, we adopted the UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach, adapting it to the Italian context in order to provide a suitable methodological proposal for Italy. Results We have developed a work-related stress risk assessment strategy, meeting regulatory requirements, now available on a specific web platform that includes software, tutorials, and other tools to assist companies in their assessments. Conclusion This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons. PMID:23961332

Persechino, Benedetta; Valenti, Antonio; Ronchetti, Matteo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Di Tecco, Cristina; Vitali, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio

2013-01-01

87

78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...safety of its airlines. It does not assess the safety compliance of any particular air carrier (nor does it address aviation security, airports, or air traffic management). Although the FAA assessment team typically visits one or more air...

2013-03-08

88

Ongoing research on seismic safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on seismic safety assessment has been the centre of great interest among the scientific community in recent years.\\u000a Although the devastating impact of earthquakes on current society should be incentive enough to increase research, the development\\u000a of more realistic mechanical behaviour models and the continuous enhancement of computation capabilities are paramount factors\\u000a contributing a great deal to the increase

Raimundo Delgado; Aníbal Costa; António Arêde; Nelson Vila Pouca; João Guedes; Xavier Romão; Pedro Delgado; Patrício Rocha

2010-01-01

89

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE nuclear facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830).1 Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, “Safety Basis Requirements,” requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements.1 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, “Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants”2 as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Gregg L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

2003-06-01

90

Reactor Accident Analysis Methodology for the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility Documented Safety Analysis Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory requirement to develop an upgraded safety basis for a DOE Nuclear Facility was realized in January 2001 by issuance of a revision to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 830 (10 CFR 830). Subpart B of 10 CFR 830, ''Safety Basis Requirements,'' requires a contractor responsible for a DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to either submit by April 9, 2001 the existing safety basis which already meets the requirements of Subpart B, or to submit by April 10, 2003 an upgraded facility safety basis that meets the revised requirements. 10 CFR 830 identifies Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.70, ''Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' as a safe harbor methodology for preparation of a DOE reactor documented safety analysis (DSA). The regulation also allows for use of a graded approach. This report presents the methodology that was developed for preparing the reactor accident analysis portion of the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC) upgraded DSA. The methodology was approved by DOE for developing the ATRC safety basis as an appropriate application of a graded approach to the requirements of 10 CFR 830.

Sharp, G.L.; McCracken, R.T.

2003-05-13

91

IMPACT 2002+: A new life cycle impact assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment methodology proposes a feasible implementation of a combined midpoint\\/damage\\u000a approach, linking all types of life cycle inventory results (elementary flows and other interventions) via 14 midpoint categories\\u000a to four damage categories. For IMPACT 2002+, new concepts and methods have been developed, especially for the comparative\\u000a assessment of human toxicity and ecotoxicity. Human

Olivier Jolliet; Manuele Margni; Raphaël Charles; Sébastien Humbert; Jérôme Payet; Gerald Rebitzer; Ralph Rosenbaum

2003-01-01

92

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LANDFILLING  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

93

DEVELOPMENT OF RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. he sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution an...

94

Critical Inquiry and Writing Centers: A Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By examining one writing center's role in student success, this project offers two examples of the way writing centers impact student engagement. This analysis models a methodology that writing and learning center directors can utilize in order to foster effective communication with stakeholders. By conducting data-driven assessment, directors can…

Bell, Diana Calhoun; Frost, Alanna

2012-01-01

95

A Methodological Proposal for Learning Games Selection and Quality Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a methodological proposal elaborated in the framework of two European projects dealing with game-based learning, both of which have focused on "quality" aspects in order to create suitable tools that support European educators, practitioners and lifelong learners in selecting and assessing learning games for use in teaching and…

Dondi, Claudio; Moretti, Michela

2007-01-01

96

Methodological Concerns about the Education Value-Added Assessment System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Value-added models help to evaluate the knowledge that school districts, schools, and teachers add to student learning as students progress through school. In this article, the well-known Education Value-Added Assessment System (EVAAS) is examined. The author presents a practical investigation of the methodological issues associated with the…

Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey

2008-01-01

97

Personality Assessment of Global Talent: Conceptual and Methodological Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recruitment of managers who will operate in a culturally heterogeneous context (as expatriate managers, managers in a global company, or managers of a multicultural workforce) is increasingly important in an age of globalization. This article describes conceptual and methodological issues in the assessment of such managers, notably in the…

van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

2008-01-01

98

Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

NONE

1994-08-01

99

Validation of the YAEC (Yankee Atomic Electric Company) criticality safety methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yankee Atomic Electric Company's (YEAC's) criticality safety methodology has evolved over the years to analyze high-density spent fuel rack designs, new fuel vault optimum moderation, burnup credit, pin consolidation, storage rack sensitivities, and large spent fuel rack arrays. The present methodology has three calculational paths: NITAWL-S\\/ KENO V.a Monte Carlo, CASMO-3 integral transport, and CASMO-3\\/CHART-2\\/PDQ-7 diffusion theory analysis. These

D. G. Napolitano; F. L. Carpenito; P. J. Rashid

1988-01-01

100

Post-mining predictive visual quality assessment: A methodology  

SciTech Connect

The study of landscape aesthetics has recently been brought into the forefront of research through the passage of various federal legislative acts which mandate the consideration of the quality of surroundings as a natural resource. Based upon relatively recent results, the authors believe that science based visual quality modeling has applications in reclamation projects. They developed a visual quality prediction methodology to assess various post-mining land-use treatments (housing development, agriculture, open water, naturalized vegetation, and existing condition) for surface mining applications. The methodology allows an investigator to quantitatively assess visual quality treatments through inferential statistics. To conduct the assessment, one must be able to digitize photographic images and construct the treatments with an imaging software package.

Keefe, P.S. [Keefe (Peter S.), Portland, OR (United States); Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geography

1998-12-31

101

Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

2012-01-01

102

Comprehensive methodology for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Development of a comprehensive methodology for ecological risk assessment and monitoring of contaminated soils is essential to assess the impacts of environmental contaminants on soil community and biologically-mediated processes in soil. The proposed four-step plan involves (1) a thorough survey of the soil community to establish biodiversity and a base-line community structure, (2) toxicity trials on indicator species and whole soil invertebrate communities, (3) laboratory and field tests on indicator processes and (4) the use of statistical and simulation models to ascertain changes in the soil ecosystems. This methodology was used in portions of the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. Previous soil analyses showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate and PCBs. Preliminary results from field surveys of soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local ``background`` area. Laboratory tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment. The proposed comprehensive methodology appears to offer an efficient and potentially cost saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-31

103

The near real time statistical asset priority driven (nrtsapd) risk assessment methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRTSAPD Risk Assessment methodology offers two key advantages over other risk assessments. The first advantage is that the NRTSAPD risk assessment methodology provides management with a simple, quick, and easy to use risk assessment methodology based on an organizational mission critical asset priority. The second advantage of using this NRTSAPD risk assessment is to integrate several organizational databases such

Charles Pak

2008-01-01

104

Assessment the safety performance of nuclear power plants using Global Safety Index (GSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety performance of the nuclear power plant is a very important factor enhancing the nuclear energy option. It is vague to evaluate the nuclear power plant performance but it can be measured through measuring the safety performance of the plant.In this work, the safety of nuclear power plants is assessed by developing a “Global Safety Index” (GSI).The GSI is

Ayah E. Abouelnaga; Abdelmohsen Metwally; Naguib Aly; Mohammad Nagy; Saeed Agamy

2010-01-01

105

Development of an Automated Safety Assessment Framework for Construction Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ongoing research project concerning the development of an automated safety assessment framework for earthmoving and surface mining activities. This research seeks to determine data needs for safety assessment and investigates how to utilize collected data to promote more informed and efficient safety decision-making. The research first examined accidents and fatalities involved with earthmoving and surface mining

Seokho Chi; Carlos H. Caldas

106

Using Video Vignettes To Evaluate Children's Personal Safety Knowledge: Methodological and Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the use of video-delivered simulations of child maltreatment as a mean of probing the personal safety knowledge of young children. It was concluded that such an approach is methodologically difficult and ethically problematic and controversial. Concerns about possible harm to participants and difficulties in obtaining…

Johnson, Bruce

2000-01-01

107

An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an integrated methodology for the Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS), which may be applied comparatively to rank the eutrophication status of estuaries and coastal areas, and to address management options. It includes quantitative and semi-quantitative components, and uses field data, models and expert knowledge to provide Pressure-State-Response (PSR) indicators.A substantial part of the concepts underlying the

S. B. Bricker; J. G. Ferreira; T. Simas

2003-01-01

108

Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

2012-05-31

109

National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake, Ronald M., II; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, Philip A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; and Varela, Brian A.

2013-01-01

110

Safety Assessment This Appendix contains a duplicate of the GALCIT Laboratory Safety Assessment led  

E-print Network

#12;GALCIT Laboratory Safety Assessment Facility or Experiment Explosion Dynamics Laboratory Hydrogen The Hydrogen Jet Combustion Facility is designed to examine the transient combus- tion and explosion processes that occur when a high-temperature jet of hydrogen and steam is injected into a combustible atmosphere of air

Shepherd, Joe

111

Risk-Informed Assessment Methodology Development and Application  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) has been working with Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) on a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project through a collaborative agreement established for the domestic NERI program. The project deals with Risk-Informed Assessment (RIA) of regulatory and design requirements of future nuclear power plants. An objective of the RIA project is to develop a risk-informed design process, which focuses on identifying and incorporating advanced features into future nuclear power plants (NPPs) that would meet risk goals in a cost-effective manner. The RIA design methodology is proposed to accomplish this objective. This paper discusses the development of this methodology and demonstrates its application in the design of plant systems for future NPPs. Advanced conceptual plant systems consisting of an advanced Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Emergency Feedwater System (EFWS) for a NPP were developed and the risk-informed design process was exercised to demonstrate the viability and feasibility of the RIA design methodology. Best estimate Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analyses were performed to validate the PSA success criteria for the NPP. The results of the analyses show that the PSA success criteria can be met using the advanced conceptual systems and that the RIA design methodology is a viable and appropriate means of designing key features of risk-significant NPP systems. (authors)

Sung Goo Chi; Seok Jeong Park; Chul Jin Choi [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc, 360 9 Mabuk Dong, Giheung-gu Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 449-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ritterbusch, S.E.; Jacob, M.C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (United States)

2002-07-01

112

Development of a methodology to assess the footprint of wastes.  

PubMed

The ecological footprint (EF) is a widely used indicator to assess the sustainability of people, regions or business activities. Although this metric has grown in interest and popularity over the years, it has also been the subject of criticism and controversy. The advantages of an aggregated indicator are often overshadowed by the shortcomings of its corresponding methodology. One weakness of the EF is that it does not account for toxic or hazardous pollutants and wastes, which cannot be part of a closed biological cycle. The methodology developed in the present work estimates the EF of toxic and hazardous wastes considering a closed cycle modeled through a plasma process; a phenomenon that naturally occurs in stars and volcanoes. Wastes from industry can be treated in a thermal plasma gasification process, and, by developing a methodology to describe this process, the EF of hazardous wastes was calculated. A value of 56.5 gha was obtained, a figure on the same order of magnitude as that obtained in a previous study where a conventional ecological footprint methodology was applied to the same production process. PMID:20435414

Herva, Marta; Hernando, Ramón; Carrasco, Eugenio F; Roca, Enrique

2010-08-15

113

Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Armstrong, D.L.

1994-08-01

114

Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations  

SciTech Connect

Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

2010-08-30

115

75 FR 10740 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NHTSA-2010-0025] RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling...Safety Administration (NHTSA) under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). This information...ratings assigned by NHTSA under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), or a...

2010-03-09

116

Development of methodologies for ensuring structural safety of gas turbines and launch vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this dissertation involves two distinct areas. In both cases, optimization techniques provided an important tool to achieve the goal of ensuring structural integrity and safety of gas turbine and launch vehicle systems. In the first area, a novel testing methodology has been developed to assess turbine engine materials fatigue strength. The idea is to accumulate fatigue energy on a base-excited plate specimen at high frequency resonant modes and to complete a fatigue test in a few hours at very low cost. The methodology consists of: (1) a topological design procedure, incorporating a finite element model, to characterize the shape of the specimens for ensuring the required stress state/pattern, (2) a vibration feedback empirical procedure for achieving the high cycle fatigue experiments with variable-amplitude loading, and (3) a fatigue strength implementation scheme for calculating effective stresses and effective number of cycles to failure. The performance of the methodology is demonstrated by the experimental results from steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Ti-6Al-4V plate specimens subjected to fully reversed bending for both uniaxial and biaxial stress states. Furthermore, a technique has been developed to produce residual stress enabling vibration-based fatigue testing at various stress ratios. Additionally, this vibration-based fatigue method has the advantage of being able to produce a fatigue crack in the test specimen while it is still in the initiation stage. In the second area, an optimization procedure has been developed to uniquely and efficiently determine the "best" local geometry design of a new composite ChamberCore structure. This procedure is based on minimization of the total mass of a single composite ChamberCore, subject to a set of design and stress constraints. The stress constraints are obtained in closed-form based on the composite box-beam model for various composite lamination designs and loading conditions. The optimization problem statement is constructed and then solved using the VMCON optimization program. As a supplement to the above sizing/geometry optimization the application of topology optimization to the ChamberCore geometry has been investigated. These two techniques, sizing optimization and topology optimization, provide an avenue for achieving an optimized ChamberCore structure.

George, Thomas Joe, Jr.

117

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation  

SciTech Connect

The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-09-29

118

Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

Levin, H.A. [Synergy Consulting Services Corp., Great Falls, VA (United States); McGehee, R.B. [Wise Carter Child & Caraway, Jackson, MS (United States); Cottle, W.T. [Houston Lighting & Power, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

119

Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.  

PubMed

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

2014-05-01

120

Assessing Hmong Farmers' Safety and Health  

PubMed Central

This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

2014-01-01

121

Development of Non-LOCA Safety Analysis Methodology with RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01/K  

SciTech Connect

Korea Electric Power Research Institute has launched a project to develop an in-house non-loss-of-coolant-accident analysis methodology to overcome the hardships caused by the narrow analytical scopes of existing methodologies. Prior to the development, some safety analysis codes were reviewed, and RETRAN-3D and VIPRE-01 were chosen as the base codes. The codes have been modified to improve the analytical capabilities required to analyze the nuclear power plants in Korea. The methodologies of the vendors and the Electric Power Research Institute have been reviewed, and some documents of foreign utilities have been used to compensate for the insufficiencies. For the next step, a draft methodology for pressurized water reactors has been developed and modified to apply to Westinghouse-type plants in Korea. To verify the feasibility of the methodology, some events of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2 have been analyzed from the standpoints of reactor coolant system pressure and the departure from nucleate boiling ratio. The results of the analyses show trends similar to those of the Final Safety Analysis Report.

Kim, Yo-Han; Cheong, Ae-Ju; Yang, Chang-Keun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2004-10-15

122

Abstract -Preliminary risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology used in critical systems safety studies. It is primarily used at  

E-print Network

Abstract - Preliminary risk analysis (PRA) is a methodology used in critical systems safety studies (aeronautics, weapons systems, chemistry, railway...) in order to study the safety of the systems. From one standard contents of PRA to be used in the context of the railway systems. Keywords - Railway safety

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Methodology for Determination of the Upper Safety Limit for Criticality Calculations for Criticality Safety Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the methods for determination of an upper safety limit, and incorporating uncertainty and margin into the safety limit, provides comparisons, and recommends a preferred method for determining the Upper Safety Limit (USL). A USL is developed for CSAS25 from SCALE4.4a. The USL is applicable for the CSAS25 control module from the SCALE 4.4a computer code system for use in evaluating nuclear criticality safety of enriched uranium systems. The benchmark calculation results used for this report are documented in Y/DD-896. The statistical evaluation is documented in CCG-380. The 27-group ENDF/B-IV, 44-group ENDF/B-V, and 238-group ENDF/B-V cross-section libraries were used. Numerical methods for applying margins are described, but the determination of appropriate correlating parameters and values for additional margin, applicable to a particular analysis, must be determined as part of a process analysis. As such, this document does not specify final upper subcritical limits as has been done in the past. No correlation between calculation results and neutron energy causing fission was found for the critical experiment results. Analysts using these results are responsible for exercising sound engineering judgment using strong technical arguments to develop ''a margin in k{sub eff} or other correlating parameter that is sufficiently large to ensure that conditions (calculated by this method to be subcritical by this margin) will actually be subcritical.'' Documentation of area of applicability and determination and justification of the appropriate margin in the analyst's evaluation, in conjunction with this report, will constitute the complete Validation Report in accordance with ANSI/ANS-8.1-1998, Section 4.3.6(4).

Smith, R.H.; Keener, H.J.; DeClue, J.F.; Krass, A.W.

2001-04-01

124

Fusion integral experiments and analysis and the determination of design safety factors - I: Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The role of the neutronics experimentation and analysis in fusion neutronics research and development programs is discussed. A new methodology was developed to arrive at estimates to design safety factors based on the experimental and analytical results from design-oriented integral experiments. In this methodology, and for a particular nuclear response, R, a normalized density function (NDF) is constructed from the prediction uncertainties, and their associated standard deviations, as found in the various integral experiments where that response, R, is measured. Important statistical parameters are derived from the NDF, such as the global mean prediction uncertainty, and the possible spread around it. The method of deriving safety factors from many possible NDFs based on various calculational and measuring methods (among other variants) is also described. Associated with each safety factor is a confidence level, designers may choose to have, that the calculated response, R, will not exceed (or will not fall below) the actual measured value. An illustrative example is given on how to construct the NDFs. The methodology is applied in two areas, namely the line-integrated tritium production rate and bulk shielding integral experiments. Conditions under which these factors could be derived and the validity of the method are discussed. 72 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

Youssef, M.Z.; Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Oyama, Y.; Maekawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-09-01

125

Assessment of patient safety culture in hospitals of Hyderabad, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe setting of this work is Andhra Pradesh (AP), the fourth largest state Indian state with 76 million people in which the AP patient safety alliance was recently launched. This paper describes the results of assessment of patient safety culture in select hospitals of Hyderabad during September– November 2009.AimTo understand the safety culture of hospitals in Hyderabad, to assess current

S Tetali; N K Kannuri; M Rao

2010-01-01

126

Safety assessment for safety-critical systems including physical faults and design faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of faults, design faults and physical faults, are discussed in this paper. Since they are two mutually exclusive and complete fault types on the fault space, the safety assessment of safety-critical computer systems in this paper considers the hazard contribution from both types. A three-state Markov model is introduced to model safety-critical systems. Steady state safety and mean

Yangyang Yu; Barry W. Johnson

2006-01-01

127

Risk assessment methodologies for passive smoking-induced lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessment methodologies have been successfully applied to control societal risk from outdoor air pollutants. They are now being applied to indoor air pollutants such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and radon. Nonsmokers' exposures to ETS have been assessed based on dosimetry of nicotine, its metabolite, continine, and on exposure to the particulate phase of ETS. Lung cancer responses have been based on both the epidemiology of active and of passive smoking. Nine risk assessments of nonsmokers' lung cancer risk from exposure to ETS have been performed. Some have estimated risks for lifelong nonsmokers only; others have included ex-smokers; still others have estimated total deaths from all causes. To facilitate interstudy comparison, in some cases lung cancers had to be interpolated from a total, or the authors' original estimate had to be adjusted to include ex-smokers. Further, all estimates were adjusted to 1988. Excluding one study whose estimate differs from the mean of the others by two orders of magnitude, the remaining risk assessments are in remarkable agreement. The mean estimate is approximately 5000 +/- 2400 nonsmokers' lung cancer deaths (LCDSs) per year. This is a 25% greater risk to nonsmokers than is indoor radon, and is about 57 times greater than the combined estimated cancer risk from all the hazardous outdoor air pollutants currently regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency: airborne radionuclides, asbestos, arsenic, benzene, coke oven emissions, and vinyl chloride. 48 references.

Repace, J.L.; Lowrey, A.H. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-01

128

Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

Rose, E.C.

1983-10-15

129

Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.  

PubMed

Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666

Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

2010-11-01

130

Global scale flood exposure assessment - Methodologies and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood damage modelling has traditionally been limited to the local, regional or national scale. Recent flood events, population growth and climate change concerns have increased the need for global methods with both spatial and temporal dynamics. In this study we present a first estimate of economic exposure to both river and coastal flooding on a global scale from 1970 - 2050, using two different methods for economic exposure calculation. One methodology is based on population densities and GDP, while the other method uses land-use and maximum damage figures to calculate economic exposure. Both methods show very similar upward trends in economic exposure over the period 1970-2050. However, the absolute exposure values resulting from the two methods show different magnitudes, reflecting variation in urbanisation and income. Furthermore we found that growth of population and economic assets in flood prone areas is higher than average national growth, especially in developing countries. As a next step, we propose a methodology for assessing total flood vulnerability that goes beyond economic impact, using a welfare-based approach based on a broad range of development indicators. The results are interesting for academics and practitioners working on international environmental, economic and development issues at the regional and global scales.

Jongman, B.; Ward, P. J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2012-04-01

131

[Methodological aspects of health-related quality of life assessment].  

PubMed

Despite the increasing interest of Lithuanian health care professionals in measurement of health-related quality of life, there is a lack of medical literature in Lithuanian that describes methodological issues of quality of life assessment. Main psychometric properties of questionnaires (validity, reliability, and responsiveness), as well as methods of their establishment are discussed in this review of international literature. Criteria for selection of a measurement instrument are provided, issues of interpretability of scores and "minimal clinically significant difference" are described in this article. Increase in demand of health-related quality of life questionnaires across medical specialities during the last decade and problems of cross-cultural adaptation of instruments are briefly reviewed. PMID:15208473

Furmonavicius, Tadas

2004-01-01

132

Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses, was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes the preliminary safety assessment results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP).

Marshall, A.C.

1993-07-01

133

Safety\\/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety\\/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety\\/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions

K. R. Byers; P. J. Brown; L. R. Norderhaug

1985-01-01

134

Assessing safety culture in nuclear power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definitions of safety culture abound, but they variously refer to the safety-related values, attitudes, beliefs, risk perceptions and behaviours of all employees. This assembly may seem too inclusive to be meaningful, but each represents a different level of processing and the choice for measurement (or intervention) is more pragmatic than theoretical. The present study addresses mainly attitudes, but also reported

T Lee; K Harrison

2000-01-01

135

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.  

PubMed

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

136

A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzak, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

137

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

138

Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

2014-01-01

139

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING RISK ASSESSMENT WHEN SLUDGE IS APPLIED TO LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

This project explored the feasibility of developing a risk assessment methodology that could be applied to sludge management decision making. It examined cadmium, since this substance is one of the best studied and most extensively reported contaminants. The methodology developed...

140

Determining a cost/effectiveness/safety tradeoff methodology for strategic nuclear warheads  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy national laboratories are charged with anticipating with a long leadtime which technologies for nuclear warheads should be developed. The Safe Warhead System Study was constituted to provide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory management with information and suggestions for making such decisions for enhanced safety warheads. The Minuteman III replacement warheads were analyzed as a test case and that information was used to identify and describe the dominant issues, to develop a methodology and to make initial recommendations. The test case work resulted in several insights into how ongoing design and engineering interacts with the technology ranking and on how to cope with the ubiquitous uncertainties relating to our current ICBM force.

Erickson, S.A. Jr.; Hall, C.H.

1992-04-27

141

Methodology to develop crash modification functions for road safety treatments with fully specified and hierarchical models.  

PubMed

Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are developed as multiplicative factors that are used to reflect the expected changes in safety performance associated with changes in highway design and/or the traffic control features. However, current CMFs have methodological drawbacks. For example, variability with application circumstance is not well understood, and, as important, correlation is not addressed when several CMFs are applied multiplicatively. These issues can be addressed by developing safety performance functions (SPFs) with components of crash modification functions (CM-Functions), an approach that includes all CMF related variables, along with others, while capturing quantitative and other effects of factors and accounting for cross-factor correlations. CM-Functions can capture the safety impact of factors through a continuous and quantitative approach, avoiding the problematic categorical analysis that is often used to capture CMF variability. There are two formulations to develop such SPFs with CM-Function components - fully specified models and hierarchical models. Based on sample datasets from two Canadian cities, both approaches are investigated in this paper. While both model formulations yielded promising results and reasonable CM-Functions, the hierarchical model was found to be more suitable in retaining homogeneity of first-level SPFs, while addressing CM-Functions in sub-level modeling. In addition, hierarchical models better capture the correlations between different impact factors. PMID:24727204

Chen, Yongsheng; Persaud, Bhagwant

2014-09-01

142

Safety assessment of borosilicate glasses as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of calcium sodium borosilicate, calcium aluminum borosilicate, calcium titanium borosilicate, silver borosilicate, and zinc borosilicate as used in cosmetics. These borosilicate glasses function mostly as bulking agents. Available animal and human data were considered along with data from a previous safety assessment of magnesium silicates. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. Data submitted on calcium borosilicate, which is not a cosmetic ingredient, are also included as additional support for the safety of borosilicate glass ingredients. The Panel concluded that borosilicate glasses are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. PMID:24174476

Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2013-01-01

143

Safety assessment of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology.  

PubMed

Often the main criticism of foods derived from biotechnology is concerns about food safety. Whereas most present-day biotechnology-derived foods are approximately 99% similar to their non-biotechnology counterparts, the scientific community must ensure the safety of the novel aspects of these foods. The three phases of safety assessment are discussed and the concept of substantial equivalence is explained. PMID:12908745

Taylor, Steve L

2003-06-01

144

116/02/2005 Assessing the changes in safety  

E-print Network

116/02/2005 Assessing the changes in safety risk arising from the use of natural gas;616/02/2005 The main operational and gas utilisation activities will be studied NATURALHY · Domestic and industrial in safety risk arising from the use of natural gas infrastructures for mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas

145

Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses,

1993-01-01

146

Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process  

SciTech Connect

As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

1980-08-01

147

Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.  

PubMed

The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In this article, we present a case study at the macroscale for the European Union, in which the chemical footprint according to step 1 is calculated for the year 2005. A proposal for extending this approach toward step 2 is presented and discussed, complemented by a discussion on the challenges and the use of appropriate methodologies for assessing chemical footprints to stimulate further research and discussion on the topic. PMID:23907984

Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

2013-10-01

148

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

1994-02-01

149

Instruments for Assessing Risk of Bias and Other Methodological Criteria of Published Animal Studies: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Results from animal toxicology studies are critical to evaluating the potential harm from exposure to environmental chemicals or the safety of drugs prior to human testing. However, there is significant debate about how to evaluate the methodology and potential biases of the animal studies. There is no agreed-upon approach, and a systematic evaluation of current best practices is lacking. Objective: We performed a systematic review to identify and evaluate instruments for assessing the risk of bias and/or other methodological criteria of animal studies. Method: We searched Medline (January 1966–November 2011) to identify all relevant articles. We extracted data on risk of bias criteria (e.g., randomization, blinding, allocation concealment) and other study design features included in each assessment instrument. Discussion: Thirty distinct instruments were identified, with the total number of assessed risk of bias, methodological, and/or reporting criteria ranging from 2 to 25. The most common criteria assessed were randomization (25/30, 83%), investigator blinding (23/30, 77%), and sample size calculation (18/30, 60%). In general, authors failed to empirically justify why these or other criteria were included. Nearly all (28/30, 93%) of the instruments have not been rigorously tested for validity or reliability. Conclusion: Our review highlights a number of risk of bias assessment criteria that have been empirically tested for animal research, including randomization, concealment of allocation, blinding, and accounting for all animals. In addition, there is a need for empirically testing additional methodological criteria and assessing the validity and reliability of a standard risk of bias assessment instrument. Citation: Krauth D, Woodruff TJ, Bero L. 2013. Instruments for assessing risk of bias and other methodological criteria of published animal studies: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect 121:985–992 (2013);?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206389 PMID:23771496

Krauth, David; Woodruff, Tracey J.

2013-01-01

150

Methodology for assessing thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments.  

PubMed

Arsenic leaching and speciation in landfills, especially those with arsenic bearing waste and drywall disposal (such as construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills), may be affected by high levels of sulfide through the formation of thioarsenic anions. A methodology using ion chromatography (IC) with a conductivity detector was developed for the assessment of thioarsenic formation potential in sulfidic landfill environments. Monothioarsenate (H2AsSO3(-)) and dithioarsenate (H2AsS2O2(-)) were confirmed in the IC fractions of thioarsenate synthesis mixture, consistent with previous literature results. However, the observation of AsSx(-) (x=5-8) in the supposed trithioarsenate (H2AsS3O(-)) and tetrathioarsenate (H2AsS4(-)) IC fractions suggested the presence of new arsenic polysulfide complexes. All thioarsenate anions, particularly trithioarsenate and tetrathioarsenate, were unstable upon air exposure. The method developed for thioarsenate analysis was validated and successfully used to analyze several landfill leachate samples. Thioarsenate anions were detected in the leachate of all of the C&D debris landfills tested, which accounted for approximately 8.5% of the total aqueous As in the leachate. Compared to arsenite or arsenate, thioarsenates have been reported in literature to have lower adsorption on iron oxide minerals. The presence of thioarsenates in C&D debris landfill leachate poses new concerns when evaluating the impact of arsenic mobilization in such environments. PMID:24508155

Zhang, Jianye; Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy

2014-07-01

151

Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

1992-12-01

152

Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1998-09-01

153

Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1998-09-01

154

Safety assessment of modified terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

The safety of 6 modified terephthalate polymers as cosmetic ingredients was assessed. These ingredients mostly function as exfoliants, bulking agents, hair fixatives, and viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used in leave-on products up to 100% and in rinse-off products up to 2%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered that the PET used in cosmetics is chemically equivalent to that used in medical devices. The Panel determined that the Food and Drug Administration's determination of safety of PET in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis for the determination of safety of PET and related polymers used in cosmetics. Use studies of cosmetic eye products that contain PET demonstrated no ocular irritation or dermal sensitization. The Panel concluded that modified terephthalate polymers were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment. PMID:25297907

Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2014-09-01

155

Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

Lazaros, Edward J.

2012-01-01

156

Food Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

well known in rats fed similar diets, and that the sample size (six rats) was too small to draw any conclusions. Following the production of the first transgenic plants, health issues The report by Ewen and Pusztai (1999) was seized concerning the safety of using genetically modified (GM) crops in foods and feeds have been discussed, debated, and evaluated. The

Heidi F. Kaeppler

2000-01-01

157

Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate variability and change on the PMP are also under investigation.

England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

2008-12-01

158

Optimization of coupled multiphysics methodology for safety analysis of pebble bed modular reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research conducted within the framework of this PhD thesis is devoted to the high-fidelity multi-physics (based on neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling) analysis of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), which is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR). The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a HTR design. The core design and safety analysis methods are considerably less developed and mature for HTR analysis than those currently used for Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Compared to LWRs, the HTR transient analysis is more demanding since it requires proper treatment of both slower and much longer transients (of time scale in hours and days) and fast and short transients (of time scale in minutes and seconds). There is limited operation and experimental data available for HTRs for validation of coupled multi-physics methodologies. This PhD work developed and verified reliable high fidelity coupled multi-physics models subsequently implemented in robust, efficient, and accurate computational tools to analyse the neutronics and thermal-hydraulic behaviour for design optimization and safety evaluation of PBMR concept The study provided a contribution to a greater accuracy of neutronics calculations by including the feedback from thermal hydraulics driven temperature calculation and various multi-physics effects that can influence it. Consideration of the feedback due to the influence of leakage was taken into account by development and implementation of improved buckling feedback models. Modifications were made in the calculation procedure to ensure that the xenon depletion models were accurate for proper interpolation from cross section tables. To achieve this, the NEM/THERMIX coupled code system was developed to create the system that is efficient and stable over the duration of transient calculations that last over several tens of hours. Another achievement of the PhD thesis was development and demonstration of full-physics, three-dimensional safety analysis methodology for the PBMR to provide reference solutions. Investigation of different aspects of the coupled methodology and development of efficient kinetics treatment for the PBMR were carried out, which accounts for all feedback phenomena in an efficient manner. The OECD/NEA PBMR-400 coupled code benchmark was used as a test matrix for the proposed investigations. The integrated thermal-hydraulics and neutronics (multi-physics) methods were extended to enable modeling of a wider range of transients pertinent to the PBMR. First, the effect of the spatial mapping schemes (spatial coupling) was studied and quantified for different types of transients, which resulted in implementation of improved mapping methodology based on user defined criteria. The second aspect that was studied and optimized is the temporal coupling and meshing schemes between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics time step selection algorithms. The coupled code convergence was achieved supplemented by application of methods to accelerate it. Finally, the modeling of all feedback phenomena in PBMRs was investigated and a novel treatment of cross-section dependencies was introduced for improving the representation of cross-section variations. The added benefit was that in the process of studying and improving the coupled multi-physics methodology more insight was gained into the physics and dynamics of PBMR, which will help also to optimize the PBMR design and improve its safety. One unique contribution of the PhD research is the investigation of the importance of the correct representation of the three-dimensional (3-D) effects in the PBMR analysis. The performed studies demonstrated that explicit 3-D modeling of control rod movement is superior and removes the errors associated with the grey curtain (2-D homogenized) approximation.

Mkhabela, Peter Tshepo

159

NextGen Future Safety Assessment Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful implementation of the next generation infrastructure systems requires solid understanding of their technical, social, political and economic aspects along with their interactions. The lack of historical data that relate to the long-term planning of complex systems introduces unique challenges for decision makers and involved stakeholders which in turn result in unsustainable systems. Also, the need to understand the infrastructure at the societal level and capture the interaction between multiple stakeholders becomes important. This paper proposes a methodology in order to develop a holistic approach aiming to provide an alternative subject-matter expert (SME) elicitation and data collection method for future sociotechnical systems. The methodology is adapted to Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) decision making environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of this holistic approach.

Ancel, Ersin; Gheorghe, Adian; Jones, Sharon Monica

2010-01-01

160

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu\\/lb. and Btu\\/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($\\/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses

Charles A. Powars; Carl B. Moyer; Douglas D. Lowell

1994-01-01

161

Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial risk assessment is a newly emerging discipline in the area of food safety. One of the difficulties associated with microbial risk assessment is in determining the number of microorganisms in food at a given time, i.e., estimating exposure of an individual to the microorganism. Numbers of bacteria in food can change at all stages of food production and processing,

Isabel Walls; Virginia N. Scott

1997-01-01

162

Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.  

PubMed

The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

2014-08-01

163

A Methodology for Architectural-Level Risk Assessment Using Dynamic Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment is an essential process of every software risk management plan. Several risk assessment techniques are based on the subjective judgement of domain experts. Subjective risk assessment techniques are human-intensive and error-prone. Risk assessment should be based on product attributes that we can quantitatively measure using product metrics. This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment at the early

Sherif M. Yacoub; Hany H. Ammar; Tom Robinson

2000-01-01

164

Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that mitigation measures are not conducted. The effects of long-term climate change are considered. The potential for seismically induced geological changes is considered, but is not being actively evaluated during this iteration of the safety assessment. Drilling intrusion and post-intrusion resident scenarios are included. Conceptual models to represent the behavior of the repository under these scenarios have been implemented. A characteristic feature of the Vaalputs repository is its extreme aridity. Observations at the site suggest that recharge at the site is extremely low, and that the predominant moisture movement is upwards in the first few meters below the ground surface, following infrequent episodic precipitation. This means that waste packages in the upper few meters experience different release and transport mechanisms than deeper waste packages. The paper describes the Vaalputs repository, and approaches taken for the safety assessment. The paper also presents results of the safety assessment, and describes the implications of those results on waste management activities at Vaalputs. References IAEA, Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities, Results of a Coordinated Research Project, Volume 1: Review and Enhancement of Safety Assessment Approaches and Tools, IAEA- ISAM, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2004.

Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

2006-12-01

165

Safety assessment of platform loadout procedures based on unascertained measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment of offshore platforms is an urgent task. Such assessments are now focusing on the structure, maintenance, and retirement of a platform. Some methods employed have many shortcomings. For example, they cannot make the reliability adequately explicable. Therefore, a mathematical tool, the unascertained measure, was introduced. First, the basic knowledge of the unascertained sets was introduced briefly. Second, the unascertained measure was defined and credible identification was set up. The method has been introduced into the fields for safety assessment of a jacket loadout procedure. Engineering practices showed that it can complete the safety assessment systematically and scientifically without any assumption. The work should have significance in theory and practice for offshore engineering.

Li, Yancang; Suo, Juanjuan

2007-10-01

166

STATUS OF IERL-RTP ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR FOSSIL ENERGY PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the status of the following environmental assessment (EA) methodologies: current process technology background, environmental data acquisition, current environmental background, environmental objectives development, control technology assessment, and environ...

167

A methodology to assess cost implications of automotive customization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on determining the cost of customization for different components or groups of components of a car. It offers a methodology to estimate the manufacturing cost of a complex system such as a car. This ...

Fournier, Laëtitia

2005-01-01

168

Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

2003-12-01

169

Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting. Design: An iterative review process in which the framework was developed and evaluated through a series of 10 focus groups with a purposive sample of 67 community pharmacists and support staff in the UK. Main outcome measures: Development of the framework and qualitative process feedback on its acceptability, face validity, and feasibility for use in community pharmacies. Results: Using this process, a version of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework (MaPSAF) was developed that is suitable for application to community pharmacies. The participants were able to understand the concepts, recognised differences between the five stages of safety culture maturity, and concurred with the descriptions from personal experience. They also indicated that they would be willing to use the framework but recognised that staff would require protected time in order to complete the assessment. Conclusions: In practice the MaPSAF is likely to have a number of uses including raising awareness about patient safety and illustrating any differences in perception between staff, stimulating discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of patient safety culture within the pharmacy, identifying areas for improvement, and evaluating patient safety interventions and tracking changes over time. This will support the development of a mature safety culture in community pharmacies. PMID:16326787

Ashcroft, D; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P

2005-01-01

170

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M.

2008-07-01

171

The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide dissemination activities, the final aim of the project is to ensure the deployment and the integration into existing earthquake mitigation policies and vocational training schemes.

Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

172

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

Not Available

1992-12-01

173

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation  

SciTech Connect

This analysis examines activities associated with the installation of isolation barriers in the K Basins at the Hanford Reservation. This revision adds evaluation of barrier drops on stored fuel and basin floor, identifies fuel which will be moved and addresses criticality issues with sludge. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-10-21

174

Considerations regarding nonhuman primate use in safety assessment of biopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

Selection of a pharmacologically responsive species can represent a major challenge in designing nonclinical safety assessment programs for many biopharmaceuticals (eg, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)). Frequently, the only relevant species for nonclinical testing of mAbs is the non-human primate (NHP). This situation, coupled with a rapidly increasing number of mAb drugs in development, has resulted in a significant increase in the number of NHPs used in nonclinical safety assessment. Apart from ethical considerations related to responsible animal use, there is a clear need for more efficient and innovative approaches to drug discovery and development; these factors drive the need to investigate alternative approaches and strategies for the safety assessment. This review summarizes important scientific and regulatory perspectives derived from presentations and audience discussions in an educational forum at the 2010 annual American College of Toxicology meeting regarding opportunities for employing alternative approaches to minimize NHP use in mAb drug development. PMID:22013138

Buckley, Lorrene A; Chapman, Kathryn; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann; Todd, Marque D; Martin, Pauline L; Lansita, Janice A

2011-10-01

175

Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

176

Annotated bibliography of methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annotated bibliography of methodology of assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources is presented as a useful reference for those engaged in resource assessment. The articles that are included deal only with quantitative assessment of undiscovered or inferred resources. the articles in this bibliography are classified largely according to the major assessment method that was applied in each situation.

Ronald R. Charpentier; Gordon L. Dolton; Gregory F. Ulmishek

1995-01-01

177

Comprehensive safety management and assessment at rugby football competitions.  

PubMed

The present study aims to improve medical systems by designing objective safety assessment criteria for rugby competitions. We evaluated 195 competitions between 2002 and 2011 using an original safety scale comprising the following sections: 1) competence of staff such as referees, medical attendants and match day doctor; 2) environment such as weather, wet bulb globe temperature and field conditions; and 3) emergency medical care systems at the competitions. Each section was subdivided into groups A, B and C according to good, normal or fair degrees of safety determined by combinations of the results.Overall safety was assessed as A, B and C for 110, 78 and 7 competitions, respectively. The assessments of individual major factors were mostly favorable for staff, but the environment and medical care systems were assessed as C in 25 and 70, respectively, of the 195 competitions. Medical management involves not having a match day doctor, but also comprehensive management including preventive factors and responses from the staff, environment and medical-care systems. 6 cases of severe injuries and accidents occurred between 2002 and 2011, which were observed in Grade A competition. These cases revealed better prognosis without obvious impairment, thus confirming the value of the present assessment scale. PMID:24838268

Tajima, T; Chosa, E; Kawahara, K; Nakamura, Y; Yoshikawa, D; Yamaguchi, N; Kashiwagi, T

2014-11-01

178

NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review - Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology  

Cancer.gov

A-1 APPENDIX A A-2 Appendix A: Literature Review Methodology Reference Manager Database A Reference Manager 10.0 database for this literature search and review was created to ensure that all of the references from the search strings in Exhibit

179

METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES: NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this task were to: (1) consider alternative methodologies for information collection, analysis, and presentation; (2) design a system for maintaining current awareness of the environmental implications of technology in the non-ferrous metals industry; and, (3) e...

180

Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity  

E-print Network

of Photovoltaic Electricity INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAMME Methodology Electricity, 2nd edition, IEA PVPS Task 12, International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power systems Programme. A consistent approach towards system modeling, the functional unit, the system boundaries and the allocation

181

Defensive Cyber Battle Damage Assessment Through Attack Methodology Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the growing sophisticated capabilities of advanced persistent cyber threats, it is necessary to understand and accurately assess cyber attack damage to digital assets. This thesis proposes a Defensive Cyber Battle Damage Assessment (DCBDA) process ...

R. Ostler

2011-01-01

182

The Evolution of HAZARD, the Fire Hazard Assessment Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States alone spends $700 billion a year on new and renovated construction. About 20% of this money assures safety from unwanted fires, and this portion includes the cost of insurance to families and businesses. This enormous cost could be reduced by introducing fire safe products to the building and transportation industries, both in the United States and abroad,

Walter W. Jones

1997-01-01

183

Methodological Quandaries in Studying Process and Outcomes in Peer Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer assessment is very various in its implementation. Six studies of peer assessment are reviewed, four of them in higher education. A literature review is followed by five empirical studies. Strengths and weaknesses of each study are considered and issues are raised. Variables in peer assessment needing further exploration are extricated--in…

Topping, Keith J.

2010-01-01

184

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, B. T.; Mueller, D. E.

2008-12-01

185

Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL

2008-01-01

186

Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment for Tank 38H Salt Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

This assessment report of sample results of the accumulating insoluble solids from Tank 38H demonstrates that an inherent subcritical condition for nuclear criticality safety exists during saltcake dissolution. This report also defines criteria for future sampling of Tank 38H for continued verification of the inherent subcritical condition as saltcake dissolution proceeds.

Davis, P.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-10-23

187

Food safety regulation, economic impact assessment and quantitative methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with a call for more efficient regulations in the EU, there is a growing demand for transparency in the evaluation techniques to assess and predict their effects. This article explores the potential impacts of food safety regulations and discusses the quantitative methods used in the policy evaluation literature. Along with the strengths and limitations of each method, this review

Maddalena Ragona; Mario Mazzocchi

2008-01-01

188

Safety assessment of alkyl glyceryl ethers as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Alkyl glyceryl ethers function mostly as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products applied to the skin and hair. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review expert panel reviewed the available animal toxicity and clinical data, including the low dermal absorption, and concluded that the alkyl glyceryl ethers are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment. PMID:24174475

Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

2013-01-01

189

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2 1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA. 2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA. A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

190

Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989  

SciTech Connect

The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

NONE

1989-05-01

191

A methodology to compensate for individual differences in psychophysiological assessment.  

PubMed

The main methodological drawback to use physiological measures as indicators of arousal is, the large interindividual variability of autonomic responses hindering the direct comparability, between individuals. The present methodology has been tested in two cohorts (n1=910, n2=845) of, pilot applicants during a selection procedure. Physiological data were obtained during two mentally, demanding tasks and during a Flight Simulator Test. Five typical Autonomic Response Patterns (ARP), were identified by cluster analyses. Autonomic spaces were constructed separately for each group of, subjects having the same typical ARP, on the basis of their normalized eigenvectors. The length of the, vector sum of scores on autonomic space dimensions provided an integral index for arousal, labeled, Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The PAV still reflected the changes in mental load during the, tests, but equalized physiological differences among ARP-groups. The results obtained in the first, cohort were verified in the second cohort. PMID:24315952

Johannes, Bernd; Gaillard, Anthony W K

2014-02-01

192

Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

Not Available

1992-05-01

193

Rasterised Water Demands: Methodology for Their Assessment and Possible Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a methodology for the calculation of grid cell spatially distributed water demands—for the stakeholders domestic,\\u000a municipal, industrial and agricultural (without rainfed or irrigated crop production) water use—is presented. As case study\\u000a the Kitzbühel region in the Austrian Alps, encompassing 20 municipalities, was chosen. Austria is one of few countries within\\u000a the European Union that provides data of

Davy Vanham; Stefanie Millinger; Harald Pliessnig; Wolfgang Rauch

194

An Ecological and Economic Assessment Methodology for Coastal Ecosystem Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptation of the Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response methodology is presented in this work. The differential DPSIR\\u000a (?DPSIR) was developed to evaluate impacts on the coastal environment and as a tool for integrated ecosystem management. The\\u000a aim of the ?DPSIR is to provide scientifically-based information required by managers and decision-makers to evaluate previously\\u000a adopted policies, as well as future response scenarios. The innovation

Ana M. Nobre

2009-01-01

195

Development of Rapid Earthquake Shaking and Loss Assessment Methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main objective of this study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU Project entitled "Network of research Infrastructures for European Seismology, NERIES", is to develop a methodology for real time estimation of losses after a major earthquake in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The earthquake shaking and loss information will be disseminated in a timely manner to related agencies for the planning and coordination of the post-earthquake emergency response. This multi-level methodology being developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships The development encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base, basic source parameters and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line regional broadband stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters at engineering bedrock through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and/or actual physical simulation of ground motion. 3. Estimation of the spatial distribution of site-specific ground selected motion parameters using regional geology (or urban geotechnical information) data-base using appropriate amplification models. 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement and enchantment of the ground motion distribution (Shake Map) 5. Estimation of the losses and uncertainties at various orders of sophistication (Loss Map) A software called "ELER" based on this methodology is currently under development. Within the scope of this paper, results obtained from a pilot application of this methodology and the ELER software to the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake interms of ground shaking and losses are presented and comparisons with the observed losses are made.

Erdik, M. O.; Sesetyan, K.; Zulfikar, C.; Demircioglu, M. B.; Cagnan, Z.; Durukal, E.

2008-12-01

196

The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring.  

PubMed

The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as "PHM methodology" or "PHM toolbox". An overview on this interdisciplinary methodology and its comprising modules is provided, areas of application and intended target groups are indicated. PMID:23920452

Schmidt, Silke; Verweij, Marcel

2013-01-01

197

Guiding principles of USGS methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last 30 years, the methodology for assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources used by the Geological Survey has undergone considerable change. This evolution has been based on five major principles. First, the U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility for a wide range of U.S. and world assessments and requires a robust methodology suitable for immaturely explored as well as maturely explored areas. Second, the assessments should be based on as comprehensive a set of geological and exploration history data as possible. Third, the perils of methods that solely use statistical methods without geological analysis are recognized. Fourth, the methodology and course of the assessment should be documented as transparently as possible, within the limits imposed by the inevitable use of subjective judgement. Fifth, the multiple uses of the assessments require a continuing effort to provide the documentation in such ways as to increase utility to the many types of users. Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources are those recoverable volumes in undiscovered, discrete, conventional structural or stratigraphic traps. The USGS 2000 methodology for these resources is based on a framework of assessing numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations and the associated risks. The input is standardized on a form termed the Seventh Approximation Data Form for Conventional Assessment Units. Volumes of resource are then calculated using a Monte Carlo program named Emc2, but an alternative analytic (non-Monte Carlo) program named ASSESS also can be used. The resource assessment methodology continues to change. Accumulation-size distributions are being examined to determine how sensitive the results are to size-distribution assumptions. The resource assessment output is changing to provide better applicability for economic analysis. The separate methodology for assessing continuous (unconventional) resources also has been evolving. Further studies of the relationship between geologic models of conventional and continuous resources will likely impact the respective resource assessment methodologies. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Charpentier, R.R.; Klett, T.R.

2005-01-01

198

Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

Edwards, Gareth [63 Woodlands Road, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9TD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gareth.edwards@novelfoods.co.uk

2005-09-01

199

Methodological Issues in Exposure Assessment for Studies of Childhood Leukemia  

E-print Network

Epidemiologic Research: Principles and Quantitive Methods.epidemiologic research and will ultimately stimulate improvements in the methodsepidemiologic research has grown increasingly complicated, involving sophisticated exposure assessment methods,

Slusky, Danna Aharon

2010-01-01

200

MODEL BASED METHODOLOGY FOR REMEDIAL ACTION ASSESSMENT AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a remedial action assessment methodology for uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The model-based methodology consists of three key elements: a set of sophisticated models (one for each hydrologic zone), a data base structure and associated programs to transmit...

201

Development, application, and assessment of two methodological approaches to evaluate new healthcare technologies: A research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As new healthcare technologies are developed, tensions arise about efficacy, safety, costs and optimal timing of their implementation into routine clinical care. We need methodologies that could avoid the pitfalls of premature adoption of a new technology and facilitate a more deliberate consideration of evolving evidence, particularly among different information sources, such as media reports. ^ Methods: I conducted

Michelle Elisabeth Kho

2010-01-01

202

Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum.  

PubMed

Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous filamentous yeast-like fungus commonly isolated from soil, air, water, milk, silage, plant tissues, digestive tract in humans and other mammals. This species is widely used as adjunct culture in the maturation of cheese. The genus Geotrichum is composed of 18 species. A recent taxonomic revision concluded that the old Galactomyces geotrichum/G. candidum complex contained four separate species of which Galactomyces candidus sp. nov./G. candidum. M13 primer can be used for identifying species of the Geotrichum genus. Used in combination, RAPD-PCR and RAM-PCR permit strains to be differentiated. The species can be unambiguous differentiated from the two species most frequently described in human pathology: Geotrichum clavatum (reclassified Saprochaete clavata) and Geotrichum capitatum (reclassified Magnusiomyces capitatus/Saprochaete capitata). Sources of exposure are food ingestion--cheese consumption playing a major role--inhalation and contact. A bibliographic survey was conducted to assess corresponding hazards and risks. G. candidum infections (mainly pulmonary or bronchopulmonary, but also cutaneous, oral, disseminates) are very rare: fewer than 100 cases reported between 1842 and 2006. Moreover, cases were not all confirmed by repeated isolations and demonstration of the fungus' presence in tissues, a prerequisite to establish a true diagnosis of geotrichosis. Immunocompromised population was recently shown as a target for opportunistic infection. The most effective treatments include either azole drogs as ketonazole, iconazole and clotrimazole, or polyene antibiotics as amphotericin B, nystatin and pimaricin, or voriconazole-amphotericin B association. Less than 1 case/year of disease was possibly caused by G. candidum and it never included dairy products or foodborne infection. The risk of developing an infection due to G. candidum in connection with its technological use and consumption of dairy products is virtually nil. For these reasons, G. candidum should be proposed for QPS status. PMID:17869364

Pottier, Ivannah; Gente, Stéphanie; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Guéguen, Micheline

2008-09-01

203

UNRAVELLING PEER ASSESSMENT: METHODOLOGICAL, FUNCTIONAL, AND CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENTS  

E-print Network

research. This implies sound (quasi- )experimental studies, the definition of specific peer assessment these three needs and offer new directions for research. Keywords: Peer assessment; Peer feedback; Quasi-experimental-Willem Strijbos a, *, Dominique Sluijsmans b,c,d a Centre for the Study of Learning and Instruction, Institute

Boyer, Edmond

204

Application of risk assessment methodology to transborder data flow  

SciTech Connect

The formal application of risk assessment to computer systems first gained popularity in 1975. As a result, many business organizations and government agencies have established policies and regulations governing the conditions and procedures that are used in limiting their exposure to risks. This report describes the benefits that may arise from applying a formal risk assessment technique to transborder data flow (TDF) issues.

Smith, S.T.; Lim, J.J.; Lobel, J.

1985-01-01

205

Learning Theories and Assessment Methodologies--An Engineering Educational Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to critically review theories of learning from the perspective of engineering education in order to align relevant assessment methods with each respective learning theory, considering theoretical aspects and practical observations and reflections. The role of formative assessment, taxonomies, peer learning and educational…

Hassan, O. A. B.

2011-01-01

206

Methodologies for assessing performance of irrigation and drainage management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework irrigation managers can use in assessing performance of irrigation, and recommends a specific set of indicators for measuring performance that the authors believe are practical, useful, and generally applicable. Although the primary focus is on the management of canal systems for agricultural production, the paper also discusses indicators that can be used for assessing longer

M. G. Bos; D. H. Murray-Rust; D. J. Merrey; H. G. Johnson; W. B. Snellen

1993-01-01

207

Conceptually and Methodologically Vexing Issues in Teacher Knowledge Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe the vexing issues that arise as researchers try to define and assess the knowledge teachers need to teach reading and writing effectively in the primary grades. Over the past several years, the authors of this article have developed and tested an assessment system of teacher knowledge under a grant titled The Primary

D. Ray Reutzel; Janice A. Dole; Sylvia Read; Parker Fawson; Kerry Herman; Cindy D. Jones; Richard Sudweeks; Jamison Fargo

2011-01-01

208

Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention: A Methodological Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures.…

MacDonald, Rebecca; Anderson, Jennifer; Dube, William V.; Geckeler, Amy; Green, Gina; Holcomb, William; Mansfield, Renee; Sanchez, June

2006-01-01

209

EMERGING METHODOLOGIES FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPLEX MIXTURES; THE INTEGRATED AIR CANCER PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The assessment of complex mixtures of environmental pollutants requires new interdisciplinary strategies. The integration of bioassay methodologies into these strategies is an important tool which provides direct evidence of the toxicity of a mixture. Short-term genetic bioassays...

210

Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

2013-01-01

211

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

Andrews, Nick

2012-09-01

212

Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

1996-02-01

213

Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

214

SCREENING METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING LEAKING UST SITES AND CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Across the nation, treatment technologies are being applied to clean up soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from leaking underground storage tanks (UST). ite assessment (developing an accurate understanding of subsurface conditions at a site) increases t...

215

A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation  

E-print Network

Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economic manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, Distributed Generation (DG...

Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

2006-08-16

216

Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety Analysis of the US Department of Energy's Central Training Academy) and other DOE complexes (WSI-SRS 1994, Ballistic Risk Assessment of Wackenhut Services, Inc). This safety analysis document (SAD) satisfies the requirements of DOE 0 440.1A. The preparation, review, and approval of this safety assessment document is in accordance with the guidelines of HNF-PRO-700, Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements.

BENDIXSEN, R.B.

2001-09-19

217

Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

Not Available

1994-07-01

218

45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES ANNUAL STATE SELF-ASSESSMENT...produced and contents of the annual report. (b) Sampling...establishes a procedure for the design of samples and assures...State must conduct an annual review covering all of...the appropriate OCSE Regional Office, with a...

2013-10-01

219

45 CFR 308.1 - Self-assessment implementation methodology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES ANNUAL STATE SELF-ASSESSMENT...produced and contents of the annual report. (b) Sampling...establishes a procedure for the design of samples and assures...State must conduct an annual review covering all of...the appropriate OCSE Regional Office, with a...

2012-10-01

220

Assessment of local agroclimatological conditions—a methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the assessment of climatological conditions of importance for agricultural planning and management is presented as a case study in an 80 km2 area in southwestern Sweden. The method is based on the use of a geographical information system, GIS. Digital elevation data of high quality are now available in Sweden, and can be used for estimations of

Mats Söderström; Bo Magnusson

1995-01-01

221

USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

222

Using Tropos Methodology to Model an Integrated Health Assessment System  

E-print Network

health assessment of health and social care needs of older people is used as the case study throughout is the Health Care sector. Health Care information systems are becoming more and more computerised. A huge this can be done faster and more efficiently. One of the areas within the Health Care sector that can take

223

A Technology Assessment Methodology. Volume I. Some Basic Propositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one of six reports on the subject of technology assessment prepared by MITRE for the Office of Science and Technology, Executive Office of the President. The purpose of this project was to develop a standard, structured method for making studies d...

M. V. Jones

1971-01-01

224

Assessment Center Methodology as a Tool for Leadership Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project EXCEL (Excellence in Community Elected and Appointed Leadership) was created in 1990 to provide opportunities for assessing job training and personal development needs of public officials in small and midsized communities, as well as to develop a continuing education program to assist public leaders in professional growth and problem…

Spiegel, Marilyn R.; And Others

225

Assessing College Classroom Environment Using Free Description: A Methodological Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the measurement of classroom environment and proposes an alternative approach to assessing classroom environment that allows subjects greater spontaneity and provides greater descriptive flexibility. A study asked 31 college professors at Midwestern State University of Wichita Falls, Texas, to generate lists of adjectives…

Diekhoff, George M.; Wigginton, Phil K.

226

ARAMIS: An integrated risk assessment methodology for SEVESO Plants  

E-print Network

, assess and reduce the risk. This method has to be ineris-00976172,version1-9Apr2014 Author manuscript. About 80% of the major accidents have causes related with human and organisational factors, which approaches. It was also to provide a way to reduce or at least explain the discrepancies of the results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

A Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first year of that activity was specified for development of a methodology to estimate storage potential that could be applied uniformly to geologic formations across the United States. After its release, the methodology was to receive public comment and external expert review. An initial methodology was developed and published in March 2009 (Burruss and others, 2009), and public comments were received. The report was then sent to a panel of experts for external review. The external review report was received by the USGS in December 2009. This report is in response to those external comments and reviews and describes how the previous assessment methodology (Burruss and others, 2009) was revised. The resource that is assessed is the technically accessible storage resource, which is defined as the mass of CO2 that can be stored in the pore volume of a storage formation. The methodology that is presented in this report is intended to be used for assessments at scales ranging from regional to subbasinal in which storage assessment units are defined on the basis of common geologic and hydrologic characteristics. The methodology does not apply to site-specific evaluation of storage resources or capacity.

Brennan, Sean T.; Burruss, Robert C.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

2010-01-01

228

CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document  

SciTech Connect

The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

1980-03-01

229

[Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].  

PubMed

Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p< 0.001). After the implementation of 5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on employees, and some sufficient satisfaction was observed. In addition, the non-conformity score, which was identified in the laboratory during the previous years, was significantly reduced at a rate of 69.7% after the implementation of 5S. 5S practices have successfully contributed to the establishment and to the sustainability of laboratory safety systems in the first public ISO 15189 accredited public clinical laboratory in Turkey. It is concluded that 5S methods can be used as an effective improvement tool in order to maintain a safe environment, to facilitate the job, and to encourage employees to participate in the management process. PMID:24819267

Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

2014-04-01

230

Safety and immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies  

PubMed Central

Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development are indicated for treatment of patients with cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune disease and as such, are designed to directly interact with the immune system. A major hurdle for the development and early clinical investigation of many of these immunomodulatory mAbs is their inherent risk for adverse immune-mediated drug reactions in humans such as infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the immunopharmacology of a mAb in humans and animals is required to both anticipate the clinical risk of adverse immunotoxicological events and to select a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical studies. This review summarizes the most common adverse immunotoxicological events occurring in humans with immunomodulatory mAbs and outlines non-clinical strategies to define their immunopharmacology and assess their immunotoxic potential, as well as reduce the risk of immunotoxicity through rational mAb design. Tests to assess the relative risk of mAb candidates for cytokine release syndrome, innate immune system (dendritic cell) activation and immunogenicity in humans are also described. The importance of selecting a relevant and sensitive toxicity species for human safety assessment in which the immunopharmacology of the mAb is similar to that expected in humans is highlighted, as is the importance of understanding the limitations of the species selected for human safety assessment and supplementation of in vivo safety assessment with appropriate in vitro human assays. A tiered approach to assess effects on immune status, immune function and risk of infection and cancer, governed by the mechanism of action and structural features of the mAb, is described. Finally, the use of immunopharmacology and immunotoxicity data in determining a minimum anticipated biologic effect Level (MABEL) and in the selection of safe human starting dose is discussed. PMID:20421713

Morton, Laura Dill; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Kiessling, Andrea; Allenspach, Roy; Hey, Adam; Muller, Patrick Y; Frings, Werner; Sims, Jennifer

2010-01-01

231

A methodology for tsunami hazard assessment using Green functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we propose a methodology for fast computation of offshore wave heights of tsunamis generated by a specific initial water disturbance. The method includes the following steps: the source area is discretized into a grid of unity water sources, a linear shallow water (LSW) numerical model is used to pre-compute the corresponding Green functions, the reconstitution of the tsunami waveform is made for a set of possible earthquake sources. We compare these results with the direct LSW computation, to check for the accuracy of the method. We present a case study for the coast of Oman. The Makran subduction zone is used as potential source area, and Green summation is used to produce rapid estimations of water heights at a number of virtual tide gauges located along the shoreline. The results show the effectiveness of the method to save computation time and its use in estimations of tsunami hazard, when there is a need to compute a very large number of potential sources. This work was funded by projects: TAGUS DELTA, CONDRIBER, GEONUM of FCT Portugal, Avaliação do Risco Sísmico e de Tsunami no Concelho de Cascais (IDL-UL); and GTIMS tender no. JRC/IPR/2013/G.2/13/NC.

Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.

2013-12-01

232

Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four cornerstones of microbial food safety risk assessment are hazard identification, exposure assessment, hazard characterization, and risk characterization. These steps represent a systematic process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probabilities arising from consumption of foods that may be contaminated with microbial pathogens and\\/or microbial toxins. This paper presents a discussion of the first two steps: hazard identification

Anna M. Lammerding; Aamir Fazil

2000-01-01

233

Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a “dirty bomb”. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

2007-07-09

234

Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-19

235

Assessment of Methodological Quality of Economic Evaluations in Belgian Drug Reimbursement Applications  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper aims to assess the methodological quality of economic evaluations included in Belgian reimbursement applications for Class 1 drugs. Materials and Methods For 19 reimbursement applications submitted during 2011 and Spring 2012, a descriptive analysis assessed the methodological quality of the economic evaluation, evaluated the assessment of that economic evaluation by the Drug Reimbursement Committee and the response to that assessment by the company. Compliance with methodological guidelines issued by the Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre was assessed using a detailed checklist of 23 methodological items. The rate of compliance was calculated based on the number of economic evaluations for which the item was applicable. Results Economic evaluations tended to comply with guidelines regarding perspective, target population, subgroup analyses, comparator, use of comparative clinical data and final outcome measures, calculation of costs, incremental analysis, discounting and time horizon. However, more attention needs to be paid to the description of limitations of indirect comparisons, the choice of an appropriate analytic technique, the expression of unit costs in values for the current year, the estimation and valuation of outcomes, the presentation of results of sensitivity analyses, and testing the face validity of model inputs and outputs. Also, a large variation was observed in the scope and depth of the quality assessment by the Drug Reimbursement Committee. Conclusions Although general guidelines exist, pharmaceutical companies and the Drug Reimbursement Committee would benefit from the existence of a more detailed checklist of methodological items that need to be reported in an economic evaluation. PMID:24386474

Simoens, Steven

2013-01-01

236

Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment.  

PubMed

Microbial risk assessment is a newly emerging discipline in the area of food safety. One of the difficulties associated with microbial risk assessment is in determining the number of microorganisms in food at a given time, i.e.. estimating exposure of an individual to the microorganism. Numbers of bacteria in food can change at all stages of food production and processing, depending on the nature of the food and the way it is handled, stored and processed. Predictive microbiology can be used to estimate changes in bacterial numbers, allowing exposure of an individual to a pathogen to be assessed. A survey was sent to scientists in the food industry to determine their perspective on the role of predictive microbiology in conducting microbial risk assessments. In this paper, responses to that survey are presented, as well as examples of the potential risk of foodborne illness from a cooked meat product contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and hamburger contaminated with Salmonella. PMID:9217098

Walls, I; Scott, V N

1997-05-20

237

Data Management inside the Library: Assessing Electronic Resources Data Using the Data Asset Framework Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapidly growing within academic libraries, library data services have often been focused on assessing research trends and building partnerships outside the library. There are distinct benefits, however, to using data audit methodologies created for these external assessments of researcher practices inside the library as well. In this article, we…

Ogier, Andi; Hall, Monena; Bailey, Annette; Stovall, Connie

2014-01-01

238

Methodology for Maintainability-Based Risk Assessment Walid M. Abdelmoez, West Virginia University  

E-print Network

address the problem of maintainability risk assessment using architecture metrics. In accordance with NASA in maintenance. Software systems with good maintainability can be easily modified to fix faults or to adapt a methodology for assessing maintainability-based risk to account for changes in the system requirements

Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

239

SURVEY OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING MEDIA SCREENING VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Barron, Mace G. and Steve Wharton. Submitted. Survey of Methodologies for Developing Media Screening Values for Ecological Risk Assessment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 44 p. (ERL,GB 1200). Concurrent with the increase in the number of ecological risk assessments over the past...

240

Assessing Personality and Mood With Adjective Check List Methodology: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the benefits and problems in using adjective check list methodology to assess personality. Recent developments in this assessment method are reviewed, emphasizing seminal adjective-based personality tests (Gough's Adjective Check List), mood tests (Lubin's Depressive Adjective Test, Multiple Affect Adjective Check List),…

Craig, Robert J.

2005-01-01

241

Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems. These efforts have produced a generic PA methodology for the evaluation of waste management systems that has gained wide acceptance within the international community. This report documents how this methodology has been used as an effective management tool to evaluate different disposal designs and sites; inform development of regulatory requirements; identify, prioritize, and guide research aimed at reducing uncertainties for objective estimations of risk; and support safety assessments.

Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-11-01

242

Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach  

PubMed Central

We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease. PMID:23890489

2013-01-01

243

A harmonised model for safety assessment and certification of safety-critical systems in the transportation industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model for the assessment and certification of safety-critical programmable electronic systems in the\\u000a transportation industries. The proposed model is founded on the significant commonalities between emerging international safety-related\\u000a standards in the automotive, railway and aerospace industries. It contains a system development and a safety assessment process\\u000a which rationalise and unify the common requirements among the standards

Yiannis Papadopoulos; John A. McDermid

1998-01-01

244

12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals: susceptibility to environmental hazards.  

PubMed Central

The 12th meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC) considered the topic of methodologies for determining human and ecosystem susceptibility to environmental hazards. The report prepared at the meeting describes measurement of susceptibility through the use of biological markers of exposure, biological markers of effect, and biomarkers directly indicative of susceptibility of humans or of ecosystems. The utility and validity of these biological markers for the study of susceptibility are evaluated, as are opportunities for developing newer approaches for the study of humans or of ecosystems. For the first time a SGOMSEC workshop also formally considered the issue of ethics in relation to methodology, an issue of particular concern for studies of susceptibility. PMID:9255554

Barrett, J C; Vainio, H; Peakall, D; Goldstein, B D

1997-01-01

245

Generic health impact prediction and assessment methodology for environmental impact studies  

SciTech Connect

Human health impacts have been given minimal attention in most environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies despite the increasing awareness that many projects may have the potential for causing adverse health effects. The need to address human health in EIA studies was recognized in the 1970 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and, more explicitly, in the 1979 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations. In this study a generic health impact prediction and assessment methodology for EIA studies was developed and presented. The first phase of this study consisted of establishing the need for such a methodology. A review of 39 selected EISs showed that human health impacts, although not completely ignored, are typically given inadequate attention. Among those EISS that assessed health impacts, only 27% used risk assessment techniques for assessing all the health impacts addressed. This review was complemented with a more detailed analysis of two EISs that used risk assessment techniques. This analysis showed a lack of integration of the risk assessment elements into the overall EIA process. In the second phase of the study the methodology was developed by aggregating principles contained in risk assessment methods as well as in traditional approaches used in EIA studies. The main consideration was that it should be integrated into the unified analytical process that is basic in an EIA study. Consequently, the generic methodology was organized according to the activities conducted in a typical environmental impact study, with these activities linked to such tasks as scoping, impact identification, impact quantification and evaluation, and aggregation with other impacts. The proposed methodology was tested in a generic case study involving a coal gasification complex. This case study showed that the methodology can be applied to EIA studies.

Arquiaga, M.C.

1991-01-01

246

Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

NONE

1997-10-01

247

[Safety assessment of nanomaterials for development of nano-cosmetics].  

PubMed

A diverse array of nanomaterials (NMs), such as amorphous nanosilica (nSP), carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide, has become widespread in use due to the development of nanotechnology. NMs are already being applied in universal fields because they have unique physicochemical properties. On the other hands, the safety of NMs has not been well assessed, because NMs have been considered as safe as common larger sized materials which are known not to be absorbed by the body. Because NMs have the potential to improve the quality of human life, it is essential to ensure the safety of NMs and provide information for designing safer NMs. In this regard, we studied the biological distribution and hazard identification of nSP following dermal administration, because nSP is used NMs in the cosmetics field. In the future, our study would help to set the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI), and be useful information for the safety/hazard assessment and evaluation. PMID:23123712

Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

2012-01-01

248

Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

1992-01-01

249

A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

1982-05-01

250

Dioxin bioaccumulation: key to a sound risk assessment methodology.  

PubMed

Human exposure to many pollutants occurs primarily through the ingestion of contaminated fish. In order to protect human health, regulatory agencies set limits on the levels of pollutants entering water bodies from point sources, thereby limiting the amount of pollutants that may be accumulated by fish. The limits, in the form of water quality criteria, are designed to correlate the concentration of a pollutant in a water body (and therefore the concentration accumulated by a fish) to the risks to humans. This type of model provides a reasonable way of controlling pollutants from point sources if the assumptions used in the model are realistic. However, the risk assessment formula currently used for developing water quality criteria only considers those pollutants in the water column available to fish through bioconcentration across the gills (freely dissolved pollutants). For strongly hydrophobic pollutants like dioxin, an extremely small fraction of the total amount is freely dissolved; most dioxin is sorbed to organic matter and is ingested by fish. A new model for developing criteria is presented here that takes into account the environmental fate of dioxin (predominantly in the sorbed state in the environment) and that fish accumulate dioxin by ingestion, rather than bioconcentration. PMID:2033641

Rifkin, E; LaKind, J

1991-05-01

251

Safety Management in Coal Mines--Risk Assessment.  

PubMed

The present state of accident hazard at work in the Polish mining industry is presented. A comparison is made of the accident indices in relation to other countries. A reference is made to the work safety management system implemented in the mines. Safety management is discussed in terms of risk management. On the basis of the natural death index and that of accidents at work, numerical scales are presented defining the limits of the inadmissable, tolerable, and acceptable risk. The course of variation of risk indices for fatal, serious, and minor accidents is evaluated. The results of the assessment for all kinds of accidents at work in the mining industry are presented. PMID:10602589

Niczyporuk

1996-01-01

252

Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.  

PubMed

This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping. PMID:15876211

Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

2005-04-01

253

A Methodology for the Development of Novel VANET Safety Applications1  

E-print Network

of these are examples of passive safety applications which work by warning the drivers of specific events detected warnings being shown to the driver. Over time, this can lead to driver desensitization, which means may be shown to the drivers. This leads to driver desensitization which may reduce the safety benefits

Wolfson, Ouri E.

254

A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

Quintana, Rolando

2003-01-01

255

A Structured Security Assessment Methodology for Manufacturers of Critical Infrastructure Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting our critical infrastructures like energy generation and distribution, telecommunication, production and traffic against cyber attacks is one of the major challenges of the new millennium. However, as security is such a complex and multilayer topic often the necessary structured foundation is missing for a manufacturer to assess the current security level of a system. This paper introduces a methodology for structured security assessments which has been successfully applied during the development of several products for critical infrastructures. The methodology is described in detail and the lessons learnt are given from applying it to several systems during their development.

Brandstetter, Thomas; Knorr, Konstantin; Rosenbaum, Ute

256

Improved dose assessment in a nuclear reactor accident using the old and new ICRP methodologies  

E-print Network

IMPROVED DOSE ASSESSMENT IN A NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT USING THE OLD AND NEW ICRP METHODOLOGIES A Thesis by SUK-CHUL YOON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A ff M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering IMPROVED DOSE ASSESSMENT IN A NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT USING THE OLD AND NEW ICRP METHODOLOGIES A Thesis by SUK-CHUL YOON Approved as to style and content by: John W. Poston (Chairm...

Yoon, Suk-Chul

2012-06-07

257

Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

Guarro, Sergio B.

2010-01-01

258

The use of meta-analytical tools in risk assessment for food safety.  

PubMed

This communication deals with the use of meta-analysis as a valuable tool for the synthesis of food safety research, and in quantitative risk assessment modelling. A common methodology for the conduction of meta-analysis (i.e., systematic review and data extraction, parameterisation of effect size, estimation of overall effect size, assessment of heterogeneity, and presentation of results) is explained by reviewing two meta-analyses derived from separate sets of primary studies of Salmonella in pork. Integrating different primary studies, the first meta-analysis elucidated for the first time a relationship between the proportion of Salmonella-carrier slaughter pigs entering the slaughter lines and the resulting proportion of contaminated carcasses at the point of evisceration; finding that the individual studies on their own could not reveal. On the other hand, the second application showed that meta-analysis can be used to estimate the overall effect of a critical process stage (chilling) on the incidence of the pathogen under study. The derivation of a relationship between variables and a probabilistic distribution is illustrations of the valuable quantitative information synthesised by the meta-analytical tools, which can be incorporated in risk assessment modelling. Strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis within the context of food safety are also discussed. PMID:21511145

Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis

2011-06-01

259

A Risk Analysis Methodology to Address Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Drilling Safety: With an Emphasis on Negative Pressure Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the final Presidential National Commission report on the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, there is need to "integrate more sophisticated risk assessment and risk management practices" in the oil industry. Reviewing the literature of the offshore drilling industry indicates that most of the developed risk analysis methodologies do not fully and more importantly, systematically address the contribution of Human and Organizational Factors (HOFs) in accident causation. This is while results of a comprehensive study, from 1988 to 2005, of more than 600 well-documented major failures in offshore structures show that approximately 80% of those failures were due to HOFs. In addition, lack of safety culture, as an issue related to HOFs, have been identified as a common contributing cause of many accidents in this industry. This dissertation introduces an integrated risk analysis methodology to systematically assess the critical role of human and organizational factors in offshore drilling safety. The proposed methodology in this research focuses on a specific procedure called Negative Pressure Test (NPT), as the primary method to ascertain well integrity during offshore drilling, and analyzes the contributing causes of misinterpreting such a critical test. In addition, the case study of the BP Deepwater Horizon accident and their conducted NPT is discussed. The risk analysis methodology in this dissertation consists of three different approaches and their integration constitutes the big picture of my whole methodology. The first approach is the comparative analysis of a "standard" NPT, which is proposed by the author, with the test conducted by the DWH crew. This analysis contributes to identifying the involved discrepancies between the two test procedures. The second approach is a conceptual risk assessment framework to analyze the causal factors of the identified mismatches in the previous step, as the main contributors of negative pressure test misinterpretation. Finally, a rational decision making model is introduced to quantify a section of the developed conceptual framework in the previous step and analyze the impact of different decision making biases on negative pressure test results. Along with the corroborating findings of previous studies, the analysis of the developed conceptual framework in this paper indicates that organizational factors are root causes of accumulated errors and questionable decisions made by personnel or management. Further analysis of this framework identifies procedural issues, economic pressure, and personnel management issues as the organizational factors with the highest influence on misinterpreting a negative pressure test. It is noteworthy that the captured organizational factors in the introduced conceptual framework are not only specific to the scope of the NPT. Most of these organizational factors have been identified as not only the common contributing causes of other offshore drilling accidents but also accidents in other oil and gas related operations as well as high-risk operations in other industries. In addition, the proposed rational decision making model in this research introduces a quantitative structure for analysis of the results of a conducted NPT. This model provides a structure and some parametric derived formulas to determine a cut-off point value, which assists personnel in accepting or rejecting an implemented negative pressure test. Moreover, it enables analysts to assess different decision making biases involved in the process of interpreting a conducted negative pressure test as well as the root organizational factors of those biases. In general, although the proposed integrated research methodology in this dissertation is developed for the risk assessment of human and organizational factors contributions in negative pressure test misinterpretation, it can be generalized and be potentially useful for other well control situations, both offshore and onshore; e.g. fracking. In addition, this methodology can be applied for the analysis

Tabibzadeh, Maryam

260

Human Performance Modeling: A Cooperative and Necessary Methodology for Studying Occupational Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a human-out-of-the- loop (HOOTL) methodology for studying complex human-system performance. The U.S. and international military forces have used HOOTL methodologies for years to study complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns in battlefield management simulations. More recent application of HOOTL technologies has been in complex work environments such as aviation, medical and nuclear power

Brian F. Gore; Kevin M. Corker

261

A Measurement Tool to Assess Culture Change Regarding Patient Safety in Hospital Obstetrical Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Clinical error in acute care hospitals can only be addressed by developing a culture of safety. We sought to develop a cultural assessment survey (CAS) to assess patient safety culture change in obstetrical units. Methods: Interview prompts and a preliminary questionnaire were developed through a literature review of patient safety and \\

J. Kenneth Milne; Nicole Bendaly; Leslie Bendaly; Jill Worsley; John FitzGerald; Jeff Nisker

2010-01-01

262

Safety Assessment & Certification for UAS Bristol UAV Systems Conference April 2007  

E-print Network

Safety Assessment & Certification for UAS 22nd Bristol UAV Systems Conference ­ April 2007 SAFETY ASSESSMENT & CERTIFICATION FOR UAS Andrew R Evans & Dr Mark Nicholson JRA Aerospace Ltd / The University / FAA safety target requirements, in order to develop a UAS-applicable process. The paper looks

Nicholson, Mark

263

Prototype integration of the joint munitions assessment and planning model with the OSD threat methodology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Memorandum is to propose a prototype procedure which the Office of Munitions might employ to exercise, in a supportive joint fashion, two of its High Level Conventional Munitions Models, namely, the OSD Threat Methodology and the Joint Munitions Assessment and Planning (JMAP) model. The joint application of JMAP and the OSD Threat Methodology provides a tool to optimize munitions stockpiles. The remainder of this Memorandum comprises five parts. The first is a description of the structure and use of the OSD Threat Methodology. The second is a description of JMAP and its use. The third discusses the concept of the joint application of JMAP and OSD Threat Methodology. The fourth displays sample output of the joint application. The fifth is a summary and epilogue. Finally, three appendices contain details of the formulation, data, and computer code.

Lynn, R.Y.S.; Bolmarcich, J.J.

1994-06-01

264

Incremental Experimentation: a methodology for designing and analyzing distributed safety-critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In safety-critical systems requirements for safety and reliability are in conflict with those for real-time responsiveness. Due to unpredictable environmental needs the trade-off between measures to accommodate the conflicting objectives has to adapt to the external situation. Finally there cannot be any closed-form (formal) approach taking care at the same time of the (external) time constraints or deadlines, and the

Horst F. Wedde; Jon A. Lind; Andreas Eiss

1995-01-01

265

Interest of the Theory of Uncertain in the Dynamic LCA- Fire Methodology to Assess Fire Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is the third phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) described in ISO 14042. The purpose of LCIA is to assess a product system's life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) in order to better understand its environmental significance. However, LCIA typically excludes spatial, temporal, threshold and dose-response information, and combines emissions or activities over space and/or time. This may diminish the environmental relevance of the indicator result. The methodology, Dynamic LCA -Fire proposed in this paper to complete the International Standard ISO 14042 in the fire field, combines the LCA - Fire method with the Dispersion Numerical Model. It is based on the use of the plume model used to assess pollutant concentrations and thermal effects from fire accident scenarios. In this study, The Dynamic LCA - Fire methodology is applied to a case study for petroleum production process management.

Chettouh, Samia; Hamzi, Rachida; Innal, Fares; Haddad, Djamel

266

Assessment of the physical flood susceptibility of buildings on a large scale - conceptual and methodological frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various approaches available for assessing the flood vulnerability and damage to buildings and critical infrastructure. They cover pre- and post-event methods for different scales. However, there can hardly be found any method that allows for a large-scale pre-event assessment of the built structures with a high resolution. To make advancements in this respect, the paper presents, first, a conceptual framework for understanding the physical flood susceptibility of buildings and, second, a methodological framework for its assessment. The latter ranges from semi-automatic extraction of buildings, mainly from remote sensing with a subsequent classification and systematic characterisation, to the assessment of the physical flood susceptibility on the basis of depth-impact functions. The work shows results of the methodology's implementation and testing in a settlement of the city of Magangué, along the Magdalena River in Colombia.

Blanco-Vogt, A.; Schanze, J.

2014-08-01

267

SCI Hazard Report Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

Mitchell, Michael S.

2010-01-01

268

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION MEANS  

E-print Network

Gas Migration from Closed Coal Mines to the Surface RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND PREVENTION to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

METHODOLOGY FOR OVERLAND AND INSTREAM MIGRATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide planners and decision makers in government and industry with a sound basis for decision making, the Chemical Migration and Risk Assessment (CMRA) Methodology was developed to predict the occurrence and duration of pesticide concentrations in surface waters receiving ru...

270

The use of environmental risk assessment methodologies for an indoor air quality investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper chose several target compounds that have been found in average US homes, applied the current United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund risk assessment methodologies to indoor air quality, and produced risk numbers for hazard quotients and predicted increases in incidence of cancer which would be unacceptable at US hazardous waste sites. The calculations were

K. B. Hoddinott; A. P. Lee

2000-01-01

271

Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Children's Fears and Phobias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the conceptual and methodological considerations in assessment and treatment of children's fears and phobias is presented. Areas discussed include the definitional problems in the field, analogue and clinical research, experimental research methods, and criteria for the evaluation of outcome in fear and phobia research. (Author/DWH)

Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Morris, Richard J.

1985-01-01

272

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION OF COAL: METHODOLOGY AND INITIAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), aimed at complete environmental assessment (EA) of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal. It reviews the EA methodology being developed by EPA: identification of current technolo...

273

The Nominal Group Technique: A Needs Assessment Methodology for Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a research methodology related to needs assessment that can be used in a variety of settings in vocational education. It involves the use of small-group sessions and has five steps: introduction to meeting, silent generation of ideas, round-robin listing, discussion for clarification, and ranking of items. (Author/CT)

Price, William T., Jr.

1985-01-01

274

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and  

E-print Network

A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage systems can become unavailable due to system failures or damage to the system; in both cases, system the more specific availability studies take battlefield damage into account. This paper aims to define

Boyer, Edmond

275

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality  

E-print Network

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality tasks, for companionship activ- ities, and soon they will be used to assist humans and collaborate with them in their work. Human-robot collaboration has already been studied in the industry, for ergonomics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality  

E-print Network

A Methodology to Assess the Acceptability of Human-Robot Collaboration Using Virtual Reality humans and collaborate with them in their work. Human-robot collaboration has already been studied of view. In this work, we focused on how people perceive robots in a collaboration task and we proposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Evaluation of standard life assessment procedures and life extension methodologies for fracture-critical components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endeavors to maximize the safe service lives of aeroengine components have led to a variety of life assessment methodologies. The following are reviewed in the paper: Life-to-first-crack, Databank Lifing, Damage Tolerance and Damage Mechanism based procedures. Their service implementation involves a variety of aspects of which the following are briefly discussed: stress analysis, defects and component life extension methods. Building

A. D Boyd-Lee; G. F Harrison; M. B Henderson

2001-01-01

278

REVISION AND UPDATE OF METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND RISK FROM LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of their regulatory reform efforts, the Office of Solid Waste (OS) has recently (11/99) introduced a new open-architecture, multimedia, multi-pathway, and multi-receptor exposure and risk assessment methodology designed to support their Hazardous Waste Identification ...

279

Couple Attachment and Relationship Duration in Psychotherapy Patients: Exploring a New Methodology of Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The couple relationship is an essential source of support for individuals undergoing psychological treatment and the aim of this study was to apply a new methodology in assessing the quality of such support. A theoretically informed thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, triangulated by quantitative data. Twenty-one brief…

Sochos, Antigonos

2014-01-01

280

Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

2013-01-01

281

Assessing the Safety of Integrity Level Partitioning in Software  

E-print Network

system. 1 Introduction Traditionally, safety critical computer systems have tended to be bespoke track record of reliable operation, safety critical systems projects have typically been restricted of poor performance when compared to contemporary non safety critical systems. #12;Possible approaches

Pumfrey, David

282

Development of a Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Storage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a probabilistic assessment methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluation of the resource potential for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface of the United States as authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140, 2007). The methodology is based on USGS assessment methodologies for oil and gas resources created and refined over the last 30 years. The resource that is evaluated is the volume of pore space in the subsurface in the depth range of 3,000 to 13,000 feet that can be described within a geologically defined storage assessment unit consisting of a storage formation and an enclosing seal formation. Storage assessment units are divided into physical traps (PTs), which in most cases are oil and gas reservoirs, and the surrounding saline formation (SF), which encompasses the remainder of the storage formation. The storage resource is determined separately for these two types of storage. Monte Carlo simulation methods are used to calculate a distribution of the potential storage size for individual PTs and the SF. To estimate the aggregate storage resource of all PTs, a second Monte Carlo simulation step is used to sample the size and number of PTs. The probability of successful storage for individual PTs or the entire SF, defined in this methodology by the likelihood that the amount of CO2 stored will be greater than a prescribed minimum, is based on an estimate of the probability of containment using present-day geologic knowledge. The report concludes with a brief discussion of needed research data that could be used to refine assessment methodologies for CO2 sequestration.

Burruss, Robert C.; Brennan, Sean T.; Freeman, Philip A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Becker, Mark F.; Herkelrath, William N.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Neuzil, Christopher E.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Nelson, Philip H.; Schenk, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

283

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Guide to the Methodology of the National Research Council Assessment of the Doctorate Programs describes the purpose, data and methods used to calculate ranges or rankings for research-doctorate programs that participated in the NRC Assessment of Research-Doctorate programs. It is intended for those at universities who will have to explain the NRC Assessment to others at their university, to potential students, and to the press. Although the main text is fairly non-technical, it includes a technical description of the statistical methods used to derive rankings of over 5000 doctoral programs in 61 fields.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2009-07-22

284

An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety\\/risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until

Frederik A. M. Verdonck; Patrick A. Van Sprang; Peter A. Vanrolleghem

2008-01-01

285

A Geospatial Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing Campus Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of…

Hites, Lisle S.; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

2013-01-01

286

Use of assessment to reinforce patient safety as a habit  

PubMed Central

The US spends far more than any other nation on health care. Physicians undergo lengthy and comprehensive training that is carefully scrutinized, and are held to high standards in national examinations. At best the care delivered matches or exceeds that in any other country. And yet, often simple preventable medical errors occur at alarming and unacceptable rates. The public, corporate consumers of health care, large payors and malpractice insurance carriers are all becoming impatient with the pace of improvement. The medical profession recognizes that dealing with this problem is an urgent priority and is grappling to find the best approaches. This paper focuses on the constructive use of assessment to embed a pervasive and proactive culture of patient safety into practice, starting with the trainee and extending out into the practice years. This strategy is based on the adage that “assessment drives curriculum” and proposes a series of new assessment tools to be added to all phases of the training?practice continuum. PMID:17142605

Galbraith, R M; Holtman, M C; Clyman, S G

2006-01-01

287

Implantable spinal fusion stimulator: assessment of MR safety and artifacts.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to perform magnetic resonance (MR) imaging safety and artifact testing of an implantable spinal fusion stimulator. Magnetic field interactions, artifacts, and operational aspects of an implantable spinal fusion stimulator were evaluated in association with a 1.5 T MR system. Magnetic field-related translational attraction was measured using the deflection angle test. A special test apparatus was used to determine torque at 4.7 T. Artifacts were characterized using fast multiplanar spoiled gradient-echo, T1-weighted spin-echo, and T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. Operational aspects of the implantable spinal fusion stimulator before and after exposure to MR imaging at 1.5 T were assessed. In addition, nine patients (six lumbar spine and three cervical spine) with implantable spinal fusion stimulators underwent MR imaging. The findings indicated that magnetic field interactions were relatively minor, artifacts were well characterized and should not create diagnostic problems, and there were no changes in the operation of the spinal fusion stimulator. The nine patients underwent MR procedures without substantial adverse events or complaints. Based on the results of this investigation and in consideration of the findings from previous studies of MR imaging safety for the implantable spinal fusion stimulator, MR imaging may be performed safely in patients using MR systems operating at 1.5 T or less following specific recommendations and precautions. PMID:10931583

Shellock, F G; Hatfield, M; Simon, B J; Block, S; Wamboldt, J; Starewicz, P M; Punchard, W F

2000-08-01

288

Variability in toxic response - relevance to chemical safety and risk assessment at the global level.  

PubMed

The aim of control limits for exposure to chemicals in air, food, water, and consumer products is to protect the whole human population, including the most susceptible individuals and 'at risk' groups. The existence of susceptible individuals is a factor that must be taken into account when quantitative chemical risk assessments are being made, and should be covered in the risk characterization. Classically, when extrapolating data derived from animal experiments using homogeneous, healthy test species for human health risk assessment uncertainty factors are applied. For inter-species extrapolation an uncertainty factor of up to 10 is applied. While it is evident that this procedure provides reasonable protection for the great majority of the population there are outlyers who may not be protected under all conditions. Within a population, individual susceptibility is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These have regional and national differences. Environmental factors that are important in many countries include 'life-style' (e.g. tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet), nutritional and health status. In the case of environmental protection similar considerations apply but the emphasis is on species rather than individuals. The International Programme on Chemical Safety, as the global programme on identifying and assessing chemical risks to human health and the environment in order to assist countries in effective management, is constantly advancing the basic science and methodology for making chemical risk assessment. PMID:21781706

Smith, E

1996-10-15

289

Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document  

SciTech Connect

The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

1980-02-01

290

Definition of a shortcut methodology for assessing flood-related Na-Tech risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs), the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such qualitative KHIs. The developed methodology was validated through two case studies by comparing the predicted risk levels with the results of much more detailed QRAs previously presented in literature and then applied to the real flood happened at Spolana a.s., Neratovice, Czech Republic in August 2002.

Marzo, E.; Busini, V.; Rota, R.

2012-11-01

291

Quantifying reactor safety margins: Part 1: An overview of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology  

SciTech Connect

In August 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the final version of a revised rule on the acceptance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) entitled ''Emergency Core Cooling System; Revisions to Acceptance Criteria.'' The revised rule states an alternate ECCS performance analysis, based on best-estimate methods, may be used to provide more realistic estimates of plant safety margins, provided the licensee quantifies the uncertainty of the estimates and included that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with prescribed acceptance limits. To support the revised ECCS rule, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology. It is an auditable, traceable, and practical method for combining quantitative analyses and expert opinions to arrive at computed values of uncertainty. This paper provides an overview of the CSAU evaluation methodology and its application to a postulated cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor with 17 /times/ 17 fuel. The code selected for this demonstration of the CSAU methodology was TRAC-PF1/MOD1, Version 14.3. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Boyack, B.E.; Duffey, R.B.; Griffith, P.; Katsma, K.R.; Lellouche, G.S.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Wilson, G.E.; Wulff, W.; Zuber, N.

1988-01-01

292

A methodology for post-mainshock probabilistic assessment of building collapse risk  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents a methodology for post-earthquake probabilistic risk (of damage) assessment that we propose in order to develop a computational tool for automatic or semi-automatic assessment. The methodology utilizes the same so-called risk integral which can be used for pre-earthquake probabilistic assessment. The risk integral couples (i) ground motion hazard information for the location of a structure of interest with (ii) knowledge of the fragility of the structure with respect to potential ground motion intensities. In the proposed post-mainshock methodology, the ground motion hazard component of the risk integral is adapted to account for aftershocks which are deliberately excluded from typical pre-earthquake hazard assessments and which decrease in frequency with the time elapsed since the mainshock. Correspondingly, the structural fragility component is adapted to account for any damage caused by the mainshock, as well as any uncertainty in the extent of this damage. The result of the adapted risk integral is a fully-probabilistic quantification of post-mainshock seismic risk that can inform emergency response mobilization, inspection prioritization, and re-occupancy decisions.

Luco, N.; Gerstenberger, M. C.; Uma, S. R.; Ryu, H.; Liel, A. B.; Raghunandan, M.

2011-01-01

293

The assessment of emotional distress experienced by people with an intellectual disability: a study of different methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of emotional disorders such as anger, depression and stress among people with an intellectual disability has traditionally used one of three methodologies: ratings by a significant other, a clinical interview or self-report. Despite the widespread use of all three methodologies, there is little research into their equivalence. This paper assesses the convergence among these three approaches for 147

Paul Bramston; Gerard Fogarty

2000-01-01

294

Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the theoretical properties of various exposure measures used in road safety research (e.g. vehicle- and person-kilometres of travel, vehicle fleet, road length, driver population, time spent in traffic, etc.). Moreover, the existing methods for collecting disaggregate exposure data for risk estimates at national level are presented and assessed, including survey methods (e.g. travel surveys, traffic counts) and databases (e.g. national registers). A detailed analysis of the availability and quality of existing risk exposure data is also carried out. More specifically, the results of a questionnaire survey in the European countries are presented, with detailed information on exposure measures available, their possible disaggregations (i.e. variables and values), their conformity to standard definitions and the characteristics of their national collection methods. Finally, the potential of international risk comparisons is investigated, mainly through the International Data Files with exposure data (e.g. Eurostat, IRTAD, ECMT, UNECE, IRF, etc.). The results of this review confirm that comparing risk rates at international level may be a complex task, as the availability and quality of exposure estimates in European countries varies significantly. The lack of a common framework for the collection and exploitation of exposure data limits significantly the comparability of the national data. On the other hand, the International Data Files containing exposure data provide useful statistics and estimates in a systematic way and are currently the only sources allowing international comparisons of road safety performance under certain conditions. PMID:23769621

Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George; Bijleveld, Frits; Cardoso, João L

2013-11-01

295

The streamlined site assessment methodology: A new approach for wind energy site assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research develops superior approaches to the traditional site assessment process, as well as novel strategies that offer a distinct advantage over the traditional process. Two major contributions are presented: new analysis approaches for site assessment, and new technical approaches to wind resource monitoring. Two new analysis approaches for wind energy site assessment are developed. The first is a method

Matthew A. Lackner

2008-01-01

296

Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation.

McKay, S.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-01-01

297

A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Huang, Y. -N.; Whittaker, A. S.; Luco, N.

2011-01-01

298

Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Herbicide Roundup and Its Active Ingredient, Glyphosate, for Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews on the safety of glyphosate and Roundup herbicide that have been conducted by several regulatory agencies and scientific institutions worldwide have concluded that there is no indication of any human health concern. Nevertheless, questions regarding their safety are periodically raised. This review was undertaken to produce a current and comprehensive safety evaluation and risk assessment for humans. It includes

Gary M. Williams; Robert Kroes; Ian C. Munro

2000-01-01

299

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RfD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. This paper presents

J. H. Jr. Overton; F. J. Miller

1990-01-01

300

Methodologies to assess potential lifetime limits for extended burnup nuclear fuel  

E-print Network

METHODOLOGIES TO ASSESS POTENTIAL LIFETIME LIMITS FOR EXTENDED BURNUP NUCLEAR FUEL A Thesis by CURTIS VINCENT DE VORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree.... , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. K. L. Peddicord The investigation of the extended burnup performance of ceramic U02 fuel clad in Zircaloy tubes is of particular importance to nuclear utilities because of the very attractive...

De Vore, Curtis Vincent

2012-06-07

301

Methodological proposals for improved assessments of the impact of traffic noise upon human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  Several methodological shortcomings still hinder the inclusion of transport noise as an established impact category within\\u000a life cycle assessment (LCA). Earlier attempts to quantify the health damages caused by traffic noise yielded valuable results\\u000a from an academic point of view, but these were of limited use in the context of everyday LCA practice. An enhanced understanding\\u000a of

Vicente Franco; Daniel Garraín; Rosario Vidal

2010-01-01

302

Amended final report of the safety assessment of cocamidopropylamine oxide.  

PubMed

Cocamidopropylamine Oxide is a tertiary amine oxide which functions as a hair-conditioning agent and as a surfactant, currently used in 60 cosmetic formulations at concentrations between 0.07% and 4.0%. In an earlier safety assessment, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel had determined that the available data were insufficient to support the safety of this ingredient in cosmetic products. Additional data have now been provided and reviewed. Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was determined to have an acute oral LD(50) between 500 and 1000 mg/kg day(-1) using rats. The acute dermal LD(50) in rats was > 2174 mg/kg day(-1). A 28-day repeated oral dose toxicity study in rats found hemolytic anemia at 150 and 1000 mg/kg day(- 1), with a no observed effect level (NOEL) of 15 mg/kg day(- 1). At 5%, Cocamidopropylamine Oxide solution was not a primary dermal irritant. Application of 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide to rabbit skin caused moderate irritation under Draize classification scale, but 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide in rabbit eyes caused severe irritation. A maximization study classified Cocamidopropylamine Oxide as a nonsensitizer to guinea pig skin. Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was not mutagenic in an Ames test, with and without metabolic activation. No evidence of increased chromosomal aberrations were noted in human lymphocytes treated with 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide. In a clinical study, 7.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide was not a sensitizer, although it did produce some reactions typical of mild irritation. Although the impurities, amidoamine and dimethylaminopropylamine, have been implicated in contact allergy reactions to products containing cocamidopropylamine betaine, clinical testing of a product with cocamidopropylamine betaine containing these impurities, at levels comparable to those found in Cocamidopropylamine Oxide, failed to produce a reaction in 10 individuals known to be sensitive to cocamidopropylamine betaine. Two repeat-insult patch tests using a facial wash with 1% raw material containing 35% to 36.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide did not find evidence of dermal sensitization. Tests for dermal phototoxicity and photoallergenicity with the same facial wash product also did not produce evidence of effect. The CIR Expert Panel recognizes that there are data gaps regarding the use and concentration of this ingredient. However, the overall information available on types of products in which this ingredient is used and at what concentration indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety. Overall, these data demonstrate that Cocamidopropylamine Oxide has low toxicity in animal and in vitro tests. Although there are no available carcinogenicity data, the available genotoxicity data, combined with the absence of any structural alerts, suggest no carcinogenic potential. The Panel noted the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data. Because this ingredient has a highly polarized molecular structure, the Panel considered that it would be, at most, slowly absorbed. Given that most of the uses and the highest use concentration of 4% is found in rinse-off products, the Panel determined that the available data suggest that Cocamidopropylamine Oxide is safe as used in rinse-off products. Although dermal penetration may be slow, data on the extent of dermal penetration of Cocamidopropylamine Oxide are needed to support the safety of leave-on uses. If there is significant dermal absorption, dermal reproductive and developmental toxicity data may be needed. PMID:18569162

2008-01-01

303

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextHealthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals.Data CollectionA survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to

H. A. Alahmadi

2010-01-01

304

Methodology for back-contamination risk assessment for a Mars sample return mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risk of back-contamination from Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) missions is assessed. The methodology is designed to provide an assessment of the probability that a given mission design and strategy will result in accidental release of Martian organisms acquired as a result of MSSR. This is accomplished through the construction of risk models describing the mission risk elements and their impact on back-contamination probability. A conceptual framework is presented for using the risk model to evaluate mission design decisions that require a trade-off between science and planetary protection considerations.

Merkhofer, M. W.; Quinn, D. J.

1977-01-01

305

Multilevel Methodology in Parallel Computing Environment for Evaluating BWR Safety Parameters  

SciTech Connect

A multilevel methodology has been developed to extend the TRAC-BF1/NEM coupled code capability to obtain the transient fuel rod response. The COBRA-TF thermal-hydraulics subchannel analysis code is coupled to TRAC-BF1/NEM in the parallel virtual machine environment. The power information obtained from the nodal expansion method three-dimensional neutronic calculation is used by the hot subchannel analysis module. The TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code provides the COBRA-TF thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions. The subchannel analysis module uses this information to recalculate the fluid, thermal, and hydraulics conditions in the most limiting node (axial region of assembly/channel) within the core at each time step. A dynamic algorithm has been developed to identify the most limiting channel and fuel assembly (radially) and axial region (node) based on the current state of the core. Results, obtained with the new parallel multilevel coupled methodology, are presented and discussed for the Mexican Laguna Verde 1 nuclear power plant control rod drop accident.

Solis, Jorge; Avramova, Maria N.; Ivanov, Kostadin N. [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

2004-06-15

306

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 On the Need of a Methodological Approach for the  

E-print Network

methodologies to perform safety analysis is increasing, since the complexity of modern safety-critical systems important in the design of safety-critical systems, as more and more safety re- quirements are assigned foresees safety analysis to be performed at different levels: system, software and hardware. The assessment

Boyer, Edmond

307

Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854  

SciTech Connect

A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

1981-12-11

308

Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

1994-05-01

309

No time to lose--high throughput screening to assess nanomaterial safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials hold great promise for medical, technological and economical benefits. Knowledge concerning the toxicological properties of these novel materials is typically lacking. At the same time, it is becoming evident that some nanomaterials could have a toxic potential in humans and the environment. Animal based systems lack the needed capacity to cope with the abundance of novel nanomaterials being produced, and thus we have to employ in vitro methods with high throughput to manage the rush logistically and use high content readouts wherever needed in order to gain more depth of information. Towards this end, high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS) approaches can be used to speed up the safety analysis on a scale that commensurate with the rate of expansion of new materials and new properties. The insights gained from HTS/HCS should aid in our understanding of the tenets of nanomaterial hazard at biological level as well as assist the development of safe-by-design approaches. This review aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the HTS/HCS methodology employed for safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including data analysis and prediction of potentially hazardous material properties. Given the current pace of nanomaterial development, HTS/HCS is a potentially effective means of keeping up with the rapid progress in this field--we have literally no time to lose.

Damoiseaux, R.; George, S.; Li, M.; Pokhrel, S.; Ji, Z.; France, B.; Xia, T.; Suarez, E.; Rallo, R.; Mädler, L.; Cohen, Y.; Hoek, E. M. V.; Nel, A.

2011-04-01

310

Final Action Plan to Tiger Team. Environmental, safety and health assessment  

SciTech Connect

This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit.

Not Available

1992-02-28

311

Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment  

SciTech Connect

The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

Gunn, Jill, E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.c [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada); Noble, Bram F. [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, Kirk Hall, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

2011-03-15

312

Development of Pressurized Water Reactor Integrated Safety Analysis Methodology Using Multilevel Coupling Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

The subchannel code COBRA-TF has been introduced for an evaluation of thermal margins on the local pin-by-pin level in a pressurized water reactor. The coupling of COBRA-TF with TRAC-PF1/NEM is performed by providing from TRAC to COBRA-TF axial and radial thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions and relative pin-power profiles, obtained with the pin power reconstruction model of the nodal expansion method (NEM). An efficient algorithm for coupling of the subchannel code COBRA-TF with TRAC-PF1/NEM in the parallel virtual machine environment was developed addressing the issues of time synchronization, data exchange, spatial overlays, and coupled convergence. Local feedback modeling on the pin level was implemented into COBRA-TF, which enabled updating the local form functions and the recalculation of the pin powers in TRAC-PF1/NEM after obtaining the local feedback parameters. The coupled TRAC-PF1/NEM/COBRA-TF code system was tested on the rod ejection accident and main steam line break benchmark problems. In both problems, the local results are closer than before the introduced multilevel coupling to the corresponding critical limits. This fact indicates that the assembly average results tend to underestimate the accident consequences in terms of local safety margins. The capability of local safety evaluation, performed simultaneously (online) with coupled global three-dimensional neutron kinetics/thermal-hydraulic calculations, is introduced and tested. The obtained results demonstrate the importance of the current work.

Ziabletsev, Dmitri; Avramova, Maria; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

2004-11-15

313

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

2010-03-01

314

Specific guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations of newborn screening  

PubMed Central

Background Economic evaluation of newborn screening poses specific methodological challenges. Amongst others, these challenges refer to the use of quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in newborns, and which costs and outcomes need to be considered in a full evaluation of newborn screening programmes. Because of the increasing scale and scope of such programmes, a better understanding of the methods of high-quality economic evaluations may be crucial for both producers/authors and consumers/reviewers of newborn screening-related economic evaluations. The aim of this study was therefore to develop specific guidelines designed to assess and improve the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening. Methods To develop the guidelines, existing guidelines for assessing the quality of economic evaluations were identified through a literature search, and were reviewed and consolidated using a deductive iterative approach. In a subsequent test phase, these guidelines were applied to various economic evaluations which acted as case studies. Results The guidelines for assessing and improving the methodological quality of economic evaluations in newborn screening are organized into 11 categories: “bibliographic details”, “study question and design”, “modelling”, “health outcomes”, “costs”, “discounting”, “presentation of results”, “sensitivity analyses”, “discussion”, “conclusions”, and “commentary”. Conclusions The application of the guidelines highlights important issues regarding newborn screening-related economic evaluations, and underscores the need for such issues to be afforded greater consideration in future economic evaluations. The variety in methodological quality detected by this study reveals the need for specific guidelines on the appropriate methods for conducting sound economic evaluations in newborn screening. PMID:22947299

2012-01-01

315

Pinellas Plant final action plan: environmental, safety and health assessment of Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida  

SciTech Connect

This document contains responses and planned actions and their estimated costs for addressing the findings presented in the Tiger Team Environment, Safety, and Health Compliance Assessment of the Pinellas Plant. The assessment presented 170 findings in three general categories: environment, safety and health, and management and organization.

Not Available

1990-12-03

316

Substantial equivalence—an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO\\/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards

Harry A. Kuiper; Gijs A. Kleter; Hub P. J. M. Noteborn; Esther J. Kok

2002-01-01

317

A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

318

A Bayesian Methodology for Estimating Uncertainty of Decisions in Safety-Critical Systems  

E-print Network

Uncertainty of decisions in safety-critical engineering applications can be estimated on the basis of the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique of averaging over decision models. The use of decision tree (DT) models assists experts to interpret causal relations and find factors of the uncertainty. Bayesian averaging also allows experts to estimate the uncertainty accurately when a priori information on the favored structure of DTs is available. Then an expert can select a single DT model, typically the Maximum a Posteriori model, for interpretation purposes. Unfortunately, a priori information on favored structure of DTs is not always available. For this reason, we suggest a new prior on DTs for the Bayesian MCMC technique. We also suggest a new procedure of selecting a single DT and describe an application scenario. In our experiments on the Short-Term Conflict Alert data our technique outperforms the existing Bayesian techniques in predictive accuracy of the selected single DTs.

Schetinin, Vitaly; Partridge, Derek; Krzanowski, Wojtek; Everson, Richard; Bailey, Trevor; Hernandez, Adolfo

2010-01-01

319

Comparison of DNA extraction methodologies used for assessing fungal diversity via ITS sequencing.  

PubMed

Traditional methods of assessing fungal exposure have been confounded by a number of limiting variables. The recent utilization of molecular methods such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes has provided improved insight into the diversity of fungal bioaerosols in indoor, outdoor and occupational environments. However, ITS analyses may also be confounded by a number of methodological limitations. In this study, we have optimized this technology for use in occupational or environmental studies. Three commonly used DNA extraction methodologies (UltraClean Soil kit, High Pure PCR Template kit, and EluQuik/DNeasy kit) were compared in terms of sensitivity and susceptibility to PCR inhibitors in dust for three common fungal bioaerosols, Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus microsporus and Wallemia sebi. Environmental dust samples were then studied using each extraction methodology and results were compared to viable culture data. The extraction methods differed in terms of their ability to efficiently extract DNA from particular species of fungi (e.g. Aspergillus versicolor). In addition, the ability to remove PCR inhibitors from dust samples was most effective using the soil DNA extraction kit. The species composition varied greatly between ITS clone libraries generated with the different DNA extraction kits. However, compared to viable culture data, ITS clone libraries included additional fungal species that are incapable of growth on solid culture medium. Collectively, our data indicated that DNA extraction methodologies used in ITS sequencing studies of occupational or environmental dust samples can greatly influence the fungal species that are detected. PMID:22230933

Rittenour, William R; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Beezhold, Donald H; Green, Brett J

2012-03-01

320

Impact of biomarker development on drug safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Drug safety has always been a key aspect of drug development. Recently, the Vioxx case and several cases of serious adverse events being linked to high-profile products have increased the importance of drug safety, especially in the eyes of drug development companies and global regulatory agencies. Safety biomarkers are increasingly being seen as helping to provide the clarity, predictability, and certainty needed to gain confidence in decision making: early-stage projects can be stopped quicker, late-stage projects become less risky. Public and private organizations are investing heavily in terms of time, money and manpower on safety biomarker development. An illustrative and 'door opening' safety biomarker success story is the recent recognition of kidney safety biomarkers for pre-clinical and limited translational contexts by FDA and EMEA. This milestone achieved for kidney biomarkers and the 'know how' acquired is being transferred to other organ toxicities, namely liver, heart, vascular system. New technologies and molecular-based approaches, i.e., molecular pathology as a complement to the classical toolbox, allow promising discoveries in the safety biomarker field. This review will focus on the utility and use of safety biomarkers all along drug development, highlighting the present gaps and opportunities identified in organ toxicity monitoring. A last part will be dedicated to safety biomarker development in general, from identification to diagnostic tests, using the kidney safety biomarkers success as an illustrative example.

Marrer, Estelle, E-mail: estelle.marrer@novartis.co [Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Dieterle, Frank [Molecular Diagnostics, Novartis Pharma, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-03-01

321

Safety assessment of the MARS tandem mirror reactor  

SciTech Connect

The safety of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) tandem mirror reactor is assessed. Only prompt consequences to the public at the plant boundary, which is taken to be 1000m, are considered. The major radioactive inventories in MARS reside in the first-wall/blanket structure, coolant, and tritium. The greatest radioactivity resides in the HT-9 first-wall/ blanket structure. The only accident scenario identified that could lead to a first-wall meltdown was a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) accompanied by the inability to shut off the plasma. However, since only oxides of molybdenum are expected to be volatized from the hot HT-9 structure, the public consequences are found to be low. A LOCA can result in large doses if the activity in the activated corrosion products and LiPb coolant can be transported outside the reactor containment building. However, most of the LiPb would be expected to solidify, and any aerosols that are produced will likely plate out on surfaces or settle. Various tritium accident scenarios were considered. Release of all the tritium in the reactor building (51 g) leads to a dose of 21 rem. A much more likely accident involves partial leakage due to some reactor containment damage.

Guroi, H.; Dabiri, A.E.

1984-11-01

322

RIVER BASIN VALIDATION OF THE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SCREENING NONDESIGNATED 208 AREAS. VOLUME II: CHESAPEAKE-SANDUSKY NONDESIGNATED 208 SCREENING METHODOLOGY DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In earlier work under the sponsorship of EPA, a screening methodology was produced by Tetra Tech, Inc., for assessing water quality problems in areas not covered under Section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, and loading functions were developed ...

323

Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

2013-01-01

324

Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.  

PubMed

Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China. PMID:23184129

Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

2013-06-01

325

Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

2013-11-01

326

U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

Zhu, Zhiliang; Stackpoole, S. M.

2009-01-01

327

Safety assessment for EPS electron-proton spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safety analysis was conducted to identify the efforts required to assure relatively hazard free operation of the EPS and to meet the safety requirements of the program. Safety engineering criteria, principles, and techniques in applicable disciplines are stressed in the performance of the system and subsystem studies; in test planning; in the design, development, test, evaluation, and checkout of the equipment; and the operating procedures for the EPS program.

Gleeson, P.

1971-01-01

328

An impact assessment methodology for urban surface runoff quality following best practice treatment.  

PubMed

The paper develops an easy to apply desk-based semi-quantitative approach for the assessment of residual receiving water quality risks associated with urban surface runoff following its conveyance through best practice sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). The innovative procedure utilises an integrated geographical information system (GIS)-based pollution index approach based on surface area impermeability, runoff concentrations/loadings and individual SUDS treatment performance potential to evaluate the level of risk mitigation achievable by SUDS drainage infrastructure. The residual impact is assessed through comparison of the determined pollution index with regulatory receiving water quality standards and objectives. The methodology provides an original theoretically based procedure which complements the current acute risk assessment approaches being widely applied within pluvial flood risk management. PMID:22227301

Ellis, J Bryan; Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian

2012-02-01

329

A new methodology for deterministic landslide risk assessment at the local scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper discusses the formulation of a methodology that is being developed for regional landslide risk assessment within geologically complex areas and some preliminary results of its application at the intermediate scale (i.e. between the regional and the slope scale). In particular, the methodology is the subject of an on-going multidisciplinary research project, which aims at the assessment of the landslide hazard, of the corresponding vulnerability of structures and of their exposition, involving different expertises. As such, both the landslide hazard and the structure vulnerability assessments are meant to be based upon the knowledge of the failure mechanisms and to benefit from scientific knowledge in the fields of both geotechnical engineering and structural mechanics. At the same time, the exposure of the elements at risk is to be investigated according to analyses of the socio-economical context where the risk is being evaluated. In the present paper only the work relating to landslide hazard is presented. This work aims at the further development of Quantitative Landslide Hazard Assessment, QHA, following a deterministic approach. As such, it is aimed at exporting the geo-mechanical interpretation of slope stability and landslide mechanisms from the slope scale (site-specific) to the regional scale. The results of such a methodology will be implemented in a GIS system and reported in guidelines. As concerns the landslide hazard assessment, the proposed methodology involves two interconnected working phases, the first one at regional scale and the second one at town scale. During the first phase, an analytical database of all the factors affecting the slope equilibrium is created and a geo-hydro-mechanical classification of the soil masses is defined together with the definition of the main landslide typologies present in the region. Thereafter, the connections existing among the sets of internal factors of landslides, which characterise the geo-hydro-mechanical classes, the external factors and the landslide typologies are recognised and formulated. These connections may be recognized as result of phenomenological studies, limit equilibrium analyses of the slopes, in-situ monitoring and numerical modelling of the landslide processes. The application of the procedure to the hazard assessment within a given portion of the region represents the second phase of the methodology. The research work is developed with reference to a test-site area, the Daunia region, located at the eastern margin of the southern Apennines, which is a portion of the chain belt along the subduction zone between the African and the Euro-Asiatic plates, where slopes are made up of tectonised and fissured soils and rocks. Here, frequent and intense landsliding involve the slopes extensively and repeatedly, restraining urban development. The research is currently investigating the applicability of the deterministic methodology to the landslide hazard assessment of the urban territories in the region.

Cotecchia, F.; Santaloia, F.; Lollino, P.; Vitone, C.; Mitaritonna, G.; Parise, M.

2009-04-01

330

Assessing risk: the role of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in patient safety improvement.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality due to "medical errors" compel better understanding of health care as a system. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used to assess the designs of high hazard, low risk systems such as commercial nuclear power plants and chemical manufacturing plants and is now being studied for its potential in the improvement of patient safety. PRA examines events that contribute to adverse outcomes through the use of event tree analysis and determines the likelihood of event occurrence through fault tree analysis. It complements tools already in use in patient safety such as failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) and root cause analyses (RCAs). PRA improves on RCA by taking account of the more complex causal interrelationships that are typical in health care. It also enables the analyst to examine potential solution effectiveness by direct graphical representations. However, PRA simplifies real world complexity by forcing binary conditions on events, and it lacks adequate probability data (although recent developments help to overcome these limitations). Its reliance on expert assessment calls for deep domain knowledge which has to come from research performed at the "sharp end" of acute care. PMID:15175492

Wreathall, J; Nemeth, C

2004-06-01

331

The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice  

SciTech Connect

A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

1997-04-01

332

The NRC\\/SNL (Nuclear Regulatory Commission)\\/(Sandia National Laboratory) performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology, and includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. The performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with

Kozak

1991-01-01

333

Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.  

PubMed

Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

2014-06-25

334

Conceptual Changes and Their Implications for Performance Assessment. Recent Developments in Methodology for Administrator Assessment Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory and implications for methods of assessing administrative performance in simulated exercises are presented. The rationale is given for the following: (1) developing simulated exercises; (2) measuring behaviors exhibited during the exercises; (3) training evaluators; (4) combining information across exercises; and (5) storing and retrieving…

Bolton, Dale L.

335

MAFRAM- a new fate and risk assessment methodology for non-volatile organic chemicals.  

PubMed

The main goal of this paper was to introduce an environmental fate and risk assessment methodology for comparing and establishing the general features of new and existing non-volatile organic chemicals (NVOCs) used in agricultural activities, based on simple and readily available properties. This methodology is a computer program called the multimedia agricultural fate and risk assessment model (MAFRAM). This model is a combination of the EQC-2V model, which describes the fate of NVOCs, with the ecological relative risk (EcoRR) approach, which assesses the ecotoxicological risk to agro-ecosystems. MAFRAM divides the agricultural environment into two main zones, which are the on- and off-farm zones. Each zone is subdivided into six compartments, including the air, water, soil, sediment, aboveground plants, and roots. The required input data are the chemical-physical properties of the pesticide, biota data, and environmental properties. The MAFRAM output includes the inter-compartmental transport and transfer rates, the primary loss mechanisms, chemical concentration, amount, residence time, and the rank of risk in each compartment. In addition, it can provide several secondary results. The MAFRAM application was illustrated using typical homogenous region properties and was run with an illustrative emission rate of 1 kg/h into air, using spinosad as a case study. PMID:20576354

Batiha, Mohammad A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Batiha, Marwan M; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2010-09-15

336

Application of an integrated methodology for eutrophication assessment: a case study in the Bohai Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated methodology for eutrophication assessment, which integrates both water quality indicators (causative factors) and ecological response indicators (effect factors), is described. It is then applied to rank the eutrophication status of the years 2007 and 2008 in the southwest Bohai Sea. The assessment model identified that north Bohai Bay and west Laizhou Bay were the two areas with the most serious eutrophication problems in the southwest Bohai Sea. In addition, compared to that in the west Laizhou Bay, the eutrophication conditions in the north Bohai Bay was more serious in both years. Eutrophication problems such as harmful algal blooms (HABs) and low dissolved oxygen (DO) events in north Bohai Bay were frequent. The integrated method outmatched the currently used Chinese nutrient index method by definitely identifying areas with the most serious eutrophication problems, while the nutrient index method gave ambiguous results between the two years. Inclusion of both causative factors and effect factors, combining concentration, spatial coverage and frequency of indicators, as well as use of multi-season monitoring datasets in the methodology result in a more accurate, representative and useful assessment.

Wu, Zaixing; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Yuan, Yongquan; Cao, Xihua; Liang, Yubo

2013-09-01

337

Modification of safety critical systems: an assessment of three approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sums up the experience at SINTEF Telecom and Informatics on analysis of safety critical systems. After a short description of the system under consideration, the paper naturally falls into two parts. The first one is a describtion of two modifications, how they were implemented and how they were analysed for safety. The second one contains a discussion of

Tor Stålhane; Kari Juul Wedde

1998-01-01

338

Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

2012-01-01

339

Peer assessment in musical performance: the development, trial and evaluation of a methodology for the Australian tertiary environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the development and trial of peer assessment procedures for implementation within a music performance context in the Australian tertiary environment. An overview of the literature on peer assessment is presented, followed by reference to specific trials of peer assessment within a tertiary music student context. The paper then presents the rationale for and methodology applied in developing

Ryan Daniel

2004-01-01

340

Methodology for Collision Risk Assessment of an Airspace Flow Corridor Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents a methodology to estimate the collision risk associated with a future air-transportation concept called the flow corridor. The flow corridor is a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept to reduce congestion and increase throughput in en-route airspace. The flow corridor has the potential to increase throughput by reducing the controller workload required to manage aircraft outside the corridor and by reducing separation of aircraft within corridor. The analysis in this dissertation is a starting point for the safety analysis required by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to eventually approve and implement the corridor concept. This dissertation develops a hybrid risk analysis methodology that combines Monte Carlo simulation with dynamic event tree analysis. The analysis captures the unique characteristics of the flow corridor concept, including self-separation within the corridor, lane change maneuvers, speed adjustments, and the automated separation assurance system. Monte Carlo simulation is used to model the movement of aircraft in the flow corridor and to identify precursor events that might lead to a collision. Since these precursor events are not rare, standard Monte Carlo simulation can be used to estimate these occurrence rates. Dynamic event trees are then used to model the subsequent series of events that may lead to collision. When two aircraft are on course for a near-mid-air collision (NMAC), the on-board automated separation assurance system provides a series of safety layers to prevent the impending NNAC or collision. Dynamic event trees are used to evaluate the potential failures of these layers in order to estimate the rare-event collision probabilities. The results show that the throughput can be increased by reducing separation to 2 nautical miles while maintaining the current level of safety. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most critical parameters in the model related to the overall collision probability are the minimum separation, the probability that both flights fail to respond to traffic collision avoidance system, the probability that an NMAC results in a collision, the failure probability of the automatic dependent surveillance broadcast in receiver, and the conflict detection probability.

Zhang, Yimin

341

Assessment of Safety Culture in Isfahan Hospitals (2010)  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Many internal and external risk factors in health care organizations make safety important and it has caused the management to consider safety in their mission statement. One of the most important tools is to establish the appropriate organizational structure and safety culture. The goal: The goal of this research is to inform managers and staff about current safety culture status in hospitals in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health services. Methods: This is a descriptive-survey research. The research population was selected hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Research tool was a questionnaire (Cronbach alpha 0.75). The questionnaire including 93 questions (Likert scale) classified in 12 categories: Demographic questions, Individual attitude, management attitude, Safety Training, Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, Consultation and participation, Communications, Monitoring and control, work environment, Reporting, safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that distributed among 45 technicians, 208 Nurses and 62 Physicians. All data collected from the serve was analysis with statistical package of social science (SPSS). In this survey Friedman test, Spearman correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis have been used for data analyzing. Results: The score of safety culture dimensions was 2.90 for Individual attitude, 3.12 for management attitude, 3.32 for Safety Training, 3.14 for Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, 3.31 for Consultation and participation, 2.93 for Communications, 3.28 for Monitoring and control, 3.19 for work environment, 3.36 for Reporting, 3.59 safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that Communication and individual attitude were in bad condition. Safety culture among different hospitals: governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental and different functional groups (physicians, nurses, diagnostic) of studied hospitals showed no significant differences. There was no relationship between safety culture and demographic data. Conclusion: It was concluded that is no different among governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental in level of safety culture, all of them were on intermediate level so it is essential to attention to the safety culture in hospitals and planning to improve it. PMID:23687460

Raeisi, Ahmed Reza; Nazari, Maryam; Bahmanziari, Najme

2013-01-01

342

Ecological risk assessment methodology for species exposed to contaminant mixtures with application to Chesapeake Bay striped bass  

SciTech Connect

This report is on the development of a new methodology to assess potential risks to natural populations exposed to contaminant mixtures. The purpose of this project was to develop an objective and quantitative methodology that could help ChesapeakeBay environmental managers assess the potential risks that mixtures of chemical contaminants might pose to resource species. Application of the method was to be demonstrated on Chesapeake Bay striped bass populations to the extent that available data allowed.

Logan, D.T.; Wilson, H.T.

1995-12-31

343

A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover, population density, economic activities) of several case studies in order to develop risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk at the regional scale. The main outputs of the RRA are receptor-based maps of risks useful to communicate the potential implications of floods in non-monetary terms to stakeholders and administrations. These maps can be a basis for the management of flood risks as they can provide information about the indicative number of inhabitants, the type of economic activities, natural systems and cultural heritages potentially affected by flooding. Moreover, they can provide suitable information about flood risk in the considered area in order to define priorities for prevention measures, for land use planning and management. Finally, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used as data input in the Socio- Economic Regional Risk Assessment methodology for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity). Within the KULTURisk project, the methodology has been applied and validated in several European case studies. Moreover, its generalization to address other types of natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, forest fires) will be evaluated. The preliminary results of the RRA application in the KULTURisk project will be here presented and discussed.

Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

2013-04-01

344

Recent developments in Topaz-II reactor safety assessments  

SciTech Connect

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate nuclear electric propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety analysis was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes preliminary safety analysis results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the NEP space test (NEPST).

Marshall, A.C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01

345

Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe.  

PubMed

A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last decades, there is ongoing debate on the current approaches for human health risk assessment in scenarios involving acute chemical releases. A survey was conducted to identify: (1) the most important present and potential future chemical incident scenarios and anticipated changes in chemical incidents or their management; (2) information, tools and guidance used in different countries to assess health risks from acute chemical releases; and (3) needs for new information, tools, guidance and expertise to enable the valid and rapid health risk assessment of acute chemical exposures. According to the results, there is an obvious variability in risk assessment practices within Europe. The multiplicity of acute exposure reference values appears to result in variable practices. There is a need for training especially on the practical application of acute exposure reference values. Although acutely toxic and irritating/corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles). PMID:23260870

Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty; Ruijten, Marc; Bos, Peter M J; Zitting, Antti; Bull, Sarah; Russell, David; Nielsen, Elsa; Cassel, Gudrun; Leffler, Per; Tissot, Sylvie; Vincent, Jean-Martin; Santonen, Tiina

2013-01-15

346

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This revision responds to RL comments and increases the discussion of the ``effective hazard categorization`` and the readiness review basis. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-10-10

347

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-11-08

348

Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.  

PubMed

The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

2011-01-01

349

Methodology for the comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative technologies  

SciTech Connect

A description of the initial methodology for the Comparative Assessment of the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program of NASA and DOE is presented. Included are study objectives, issue identification, units of measurement, methods, and data bases. The energy systems concerned are the satellite power system, several coal technologies, geothermal energy, fission, fusion, terrestrial solar systems, and ocean thermal energy conversion. Guidelines are suggested for the characterization of these systems, side-by-side analysis, alternative futures analysis, and integration and aggregation of data. The bulk of this report is a description of the methods for assessing the technical, economic, environmental, societal, and institutional issues surrounding the development of the selected energy technologies.

Wolsko, T.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Gasper, J.; Habegger, L.; Hub, K.; Newsom, D.; Samsa, M.; Stenehjem, E.; Whitfield, R.

1980-01-01

350

Wildlife Strike Risk Assessment in Several Italian Airports: Lessons from BRI and a New Methodology Implementation  

PubMed Central

The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

2011-01-01

351

Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.  

PubMed

Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities. PMID:22947476

Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

2012-09-01

352

An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes. These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

1992-01-01

353

An improved approach for flight readiness certification: Methodology for failure risk assessment and application examples. Volume 2: Software documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk of spaceflight systems to assess flight readiness and identify risk control measures is presented. This methodology, called Probabilistic Failure Assessment (PFA), combines operating experience from tests and flights with engineering analysis to estimate failure risk. The PFA methodology is of particular value when information on which to base an assessment of failure risk, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is expensive or difficult to acquire. The PFA methodology is a prescribed statistical structure in which engineering analysis models that characterize failure phenomena are used conjointly with uncertainties about analysis parameters and/or modeling accuracy to estimate failure probability distributions for specific failure modes, These distributions can then be modified, by means of statistical procedures of the PFA methodology, to reflect any test or flight experience. Conventional engineering analysis models currently employed for design of failure prediction are used in this methodology. The PFA methodology is described and examples of its application are presented. Conventional approaches to failure risk evaluation for spaceflight systems are discussed, and the rationale for the approach taken in the PFA methodology is presented. The statistical methods, engineering models, and computer software used in fatigue failure mode applications are thoroughly documented.

Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Newlin, L. E.; Sutharshana, S.; Creager, M.

1992-01-01

354

Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control  

SciTech Connect

The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

DeSteese, J.G.

1982-05-01

355

Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

1983-02-01

356

Multi-criteria decision assessments using Subjective Logic: Methodology and the case of urban water strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPlanning of regional and urban water resources, and in particular with Integrated Urban Water Management approaches, often considers inter-relationships between human uses of water, the health of the natural environment as well as the cost of various management strategies. Decision makers hence typically need to consider a combination of social, environmental and economic goals. The types of strategies employed can include water efficiency measures, water sensitive urban design, stormwater management, or catchment management. Therefore, decision makers need to choose between different scenarios and to evaluate them against a number of criteria. This type of problem has a discipline devoted to it, i.e. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, which has often been applied in water management contexts. This paper describes the application of Subjective Logic in a basic Bayesian Network to a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis problem. By doing this, it outlines a novel methodology that explicitly incorporates uncertainty and information reliability. The application of the methodology to a known case study context allows for exploration. By making uncertainty and reliability of assessments explicit, it allows for assessing risks of various options, and this may help in alleviating cognitive biases and move towards a well formulated risk management policy.

Moglia, Magnus; Sharma, Ashok K.; Maheepala, Shiroma

2012-07-01

357

A Multidisciplinary Methodology for Hazard and Risk Assessment of Rock Avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative procedure for hazard and risk assessment of large landslides that can develop as rock avalanches is discussed in this paper. Reference is made to the IMIRILAND project, where a multidisciplinary methodology has been developed paying particular attention to the landslide modeling process that leads to the quantification of the hazard, i.e. the prediction of the occurrence probability, the involved area and the run-out velocity. The risk assessment methodology is exemplified in the paper with reference to two cases: the Ceppo Morelli and Rosone landslides, both of which are located in the Italian Western Alps. The results of these applications show that, despite the development of sophisticated 3D numerical methods, many uncertainties still remain in the process of modeling large and complex landslides, related in particular to the definition of the probability of failure and the rheological parameters to be used for the prediction of rock mass behavior. However geo-mechanical models are found to be very valuable tools to verify, from a mechanical point of view, the assumptions introduced through the geo-structural and geo-morphological analyses concerning the volume and the kinematics of the unstable mass, and their role is fundamental for the determination of the involved area when mechanical parameters can be assumed with sufficient reliability.

Castelli, M.; Scavia, C.

2008-02-01

358

Safety Assessment of PowerBeam Flywheel Technology  

SciTech Connect

The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems is the issue of safety. The PowerBeam flywheel system concept, developed by HyKinesys Inc., employs a pair of high aspect ratio, counter-rotating flywheels to provide surge power for hybrid vehicle applications. The PowerBeam approach to safety is to design flywheels conservatively so as to avoid full rotor burst failure modes. A conservative point design was sized for use in a mid-size sedan such as a Chevrolet Malibu. The PowerBeam rotor rims were designed with a steel tube covered by a carbon fiber reinforced composite tube. ORNL conducted rotor design analyses using both nested ring and finite element analysis design codes. The safety factor of the composite material was 7, while that of the steel was greater than 3. The design exceeded the PNGV recommendation for a safety factor of at least 4 for composite material to prevent flywheel burst.

Starbuck, J Michael [ORNL; Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

2009-11-01

359

Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.  

PubMed

Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic material that should try to protect from patenting and commercialisation. Finally, we should be aware of the requirements of movement of GMOs within borders, i.e. GMOs grown or used in other countries but which are not intended to cross into Greece, since Greece is very close to countries that are non-EU. This is where the development of a new, integrated, trustworthy and transparent food quality control system will help to satisfy the societal demands for safe and quality products. On the other hand, Greece should not be isolated from any recent scientific technological development and should assess the possible advantages for some cultivation using a case by case approach. Finally, the safety assessment of GM foods and feed has been discussed according to the risk assessment methodology applied by EFSA. PMID:17275157

Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

2007-04-01

360

CONFOUNDERS IN INTERPRETING PATHOLOGY FOR SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The contribution of pathology assessment to toxicity assessment is invaluable but often not clearly understood. Pathology endpoints are the central response around which human health risk assessment is frequently determined; therefore, it is important that the general toxicology ...

361

Assessing patient safety culture in hospitals across countries  

PubMed Central

Objective It is believed that in order to reduce the number of adverse events, hospitals have to stimulate a more open culture and reflective attitude towards errors and patient safety. The objective is to examine similarities and differences in hospital patient safety culture in three countries: the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. Design This is a cross-sectional survey study across three countries. A questionnaire, the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS), was disseminated nationwide in the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. Setting The study was conducted in 45 hospitals in the Netherlands, 622 in the USA and 74 in Taiwan. Participants A total of 3779 professionals from the participating hospitals in the Netherlands, 196 462 from the USA and 10 146 from Taiwan participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures of the study were 12 dimensions of patient safety culture, e.g. Teamwork, Organizational learning, Communication openness. Results Most hospitals in all three countries have high scores on teamwork within units. The area with a high potential for improvement in all three countries is Handoffs and transitions. Differences between countries exist on the following dimensions: Non-punitive response to error, Feedback and communication about error, Communication openness, Management support for patient safety and Organizational learning—continuous improvement. On the whole, US respondents were more positive about the safety culture in their hospitals than Dutch and Taiwanese respondents. Nevertheless, there are even larger differences between hospitals within a country. Conclusions Comparison of patient safety culture data has shown similarities and differences within and between countries. All three countries can improve areas of their patient safety culture. Countries can identify and share best practices and learn from each other. PMID:23571748

Wagner, C.; Smits, M.; Sorra, J.; Huang, C.C.

2013-01-01

362

Systematic risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructure elements - Oil and Gas subsectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concern for the protection of critical infrastructure has been rapidly growing in the last few years in Europe. The level of knowledge and preparedness in this field is beginning to develop in a lawfully organized manner, for the identification and designation of critical infrastructure elements of national and European interest. Oil and gas production, refining, treatment, storage and transmission by pipelines facilities, are considered European critical infrastructure sectors, as per Annex I of the Council Directive 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. Besides identifying European and national critical infrastructure elements, member states also need to perform a risk analysis for these infrastructure items, as stated in Annex II of the above mentioned Directive. In the field of risk assessment, there are a series of acknowledged and successfully used methods in the world, but not all hazard identification and assessment methods and techniques are suitable for a given site, situation, or type of hazard. As Theoharidou, M. et al. noted (Theoharidou, M., P. Kotzanikolaou, and D. Gritzalis 2009. Risk-Based Criticality Analysis. In Critical Infrastructure Protection III. Proceedings. Third Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, March 23-25, 2009: revised selected papers, edited by C. Palmer and S. Shenoi, 35-49. Berlin: Springer.), despite the wealth of knowledge already created, there is a need for simple, feasible, and standardized criticality analyses. The proposed systematic risk assessment methodology includes three basic steps: the first step (preliminary analysis) includes the identification of hazards (including possible natural hazards) for each installation/section within a given site, followed by a criterial analysis and then a detailed analysis step. The criterial evaluation is used as a ranking system in order to establish the priorities for the detailed risk assessment. This criterial analysis stage is necessary because the total number of installations and sections on a site can be quite large. As not all installations and sections on a site contribute significantly to the risk of a major accident occurring, it is not efficient to include all installations and sections in the detailed risk assessment, which can be time and resource consuming. The selected installations are then taken into consideration in the detailed risk assessment, which is the third step of the systematic risk assessment methodology. Following this step, conclusions can be drawn related to the overall risk characteristics of the site. The proposed methodology can as such be successfully applied to the assessment of risk related to critical infrastructure elements falling under the energy sector of Critical Infrastructure, mainly the sub-sectors oil and gas. Key words: Systematic risk assessment, criterial analysis, energy sector critical infrastructure elements

Gheorghiu, A.-D.; Ozunu, A.

2012-04-01

363

Fermi 2: Independent safety assessment of refueling outage  

SciTech Connect

Industry experience and studies conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have shown that plants are susceptible to a variety of events that can challenge safety during shutdowns. While these events have neither posed nor indicated an undue risk to public health and safety, they do serve to underscore the importance of effective outage planning and control. The NUMARC 91-06 guidelines suggest that proper planning and execution of outage activities can reduce the likelihood and consequences of events, which ultimately enhances safety during shutdown. The Fermi 2, Independent Safety Engineering Group (ISEG) is charged with the independent safety review of the refueling outage plan and its implementation. The ISEG is responsible for performing a detailed and critical review of proposed outage plan prior to the start of the outage, maintaining surveillance of the adequacy and consistency of the {open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes} provided during the outage, reviewing the outage plan changes for potential vulnerabilities that could affect safety functions, and investigating selected events that emerge during the course of the outage.

Arora, H.O. [Detroit Edison, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

364

Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD): An Analysis Tool for Spacecraft Safety Analysis and Ascent/Reentry Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the purpose of performing safety analysis and risk assessment for a potential off-nominal atmospheric reentry resulting in vehicle breakup, a synthesis of trajectory propagation coupled with thermal analysis and the evaluation of node failure is required to predict the sequence of events, the timeline, and the progressive demise of spacecraft components. To provide this capability, the Simulation for Prediction of Entry Article Demise (SPEAD) analysis tool was developed. The software and methodology have been validated against actual flights, telemetry data, and validated software, and safety/risk analyses were performed for various programs using SPEAD. This report discusses the capabilities, modeling, validation, and application of the SPEAD analysis tool.

Ling, Lisa

2014-01-01

365

DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION  

E-print Network

DAM SAFETY DECISION-MAKING: COMBINING ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS WITH RISK INFORMATION David S. Bowles breaching a dam; so drop the matter before a dispute breaks out. Proverbs 17:14 (NIV) ABSTRACT A decision assessments and risk assessments. The approach can be adapted to any dam owner's unique decision context

Bowles, David S.

366

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (increase elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it becomes urgent and dramatically relevant the need of promoting and developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threats different relevant receptors. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). The present study is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The methodology, developed within the recently phased out FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The FD compliant KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region, by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow to identify and prioritize relative hotspots and targets which are more likely to be affected by flood and support the development of relevant and strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. Moreover, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity).

Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

2014-07-01

367

ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY CRITICAL SYSTEMS WITH COTS SOFTWARE AND SOFTWARE OF UNCERTAIN PEDIGREE (SOUP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mission- and safety critical system designers are more and more forced to use a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) approach due to more focus on cost and development times, even if COTS components normally are not specifically designed and developed for robust operation. Many safety critical systems have to be assessed or certified by independent organisations. This paper addresses the challenges assessors and

Torbjørn Skramstad

368

Simulating Geriatric Home Safety Assessments in a Three-Dimensional Virtual World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual worlds could offer inexpensive and safe three-dimensional environments in which medical trainees can learn to identify home safety hazards. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility, usability, and acceptability of virtual worlds for geriatric home safety assessments and to correlate performance efficiency in hazard identification with…

Andrade, Allen D.; Cifuentes, Pedro; Mintzer, Michael J.; Roos, Bernard A.; Anam, Ramanakumar; Ruiz, Jorge G.

2012-01-01

369

Assessing Patient Safety Culture: A Review and Synthesis of the Measurement Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Interest in the measurement of organizational culture that supports patient safety has grown among health care providers. Objective: To review available quantitative instruments for the assessment of patient safety culture. Methods: Surveys were identified through a systematic review, which included a MEDLINE and internet search, expert input, and review of references from relevant articles. For each instrument, we examined

Eric G

370

The safety assessment of foods from transgenic and cloned animals using the comparative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The comparative approach to food safety assessment is based on the idea that the safety of a new food can largely be determined by its comparison to the benchmark of commonly consumed foods already in the food supply (also called the 'conventional counterpart'). Any differences between the new food and its conventional counterpart are evaluated to determine their relevance

L. Kelly

2005-01-01

371

Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

2012-01-01

372

The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for flood risk: the case of Sihl river in Zurich  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it is necessary to develop effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the risk of floods. In light of the recent European Flood Directive (FD), the KULTURisk-FP7 Project developed a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology for assessing the risk imposed by floods events. The KULTURisk RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It is a flexible that can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale) that integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific geophysical and socio-economic indicators (exposure and vulnerability factors such as land cover, slope, soil permeability, population density, economic activities, etc.). The main outputs of the methodology are GIS-based risk maps that identify and prioritize relative hot-spot areas and targets at risk (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. Risk maps, along with related statistics, provide crucial information about flood risk pattern, and allow the development of relevant and strategic mitigation and prevention measures to minimizing flood risk in urban areas. The present study applied and validated the KULTURisk RRA methodology to the Sihl river case study in Zurich (Switzerland). Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl river valley, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. The total risk maps obtained under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as the reference one) have highlighted that the area is associated with the lower class of risk. Moreover, the relative risk is higher in Zurich city centre, in the few residential areas around the city centre and within the districts that rely just beside to the Sihl river course.

Ronco, Paolo; Bullo, Martina; Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Buchecker, Matthias; Marcomini, Antonio

2014-05-01

373

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum  

E-print Network

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Magnesium Silicate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Sodium Magnesium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Lithium Magnesium Silicate, Lithium Magnesium

Ahmad, Sajjad

374

Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

Marshall, A. C.

375

Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments  

SciTech Connect

Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.

Pevey, Ronald E.

2005-09-15

376

Development of an assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery potential using carbon dioxide and associated carbon sequestration-Workshop findings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested that the USGS estimate the "potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations" (121 Stat. 1711). The USGS developed a noneconomic, probability-based methodology to assess the Nation's technically assessable geologic storage resources available for sequestration of CO2 (Brennan and others, 2010) and is currently using the methodology to assess the Nation's CO2 geologic storage resources. Because the USGS has not developed a methodology to assess the potential volumes of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that could be produced by injection and sequestration of CO2, the Geologic Carbon Sequestration project initiated an effort in 2010 to develop a methodology for the assessment of the technically recoverable hydrocarbon potential in the sedimentary basins of the United States using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques with CO2 (CO2-EOR). In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS hosted a 2-day CO2-EOR workshop in May 2011, attended by 28 experts from academia, natural resource agencies and laboratories of the Federal Government, State and international geologic surveys, and representatives from the oil and gas industry. The geologic and the reservoir engineering and operations working groups formed during the workshop discussed various aspects of geology, reservoir engineering, and operations to make recommendations for the methodology.

Verma, Mahendra K.; Warwick, Peter D.

2011-01-01

377

An integrated quality function deployment and capital budgeting methodology for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach: the case of the construction industry.  

PubMed

In this paper, an integrated methodology for Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and a 0-1 knapsack model is proposed for occupational safety and health as a systems thinking approach. The House of Quality (HoQ) in QFD methodology is a systematic tool to consider the inter-relationships between two factors. In this paper, three HoQs are used to consider the interrelationships between tasks and hazards, hazards and events, and events and preventive/protective measures. The final priority weights of events are defined by considering their project-specific preliminary weights, probability of occurrence, and effects on the victim and the company. The priority weights of the preventive/protective measures obtained in the last HoQ are fed into a 0-1 knapsack model for the investment decision. Then, the selected preventive/protective measures can be adapted to the task design. The proposed step-by-step methodology can be applied to any stage of a project to design the workplace for occupational safety and health, and continuous improvement for safety is endorsed by the closed loop characteristic of the integrated methodology. PMID:24188741

Bas, Esra

2014-07-01

378

CAMEO-SIM: a physics-based broadband scene simulation tool for assessment of camouflage, concealment, and deception methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of camouflage, concealment, and deception (CCD) methodologies is not a trivial problem; conventionally the only method has been to carry out field trials, which are both expensive and subject to the vagaries of the weather. In recent years computing power has increased, such that there are now many research programs using synthetic environments for CCD assessments. Such an approach

Ian R. Moorhead; Marilyn A. Gilmore; Alexander W. Houlbrook; David E. Oxford; David R. Filbee; Colin A. Stroud; G. Hutchings; Albert Kirk

2001-01-01

379

Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to

Melvin Gary Marietta; D. Richard Anderson; Evaristo J. Bonano; Paul Gregory Meacham

2011-01-01

380

On-the-Job Training: Development and Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the development and assessment of a methodology for generating on-the-job-training (OJT) task proficiency assessment instruments. The Task Evaluation Form (TEF) development procedures were derived to address previously identified deficiencies in the evaluation of OJT task proficiency. The TEF development procedures allow…

Warm, Ronnie; And Others

381

LETTER TO THE EDITOR Assessment of monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake in a rural Thai community: questioning the methodological approach  

E-print Network

We examined the methodological approach to the assessment of monosodium glutamate intake. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic of this study population would be conducive to the development of metabolic syndrome. However, anomalies in the assessment of dietary information limits conclusion to a causal link of monosodium glutamate to metabolic syndrome and overweight because the study lacks data on the main dietary patterns of consumption. Given the current paucity of data from human studies on monosodium glutamate intake and risk, more studies with robust methodology are required to assess causal links to disease.

Karuthan Chinna; Tilakavati Karupaiah

382

Clinical Practice Guidelines and Consensus Statements in Oncology - An Assessment of Their Methodological Quality  

PubMed Central

Background Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines are widely available for enhancing the care of cancer patients. Despite subtle differences in their definition and purpose, these terms are often used interchangeably. We systematically assessed the methodological quality of consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published in three commonly read, geographically diverse, cancer-specific journals. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine’s standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Methods Consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines published between January 2005 and September 2013 in Current Oncology, European Journal of Cancer and Journal of Clinical Oncology were evaluated. Each publication was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) rigour of development and editorial independence domains. For assessment of transparency of document development, 7 additional items were taken from the Institute of Medicine's standards for practice guidelines and the Journal of Clinical Oncology guidelines for authors of guidance documents. Findings Thirty-four consensus statements and 67 clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. The rigour of development score for consensus statements over the three journals was 32% lower than that of clinical practice guidelines. The editorial independence score was 15% lower for consensus statements than clinical practice guidelines. One journal scored consistently lower than the others over both domains. No journals adhered to all the items related to the transparency of document development. One journal’s consensus statements endorsed a product made by the sponsoring pharmaceutical company in 64% of cases. Conclusion Guidance documents are an essential part of oncology care and should be subjected to a rigorous and validated development process. Consensus statements had lower methodological quality than clinical practice guidelines using AGREE II. At a minimum, journals should ensure that that all consensus statements and clinical practice guidelines adhere to AGREE II criteria. Journals should consider explicitly requiring guidelines to declare pharmaceutical company sponsorship and to identify the sponsor’s product to enhance transparency. PMID:25329669

Jacobs, Carmel; Graham, Ian D.; Makarski, Julie; Chasse, Michael; Fergusson, Dean; Hutton, Brian; Clemons, Mark

2014-01-01

383

Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)  

SciTech Connect

The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

Not Available

1993-08-01

384

Territorial Impact Assessment for European regions: A methodological proposal and an application to EU transport policy.  

PubMed

The need to engage European research and institutions in the new field of Territorial Impact Assessment, from both a methodological and a procedural perspective, was stated some years ago by the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP). The necessity of multidimensional evaluation of the likely impact of policies and programmes on the territory - understood as the dimension on which all the other relevant dimensions (economic, social, environmental and cultural) converge and with which they integrate - emerged as a natural consequence of the importance of spatial aspects in the future development of the Union and of widespread preoccupations about certain emerging spatial trends. A proposal for a TIA methodology combining logical consistency vis-à-vis the Union's present institutional and policy guidelines with operational viability is being developed and applied to Trans-European Networks policy of the EU. Territorial impact is linked to an innovative definition of the objective of "territorial cohesion" of the Treaties in terms of territorial efficiency, quality and identity. Utilising sectoral impact studies developed inside the ESPON programme and developing territorial indicators for impact, vulnerability and desirability (territorial utility functions), a multicriteria model (TEQUILA) is implemented on priority projects as defined by the Commission, and results mapped and described for the 1360 NUTS-3 regions of the Union. PMID:19665227

Camagni, Roberto

2009-11-01

385

Assessment of current structural design methodology for high-temperature reactors based on failure tests  

SciTech Connect

A mature design methodology, consisting of inelastic analysis methods, provided in Department of Energy guidelines, and failure criteria, contained in ASME Code Case N-47, exists in the United States for high-temperature reactor components. The objective of this paper is to assess the adequacy of this overall methodology by comparing predicted inelastic deformations and lifetimes with observed results from structural failure tests and from an actual service failure. Comparisons are presented for three types of structural situations: (1) nozzle-to-spherical shell specimens, where stresses at structural discontinuities lead to cracking, (2) welded structures, where metallurgical discontinuities play a key role in failures, and (3) thermal shock loadings of cylinders and pipes, where thermal discontinuities can lead to failure. The comparison between predicted and measured inelastic responses are generally reasonalbly good; quantities are sometimes overpredicted somewhat, and, sometimes underpredicted. However, even seemingly small discrepancies can have a significant effect on structural life, and lifetimes are not always as closely predicted. For a few cases, the lifetimes are substantially overpredicted, which raises questions regarding the adequacy of existing design margins.

Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

1985-01-01

386

Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports  

SciTech Connect

Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

Kurniawan, Jermanto S., E-mail: Jermanto.kurniawan@inrets.fr; Khardi, S., E-mail: Salah.khardi@inrets.f

2011-04-15

387

Review of Methodologies for Offshore Wind Resource Assessment in European Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind resource offshore is generally larger than at geographically nearby onshore sites, which can offset the higher installation, operation and maintenance costs associated with offshore wind parks. Successful offshore wind energy development relies to some extent on accurate prediction of wind resources, but since installing and operating a meteorological mast in situ is expensive, prospective sites must be carefully evaluated. Accordingly, one can conceptualize the wind resource assessment process as a two-phase activity: ( i) an evaluation of wind resources at the regional scale to locate promising wind farm sites and ( ii) a site specific evaluation of wind climatology and vertical profiles of wind and atmospheric turbulence, in addition to an assessment of historical and possibly future changes due to climate non-stationarity. Phase ( i) of the process can involve use of in situ observations of opportunity derived from ships, lighthouses and buoys in conjunction with model tools and remote sensing products. The reliability of such data sources has been extensively investigated in different national and European projects especially in Northern Europe, and the results are summarized herein. Phase ( ii) of the project often still requires in situ observations (which may or may not be supplemented with ground-based remote sensing technologies) and application of tools to provide a climatological context for the resulting measurements. Current methodologies for undertaking these aspects of the resource assessment are reviewed.

Sempreviva, A. M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

2008-12-01

388

An Accelerometry-Based Methodology for Assessment of Real-World Bilateral Upper Extremity Activity  

PubMed Central

Background The use of both upper extremities (UE) is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry. Methods Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing) while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated. Results The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (??=?0.74, p<0.02), and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (??=?0.93, p<0.01) across tasks. Conclusions These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments. PMID:25068258

Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

2014-01-01

389

An assessment of risk and safety in civil aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk and safety have always been important considerations in civil aviation. This is particularly so under current conditions of continuous growth in air transport demand, frequent scarcity of airport and infrastructure capacity, and thus permanent and increased pressure on the system components. There is also the growing public and operators’ awareness of these and other system externalities such as air

Milan Janic

2000-01-01

390

Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

1999-04-01

391

Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

1999-03-01

392

Assessment of safety-critical software in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines an approach in the design, documentation, and evaluation of computer systems. This allows the use of software in many safety-critical applications because it enables the systematic comparison of the program behavior with the engineering specifications of the computer system. Many of the ideas in this article have been used by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada

D.L. Parnas; J. Madey; G. J. K. Asmis

1991-01-01

393

Recent developments in Topaz-II reactor safety assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate nuclear electric propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety analysis was initiated to determine whether

1993-01-01

394

Exploring new approaches to assess safety without animal testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 7 th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive has made developing non-animal approaches to assure the safety of consumer products a key business need to support future innovation. A substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004, aimed at critically evaluating the feasibility of a proposed new conceptual approach. The key aspects of this approach are: 1. Developing

Julia Fentem; Paul Carmichael; Gavin Maxwell; Camilla Pease; Fiona Reynolds; Guy Warner; Carl Westmoreland

395

Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally,

2001-01-01

396

HIV infection among women in prison: an assessment of risk factors using a nonnominal methodology.  

PubMed

The relative contributions of needle use practices and sexual behaviors to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody seropositivity among 394 women incarcerated in Quebec were determined by risk factor assessment and serology with a nonnominal methodology. HIV positivity was found in 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.6, 9.9) of all participants and in 13% (95% CI = 8.6, 18.6) of women with a history of injection drug use. HIV seropositivity among women with a history of injection drug use was predicted by sexual or needle contact with a seropositive person, self-reported genital herpes, and having had a regular sexual partner who injected drugs, but it was not predicted by prostitution. Nonnominal testing is an ethical alternative to mandatory and anonymous unlinked testing among correctional populations. PMID:7943484

Hankins, C A; Gendron, S; Handley, M A; Richard, C; Tung, M T; O'Shaughnessy, M

1994-10-01

397

Methodology for Assessing Rice Varieties for Resistance to the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica  

PubMed Central

Several physical and chemical attributes of rice were evaluated to determine which character would be best to use to assess multiple rice varieties for resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Laboratory tests were conducted on single varieties of long-, short-, and medium grain-rice to develop procedures and methodologies that could be used for large-scale screening studies. Progeny production of R. dominica was positively correlated with the percentage of broken hulls. Although kernel hardness, amylose content, neonate preference for brown rice, and adult emergence from neonates varied among the three rice varieties tested they did not appear to be valid indicators of eventual progeny production, and may not be useful predictors of resistance or susceptibility. Soundness and integrity seem to be the best characters to use for varietal screening studies with R. dominica. PMID:20337559

Chanbang, Y; Arthur, F. H; Wilde, G. E; Throne, J. E; Subramanyam, B. H

2008-01-01

398

Urban transport safety assessment in akure based on corresponding performance indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level of safety of the transportation system in Akure, Nigeria was assessed by identifying the associated road safety problems and developing the corresponding safety performance indicators. These indicators were analysed with respect to accidents that occurred within the city from the year 2005 to 2009 based on the corresponding attributable risk measures. The results of the analysis showed the state of existing safety programs in Akure town. Six safety performance indicators were identified namely alcohol and drug use, excessive speeds, protection system (use of seat belts and helmets), use of day time running lights, state of vehicles (passive safety) and road condition. These indicators were used to determine the percentage of injury accidents as follows: 83.33% and 86.36% for years 2005 and 2006 respectively, 81.46% for year 2007 while years 2008 and 2009 had 82.86% and 78.12% injury accidents respectively.

Oye, Adedamola; Aderinlewo, Olufikayo; Croope, Silvana

2013-03-01

399

Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users. PMID:18830861

2008-01-01

400

Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA's program requirements.

deGroh, Henry C., III; Nahra, Henry K.

2009-01-01

401

Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA s program requirements.

deGroh, Henry C., III; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nahra, Henry K.

2009-01-01

402

Probabilistic Basis and Assessment Methodology for Effectiveness of Protecting Nuclear Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safeguards and security (S&S) systems for nuclear facilities include material control and accounting (MC&A) and a physical protection system (PPS) to protect nuclear materials from theft, sabotage and other malevolent human acts. The PPS for a facility is evaluated using probabilistic analysis of adversary paths on the basis of detection, delay, and response timelines to determine timely detection. The path analysis methodology focuses on systematic, quantitative evaluation of the physical protection component for potential external threats, and often calculates the probability that the PPS is effective (PE) in defeating an adversary who uses that attack path. By monitoring and tracking critical materials, MC&A activities provide additional protection against inside adversaries, but have been difficult to characterize in ways that are compatible with the existing path analysis methods that are used to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a site's protection system. This research describes and demonstrates a new method to incorporate MC&A protection elements explicitly within the existing probabilistic path analysis methodology. MC&A activities, from monitoring to inventory measurements, provide many, often recurring opportunities to determine the status of critical items, including detection of missing materials. Human reliability analysis methods are applied to determine human error probabilities to characterize the detection capabilities of MC&A activities. An object-based state machine paradigm was developed to characterize the path elements of an insider theft scenario as a race against MC&A activities that can move a facility from a normal state to a heightened alert state having additional detection opportunities. This paradigm is coupled with nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment techniques to incorporate the evaluation of MC&A activities in the existing path analysis methodology. Event sequence diagrams describe insider paths through the PPS and also incorporate MC&A activities as path elements. This work establishes a probabilistic basis for incorporating MC&A activities explicitly within the existing path analysis methodology to extend it to address insider threats. The analysis results for this new method provide an integrated effectiveness measure for a safeguards and security system that addresses threats from both outside and inside adversaries.

Duran, Felicia Angleica

403

The International Intravitreal Bevacizumab Safety Survey: using the internet to assess drug safety worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Off-label intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin) have been given for the treatment of neovascular and exudative ocular diseases since May 2005. Since then, the use of intravitreal bevacizumab has spread worldwide, but the drug-related adverse events associated with its use have been reported only in a few retrospective reviews. The International Intravitreal Bevacizumab Safety Survey was initiated to gather

A E Fung; P J Rosenfeld; E Reichel

2006-01-01

404

RISK ASSESSMENT New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (1999) include specific  

E-print Network

RISK ASSESSMENT ­ New and Expectant Mothers The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations to the health and safety of the employee? Yes No If there is a risk, please contact Health & Safety for further their employer they are pregnant they are required to conduct a risk assessment and take any appropriate measures

Barker, Jon

405

Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the use of coal to replace oil and gas consumption is considered beneficial for economic and political reasons. The evaluation of this report, however, is that the shift to coal can involve significant health, safety, and environmental impacts compared to those from oil and natural gas systems, which are considerably less adverse than those of any coal energy system in use today. An evaluation and comparison of the potential impacts from the various alternative coal technologies would be useful to both governmental and industrial policy planners and would provide them with information relevant to a decision on assistance, incentives, and prioritization among the energy technologies. It is, therefore, the main objective of this report to review the key health, safety, and environmental impacts of some promising coal energy technologies and to compare them.

Not Available

1980-03-01

406

Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely.

Not Available

1994-02-01

407

[Safety assessment of nanomaterials in reproductive developmental field].  

PubMed

A diverse array of nanomaterials (NMs) such as amorphous nanosilica and carbon nanotubes have become widespread in use due to the development of nanotechnology. NMs are already being applied in universal fields because they have unique physicochemical properties. On the other hand, the increasing use of NMs has raised public concern about their potential risks to human health. In particular, recent reports indicated that carbon nanotubes induced mesothelioma-like lesions in mice, in a way similar to those induced by crocidolite asbestos. However, current knowledge of the potential risk of nanomaterials is considered insufficient. Because NMs have the potential to improve the quality of human life, it is essential to ensure the safety of NMs and provide information for designing NMs with safety. Especially, few studies have examined the effect of NMs on maintenance of pregnancy. Similar to the cases of thalidomide, a lot of evidence shows that fetuses are affected more than adults by a variety of environmental toxins because of physiological immaturity. Therefore it is essential to examine the effect of NMs on fetuses and pregnancies. Here we introduce the potential risk of amorphous nanosilica, most widely used NMs in food and the cosmetics field, to induce fetotoxicity and useful information for developing NMs with safety. PMID:22382838

Yamashita, Kohei; Yoshioka, Yasuo

2012-01-01

408

Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

1984-02-01

409

Methodology for Assessing the Status of a Physical Protection System on the Basis of Agency Inspections and Site Self-Assessments in Rosatom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Methodology presents general approaches to the assessment of PPS status including criteria and indicators of such assessment and procedures for evaluating different aspects of physical protection, taking into consideration the significance of the criteria. The regulation includes specific methods of the application of the criteria for the evaluation of different aspects of physical protection (PP), as well as for

Alexandr S. Piskarev; Vladimir Babkin; Alexandr V. Izmaylov; Mikhail Kulikovsky; V. A Matveev; Douglas Shull; Linwood H. Livingston

2010-01-01

410

A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR&PP Methodology  

SciTech Connect

FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

2012-01-20

411

Probabilistic Safety Assessment of External Flooding Protection for Nuclear Power Plants in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to systematically analyse existing nuclear power plants (NPP) regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against external hazards, e.g. flooding, can be of deterministic as well as probabilistic nature. In the past the adequacy of the protection measures has been assessed only on a deterministic basis. The German regulatory body has issued probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) guidelines, which

Heinz Peter Berg; Rudolf Goertz; Thomas Froehmel; Christian Winter

2008-01-01

412

A simple methodology to assess endolysosomal protease activity involved in antigen processing in human primary cells  

PubMed Central

Background Endolysosomes play a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of the cell. They are made of a complex set of proteins that degrade lipids, proteins and sugars. Studies involving endolysosome contribution to cellular functions such as MHC class I and II epitope production have used recombinant endolysosomal proteins, knockout mice that lack one of the enzymes or purified organelles from human tissue. Each of these approaches has some caveats in analyzing endolysosomal enzyme functions. Results In this study, we have developed a simple methodology to assess endolysosomal protease activity. By varying the pH in crude lysate from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we documented increased endolysosomal cathepsin activity in acidic conditions. Using this new method, we showed that the degradation of HIV peptides in low pH extracts analyzed by mass spectrometry followed similar kinetics and degradation patterns as those performed with purified endolysosomes. Conclusion By using crude lysate in the place of purified organelles this method will be a quick and useful tool to assess endolysosomal protease activities in primary cells of limited availability. This quick method will especially be useful to screen peptide susceptibility to degradation in endolysosomal compartments for antigen processing studies, following which detailed analysis using purified organelles may be used to study specific peptides. PMID:23937268

2013-01-01

413

Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.  

PubMed

One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. PMID:22595076

Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

2012-09-30

414

Selection methodology for LWR safety R and D programs and proposals. Volume III. User's manual for the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP)  

SciTech Connect

The computer program which was developed to apply the multi-attribute utility (MAU) methodology to the selection of LWR safety R and D programs and proposals is described. An overview of the MAU method is presented, followed by a description of the steps incorporated in developing individual modules for use in the multi-attribute utility package (MAUP). Each module is described complete with usage information and an example of computer output.

Hale, M.; Turnage, J. J.; Husseiny, A. A.; Ritzman, R. L.

1981-02-01

415

Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

416

A kinetic model for the integrated assessment of safety and efficacy in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Regulatory agencies, professional societies, and clinical trialists commonly base judgments of treatment benefit on separate assessments of efficacy and safety. When separate assessments were compared with an integrated assessment using a kinetic model of a hypothetical randomized trial of antiplatelet agents in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the former showed treatment A to be superior to treatment B, whereas the latter showed treatment B to be superior to treatment A. In conclusion, comparative judgments regarding the balance between efficacy and safety depend on the model chosen for analysis; kinetic models are particularly suited to the integrated assessment of efficacy and safety relative to regulatory decisions, public policy, guideline development, and clinical care. PMID:25200341

Diamond, George A

2014-11-01

417

Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.  

PubMed

For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios. PMID:23619797

Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

2013-05-01

418

The practice of pre-marketing safety assessment in drug development.  

PubMed

The last 15 years have seen a substantial increase in efforts devoted to safety assessment by statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. While some of these efforts were driven by regulations and public demand for safer products, much of the motivation came from the realization that there is a strong need for a systematic approach to safety planning, evaluation, and reporting at the program level throughout the drug development life cycle. An efficient process can help us identify safety signals early and afford us the opportunity to develop effective risk minimization plan early in the development cycle. This awareness has led many pharmaceutical sponsors to set up internal systems and structures to effectively conduct safety assessment at all levels (patient, study, and program). In addition to process, tools have emerged that are designed to enhance data review and pattern recognition. In this paper, we describe advancements in the practice of safety assessment during the premarketing phase of drug development. In particular, we share examples of safety assessment practice at our respective companies, some of which are based on recommendations from industry-initiated working groups on best practice in recent years. PMID:23331218

Chuang-Stein, Christy; Xia, H Amy

2013-01-01

419

[Health and environmental licensing: a methodological proposal for assessment of the impact of the oil and gas industry].  

PubMed

Bearing in mind the importance of the impacts of the oil industry on human health, this article seeks to present a methodological proposal for analysis of these aspects in environmental impact assessment studies, based on the established legal parameters and a validated matrix for the hydroelectric sector. The lack of health considerations in the environmental impact assessment was detected in most of the 21 oil production enterprises analyzed, that were licensed in the period from January 1, 2004 through October 30, 2009. The health matrix proved to be an appropriate methodological approach to analyze these aspects in the environmental licensing process, guiding decisions and interventions in socio-environmental management. PMID:22267026

Barbosa, Eduardo Macedo; Barata, Matha Macedo de Lima; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

2012-02-01

420

Sustainability assessment of future scenarios: methodology and application to mountain areas of Europe.  

PubMed

BioScene (scenarios for reconciling biodiversity conservation with declining agriculture use in mountain areas in Europe) was a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union's Fifth Framework Programme, and aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe. The research took a case study approach to the analysis of the biodiversity processes and outcomes of different scenarios of agri-environmental change in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) covering the major biogeographical regions of Europe. The project was coordinated by Imperial College London, and each study area had a multidisciplinary team including ecologists and social and economic experts, which sought a comprehensive understanding of the drivers for change and their implications for sustainability.A key component was the sustainability assessment (SA) of the alternative scenarios. This article discusses the development and application of the SA methodology developed for BioScene. While the methodology was objectives-led, it was also strongly grounded in baseline ecological and socio-economic data. This article also describes the engagement of stakeholder panels in each study area and the use of causal chain analysis for understanding the likely implications for land use and biodiversity of strategic drivers of change under alternative scenarios for agriculture and rural policy and for biodiversity management. Finally, this article draws conclusions for the application of SA more widely, its use with scenarios, and the benefits of stakeholder engagement in the SA process. PMID:18167020

Sheate, William R; do Partidário, Maria Rosário; Byron, Helen; Bina, Olivia; Dagg, Suzan

2008-02-01

421

Sustainability Assessment of Future Scenarios: Methodology and Application to Mountain Areas of Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BioScene (scenarios for reconciling biodiversity conservation with declining agriculture use in mountain areas in Europe) was a three-year project (2002 2005) funded by the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme, and aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe. The research took a case study approach to the analysis of the biodiversity processes and outcomes of different scenarios of agri-environmental change in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) covering the major biogeographical regions of Europe. The project was coordinated by Imperial College London, and each study area had a multidisciplinary team including ecologists and social and economic experts, which sought a comprehensive understanding of the drivers for change and their implications for sustainability. A key component was the sustainability assessment (SA) of the alternative scenarios. This article discusses the development and application of the SA methodology developed for BioScene. While the methodology was objectives-led, it was also strongly grounded in baseline ecological and socio-economic data. This article also describes the engagement of stakeholder panels in each study area and the use of causal chain analysis for understanding the likely implications for land use and biodiversity of strategic drivers of change under alternative scenarios for agriculture and rural policy and for biodiversity management. Finally, this article draws conclusions for the application of SA more widely, its use with scenarios, and the benefits of stakeholder engagement in the SA process.

Sheate, William R.; Partidário, Maria Rosário Do; Byron, Helen; Bina, Olivia; Dagg, Suzan

2008-02-01

422

An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities: Safety overview and management function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Under Secretary of Energy established the Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee in October, 1979, in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear accident, to assess the adequacy of training of personnel at DOE nuclear facilities. Subsequently, in February, 1980, the charge to this Committee was modified to assess all implications of the Kemeny Commission

M. Booth; R. S. Brodsky; W. L. Frankhouser

1981-01-01

423

Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Health and Safety Manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is a tool to provide information to all responders and emergency planners and is suggested as a starting point for all organizations that provide personnel/assets for radiological emergency response. It defines the safety requirements for the protection of all emergency responders. The intent is to comply with appropriate regulations or provide an equal level of protection when the situation makes it necessary to deviate. In the event a situation arises which is not addressed in the manual, an appropriate management-level expert will define alternate requirements based on the specifics of the emergency situation. This manual is not intended to pertain to the general public.

FRMAC Health and Safety Working Group

2012-03-20

424