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BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in measuring healthcare provider attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety (often called safety climate or safety culture). Here we report the psychometric properties, establish benchmarking data, and discuss emerging areas of research with the University of Texas SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire. METHODS: Six cross-sectional surveys of health care providers (n = 10,843) in 203 clinical
John B Sexton; Robert L Helmreich; Torsten B Neilands; Kathy Rowan; Keryn Vella; James Boyden; Peter R Roberts; Eric J Thomas
Background Patient safety has been a priority for many societies and health care systems in the last decades. Identification of preventable risks and aversion of potentially unsafe situations and fatal complications in maternity units is life saving. The explicit need to focus on quality of care underpins the aim of the study to initially evaluate the safety culture and teamwork climate in the public Maternity Units of the 5 Regional Hospitals in Cyprus as measured by a validated safetyattitudes tool. Methods Data were collected from 140 midwives working in the public sector all over Cyprus by the Greek Version of the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire-Labor version. Results One hundred and six (75.71%) registered midwives completed the questionnaire fully. The median of total work experience as a registered midwife was 3 years (IQR: 2-18.25); whereas the median of total working experience in the nursing and maternity units was 5 years (IQR: 2-21.75). Experienced midwives rated the following domains higher: team work, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions as opposed to the midwives with less experience. Additionally those with a longer working life in the current maternity units rated these domains higher: safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions as opposed to the less experienced midwives. Conclusions The high mean total score on team work and safety climate in the more experienced group of midwives is a predominant finding for the maternity units of Cyprus. In Cyprus where facilities are small in size and midwives know each other, share more responsibility towards patient safety. It could be suggested that younger midwives need more support and teamwork practice to enhance the safety and teamwork climate towards self-confidence.
Background There is widespread interest in measuring healthcare provider attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety (often called safety climate or safety culture). Here we report the psychometric properties, establish benchmarking data, and discuss emerging areas of research with the University of Texas SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire. Methods Six cross-sectional surveys of health care providers (n = 10,843) in 203 clinical areas (including critical care units, operating rooms, inpatient settings, and ambulatory clinics) in three countries (USA, UK, New Zealand). Multilevel factor analyses yielded results at the clinical area level and the respondent nested within clinical area level. We report scale reliability, floor/ceiling effects, item factor loadings, inter-factor correlations, and percentage of respondents who agree with each item and scale. Results A six factor model of provider attitudes fit to the data at both the clinical area and respondent nested within clinical area levels. The factors were: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition. Scale reliability was 0.9. Provider attitudes varied greatly both within and among organizations. Results are presented to allow benchmarking among organizations and emerging research is discussed. Conclusion The SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties. Healthcare organizations can use the survey to measure caregiver attitudes about six patient safety-related domains, to compare themselves with other organizations, to prompt interventions to improve safetyattitudes and to measure the effectiveness of these interventions.
Sexton, John B; Helmreich, Robert L; Neilands, Torsten B; Rowan, Kathy; Vella, Keryn; Boyden, James; Roberts, Peter R; Thomas, Eric J
Objectives To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results\\u000a against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The safetyattitudesquestionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU.\\u000a All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses,
Summary A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management AttitudeQuestionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work
R. Flin; G. Fletcher; P. McGeorge; A. Sutherland; R. Patey
The purpose was to examine relationships between individual characteristics, leadership, group cohesion, and risk and safetyattitudes among Swedish conscripts (N = 389). The longitudinal questionnaire study revealed positive associations between safety-specific leadership and safetyattitudes, while safety skepticism and leadership promoting risk taking were associated with stronger attitudes of necessary risk taking. Attitudes of unnecessary risk taking, on the
|The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management AttitudeQuestionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work values, human error and organisational climate. The respondents generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards the interpersonal aspects of their work, such as team behaviours and they recognised the importance of communication skills, such as assertiveness. However, the results suggest that some anaesthetists do not fully appreciate the debilitating effects of stress and fatigue on performance. Their responses were comparable with (and slightly more favourable than) those reported in previous ORMAQ surveys of anaesthetists and surgeons in other countries. PMID:12603453
Flin, R; Fletcher, G; McGeorge, P; Sutherland, A; Patey, R
Human errors are considered the most important reason for maritime accidents. The international safety management code (the ISM Code) has been established to clarify the responsibilities of safety on vessels and to cut down the occurrence of human errors by creating a safety-oriented organizational culture for the maritime industry. The ISM Code came into operation in worldwide shipping in 1998.
Abstract ,While risk behavior, has,been,studied intensely,and,a large,number,of risk perception, studies are available , far less research exists regarding people's mind-sets towards risk- taking, i.e., risk attitudes, such as, risk propensity and risk aversion. These can be conceptualized,as two poles of a one-dimensional,attitude towards,risk-taking but also as two separate,concepts. ,It is widely ,assumed ,that people ,differ considerably ,in their ,attitude towards
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate consumer,attitudes regard- ing the safety of the food supply, relate food safety concern levels with groups of specific items, regulatory issues and prioritization of food safety funding areas, and to evaluate attitudes and behaviors toward specific food safety issues. As general level of concern with food safety increased, so did concern
|The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects…
BACKGROUND: Complementary\\/alternative medicine and integrative medicine (CAM\\/IM) are increasingly used in the U.S. We set out to develop and validate a brief questionnaire measuring health care provider and medical student attitudes regarding these approaches to healthcare. METHODS: IMAQ is a 29-item, 7-point Likert scale rated instrument, developed from focus groups consisting of faculty, fellows, visiting residents, and medical students at
Despite the success of pharmacotherapy in the management of bipolar disorder, as many as one-half of those in treatment discontinue their medication over time. Currently, no self-report measure is available that predicts treatment engagement in bipolar disorder. The goal of the current study was to develop a measure of awareness of symptoms and attitudes toward treatment among those with bipolar disorder. Sixty-six participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder on the SCID completed the Treatment AttitudesQuestionnaire (TAQ) and were then followed for up to 2 years to assess symptom levels. Medication data were available for 37 participants. Analyses of the TAQ were conducted to examine reliability, predictors of subscales, and how well scores predicted medication and symptom levels over time. Results indicate that previous episodes of depression, but not episodes of mania, correlated with increased scores on the Insight and the Enjoyment of Mania subscales. Scores on the Nonbiological Attributions subscale predicted lower levels of lithium as well as increased depressive symptoms over time. Although the current study includes limited measurement of treatment engagement and a small sample size, this easily administered scale may help treatment planning for those with bipolar disorder.
|Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…
This paper concerns organizational safety culture and the structure or architecture of employee attitudes to safety as part of that culture. It begins by reviewing the somewhat scant literature relevant to this area, and then reports a study, conducted in a European company, which collected and factor analysed data on employee attitudes to safety. The framework provided for the study
|Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
|Positive teacher attitudes toward computers are widely recognized as a necessary condition for effective use of information technology in the classroom (Woodrow, 1992). To measure attitudes toward technology, it is important to have valid and reliable instruments. In this study, the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to verify construct…
This study evaluated the influence of food safety education on the food safety perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices\\u000a among Turkish university students. Structured questionnaires were applied to 275 students majoring in “health or food” and\\u000a 570 students majoring in “non-health or non-food” on a face-to-face basis. Food has positive connotations since associated\\u000a primarily with taste and hunger in both groups.
The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a
The objective of this study was to identify any residual challenges in a unit with a track record of good clinical performance. A cross-sectional survey of frontline caregiver attitudes was conducted using a validated psychometric instrument. A total of 69% (91 of 132) of eligible participants completed questionnaires. The results indicated positive safety culture, teamwork climate, and job satisfaction. Perceptions
Dimitrios Siassakos; Robert Fox; Linda Hunt; Jane Farey; Christina Laxton; Cathy Winter; Timothy Draycott
|The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy…
Purpose – The purpose of this research paper is to segment US consumers based on their attitudes towards food safety and to demographically characterize each segment so that effective risk communication strategies and outreach programs may be developed to target vulnerable groups. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were applied to data on consumer food safetyattitudes of
Jean Kennedy; Michelle Worosz; Ewen C. Todd; Maria K. Lapinski
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses' pain management practices being readily available. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low reliability and validity. Modifications to the questionnaire were made on the basis of these results and the feedback provided by experts in pediatric pain management. Subsequent testing demonstrated good validity and reliability, suggesting that the questionnaire is appropriate for measuring nurses' knowledge and attitudes in relation to pediatric pain management. PMID:23972870
Objectives: To describe the safetyattitudes and beliefs of junior (aged 16–18 years) Australian football players. Setting: Six Victorian Football League Under 18 (VFL U18) clubs in Victoria, Australia. Methods: Cross sectional survey. Altogether 103 players completed a self report questionnaire about their safety beliefs and perceptions of support when injured, across three contexts in which they played: VFL U18 club, local club, and school. Results: Although only 6% believed it was safe to play with injuries, 58% were willing to risk doing so. This increased to almost 80% when players perceived that their chances of being selected to play for a senior elite team would be adversely affected if they did not play. There were significant differences in the perceived level of support for injured players and in the ranking of safety as a high priority across the three settings. In general, the VFL U18 clubs were perceived as providing good support for injured players and giving a high priority to safety issues, but local clubs and particularly schools were perceived to address these issues less well. Conclusions: Junior Australian football players have certain beliefs and perceptions in relation to injury risk that have the potential to increase injuries. These negative beliefs need to be addressed in any comprehensive injury prevention strategy aimed at these players.
Attitudes influence behavior towards urban green spaces. But determining attitudes toward urban green spaces is not well operationalized in urban planning research. A study was conducted in the West Island, Montreal, Canada to elaborate the design and development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure the dimensions of citizen attitudes toward urban green spaces. The use of qualitative and
Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any\\u000a behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development\\u000a and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire
Rajalakshmi R Lakshman; Jill R Landsbaugh; Annie Schiff; Wendy Hardeman; Ken K Ong; Simon J Griffin
|This study presents the development and basic psychometric characteristics of the "School Safety and Security Questionnaire" (SSSQ). This new measure was constructed to assess middle grade students' perceptions of safety and security during the school year. The content validity of the theoretically-based instrument was assessed and the measure…
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an adaptation of the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perceptions Questionnaire to measure the attitudes of staff to working with drug users (the DDPPQ). Participants were a stratified random sample of medical staff, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists and nurses (n = 672) who work within generic mental health, adolescent
Measuring the impact of westernization on body image is an important element in understanding body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in countries undergoing cultural transitions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, a measure of societal and media impacts on body image, in a non-western population. Factor analyses identified
Research Findings: In the past 20 years school districts have increasingly adopted classroom-based social and emotional development programs. The dissemination of these programs, however, has surpassed our understanding of and ability to assess factors that influence program implementation. The present study responded to this gap by developing a questionnaire that focuses on teacher perceptions of implementation support and teacher attitudes
David Schultz; Archana Ambike; Laura M. Stapleton; Celene E. Domitrovich; Cindy M. Schaeffer; Barbara Bartels
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality,
|Institutions of higher education want to diversify their learning climates, and many offer courses in multiculturalism, yet these courses still do not meet the needs of attitudinal change. A new instrument was developed, the Munroe Multicultural Attitude Scale Questionnaire (MASQUE), that was theoretically based in Banks's transformative…
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses’ pain management practices being readily available. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low
BACKGROUND: The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. METHODS: A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent
Jacinta OA Tan; Helen A Doll; Raymond Fitzpatrick; Anne Stewart; Tony Hope
|The Simpson-Troost AttitudeQuestionnaire (STAQ) was developed as part of a study to assess adolescent commitment to and achievement in science. For this psychometric reappraisal of the 57-item STAQ, data were analyzed from a convenience sample of 1,754 secondary students. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were applied, and results…
Owen, Steven V.; Toepperwein, Mary Anne; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Pruski, Linda A.; Grimes, Kandi
IntroductionPatient safety is a strong driver for quality improvement within the NHS. Maternity units deal with unintended harm to patients on a daily basis. Ensuring a strong patient safety culture within the workforce is important in achieving good clinical outcomes. In Norwich we were unsure of how staff perceived patient safety issues.ObjectiveTo measure staff attitude to patient safety.SettingLarge tertiary hospital
M J Cameron; J Corfe; W Evans; R Goodsell; S Hunt; D Nirmal; S Rajshekhar; J Tinsey
The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is a measure of one’s endorsement of societal appearance ideals. The measure has received extensive evaluation in normative samples, but only minimal evaluation in clinical groups. In this study, 440 patients with eating disorders completed the SATAQ-3. Internal consistencies were excellent for the four SATAQ-3 subscales. Groups did not differ by diagnosis on
Rachel M Calogero; William N Davis; J. Kevin Thompson
A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstrated. Both males and females showed poor knowledge about and entertained conservative attitudes. Surprisingly, normal subjects were no different from patients with sexual problems.
Background The use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements in Serbia is very common and many patients consume herbal preparations with conventional drug therapy. Objective The aim of this survey was to evaluate the consumers' awareness of herbal remedies and the safety of herbal dietary supplements, their attitude towards combining herbals and drugs, and the source of recommendations for their use. Setting The study included all consumers who bought herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements in 15 pharmacies on the territory of Novi Sad during 2011 and who accepted to be interviewed. Methods Structured interviews using questionnaire, conducted by pharmacists. The questionnaire included 4 parts: socio-demographic characteristics of consumers, source of recommendations for the use of herbal products, attitude towards safety of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements use and their combination with regular drugs, as well as the question of purchased herbal products. Main outcome measure Consumers' attitude towards the safety and use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements measured by 9 items. Results The majority of interviewed participants were highly educated, aged 41-60 and they consumed herbal remedies on their own initiative or on recommendation of nonmedically educated person, without previous consultation with medical doctor or pharmacist. Out of all participants: 88.9 % did not consider it important to inform their physician or pharmacist about use of herbal remedies and herbal dietary supplements; 73.3 % found the use of herbal remedies harmless (where 9.4 % did not have any attitude towards that issue), while 40.3 % of participants regarded the combining of herbal and regular drugs unsafe. Conclusion There is a need for consumers' education on reliable use of herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements, in order to improve their awareness of the limits of herbal remedies safety and potential risks of their combination with drugs. PMID:23820895
The aims of this paper are to test mental images of risk and to present some results of a survey of safety climate, employee attitudes, risk perception and behaviour among employees within the industrial company Norsk Hydro. Two mental images were tested. They are both based on the assumption that it is possible to make a distinction between cognitive and
Background Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. Objective To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. Methods After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). Conclusions The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates that most kidney transplant recipients own and are comfortable using mobile phones and that many of these patients already own and use smart mobile phones. The respondents felt that mHealth offers an opportunity for improved self-efficacy and improved provider driven medical management. Respondents were comfortable with the idea of being monitored using mobile technology and are confident that their privacy can be protected. The small subset of kidney transplant recipients who are less interested in mHealth may be less technologically adept as reflected by their lower mobile phone ownership rates. As a whole, kidney transplant recipients are receptive to the technology and believe in its utility.
Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton
Aims. To validate the Italian version of the 'depression attitudequestionnaire' (DAQ), to assess its psychometric properties and to evaluate the primary care physicians' (PCPs) opinion and attitude towards depression. Methods. An Italian version of the DAQ was created and then administered to a representative sample of PCPs working in the Emilia-Romagna region. Results. The findings derived from the Italian version of the DAQ indicated a three-factor solution (professional confidence, negative viewpoint and biological stance), broadly similar to previous studies and with acceptable fit indices. Our results showed that the PCPs consider depression as an increasingly important issue for their daily clinical practice. A large majority of them believed in the effectiveness of antidepressants and considered psychopharmacological treatment as appropriate for the PCPs to undertake. However, most PCP respondents thought that psychotherapy should be left to the specialists. Our findings suggest a prevalent orientation to the biochemical aspects of depression and the use of antidepressant treatment. Conclusions. The PCPs' attitude and opinion towards depression is an important aspect of their understanding and response to this common and disabling condition. The Italian version of the DAQ appears to be an appropriate and useful instrument to assist the understanding of the PCPs' views and potential need for further professional development. PMID:22793494
Sighinolfi, C; Norcini Pala, A; Casini, F; Haddad, M; Berardi, D; Menchetti, M
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and behavior of surgeons regarding preoperative smoking cessation. Methods: A total of 109 anonymous questionnaires were distributed to non-vascular surgeons in our hospital, inquiring about their smoking attitudes, their smoking cessation advice practices, whether they appreciated the benefits of preoperative smoking cessation, and their knowledge of smoking cessation methods. Results: Eighty questionnaires (from 51 resident doctors and 29 academic staff) were returned (response rate: 73.40%). Of the surgeons, 17.50% were current smokers. Although 40% of the surgeons surveyed believed that preoperative smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications, 31.2% of the surgeons (25/63) had given smoking cessation advice at least to 1 patient in the last month. Most of the resident doctors (39.2%) advised smoking cessation within a month; prior to surgery however, the academic staff (27.6%) advised cessation immediately before the operation (p=0.038). There was a significant difference between academic sfaff and resident doctors concerning the method to increase a patient's chance of quitting (p=0.045), even among current smokers (p=0.049). Conclusion: The surgeons who participated in the questionnaire were aware that smoking cessation improves outcome, but most of them did not appreciate that providing brief advice, referring to cessation services, or prescribing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) may be of benefit in helping patients to quit. It is necessary to educate surgeons about the scale of the benefit and the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions or to set up systematic frameworks to offer smoking cessation advice to preoperative patients who smoke. PMID:23935267
This study examines consumer perceptions and attitudes associated with food and food safety, how those perceptions depend on consumer characteristics, and the relationship between attitudes and actual food safety-related behaviour. The analysis is based on a survey eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for the Finnish Salmonella Control Program. Besides WTP, information obtained from the survey describes consumer attitudes in reference
Jyrki Aakkula; Jukka Peltola; Riitta Maijala; Juha Siikamäki
The first objective of this study was to separate the contributions of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Dysfunctional\\u000a Attitude Scale (DAS) to maladaptive cognitive patterns in their relations to symptoms of depression and their potential developmental\\u000a origins: emotional maltreatment, parents’ typical feedback styles, and parents’ dysfunctional attitudes regarding their offspring.\\u000a Other objectives were to examine these relations in
J. M. Oliver; Sarah L. Murphy; Daniel R. Ferland; Michael J. Ross
Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body AttitudesQuestionnaire (BAQ) for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1) across key phases of pregnancy, and (2) between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body AttitudesQuestionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ) are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given the fact that body dissatisfaction is often associated with maladaptive behaviours, such as unhealthy eating and extreme weight loss behaviours, and with ante-and post-natal depression, that have serious negative implications for women’s health and well-being, and potentially also for the unborn foetus during pregnancy, developing a suitable body image screening tool, specific to the perinatal period is clearly warranted.
Objectives: This study aimed to measure knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students towards patient safety concepts, and to detect variation by the mode of learning. Methodology: A cross sectional study administrated an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 150 medical students graduated from two national medical schools, one follow the traditional lecture based learning (LBL) and the other applies innovative learning strategy (ILS). Students’ self-ratings of knowledge level and attitude towards patient safety in relation to the mode of learning were measured. The study was conducted in April 2010. Results: More than half of the participants (52.7%) self-rated their general knowledge on patient safety on good level compared to 27.3% for the specific knowledge issues score. Most participants (60.7%) agreed the importance of patient safety. The majority agreed to support peers who make unintentional errors and not to blame them for their own mistake (76.0 and 80.7% respectively). Less than half (44.7%) of the participants agreed the patients’ role in error prevention and 47.3% agreed error disclosure to the patient. ILS participants were significantly more recognizable of the patient safety issues: problem solving (P< 0.01 OR: 3.0) and error management (P< 0.001 OR: 2.4) than the ILS colleagues. Conclusion: The study revealed unsatisfied percentages of the participants who self-rated ‘good’ for their general and specific knowledge on patient safety. The unsatisfied rate was reported for the participants’ ‘agree’ score towards patient safety issues. Basic relevant educational interventions with focus on deficient issues are recommended.
The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate) or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the balance between safety and benefit in consideration of pharmacological cognitive enhancement.
Banjo, Opeyemi C.; Nadler, Roland; Reiner, Peter B.
|Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…
This study reports on the validation of a questionnaire designed to measure general mathematics confidence, general confidence\\u000a with using technology, and attitudes towards the use of technology for mathematics learning. A questionnaire was administered\\u000a to 289 students commencing a tertiary level course on linear algebra and calculus. Scales formed on the basis of factor analysis\\u000a demonstrated high internal consistency reliability
Gerry Fogarty; Patricia Cretchley; Chris Harman; Nerida Ellerton; Nissam Konki
The aim of this study was to establish the differential item functioning and construct equivalence of the Aviation Gender AttitudeQuestionnaire (AGAQ) to determine the generalizability of the instrument across 2 national cultures (South African and Australian). Data were collected from 544 South African and 1,064 Australian aircraft pilots and analyzed by means of various analytical procedures. To establish the
Leopold P. Vermeulen; Pieter Schaap; Jim I. Mitchell; Alexandra Kristovics
Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular attention ought to be given to these groups as they contribute in large measure to the rate of nonparticipation in the NIP, i.e., to a greater extent than well-known vaccine refusers such as specific religious groups and anthroposophics. Our finding that the proportion of the population inclined to accept vaccinations is smaller than it was 10 years ago highlights the need to increase knowledge about attitudes and beliefs regarding the NIP.
Background Few studies have investigated whether patients and physicians differ in their attitudes regarding placebo interventions in medical practice. Aim To compare the proportions of patients and physicians who would accept therapies that do not work through specific pharmacological or physiological action but by enhancing self-healing capacities and by exploiting contextual factors. Design of study Survey of a random sample of GPs and patients consecutively attending in primary care practices. Setting Four hundred and seventy-seven patients and 300 GPs from primary care practices of the Canton Zurich of Switzerland were approached. Method Two questionnaires on responders' attitudes regarding non-specific therapies. Results The response rates were 87% for patients and 79% for GPs. Eighty-seven per cent of patients and 97% of GPs thought that physical complaints can get better by believing in the effectiveness of the therapy. Overall there was more support for placebo interventions among patients than among GPs, yet 90% of the physicians admitted to actively proposing treatments intended to take advantage of non-specific effects. Seventy per cent of the patients wanted to be explicitly informed when receiving a non-specific intervention, whereas physicians thought this was the case for only 33% of their patients. Fifty-four per cent of patients would be disappointed when learning they had unknowingly been treated with pure placebo (‘sugar pill’), while only 44% would feel that way after treatment with impure placebo (for example, herbal medicine). Conclusion GPs rather underestimate the openness of their patients to non-specific therapies. However, patients want to be appropriately informed. Developing specific professional standards could help physicians to harness the ‘power of the placebo’, while remaining authentic and credible.
Fassler, Margrit; Gnadinger, Markus; Rosemann, Thomas; Biller-Andorno, Nikola
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States. Unfortunately Hispanic women exhibit poor mammography screening participation, are diagnosed at later stages of the disease, and have lower survival rates than non-Hispanic white women. Several cultural and psycho-social factors have been found to influence mammography screening participation among Hispanic women. We will begin by presenting the theoretical framework that grounded this research program to develop an instrument to assess factors contributing to poor mammography participation among Hispanic women. We will also summarize the early stages in the development of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and AttitudesQuestionnaire (MBAQ and SMBAQ) for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. Next we will describe the initial psychometric testing of the MBAQ/SMBAQ, after which we will present the psychometric testing of the SMBAQ with low-health-literacy women. This will be followed by a discussion of the modification of the MBAQ and SMBAQ subscales. We’ll conclude with a discussion of the instruments and share our assessment regarding the limitations of this research program, where the program stands to date, and the implications for practice and future research.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States. Unfortunately Hispanic women exhibit poor mammography screening participation, are diagnosed at later stages of the disease, and have lower survival rates than non-Hispanic white women. Several cultural and psycho-social factors have been found to influence mammography screening participation among Hispanic women. We will begin by presenting the theoretical framework that grounded this research program to develop an instrument to assess factors contributing to poor mammography participation among Hispanic women. We will also summarize the early stages in the development of the English and Spanish Mammography Beliefs and AttitudesQuestionnaire (MBAQ and SMBAQ) for use with low-health-literacy Mexican-American women. Next we will describe the initial psychometric testing of the MBAQ/SMBAQ, after which we will present the psychometric testing of the SMBAQ with low-health-literacy women. This will be followed by a discussion of the modification of the MBAQ and SMBAQ subscales. We'll conclude with a discussion of the instruments and share our assessment regarding the limitations of this research program, where the program stands to date, and the implications for practice and future research. PMID:22088158
Considerable lack of publications and inconsistent results on construct validity make it difficult to choose an appropriate instrument to measure recovery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate additional psychometric aspects of two established measures of personal recovery with differing focusses. Bivariate associations of the recovery measures with personal, clinical and subjective factors were conducted as indicators of concurrent (convergent and divergent) validity. The scales were also tested concerning internal consistency. The sample comprised of 81 inpatients on an acute psychiatric ward (main diagnoses: 27% substance-related disorders, 27% schizophrenic disorders, 25% affective disorders, 10% neurotic or stress-related disorders, and 11% personality disorders). The "Recovery AttitudesQuestionnaire (RAQ)" has to be reevaluated before further administration due to serious psychometric shortcomings concerning internal consistency and concurrent validity. The "Recovery Process Inventory (RPI)" total scale showed acceptable concurrent and within-scale validity and can be recommended in order to measure the personal recovery process for clinical and scientific purposes. PMID:23859131
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality, emotionality, and tests of the pleasantness, sweetness, and intensity of sugar and chocolate was examined. The results yielded a clear two-factor structure of the ACQ: The first factor (guilt) was composed of items concerning negative consequences of chocolate eating including the feeling of guilt. The second factor (craving) comprised items related to craving and emotional chocolate eating. Guilt correlated significantly with "emotional eating", "restrained eating", and with neuroticism. Craving correlated significantly with "emotional eating" and "external eating", with neuroticism, and with the "difficulty identifying feelings" facet of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale; further, it correlated highly with the average reported chocolate consumption and with the ratings of the intensity of taste of sugar. In conclusion, results support the validity of the German version of the ACQ and showed a stable factor structure and a good internal consistency. PMID:18068267
This paper's main objective is to explore the relationships between personality factors, attitudes toward traffic safety and risky driving behaviors among young Taiwanese motorcyclists. A second objective is to examine the gender difference in the effects of personality and safetyattitudes on risky driving behaviors. The study sample consisted of 257 student participants from a Taiwanese university. The results show
The Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ) is a self-report measure of children's behavioral intentions towards peers with disabilities. The SAQ has been validated as a measure of elementary school students' attitudes towards peers with disabilities. In the present study, psychometric properties of the SAQ as a measure of middle school students' attitudes toward autism were examined in a sample of 1,007 students (M age = 12.95 years). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure found for elementary school students. Internal consistency reliability was excellent. Criterion-related validity was established by demonstrating strong and positive relationships with a measure of cognitive attitudes. The SAQ is a reliable and valid measure of middle school students' behavioral intentions towards autism. PMID:18293073
Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years) met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p < 0.0001) and ever-smokers more frequently abused other psychoactive substances than never smokers (p < 0.0001). Stress was reported as an important factor in prompting smoking (77%). Forty-nine percent of daily smokers were aware of the adverse health consequences of smoking. The majority of smokers (75%) had attempted to quit smoking in the past. Forty percent of smoking prisoners considered an award for abstaining from cigarettes as the best means to limit the prevalence of smoking in prisons. Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.
A self-administered questionnaire study exploring women's attitudes to breast screening after participation in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) achieved an 82% response rate. Of active respondents (AR) attending two to five screening examinations, 1582 had received annual mammography (MA) and physical examination (PE) of the breasts and 548 received annual PE alone. Of 139 dropouts after the first screening, 105 received MA and PE and 34 received PE alone. Dropout respondents (DR) were significantly less likely than AR to report receiving very prompt (46% versus 66%), very courteous (73% versus 92%), or very competent examinations (74% versus 95%). Although 35% of those allocated to PE expressed disappointment with PE allocation compared with 9% of those allocated to MA, fewer of those allocated PE were prepared to accept MA in the future than those allocated MA (59% versus 73%). Of those who had MA, 36% reported moderate and 9% extreme discomfort from mammography. Almost half of each subgroup--MA allocations, PE allocations, and DR--preferred mammography every 2 to 3 years and 30% preferred mammography restricted to diagnostic purposes. Only 5% of AR reported anxiety after screening. National Breast Screening Study participation was a positive experience for 93%. An intention to do breast self-examination (BSE) was reported by 89% of AR and 79% of DR. Forgetfulness was a major impediment to BSE. Disincentives for screening were excessive distance to center, painful mammography, fear of radiation, lack of time, and preference for own physician. Convenient location, punctual appointments, and courteous and supportive staff should enhance screening compliance. PMID:2311075
Background. This article describes the development, reliability, and validity of three cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention subscales—CVD prevention behaviors, perceived importance, and perceived effectiveness—of the Preventive Medicine Attitudes and Activities Questionnaire (PMAAQ).Methods. The PMAAQ was administered three times to University of Minnesota family practice residents (178) over 2 years (91% response rate). Stability measures were calculated, and validity was demonstrated in
Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den
In the first study of nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward near-death phenomena and patients who have experienced them (NDErs), 20 registered nurses in Intensive or Cardiac Care Units completed a questionaire containing 29 true\\/false\\/undecided statements about near-death phenomena (alpha reliability .83), 29 Likert items concerning attitudes toward such phenomena (alpha .84), and 25 Likert items concerning attitudes toward care
This paper presents the results of an assessment of a safety climate questionnaire in UK primary and secondary healthcare settings. Surveys were sent to four Acute Trusts and nine Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) and responses were received from 722 hospital and 585 primary care staff. Factor analysis and reliability analyses were undertaken, with the result that 2 Teamwork factors were
A. Hutchinson; J. E. Dean; K. L. Cooper; M. Patterson; A. McIntosh; C. B. Stride; C. M. Smith; B. E. Laurence
In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet safety-related practices and attitudes towards the Internet. Total sample was 2017 students and 1214 parent responders. Research material included extended demographics and an Internet security questionnaire, the Internet Attitudes Scale (IAS) for parents and the Adolescent Computer Addiction Test (ACAT) for children and both parents. Both parents thus provided their views on their children's computer use and an estimate for their degree of computer addiction which was tested against their child's self-report. Results indicated that fathers and mothers who had negative views of the Internet, tended to encourage less their children to engage in online activities and worried more for the possibility that their child is addicted to computer use; their worries weren't correlated with their children's results. Parental views on the Internet had no effect on the level of security precautions they employed at home. Those parents who reported a low level of security knowledge and were unsure as to what their children were doing online, tended to consider their children more likely to be addicted to computer use; those views were confirmed by their children' self-reported results. PMID:22954830
Semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 health care professionals who work with pregnant women in a preliminary study to understand health care providers’ attitudes regarding current food safety recommendations for pregnant women and interest in education and patient materials on food safety during pregnancy. Only 8 of 23 interviewed currently provided food safety information to their pregnant clients. Limited understanding
Shelly Morales; Patricia A. Kendall; Lydia C. Medeiros; Virginia Hillers; Mary Schroeder
Lautenschlager and Flaherty (1990) unexpectedly found that more socially desirable responding occurred on a computer version of an attitude and personality questionnaire than on a paper-and-pencil version. The present study attempted to replicate and exte...
Conditions of fiscal stress in local governments prompt researchers and public officials to seek to assess citizens’ attitudes about public services and their inclination to fund enhanced service levels and quality. This study explores the questions of how citizens’ attitudes about services influence their willingness to pay for them and how direct and mediated experience with services influence attitudes about
The aim of this research was to investigate the opinions and attitudes of medical staff towards schizophrenic patients. The research included three groups of examinees, 200 physicians of various specialties, 200 nurses and technicians working in Zagreb city hospitals, and 200 3rd and 4th year students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb. Previously validated anti-stigma questionnaire was used, consisting of 25 questions divided into three thematic groups, structured and adapted to the specific requirements of this study. The results were mutually compared and statistically analyzed by applying the chi 2-test. Significant difference (p < 0.01) between the answers of physicians and those of medical students was found in questions 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 22, 23, 25, and between physicians and nurses/technicians in answers to questions 4, 15, 22, 23. Significant difference (p < 0.01) between the answers given by nurses/technicians and medical students was found in questions 10, 13, 22, 23. The results point to the existence of prejudices and stigmatizing attitudes in all three investigated groups. The most frequent reasons for stigmatizing attitude of students are based on fear and insufficient knowledge about mental patients and schizophrenia as a disease, while there are a high percentage of positive answers to the questions on rehabilitation and resocialization. The nurses/technicians also show a high degree of mistrust towards schizophrenic patients and mostly answer with "I don't know", thus presenting insufficiently formed attitudes about the mentioned problems. The physicians in their answers confirm fear, mistrust and stigmatizing attitudes towards schizophrenic patients found in general population in Croatia. The consequences of such attitudes are the low quality of life of schizophrenic patients, and slow, often incomplete, resocialization. PMID:12974160
Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers' reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions on consumer risk behaviour for contaminated food products
Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions on consumer risk behaviour for contaminated food products
Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions on consumer risk behaviour for contaminated food products
Nikos Kalogeras; Joost M. E. Pennings; Koert van Ittersum
... Big Kids 5–9 Years > Sports A National Survey of Parents' Attitudes and Self-Reported Behaviors Concerning Sports Safety (2011) This Safe Kids Worldwide national survey looks at how and what parents believe about ...
Background The World Health Organisation, WHO, recommends that most countries should vaccinate all children against hepatitis B. Sweden has chosen not to do so, but the issue is reassessed regularly. The objective of this survey was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards hepatitis B vaccine for children among parents living in Sweden, and to compare distribution of responses and response rate between parents answering a postal questionnaire and those responding via the Internet. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey, where the sampling frame consisted of all parents to a child born 2002 living in Sweden. Two independent samples of 1001 parents in each sample were drawn. All parents were contacted by postal mail. The parents in the first sample were invited to participate by answering a paper questionnaire. The parents in the second sample were given an individual user name along with a password, and asked to log on to the Internet to answer an identical electronic questionnaire. Results A total of 1229 questionnaires were analysed. The overall response rate for paper questionnaires was 55%, and 15% for the web version. Knowledge of the disease hepatitis B was overall high (90%). A higher degree of knowledge was seen among parents with education beyond high school (p = 0.001). This group of parents also had a higher tendency to reply via the Internet (p = 0.001). The willingness to accept hepatitis B vaccine for their child was correlated to the acceptance of the present childhood vaccination programme (p = 0.001). Conclusion The results reveal a high level of knowledge of the disease and a positive attitude to having their children vaccinated. This study also displays that the conventional postal method of surveying still delivers a higher response rate than a web-based survey.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine attitudinal and self reported behavioural variations between medical students in different years to scenarios involving academic misconduct. Design: A cross-sectional study where students were given an anonymous questionnaire that asked about their attitudes to 14 scenarios describing a fictitious student engaging in acts of academic misconduct and asked them to report their own potential behaviour. Setting: Dundee Medical School. Participants: Undergraduate medical students from all five years of the course. Method: Questionnaire survey. Main measurements: Differences in medical students' attitudes to the 14 scenarios and their reported potential behaviour with regards to the scenarios in each of the years. Results: For most of the scenarios there was no significant difference in the response between the years. Significant differences in the responses were found for some of the scenarios across the years, where a larger proportion of year one students regarded the scenario as wrong and would not engage in the behaviour, compared to other years. These scenarios included forging signatures, resubmitting work already completed for another part of the course, and falsifying patient information. Conclusion: Observed differences between the years for some scenarios may reflect a change in students' attitudes and behaviour as they progress though the course. The results may be influenced by the educational experience of the students, both in terms of the learning environment and assessment methods used. These differences may draw attention to the potential but unintentional pressures placed on medical students to engage in academic misconduct. The importance of developing strategies to engender appropriate attitudes and behaviours at the undergraduate level must be recognised.
The human and organizational factors affecting safety were examined on 10 offshore installations using the Offshore SafetyQuestionnaire. The questionnaire contained scales measuring work pressure and work clarity, job communication, safety behaviour, risk perception, satisfaction with safety measures and safetyattitudes. A total of 722 UK offshore workers (33% response rate) from a range of occupations completed and returned the
Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin; Rachale Gordon; Mark Fleming
AIM: This article investigates attitudes towards and awareness of research and use of research findings among primary healthcare nurses, determinants of attitudes and evaluation of psychometric properties of an instrument measuring nurses' attitudes. BACKGROUND: The production of new knowledge is ongoing and the amount of research of relevance for health care has increased, but there remains a gap between what is known and what is done in practice. To enhance evidence-based practice and patient safety, the use of research findings needs to be encouraged and promoted. METHOD: An explanatory study using a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005-2006. The survey included items about background data and the instrument attitudes towards and awareness of research and development in nursing. 1054 nurses participated in the study. Factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha were used to evaluate internal structure and internal consistency of the instrument. RESULT: The nurses generally held positive attitudes towards research. Although most of the nurses reported using research in practice, 37% claimed that they never or rarely used research findings. Half of the respondents perceived they had the ability to analyse scientific reports/articles. This ability and research use were significant determinants of attitudes. Factor analysis of the scale resulted in a three-factor solution, which differs from the seven-factor structure previously identified by the originators of the instrument. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that implementation of research is a complex process involving several factors. The different factor structure identified suggests that further work is needed on this instrument. PMID:23517064
BackgroundSafety culture has been identified as having a major impact on how safety is managed in healthcare. However, it has not received much attention in general practices. Hence, no instrument yet exists to assess safety climate—the measurable artefact of safety culture—in this setting. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of a newly developed safety climate questionnaire for use in
Barbara Hoffmann; Olga Maria Domanska; Zeycan Albay; Vera Mueller; Corina Guethlin; Eric J Thomas; Ferdinand M Gerlach
A questionnaire was sent to the 590 members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine to define both the current practices and the opinions of these specialists on various ethical issues. The answers from 242 (41%) European members were collected and analysed. The first part of the questionnaire was designed to define the criteria for admission to Intensive Care
|In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at the development, psychometric evaluation, and…
de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander
Background The prevalence of mental disorders, espe- cially depression, increasingly creates concern for our mental, social and economic well-being. The public has insufficient knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment. A stigma is attached to mental disorders, which has a multifaceted impact on the lives of patients and their families. A Finnish general population survey studied knowledge of and attitudes
Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck
Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods.
Background The prevalence of mental disorders, especially depression, increasingly creates concern for our mental, social and economic\\u000a well-being. The public has insufficient knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment. A stigma is attached to mental\\u000a disorders, which has a multifaceted impact on the lives of patients and their families. A Finnish general population survey\\u000a studied knowledge of and attitudes towards mental
Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck
PurposeConstruct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or “anchors,” assumed to range from negative (e.g., “mental illness”), to neutral (e.g., “left handed”), to positive (e.g., “intelligent”).
Kenneth O. St. Louis; Isabella K. Reichel; J. Scott Yaruss; Bobbie Boyd Lubker
This study was designed to evaluate bicycle-related injuries among children requiring emergency treatment, assess the use of safety measures before and after injuries, and determine parental attitudes regarding bicycle safety. Six hundred fifty-eight children were treated for bicycle-related injuries during the study period. Follow-up contact with patients’ families was made by telephone or mail within 2 months. Use of safety
Objective A survey was designed to investigate customers attitudes and knowledge toward non-prescription medicines taken on a self-medication\\u000a basis but not devoid of risks. Setting Community pharmacies in Italy. Method Forty-four pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were\\u000a made to customers buying a non-prescription medicine over a 2-month period. The questionnaire included
The results of 355 questionnaires are reported, returned one or more years after vasectomy from 1,000 consecutive patients undergoing vasectomies performed by the author from 1959 to 1972. A majority claimed either unchanged or improved health, satisfaction with sexual relations, and frequency of sexual intercourse; 99.5 per cent were satisfied with the operation and in retrospect 96.7 per cent would have the operation again. PMID:1162809
While a growing number of children are playing football (soccer), there are limited data on prevalence of injuries, actual use of football safety equipment (SE), and parental attitudes about football SE. We distributed a self-administered survey by mail to parents of all players enrolled in a community recreation youth football program. Parents of 865 children responded. Overall, 32 (3.7%) children
Morteza Khodaee; Michael D. Fetters; Daniel W. Gorenflo
perng s.-j. & yu m.-l. (2012) Journal of Nursing Management Psychometric testing of an instrument measuring nurse aides' patient safetyattitudes Aim? To develop and test the patient safetyattitude scale-nurse aide (PSAS-NA) scale in measuring nurse aides' attitudes to patient safety and event reporting. Background? Although nurse aides are unlicensed personnel, their roles in delivering care can not be ignored. A measure specific to nurse aides is needed. Methods? This is a cross-sectional design study. A literature review was conducted to generate items. Content validity, construct validity, convergent/divergent validity and internal consistency were examined. A convenient sample of 213 nurse aides working at two hospital-based long-term care institutions in Taiwan was recruited. Results? From the initial 61-item scale, a 39-item instrument was retained by principal component analysis (PCA) and four factors were extracted: daily safety practice, organizational safety strategies, event reporting practice and event reporting conflict. Four factors accounted for 51.74% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.83 to 0.92. Event reporting conflict was significantly negatively correlated with event reporting practice (r?=?-0.16, P?0.05). Implication for Nursing Management? The PSAS-NA can be used to assess nurse aides' attitudes to patient safety and event reporting. Health care mangers/supervisors can provide education and training programmes to nurse aides according to the assessment results. PMID:23410086
There is considerable evidence that mass media portrayals of body image contribute to body dissatisfaction, yet the assessment of perceived media influences has been examined fleetingly in highly populated, non-Western cultures, particularly among young males. This research examined the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among adolescent boys in China. In an initial exploratory factor analysis (N=719), a four factor solution emerged with components reflecting General Pressure-Internalization, Sources of Appearance Information, Pressure-Internalization of an Athletic Ideal, and Pressure to be Thin. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analyses in a new sample (n=749) assessed fits of the derived four factor model, a three factor variant, and alternatives reflecting "Western" and "Malay" SATAQ-3 solutions. The derived four factor solution had the most acceptable structure across several fit indices. Patterns of correlation with other self-report measures also provided preliminary support for the validity of the derived solution. PMID:20800561
Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum) conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33%) answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum.
Multi-purpose recreation facilities (MPRFs) are a popular setting for physical activity and it is therefore important that they are safe for all patrons. However, the attitudes of MPRF users towards safety are a potential barrier to the success of injury prevention programmes implemented within MPRFs. This article reports a survey of the safetyattitudes of over 700 users of four
Caroline F. Finch; Leonie Otago; Peta White; Alex Donaldson; Mary Mahoney
Both prior and subsequent to the Supreme Court decision in Miranda v. Arizona, the author sent questionnaires to police and prosecutors throughout the country soliciting information concerning their interrogation practices, the factors prompting these practices, and their attitudes toward recent trends in the law of interrogation. In this article the author analyzes the findings of this survey and concludes that
BACKGROUND: Universal BCG vaccination in the UK ended in 2005. The new vaccination policy instead offers a number of different forms of selective vaccination to newborns based on risk of acquiring TB. We set out to assess the attitudes and knowledge of both parents and professionals to the new policy for neonatal BCG vaccination. METHODS: A short questionnaire was designed,
Dog bites are a significant pediatric public health challenge in rural China. This study evaluated the effect of various sources of dog-safety information on children's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices with dogs. A total of 1925 children (grade 3-6) between 6 and 15 years old in four rural regions across China participated between May and September 2012. Results showed that teachers and especially parents were effective information sources for children to learn about dog safety. Learning from peers and children teaching themselves were ineffective education strategies. Multi-source learning (from both parents and teachers) did not differ from single-source learning (from parents but not teachers) but did exceed learning from teachers but not parents or no learning from adults. Older age was associated with greater safety knowledge but also riskier practices with dogs. Girls generally held more safety knowledge, less risky attitudes/beliefs and safer practices than boys. Neither age nor gender interacted with information sources on outcome measures. In conclusion, parents appear to play a major role in educating children in rural China on dog safety. Future dog safety interventions might focus on changing cognition and behavior as well as delivering basic knowledge to youth through teachers and especially parents. PMID:23792615
Shen, J; Li, S; Xiang, H; Pang, S; Xu, G; Yu, G; Schwebel, D C
Safety belt (SB) use prevents and reduces the severity of injuries during motor vehicle crashes, and its use is influenced by the perceived risk inherent in any journey. Over the years, most studies have focused on the effectiveness of the belt among commercial drivers. This study assessed drivers' knowledge, attitude and use of SB in a tertiary institution in Nigeria.
The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a program addressing contemporary issues in animal agriculture had an effect on the students ' attitudes towards animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. The students in this study were participants in the Pennsylvania Governor 's School for Agricultural Sciences (PGSAS). Within the five-week PGSAS program, students completed a
Patricia A. Nordstrom; Martha J. Richards; Lowell L. Wilson; Brenda L. Coe; Marianne L. Fivek; Michele B. Brown
Parents are seen as the most important role models in the development of health practice behaviours, including sun safety for their children. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a parent of a child who has seen a UV photograph of both themselves and their child. By utilising
The ever-growing industry of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal appeals to the growing need for disposal facilities, and MSW treatment facilities are increasingly an environmental and public health concern. Residents living near MSW management facilities are confronted with various risk perceptions, especially odour. In this study, in an effort to assist responsible decision-makers in better planning and managing such a project, a structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to assess the nearby residents' concerns and attitudes surrounding the Laogang Landfill in Shanghai. Geographic information system techniques and relevance analysis were employed to conduct the spatial analysis of physical perceptions, especially odour annoyance. The findings of the research indicate that a significant percentage of the responding sample was aware of the negative impacts of landfills on the environment and public health, and residents in close proximity preferred to live farther from the landfill. The results from the spatial analysis demonstrated a definite degree of correlation between odour annoyance and distance to the facility and proved that the benefits of the socially disadvantaged have been neglected. The research findings also direct attention to the important role of public participation, information disclosure, transparency in management, and mutual communication to avoid conflicts and build social trust. PMID:23793647
Che, Yue; Yang, Kai; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Weiqian; Shang, Zhaoyi; Tai, Jun
BACKGROUND: Executive walk rounds (EWRs) are a widely used but unstudied activity designed to improve safety culture in hospitals. Therefore, we measured the impact of EWRs on one important part of safety culture – provider attitudes about the safety climate in the institution. METHODS: Randomized study of EWRs for 23 clinical units in a tertiary care teaching hospital. All providers
Eric J Thomas; J Bryan Sexton; Torsten B Neilands; Allan Frankel; Robert L Helmreich
This study examined the architecture of the relationships between components of organizational safety climate, including employee attitudes to safety issues and perceptions of the work environment, and related this to self-reported levels of safety activity. Data were collected from a large multinational manufacturing organization by questionnaire. A total of 915 valid questionnaires were returned and formed the basis for structural
Alistair Cheyne; Sue Cox; Amparo Oliver; José Manuel Tomaes
Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den Berg, M. Roehrig, A. S. Guarda, & L. J. Heinberg, 2004) in a nonadult community sample. Two samples of Grade 8 students (M age = 13.68 years), totaling 680 girls (N = 332) and boys (N = 348) completed the SATAQ-3 and other measures, whereas a smaller sample (N = 123) of Grade 10 girls (M age = 15.01 years) served as a comparison group for supplementary analyses. Principal component analyses (PCA) with data from Sample 1 (N = 201) revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues > 1.0, similar to the original authors' structure but with some cross-loading occurring between the Pressures and Internalization-General scales. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from Sample 2 (N = 479) on the factor solution found in the PCA. The model did not fit well, leading to further revisions based on removal of cross-loading items and CFA modification indices, resulting in a 19-item, 4-factor solution with acceptable fit. Examinations of validity and reliability were generally acceptable. The overall findings suggest that an abbreviated version of the SATAQ-3 might be more appropriate than the original version with young-adolescent, mixed-gender audiences. Further examinations of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-3 with this demographic are indicated. PMID:21928909
Little is known about the attitudes of physicians-in-training on patient safety, although success in error reduction strategies requires their support. We surveyed house staff and fourth-year medical students from 1 academic institution about their perceptions of adverse patient events. Three hundred twenty-one trainees (41%) completed the survey. Most believe adverse events are preventable (61%) and think improved teamwork (88%), better
This study surveyed 393 citizens who were either crime victims or complainants in the jurisdiction of the Marietta, GA Police\\u000a Department in 2004. In addition to examining their local attitudes toward police demeanor and police performance, the study\\u000a also evaluated the impact of race, police experience, and perceived neighborhood safety. Important findings included that\\u000a overall (1) the majority of respondents
The present paper focuses on safety related attitudes\\/culture and management aboard Norwegian-owned tankers. The data set used in this paper is part of a larger survey study of attitudes towards safety and risk at sea. During the summer and autumn of 2002, a questionnaire was distributed in a self-administered format to seafarers aboard 63 tankers owned by eight shipping companies.
Background Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. Methods The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL), sense of coherence (SOC), subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. Results Work ethics (WE) and general work attitudes (GWA) were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. Conclusion Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender, good QOL, high SOC and good health as well as support from both parents, positive experience of school and work contacts related positively to attitudes towards work. Further planning and supportive work have to take these factors into account.
This study has two purposes: (a) methodological - to design and test a new instrument able to reflect changes in attitudes toward science over time, and (b) investigative - to find out the effect of two similar curricular treatments on the attitudes of two classes. Items about the relevance of science to students' lives were developed, pilot-tested, and analyzed using
Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.
This study has two purposes: (a) methodological—to design and test a new instrument able to reflect changes in attitudes toward science over time, and (b) investigative—to find out the effect of two similar curricular treatments on the attitudes of two classes. Items about the relevance of science to students' lives were developed, pilot-tested, and analyzed using Rasch modeling. We then
Theoretical models suggest that attitudes toward an employer's drug testing policy affect organizational climate and employee behavior, but empirical evidence has been scarce with limited external validity. Based on 66 manufacturing employees' questionnaire responses, attitudes toward drug testing significantly correlated with attitudes toward top management (r = +.39), support for employee safety (r = +.34), turnover intentions (r = -.31),
Background: Older patients (?65 years) are exposed to more harm resulting from adverse events in hospitals than younger patients. Theoretical considerations and empirical findings suggest that safety culture is the key to improving the quality of health care. Objective: To describe the development of a German-language instrument for assessing patient safety culture (PSC) and its reliability and validity; to verify
Johannes Steyrer; Markus Latzke; Katharina Pils; Elisabeth Vetter; Guido Strunk
While a growing number of children are playing football (soccer), there are limited data on prevalence of injuries, actual use of football safety equipment (SE), and parental attitudes about football SE. We distributed a self-administered survey by mail to parents of all players enrolled in a community recreation youth football program. Parents of 865 children responded. Overall, 32 (3.7%) children were reported as having injuries requiring medical/dental evaluation. Upper/lower extremities were the most commonly injured sites. Shinguards (SGs) were the only equipment commonly used. While there was high parental support for SG use (97.4%) and moderate support for mouthguards (MGs; 53.8%), there was less support for other SE. Many parents were unfamiliar with available SE, but they were mostly willing to pay for it. In a community youth sports program, reports of football injuries were low as was the use of football SE other than SGs. PMID:21480059
Khodaee, Morteza; Fetters, Michael D; Gorenflo, Daniel W
Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation, WHO, recommends that most countries should vaccinate all children against hepatitis B. Sweden has chosen not to do so, but the issue is reassessed regularly. The objective of this survey was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards hepatitis B vaccine for children among parents living in Sweden, and to compare distribution of responses and response
BACKGROUND: The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them,
This paper describes a detailed survey of attitudes towards safety at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels in Cumbria. Focus groups were held to elicit safety-relevant beliefs, attitudes and values, and the material was incorporated into a 172-item questionnaire administered as part of the monthly team briefings, and preceded by an explanatory video. Data were collected in this survey
Purpose X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. Materials and Methods The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures. Results The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices. Conclusion The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.
Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnaires measuring perception of the
Linda LeResche; Donna Strobino; Peggy Parks; Pamela Fischer; Vincent Smeriglio
This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.
In India, most of the diarrhoeal deaths among children (<5 years) are attributed to food and water contamination. Mothers are usually the final line of defence against food borne illnesses. Thus, the role of mothers in ensuring food safety at homes is well accepted. There are hardly any studies in India to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practices on food
G. M. Subba Rao; R. V. Sudershan; Pratima Rao; M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Kalpagam Polasa
To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: ?(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: ?(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826
The present study aims at identifying and quantifying significant factors (i.e., demographic, aberrant driving behavior) associated with young drivers' involvement in at-fault crashes or traffic citations at the ages of 16-17 (while having the Operational License) and 18-24 years old (while having the Full License). A second objective was to investigate the main reason(s) for involvement in risky driving behavior by young drivers. The data used for the analyses were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire survey carried out among 680 young drivers in Central Florida. To achieve these goals, the structural equation modeling approach was adopted. The results revealed that aggressive violations, in-vehicle distractions and demographic characteristics were the significant factors affecting young drivers' involvement in at-fault crashes or traffic violations at the age of 16-17. However, in-vehicle distractions, attitudes toward speeding and demographic characteristics were the significant factors affecting young drivers' crash risk at 18-24. Additionally, the majority of participants reported that "running late" is the main reason for taking risk while driving (i.e., speeding, accept short gaps, or drive so close to the car in front) followed by "racing other cars". Additionally, "exceed speed limits" was the main reason for receiving traffic citations at 16-17 and 18-24 age groups. Practical suggestions on how to reduce crash risk and promote safe driving among young drivers are also discussed. PMID:22658949
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
Bronchial Asthma is a worldwide condition with particularly high prevalence in first world countries. The reasons are multifactorial but a neglected area is the psychological domain. It is well known that heavy emotions can trigger attacks and that depression negatively affects treatment outcomes. It is also known that personality type has a greater effect on disease prevalence than in many other conditions. However, many potential psychological treatments are hardly considered, neither in treatment guidelines nor in reviews by asthma specialists. Moreover, there is very little research concerning the beliefs and practices of doctors regarding psychological treatments. Using a questionnaire survey we ascertained that local GPs in Saxony-Anhalt have reasonably good knowledge about the psychological elements of asthma; a third consider it to be some of the influence (20-40% aetiology) and a further third consider it to be even more important than that (at least 40% total aetiology). Our GPs use psychosomatic counseling sometimes or usually in the areas of sport and smoking (circa 85% GPs), although less so regarding breathing techniques and relaxation (c40% usually or sometimes do this) However despite this knowledge they refer to the relevant clinicians very rarely (98% sometimes, usually or always refer to a respiratory physician compared with only 11% referring for psychological help).
The objective of this survey was to identify the importance placed by Croatian-based surgeons on writing scientific manuscripts and publishing them internationally, as well as their awareness of and attitudes toward medical writing. A link to an online survey was sent to 327 Croatian-based orthopedic and trauma surgeons. The electronic questionnaire consisted of rating scales, multiple choice questions and free text reply boxes. A total of 61 surgeons based in Croatia replied to the survey, yielding a response rate of 19% (61/327). The survey results indicate that surgeons in Croatia are active in both research and the writing of manuscripts. There is also a high level of interest among them to publish internationally in English to further their careers. While 68% (38/56) of respondents initially claimed to know about medical writing, further questioning on the subject revealed a reduced level of familiarity with the concept. Only 19% (11/58) of respondents had ever engaged the services of a medical writer and they were generally satisfied with the work done across the three areas of language, editing and scientific knowledge. Medical writers are advised to increase awareness of their services among Croatian-based orthopedic and trauma surgeons who may well have a need for their expertise. PMID:23697268
De Faoite, Diarmuid; Bakota, Bore; Staresini?, Mario; Kopljar, Mario; Cvjetko, Ivan; Dobri?, Ivan
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a health system-wide safety improvement program (SIP) three to four years after initial implementation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study employs multi-methods studies involving questionnaire surveys, focus groups, in-depth interviews, observational work, ethnographic studies, documentary analysis and literature reviews with regard to the state of New South Wales, Australia,
Jeffrey Braithwaite; Mary T. Westbrook; Joanne F. Travaglia; Rick Iedema; Nadine A. Mallock; Debbi Long; Peter Nugus; Rowena Forsyth; Christine Jorm; Marjorie Pawsey
Background Outcome measurement in shoulder surgery is essential to evaluate the patient safety and treatment efficiency. Currently this is jeopardized by the fact that most patient-reported self-assessment instruments are not comparable. Hence, the aim was to develop a reliable self-assessment questionnaire which allows an easy follow-up of patients. The questionnaire also allows the calculation of 3 well established scoring systems, i.e. the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), the Constant-Murley Score (CMS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Score. The subjective and objective items of these three systems were condensed into a single 30-questions form and validated against the original questionnaires. Methods A representative collective of patients of our shoulder clinic was asked to fill in the newly designed self-assessment Munich Shoulder Questionnaire (MSQ). At the same time, the established questionnaires for self-assessment of CONSTANT, SPADI and DASH scores were handed out. The obtained results were compared by linear regression analysis. Results Fifty one patients completed all questionnaires. The correlation coefficients of the results were r?=?0.91 for the SPADI, r?=?-0.93 for the DASH and r?=?0.94 for the CMS scoring system, respectively. Conclusions We developed an instrument which allows a quantitative self-assessment of shoulder function. It provides compatible data sets for the three most popular shoulder function scoring systems by one single, short 30-item. This instrument can be used by shoulder surgeons to effectively monitor the outcome, safety and quality of their treatment and also compare the results to published data in the literature.
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) examines implicit attitudes through the measurement of response latencies. In this study, the IRAP was used to assess implicit attitudes toward "mainstream" sexual terms (e.g., Kissing) and "BDSM" terms (e.g., Bondage) among individuals reporting BDSM interests and among students who did not…
Stockwell, Fawna M. J.; Walker, Diana J.; Eshleman, John W.
Purpose – The home is the location for a substantial number of cases of food poisoning and improving consumer food safety practices is important. This paper proposes investigating how consumers perceive their own abilities and level of food safety risk, as well as attitudes to different forms of interventions which is a largely unstudied area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Postal questionnaires were
University and college campuses are not immune to acts of violence. Unfortunately there is limited information regarding violence in the academic setting among women employees. As such, the purpose of this exploratory research was to examine issues that female faculty and staff members have about safety on and around campus, including concerns…
|A study was conducted at Southwest College (SC), in Texas, to ascertain students' attitudes toward campus safety and the college's responsiveness to student needs. The study also sought to determine if students considered safety issues when choosing a campus, if they perceived a need for a safety organization, and if they encountered non-safety…
A study was conducted at Southwest College (SC), in Texas, to ascertain students' attitudes toward campus safety and the college's responsiveness to student needs. The study also sought to determine if students considered safety issues when choosing a campus, if they perceived a need for a safety organization, and if they encountered non-safety…
|This questionnaire assesses drug knowledge, drug use practices, and attitudes toward drugs in junior high school, senior high school, and college students. The 105 items (multiple choice, yes/no, or completion) are concerned with personal and demographic data, "book" knowledge of drugs, "street" knowledge of drugs (drug argot and the like),…
|Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)|
Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.
Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1). Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2) following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a) the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability) and (b) Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency). Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134) occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p < 0.001) while for two scores ICCs were < 0.4 (p < 0.05). Spearman correlations ranged from 0.34–0.48 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha 0.50–0.80. Three scores were modified based on this analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found no evidence of a difference between means (p > 0.05) for 10/12 (test-retest reliability) and 3/7 (validity) scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.
Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Mastersson, Nadia
BACKGROUND: Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so
Eduardo Chachamovich; Marcelo P Fleck; Clarissa M Trentini; Ken Laidlaw; Mick J Power
To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096
ObjectiveTo measure teamwork and safety climate in three intensive care units (ICUs) before and after remote monitoring by intensivists using telemedicine technology (tele-ICU).DesignControlled pre tele-ICU and post tele-ICU cross-sectional survey.SettingICUs in two non-teaching community hospitals and one tertiary care teaching hospital.SubjectsICU physicians and nurses.InterventionsRemote monitoring of ICU patients by intensivists.Outcome measurementsTeamwork Climate Scale (TWS), a Safety Climate Score (SCS) and
M. Y. L. Chu-Weininger; L. Wueste; J. F. Lucke; L. Weavind; J. Mazabob; E. J. Thomas
Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Utilizing data from a total of 4,005 consumers in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Japan in a Double-Hurdle modeling framework, we examine whether consumers altered their beef consumption behavior because of
Ted C. Schroeder; Glynn T. Tonsor; Joost M. E. Pennings; James Mintert
Most extant research in the economics of crime literature has focused on explaining variations in crime rates. Public action to prevent crime, however, is often dependent on the level of concern about public safety that is expressed in public perceptions surveys. The economics of crime literature has largely overlooked responses to such surveys as data sources and therefore it has
Most extant research in the economics of crime literature has focused on explaining variations in crime rates. Public action to prevent crime, however, is often dependent on the level of concern about public safety that is expressed in public perceptions surveys. The economics of crime literature has largely overlooked responses to such surveys as data sources and therefore it has
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and
Objectives. To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. Method. A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years (n = 376) was analyzed using data from the HealthStyles 2010 survey. Questions were grouped into block variables to create three confidence constructs: value, safety, and efficacy. Regression equations controlling for demographic characteristics were used to identify the confidence construct(s) that best predicted parents' self-reported vaccination decisions (accept all, some, or none of the recommended childhood vaccines). Results. Among the three constructs evaluated, confidence in the value of vaccines, that is the belief that vaccines are important and vaccinating one's children is the right thing to do, was the best predictor of parents' vaccine decisions, F(2, 351) = 119.199, p < .001. When combined into a block variable for analysis, two survey items measuring confidence in the value of vaccines accounted for 40% of the variance in parents' self-reported vaccine decisions. Confidence in the safety or efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parent-reported vaccination behavior. Conclusions. Confidence in the value of vaccines is a helpful predictor of parent-reported vaccination behavior. Attitudinal constructs of confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parents' vaccination behaviors. Future research should assess the role of vaccine knowledge and tangible barriers, such as access and cost, to further explain parents' vaccination behaviors. PMID:23104978
The current study reports on a study examining the safety concerns of male and female faculty members on a small university campus. A 160-item questionnaire was distributed to 100 faculty members (58 males and 42 females; response rate was approximately 30%), which asked individuals questions pertaining to socio-demographic information, daily…
Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system.
Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.
BACKGROUND: The limited number of systematic, controlled studies that assess the safety and efficacy of psychotropic medications for children reinforce the hesitation and reluctance of parents to administer such medications. The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of parents of children with psychiatric disorders, towards psychotropic medication. METHODS: A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to 140 parents during
Helen Lazaratou; Dimitris C Anagnostopoulos; Elias V Alevizos; Fotini Haviara; Dimitris N Ploumpidis
Overreliance on car transportation impacts negatively on children's health, safety and well-being. This paper presents research that investigated children's perceptions of, and attitudes towards, transport modes. Primary children completed a pictorial questionnaire (n?=?486), 119 participated in focus groups (n?=?27). The findings suggest that children learn about transport modes from different interacting sources, both through experiential and vicarious mediums. The author
ContextBureaucratic organisational culture is less favourable to quality improvement, whereas organisations with group (teamwork) culture are better aligned for quality improvement.ObjectiveTo determine if an organisational group culture shows better alignment with patient safety climate.DesignCross-sectional administration of questionnaires.Setting40 Hospital Corporation of America hospitals.Participants1406 nurses, ancillary staff, allied staff and physicians.Main outcome measuresCompeting Values Measure of Organisational Culture, SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ),
T Speroff; S Nwosu; R Greevy; M B Weinger; T R Talbot; R J Wall; J K Deshpande; D J France; E W Ely; H Burgess; J Englebright; M V Williams; R S Dittus
|To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…
Attitudes of 800 college students from nine institutions were assessed by means of a 100 item Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. The results indicate both wide heterogeneity and communality of attitudes. Students see depression but not mental illness as a predisposing aspect. They exhibit considerable individual differences and intraindividual indecision as to religious precepts vis-a-vis suicide, see suicide as a “cry for
George Domino; Linda Gibson; Steven Poling; Laurie Westlake
|This study investigated the relationships among mathematics attitudes and computer attitudes. Approximately 105 college students were administered a questionnaire which assessed three dimensions of computer attitudes (anxiety toward computers, confidence in working with computers, and liking to work with computers) and three dimensions of math…
The present research examined the relationship between homeowners' attitudes and their winter gas consumption. During the winter, 207 couples filled out questionnaires about their energy-related attitudes. The results confirmed prior results: thermal comfort was the most important determinant of household energy use. In addition, an analysis of the results of a 55-couple subsample who had filled out attitudequestionnaires in
Lawrence J. Becker; Clive Seligman; Russell H. Fazio; John Mcconnon Darley
Background: The clients of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) have been represented from different socio-demographic backgrounds and their risk behaviour depends upon their learning skills and attitudes and its impacts on practice.Objective: The general objective of this study was to find the socio-demographic characteristics, background, knowledge, behaviour, and the attitude on STIs, HIV and AIDS of the clients of female sex workers.Material and Methods: This questionnaire based, cross sectional study was conducted on 109 clients of FSWs during the time period from January 2010 to July 2010 in Pokhara (submetropolitan city of the Kaski district), Nepal. The locations were the Baglung Bus Park, Lakeside and Mahendrapool.Result: Among the 109 respondents, the mininum and the maximum age were 18 and 50 years. According to the religion-wise distribution, 77.1% of the respondents were Hindus, 10.1% were Buddhists, 8.3% were Christians, 1% were Muslims and 3.7% were from other religions. 67.9% of the respondents were tested for HIV at least once, whereas nearly one third (32.1%) of the respondents were never tested for HIV. 49.5% of the respondents answered that there was no difference between HIV and AIDS. Among the respondents, 89.9% respondents knew how to be safe from STIs and the HIV infections and 99.1% knew about HIV and AIDS.Conclusion:HIV and AIDS is a cross cutting issue in the present situation rather than a health issue. One of the most at risk groups is the clients of female workers who frequently have risk behaviours like having sex with female sex workers. The sexual behaviour among these clients depends upon their attitude, knowledge and perception, which also influence several internal and external factors. In our study, the clients of the female sex workers had some extent of knowledge about the condom, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. They were made aware on these by different organizations who were working in the field of HIV and AIDS, but still they intended to practise unsafe sex with the female sex workers. PMID:23450071
Rana, Manu S; Nepali, Bobin; Sathian, Brijesh; Aryal, Ram Prasad; Thapalia, Madav; Bhatta, Dharm R
The questionnaire is intended to be used with individuals who are experiencing regional pain problems that are af- fecting their performance at work, taking repeated short spells of sickness absence or are currently off work and have been so for up to 12 weeks. There are 21 scored questions concerning attitudes and beliefs, behaviour in response to pain, affect, perception
Designed to identify students with writer's block, this measure is an attitudequestionnaire of 24 items separated into five subscales: blocking, lateness, premature editing, strategies for complexity, and attitudes. If teachers or researchers wish simply to identify blockers, they can administer only the items within the behavioral…
Purpose – To assess knowledge, perceptions and practices of grassroots-level food safety regulators. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) study using quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection. Quantitative data was collected using a pre-tested knowledge assessment questionnaire. Qualitative data was collected by conducting a focus group discussion (FGD) and six in-depth interviews among food safety regulators from all
R. V. Sudershan; G. M. Subba Rao; Pratima Rao; M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Kalpagam Polasa
The construction industry of Hong Kong has a very poor site safety record. The overall accident rate has gone down a little during the last few years, but the number of fatalities has risen dramatically. In the past, the Hong Kong Government adopted a laissez-faire approach in managing construction safety, hoping that market forces would regulate the safety performance. However,
Job insecurity is related to many detrimental outcomes, with reduced job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment being the 2 most prominent reactions. Yet, effect sizes vary greatly, suggesting the presence of moderator variables. On the basis of Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory, we assumed that country-level enacted uncertainty avoidance and a country's social safety net would affect an individual's appraisal of job insecurity. More specifically, we hypothesized that these 2 country-level variables would buffer the negative relationships between job insecurity and the 2 aforementioned job attitudes. Combining 3 different data sources, we tested the hypotheses in a sample of 15,200 employees from 24 countries by applying multilevel modeling. The results confirmed the hypotheses that both enacted uncertainty avoidance and the social safety net act as cross-level buffer variables. Furthermore, our data revealed that the 2 cross-level interactions share variance in explaining the 2 job attitudes. Our study responds to calls to look at stress processes from a multilevel perspective and highlights the potential importance of governmental regulation when it comes to individual stress processes. PMID:22448808
Debus, Maike E; Probst, Tahira M; König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin
BackgroundAchieving a culture of safety is believed to be an important mechanism for improving patient safety. The SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) measures provider perceptions of patient safety culture across six domains; higher scores denote more positive perceptions. Although professional differences on the SAQ have been explored, sex differences have not.MethodsThe SAQ was administered to operating room (OR) care givers at
Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.
Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel
This study examined group differences in safety climate among job positions in a nuclear decommissioning and demolition industry in the United States. Safety climate surveys were conducted at 10 locations. Survey responses totaled 1587 out of an available population of 3296 workers for an overall response rate of 48.1%. Significant differences (p<0.05) in mean safety climate scores, factor scores, and
Michael Findley; Susan Smith; June Gorski; Michael O’neil
ObjectivesIn self-completed surveys, anonymous questionnaires are sometimes numbered so as to avoid sending reminders to initial nonrespondents. This number may be perceived as a threat to confidentiality by some respondents, which may reduce the response rate, or cause social desirability bias. In this study, we evaluated whether using nonnumbered vs. numbered questionnaires influenced the response rate and the response content.
François Kundig; Anthony Staines; Thompson Kinge; Thomas V. Perneger
The present study investigated American women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression and the effect of priming attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation. One hundred college women randomly were assigned to either a positive priming group or a negative priming group. The positive priming group first completed the menstrual joy questionnaire (MJQ) followed by a willingness to suppress menstruation (WSM) questionnaire, the beliefs and attitudes toward menstruation (BATM) questionnaire, the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and a demographic questionnaire. The negative priming group completed, in the following order: the MDQ, WSM, BATM, MJQ, and demographics. Priming affected women's reports of positive cycle-related changes on the MDQ, but not women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Higher scores on the MJQ, positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression, and previous oral contraceptive (OC) use were predictors of women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Women's primary source of information about menstrual suppression was "media," and their primary concern was "safety." Thus, researchers should continue to investigate the long-term effects of continuous OC use and to analyze information about menstrual suppression in the popular press. PMID:18663629
Rose, Jennifer Gorman; Chrisler, Joan C; Couture, Samantha
The purpose of this study was to discover what patterns of attitudes are associated with cadet perception of the frequency and usefulness of questionnaire surveys of cadet opinion. The responses of 150 cadets to the 1971 First Class Questionnaire were sca...
In order to assess the attitudes and knowledge of high school students regarding alcohol use and driving, and to determine if measurable changes have taken place in these, two rounds of surveys were conducted in six high schools in the state. Alcohol usag...
This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when
A model of the relationship between attitude involvement and attitude accessibility was developed and tested. The model specifies that attitude involvement leads to selective (biased) issue-related information-gathering strategies, which in turn produce extreme and univalent (unambivalent) attitudes. Finally, attitudes associated with univalent and extreme underlying structures should occasion relatively little decision conflict and thus should be highly accessible. Questionnaire response
This study examined whether traditional gender role attitudes mediated the relation between gender and negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. One hundred and fifty-five heterosexual college students (59% female; 97% Caucasian) completed questionnaires that assessed their attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and their gender role attitudes. Although males reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than females, there
In the aftermath of the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988 and the subsequent inquiry and recommendations made by Lord Cullen in 1990, there have been legislative changes and a renewed committment to safety by oil companies operating on the UK continental shelf (UKCS). Part of this new regime involves the preparation of a ‘safety case’ for each installation operating on
Selected aspects of the efficacy of printed leaflets produced by a government health and safety agency and widely distributed by the enforcement bodies and other organisations to promote workplace health and safety are examined. It is based on a study of 30 small or medium-sized enterprises and examines the views of 120 employers and employees regarding the availability, attractiveness, relevance
Harold D. Harvey; Paul Fleming; Karen Cregan; Emily Latimer
A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover
There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163
Interstate motorcoach travel has been the fastest-growing transportation mode in recent years. To identify challenges to monitoring compliance with motorcoach safety regulations and to examine factors affecting safety, four focus groups with a total of 32 participants were conducted during 2011, one with federal safety investigators, one with state motor carrier inspectors, and two with motorcoach drivers. Investigators and inspectors expressed concern about falsified logbooks, inadequate sleep among motorcoach drivers, hazards from speeding motorcoaches, practices by motorcoach carriers to mask ownership and avoid oversight, and difficulties keeping up with rapid motorcoach industry growth. Drivers described problems with getting sufficient sleep, pressure to drive longer than permitted, and fears of motor carriers giving them less work if they turned down driving jobs. Drivers said that driving 72-74 mph was acceptable in light traffic. To help assess workload among personnel performing safety oversight, data on numbers of motor carriers, commercial motor vehicles, federal investigators, and state inspectors were obtained from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The data suggested a heavy workload (2.13 inspectors per 1,000 commercial motor vehicles). The focus groups of inspectors, investigators, and drivers indicated the existence of serious motorcoach safety problems, provided insight about the multiple factors contributing to them, and described major obstacles to effective safety oversight. The qualitative nature of focus group research means that these notable findings will need to be measured using other methods such as surveys and observational studies. PMID:23169117
Braver, Elisa R; Dodd, Robert S; Cheung, Ivan; Long, Lindsay O
Foodborne diseases are an important reason for diarrhoeal deaths among Indian children (<5 years). Since many foodborne illnesses arise from home kitchens, mothers can be the final line of defense. It was attempted to assess perceptions and practices of mothers on food safety. Quantitative data collected from respondents (n=90) using a Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices (KABP) questionnaire, showed that,
R. V. Sudershan; G. M. Subba Rao; Pratima Rao; M. Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Kalpagam Polasa
A survey was conducted in April 1970 in a seven-county area of central New York to determine attitudes of pppphysicians concerning physician's assistants. A questionnaire, mailed under the auspices of the county medical societies, solicited the physicians...
|This study examined the attitudes toward and knowledge about suicide of gifted and unselected high school students. A questionnaire was developed which included items about societal factors related to suicide, warning signs of suicide, general knowledge of and attitudes about suicide, personal knowledge about suicide, and the intervention…
The article reviews empirical studies on trends in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and compares data from a 1985 survey of 297 students living in a college residence hall with data collected in 2001 when 152 students living in the same residence hall responded to a similar questionnaire. College students in 2001 expressed more accepting attitudes toward lesbians, reported
Background? In recent years, factors that affect patients' willingness and ability to participate in safety-relevant behaviours have been investigated. However, how trained healthcare professionals or medical students would feel participating in safety-relevant behaviours as a patient in hospital remains largely unexplored. Objectives? To investigate medical students' willingness to participate in behaviours related to the quality and safety of their health care. Design? A cross-sectional exploratory study using a survey that addressed willingness to participate in different behaviours recommended by current patient safety initiatives. Three types of interactional behaviours (asking factual or challenging questions, notifying doctors or nurses of errors/problems) and three non-interactional behaviours (choosing a hospital based on the safety record, bringing medicines and a list of allergies into hospital, and reporting an error to a national reporting system) were assessed. Participants? One hundred and seventy-nine medical students from an inner city London teaching hospital participated in the study. Findings? Students' willingness to participate was affected (P?0.05) by the action required by the patient and (for interactional behaviours) whether the patient was engaging in the specific action with a doctor or nurse. Students were least willing to ask 'challenging' questions to doctors and nurses and to report errors to a national reporting system. Doctors' and nurses' encouragement appeared to increase self-reported willingness to participate in behaviours where baseline willingness was low. Conclusion? Similar to research on lay patient populations; medical students do not view involvement in safety-related behaviours equally. Interventions should be tailored at encouraging students to participate in behaviours they are less inclined to take on an active role in. Future research is required to examine students' motivations for participation in this important but heavily under-researched area. PMID:22620283
Davis, Rachel E; Joshi, Devavrata; Patel, Krishan; Briggs, M; Vincent, Charles A
|There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad AttitudeQuestionnaire…
The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of police toward capital punishment help to shape public opinion regarding the death penalty. Prior research has not consistently identified the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of officers regarding capital punishment. This article examines that relationship, as well as the role of background factors and other attitudes.Survey questionnaires were given in 1995 to Boston area
Every year hundreds of food recalls are made due to contamination. The main focus of this paper is to examine the effects of specific food events on consumers’ confidence in food safety as well as their preparedness regarding the United States food system. The food events studied in this are major food-borne illnesses outbreaks and recalls that have occurred since
Jessica I. Hill; Abhishek Bhagwat Bharad; R. Wes Harrison; Jean D. Kinsey; Dennis J. Degeneffe
There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit
Child safety restraints can reduce risk of death and decrease injury severity from road traffic crashes; however, knowledge about restraints and their use in Kuwait is limited. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey about child car safety was used among a convenience sample of parents of children aged 18 years or younger at five Kuwaiti university campuses. Of 552 respondents, over 44% have seated a child in the front seat and 41.5% have seated a child in their lap while driving. Few parents are aware of and fewer report using the appropriate child restraint; e.g., 36% of parents of infants recognised an infant seat and 26% reported using one. Over 70% reported wearing seat belts either "all of the time" (33%) or "most of the time" (41%). This new information about parents' knowledge and practice regarding child car seat use in Kuwait can inform interventions to prevent child occupant injury and death. PMID:23230995
Raman, Sudha R; Landry, Michel D; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal
This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes' - safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes - fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer. PMID:23969271
Background Patient safety culture is an important measure in assessing the quality of health care. There is a growing recognition of the need to establish a culture of hospital focused on patient safety. This study explores the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for health care workers in China by using a Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) questionnaire and comparing it with the psychometric properties of an adapted translation of the HSPSC in Chinese hospitals with that of the US. Method We used the modified HSPSC questionnaire to measure 10 dimensions of patient safety culture from 32 hospitals in 15 cities all across China. The questionnaire included 1160 Chinese health-care workers who consisted of predominately internal physicians and nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 to conduct the statistical analysis on survey data including descriptive statistics and validity and reliability of survey. All data was input and checked by two investigators independently. Result A total of 1500 questionnaires were distributed of which 1160 were responded validly (response rate 77%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 36% to 89%. The positive response rate on 5 dimensions (Teamwork Within Units, Organization Learning-Continuous Improvement, Communication Openness, Non-punitive Response and Teamwork Across Units) was higher than that of AHRQ data (P?0.05). There was a statistical difference on the perception of patient safety culture in groups of different work units, positions and qualification levels. The internal consistency of the total survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach’s ??=?0.84). Conclusion The results show that amongst the health care workers surveyed in China there was a positive attitude towards the patient safety culture within their organizations. The differences between China and the US in patient safety culture suggests that cultural uniqueness should be taken into consideration whenever safety culture measurement tools are applied in different culture settings.
Objective: To survey attitudes about abortion in a sample of physicians practicing in the Bronx, New York, identify factors associated with those attitudes, and investigate how attitudes about abortion influence willingness to do it.Methods: A questionnaire mailed to obstetricians and gynecologists affiliated with a medical school in the Bronx elicited information on attitudes about abortion and the willingness to do
Aryan N Aiyer; George Ruiz; Allegra Steinman; Gloria Y. F Ho
This volume is part of a larger study providing information about public attitudes towards proposed highway safety countermeasures in three program areas: alcohol and drugs, unsafe driving behaviors, and pedestrian safety. Pedestrian safety countermeasure...
|Examines the internal consistency reliabilities for 14 previously-published computer attitude scales based on responses from preservice teachers, practicing K-12 teachers, and teacher educators. Describes the Teachers' Attitude toward Computers Questionnaire (TAC) that included 32 subscales. (LRW)|
Although a number of instruments for assessing attitudes toward statistics have been developed, several questions with regard to the structure and item functioning remain unresolved. In this study, the structure of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS-36), a widely used questionnaire to measure six aspects of students' attitudes toward…
VanHoof, Stijn; Kuppens, Sofie; Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Verschaffel, Lieven; Onghena, Patrick
|Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…
This 147-item questionnaire was used to collect data on those Head Start and other preschool teachers who were teaching Longitudinal Study target children. Areas of requested information included: demographic characteristics, education and experience, attitudes toward minority-groups and economically disadvanted children's motivation and learning…
The development of a questionnaire designed to measure teachers’ attitudes to new educational media is described. Responses to the questionnaire were largely positive, and indicated pressures of social desirability: accordingly, therefore, the reliability and particularly the validity of the questionnaire were found to be weak. Other approaches to measurement in this area are discussed.
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The main reasons for doing so included babies' enjoyment of them and the fact that the walker was used for an older sibling. Although none of the users listed safety concerns as a reason to stop using the walker, non-users (45%) did so; 12.5% of the users had at least one walker related injury. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of babies who use a walker perceive them as beneficial. However these babies are placed at unnecessary risk. It behoves all health professionals and child carers to alert parents to these dangers and the sale of walkers should be reviewed.
Laffoy, M.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Jordan, M.; Dowdall, D.
Resources made available by DCEG for use in developing study questionnaires. Includes questionnaires reviewed and approved by DCEG’s Technical Evaluation Committee, as well as non-reviewed questionnaire modules to be used as starting points for development.
Objectives: A pilot study to evaluate the knowledge about haemophilia in the families enrolled in the Lucknow Haemophilia Society (India), and to assess their attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis (PND). Methods: A questionnaire to assess the knowledge about haemophilia (questionnaire A) and another questionnaire to assess the attitude towards PND (questionnaire B) were distributed. PND was performed by DNA-based linkage analysis.
Gouri Shanker Pandey; Inusha Panigrahi; Shubha R. Phadke; Balraj Mittal
|Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the…
This study describes the development of the Tinnitus Stages of Change Questionnaire (TSOCQ), which aims to assess the readiness of tinnitus patients to change their behaviors and attitudes in relation to tinnitus. Its ability to predict treatment outcome was also investigated. One hundred and fifty-one patients with tinnitus completed the questionnaire. Through repeated principal component analyses, together with judgments of
Objective To change the culture of healthcare organisations and improve patient safety, new professionals need to be taught about adverse events and how to trap and mitigate against errors. A literature review did not reveal any patient safety courses in the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Therefore a new module was designed and piloted. Design A 5?h evidence?based module on understanding error in healthcare was designed with a preliminary evaluation using self?report questionnaires. Setting A UK medical school. Participants 110 final year students. Measurements and main results Participants completed two questionnaires: the first questionnaire was designed to measure students' self?ratings of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to patient safety and medical error, and was administered before and approximately 1?year after the module; the second formative questionnaire on the teaching process and how it could be improved was administered after completion of the module. Conclusions Before attending the module, the students reported they had little understanding of patient safety matters. One year later, only knowledge and the perceived personal control over safety had improved. The students rated the teaching process highly and found the module valuable. Longitudinal follow?up is required to provide more information on the lasting impact of the module.
Patey, Rona; Flin, Rhona; Cuthbertson, Brian H; MacDonald, Louise; Mearns, Kathryn; Cleland, Jennifer; Williams, David
In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.
Biehle, James T.; Motz, Lamoine L.; West, Sandra S.
AIMS: The primary aim was to investigate variables affecting compliance in pregnant women recommended for genetic consultation for abnormal screening test results, family predisposition or medical history. Our main focus was on a women's knowledge of particular screening tests, their initial feelings and changes in these feeling with time, as well as variables relevant to further decision making. METHODS: We used an anonymous questionnaire based on previous qualitative research. The questions were formulated by a medical geneticist, and the questionnaires were distributed prior to prenatal screening tests performed by doctors or trained nurses. The research cohort consisted of 271 women aged 16-42 years. Six hypotheses were tested using the statistical programme STATISTICA; significance levels were set to P<0.05. RESULTS: The questionnaire results showed insufficient knowledge. The women were confused about invasive, screening and ultrasound tests. Genetic test recommendation was largely associated with stress in these patients. Between recommendation and consultation, the women mostly looked for support from their partners. There was a surprisingly low percentage of women who looked for help from their medical specialists and a surprisingly high percentage of those who did not seek any help at all. CONCLUSION: Women's distress can be reduced if the information about recommended genetic consultation is conveyed correctly and this can also help them make the right informed decision about their future course of action. PMID:23774847
An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…
|An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…
|The pervasive involvement of information and communication technologies and computers in our daily lives influences changes of attitude toward computers. We focused on finding these ecological effects in the differences in computer attitudes as a function of gender and age. A questionnaire with 34 Likert-type items was used in our research. The…
Kubiatko, Milan; Halakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Sona; Nagy, Tibor
|To determine the attitudes of teenagers toward their hometown newspapers was the purpose of this study. A four-page questionnaire in which students compared the local newspaper with other news media and expressed their attitudes on statements about this newspaper was answered by 887 teenagers. Tentative conclusions indicated that the students…
|Addresses the issue of English in South America through the investigation of attitudes toward English by a group of MBA students in Argentina. A survey questionnaire was administered and its analysis and the relationship between attitudes and the sociopolitical environment are explored. Concludes with a cal for more conscientious inclusion of…
Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The
|This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
The aim of the present study was to systematically elicit the safety behaviors employed by people with insomnia. Safety behaviors have been identified as contributing to the maintenance of anxiety disorders. They include overt or covert strategies designed to prevent a feared outcome. However, they contribute to the maintenance of the disorder because they prevent unambiguous disconfirmation of unrealistic beliefs and they increase the likelihood that the fear would actually occur. A questionnaire based on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale was developed to elicit safety behaviors and was administered to 33 people meeting criteria for primary insomnia and 33 nonpatient controls. The data indicated that people with insomnia use a wide range of safety behaviors to prevent feared outcomes. Blind raters determined that the safety behaviors reported included those that: interfere with the regularity of the sleep cycle, interfere with sleep directly, cause paradoxical fuelling of presleep cognitive activity, exacerbate day-time sleepiness, contribute to the day being unpleasant or boring, and those that increase preoccupation with sleep. The clinical implications of these findings and areas for further research are discussed. PMID:11838025
Attitudes toward parents and institutional authorities during adolescence were studied to determine their interrelationship and age trends. School children aged 13–17 years (N = 157) completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward the police, teachers, the army, and the law, and concerning their own parents and parents in general. Moderate positive correlations were found between attitudes toward parents and toward authorities. However,
|A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…
A posttest-only control group design procedure was used with a semantic differential questionnaire to examine the persistence of changes in racial attitudes induced via a required training course for supervisors at a large military installation. Overall, a general, but small, positive change in attitude was observed immediately following the course. This attitude change subsequently decayed over a twelve- to thirteen-week
|Aim: To explore factors associated with students' attitudes towards their peers with disabilities. Method: All 7th grade students (aged 12-13y) from 12 schools in the Toulouse area were invited to participate (n = 1509). Attitudes were measured using the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes Towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) questionnaire (affective,…
Reports the reactions and attitudes of students to taking a computer-based course through two questionnaires. Data from the study are analyzed in detail, and the attitudes and reactions of the students are linked to features of the computer-based learning (CBL) material and its use, and to possible more general attitudes of the students.…
This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n?=?130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were slightly above average, suggesting that teachers overall had a moderately positive attitude towards inclusive education. A hierarchical regression analysis was
This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n?=?130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were slightly above average, suggesting that teachers overall had a moderately positive attitude towards inclusive education. A hierarchical regression analysis was
This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…
Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.
This is a pamphlet instructing the construction of questionnaires, as the use of questionnaires in business, industry, government, and education has increased steadily in recent years. They are used in many different areas of government operation, includi...
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students’ pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency of climate change. The results from the pilot and the final study show the questionnaire
|This study investigated relationships between high school counselors' ethical decision-making, gender, attitudes towards gender, and sexual attitudes. Of the 161 respondents, only 157 participants' data sets were included in the data set. Participants completed the Ethical Decision-Making Questionnaire, The Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hendrick,…
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293
The Omnibus State Safety Survey is a multi-year study providing information on highway safetyattitudes, perceptions, and reported behaviors of adult residents throughout the State of Michigan. The first phase of the Omnibus State Safety Survey was conduc...
A. C. Wagenaar L. J. Molnar F. M. Streff R. H. Schultz
background: There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). methods: Questionnaires on
We investigated parental attitudes toward organ donation by surveying the parents of 106 children attending a general pediatric, cystic fibrosis, hematology or nephrology clinic using a printed questionnaire. Only 64% of parents knew that cessation of brain function is the definition of death. Most people (73%) obtained information about organ transplantation from the mass media and significantly fewer (37%) from
The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986–1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught,
|A study assessed employer attitudes and employer demand for student interns. A questionnaire was mailed to each of the 813 employers who used the internship program of the Communication Studies department at the University of California, Los Angeles. A total of 237 questionnaires were returned by intern supervisors in journalism, television,…
Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care. More than 350,000 patients receive dialysis in the United States, and the safety of their care is ultimately the responsibility of the facility medical director. The medical director must establish a culture of safety in the dialysis unit and lead the quality assessment and performance improvement process. Several lines of investigation, including surveys of patients and dialysis professionals, have helped to identify important areas of safety risk in dialysis facilities. Among these are lapses in communication, medication errors, patient falls, errors in machine and membrane preparation, failure to follow established policies, and lapses in infection control. The quality assessment and performance improvement process should include a dedicated safety team to focus on specifically identified areas of risk and to establish outcome goals guided by best practices and agreed-upon measures of success. A safetyquestionnaire can be given to patients and staff and the responses evaluated to improve understanding of the prevailing attitudes and concerns about safety. By sharing these results, openly acknowledging the challenges, and using a blame-free root cause process to identify action plans, the facility can begin to establish a culture of safety. PMID:22282480
The NHIS CCS is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment. The NHIS CCS covers a variety of topics, including diet and nutrition.
Purpose – Improving hospital patient safety means an open and stimulating culture is needed. This article aims to describe a patient safety culture improvement approach in five Belgian hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Patient safety culture was measured using a validated Belgian adaptation of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire. Studies before (autumn 2005) and after (spring 2007) the
Johan Hellings; Ward Schrooten; Niek S. Klazinga; Arthur Vleugels
|Three antecedent variables were examined to determine their effects on children's attitudes toward aggression--the child's exposure to television violence, his perceptions of his family's attitudes toward violence, and the family's socioeconomic status. Questionnaires which were completed by 434 fourth through sixth grade boys elicited responses…
... of Parents' Attitudes and Self-Reported Behaviors Concerning Sports Safety (2011) This Safe Kids Worldwide national survey ... at how and what parents believe about children’s sports-related injuries, and where the knowledge gap is. ...
|We developed and implemented a yearlong safety program into our organic chemistry lab courses that aims to enhance student attitudes toward safety and to ensure students learn to recognize, demonstrate, and assess safe laboratory practices. This active, collaborative program involves the use of student "safety teams" and includes hands-on safety…
Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Tanner, Martha J.; Ferrenberg, Scott M.
This report documents the work conducted in the development of an attitude survey for Contract 211-93-0006, Produce a survey to assess pre- and post-intervention the attitude of workers toward the use of occupational safety equipment and toward protecting...
The Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ), an 18-item self-report questionnaire assessing spider phobia, was developed in an attempt to complement the information provided by the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ). Data obtained from 338 undergraduates revealed that the FSQ was able to discriminate phobics from nonphobics, and indicated decrements in phobic responding from pretest to posttest following cognitive therapy. Test-retest data,
Implementation of workplace changes and remedial measures intended to improve health and safety within organisations are not always successful. It has been suggested that such interventions might benefit from a more explicit, stage-specific approach, which takes into account individual and organisational readiness to change.This study examined these issues further, via a case study of health and safety appraisal within a
Jackie H. Barrett; Roger A. Haslam; Katherine G. Lee; Mike J. Ellis
|The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…
Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.
In an attempt to improve data quality and ease of administration of standard self-administered food frequency questionnaires, various alternative approaches were tried for inquiring about frequency of consumption, portion size, seasonal intake, and food preparation. Evaluation consisted of a cognitive interviewing method in which respondents verbalize their thought process while completing several variations of a questionnaire. Interviewers observed and asked
AMY F SUBAR; FRANCES E THOMPSON; ALBERT F SMITH; JARED B JOBE; REGINA G ZIEGLER; NANCY POTISCHMAN; ARTHUR SCHATZKIN; ANNE HARTMAN; CHRISTINE SWANSON; LAURA KRUSE; RICHARD B HAYES; DENISE RIEDEL LEWIS; LINDA C HARLAN
Two anonymous questionnaires assessing attitudes toward gay issues were administered to adults living in the Shreveport\\/Bossier City, Louisiana area. In both, demographic data were obtained regarding gender, education, religion, age and marital status. In the second questionnaire, family groups were given the questionnaire. In the first survey, the results generally supported previous findings that religiosity, gender, and education at or
Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological “tricks” are used to influence us, with the
A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893
A questionnaire designed to elicit Soldier judgments of, and comments about, the upgraded Phraselator speech translation device was completed by seven personnel serving in Iraq. Aggregate responses to yes or no questions are provided, as are the frequency...
In this paper, we demonstrate how establishment survey questionnaire design can be improved by utilizing different research methods such as focus groups, document design analyses, pretests, and response analysis surveys. We discuss the lack of research on...
A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed
Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
Whether developing questions for questionnaires or interviews or focus groups, there are certain guidelines that help to ensure that respondents provide information that is useful and can later be analyzed. This resource offers advice on developing questions for interviews or focus groups. It contains basics conducting the interviews, providing directions to respondents as well as guidelines for composing the content and wording of the questionnaire. This resource is aimed for use in workshops/conferences and is intended for novice evaluators.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and decision making on nuclear energy in the current society. Eighty-nine students attended the instruction and participated in pre and post questionnaires to understand their understandings of nuclear energy. In this study, science knowledge was categorized into content and contextual knowledge, attitude consisted of images, safety, risk, potential, benefits and future roles, and decision making section included preference and alternative about lifetime extension of nuclear power plant. The results of questionnaires were analyzed by correlation, cross-tabulation and regression. As a result, while students' understandings of science knowledge were significantly improved throughout the instruction, they maintained similar attitude and decision making on the issue. Regarding the relationship of the three domains, attitude showed some degree of connection to decision making whereas science knowledge did not show a significant relationship to decision making. This finding challenges SSI teaching in content-based science curriculum and classroom. Reflection and implications on the way of teaching SSI in the classroom were discussed further in this paper.
Employees continuously observe their work environment and the actions of their fellow workers and superiors, and they use such observations as a basis for the creation of cognitive models associated with safety. These models regulate their actions in the workplace and thus have an influence on safety. This study attempts to define the structure of the safety climate as perceived by workers and the correlations between the safety climate, on the one hand, and the safety practices of the company, the safety level of the work environment and occupational accidents on the other. The variables used in this study were the same as those employed in two previous Finnish safety climate studies carried out in the plywood industry, shipyards, the forestry industry, building construction and stevedoring. The safety climate was measured by means of a questionnaire. Workers from four sawmills, two plywood factories and two parquet plants participated. The total number of participants was 508 in 1990 and 548 in 1993. The variables formed four factors, whose contents and reliabilities closely resembled the results obtained in the earlier studies. These results indicate that the structure of the safety climate among Finnish workers is quite stable. The safety climate correlated both with the safety level of the work environment and with the safety practices of the company, but the correlation between the safety climate and the safety of the work environment was stronger. This result differs from those of the previous studies, in which the safety climate was defined specifically in terms of an individual's perceptions of the safety practices of the company and of the behavior of other employees. The two safety climate factors that described a company's attitudes to safety and its safety precautions correlated with the accident rates. The better the safety climate of the company was, the lower was the accident rate. Four companies with an accident rate below the average for the wood-processing industry had a better safety climate than four similar companies with an accident rate above the average. PMID:10994603
The literature has recognised that implementing a safety management system is the most efficient way of allocating resources for safety, since it not only improves working conditions, but also positively influences employees’ attitudes and behaviours with regards safety, consequently improving the safety climate. The safety climate and the safety management system are considered basic components of the firm's safety culture
Beatriz Fernández-Muñiz; José Manuel Montes-Peón; Camilo José Vázquez-Ordás
|To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitudequestionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are ranked as some of the major causes of patient morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs has remained the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance and is important in maintaining patient safety. This study was conducted to assess the nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance, reasons for not reporting ADRs, and their pharmacovigilance practice. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses regarding ADR reporting. In November 2009, the questionnaires were given to 500 nurses of a teaching hospital in Tehran. Findings: Knowledge and practice of participants were not satisfying; however, their attitude towards pharmacovigilance was at a high level. About 91% of the nurses had never reported an ADR. Most nurses liked to report the ADRs to the physicians (87.1%) and pharmacists in hospital's ADR center (1.8%) rather than the ADR National Center. The main cause of under-reporting of the suspected ADRs was unawareness about the existence of such a national center. Among nurses who had reported ADR for at least once, the majority preferred using phone (10 out of 50) or Yellow Cards (7 out of 50). Only 1 person out of 50 preferred using internet for submitting the reports Conclusions: Since the nurses in this study had little knowledge and poor practice regarding the pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting system, interventions such as holding pharmacovigilance workshops in the hospitals focusing on the aims of pharmacovigilance, completing the Yellow Card and clarifying the reporting criteria are strongly recommended.
|This questionnaire is intended to help college faculty and administrators assess the adequacy of the general education curriculum and determine the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes needed by students, and as a tool for program evaluation, innovation, and implementation. It can also be used by college and university students to assess and…
|A study was conducted to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments, and to examine associations between these factors and students' attitudes. A measure of students' environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument was influenced by the four…
A questionnaire assessing attitudes toward suicide prevention was constructed and shown to have satisfactory reliability and internal consistency. The determinants and distribution of these attitudes were investigated in four groups of health professionals who are in contact with suicidal patients: general practitioners, accident and emergency nurses, psychiatrists in training, and community psychiatric nurses. Attitudes toward suicide prevention were shown to differ significantly between professional groups. More positive attitudes were associated with mental health professionals, working in the community, and previous training in suicide risk assessment. Negative attitudes should be assessed and targeted in training designed to improve the management of suicide risk. PMID:11577918
Herron, J; Ticehurst, H; Appleby, L; Perry, A; Cordingley, L
A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth?form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude towards science. However, this negative correlation was transformed into a positive correlation after taking into
|A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…
Five possible causes of rape—male dominance, female precipitation, society, male sexuality, and male pathology—were compared among high school students from California. Participants (N = 453) completed a group?administered questionnaire as part of a rape?education high school outreach provided by two rape crisis centers. Gender, ethnicity, age, and communication sources about rape, including pornography, were related to attitudes about the causes
Background The cooperation of patients and their consent to involve medical students in their care is vital to clinical education, but large numbers of students and lack of experience as well as loss of privacy may evoke negative attitudes of patients, which may sometimes adversely affect the clinical teaching environment. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of patients towards medical students at Damascus University hospitals, and to explore the determinants of those attitudes thus discussing possible implications applicable to clinical teaching. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at three teaching hospitals affiliated to the Faculty of Medicine at Damascus University. Four hundred patients were interviewed between March and April 2011 by a trained sociologist using a structured questionnaire. Results Of the patients interviewed, 67.8% approved the presence of medical students during the medical consultation and 58.2% of them felt comfortable with the presence of students, especially among patients with better socio-economic characteristics. 81.5% of the patients agreed to be examined by students in the presence of the supervisor, while 40.2% gave agreement even in the absence of the supervisor. Privacy was the most important factor in the patients' reticence towards examination by the students, whilst the relative safety and comfort if a supervisor was available determined patients' agreement. Conclusions The study concluded overall positive attitudes to the medical students' involvement in medical education. However, it is essential that students and clinical supervisors understand and adhere to professional and ethical conduct when involving patients in medical education.
This paper focuses on the contribution of Air Traffic Management to the Überlingen mid-air collision. Events and Causal Factor models are developed to show the interaction between technical, human factors and managerial issues in the causes of this accident. In particular, we show how problems in safety management contributed to an error inducing context. Our analysis also points to the
Background: Underreporting of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a threat to pharmacovigilance. Various factors related with the knowledge and attitudes are responsible for underreporting of ADRs. Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitudes of doctors to ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eight questionnaires were administered to doctors working in a teaching hospital with an ADR monitoring center. Statistical Analysis Used: The descriptive statistics were used for responses to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to observe the association of knowledge and attitude with experience and position. Results: The response rate was 62.9%. Spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 19.1%. The major factors found to be responsible for underreporting of ADR include inadequate risk perception about newly marketed drugs (77.9%), fear factor (73.5%), diffidence (67.7%), lack of clarity of information on ADR form about reporting (52.9%), lethargy (42.7%), insufficient training to identify ADRs (41.2%), lack of awareness about existence of pharmacovigilance program (30.9%) and ADR monitoring center in the institute (19.1%), and inadequate risk perception of over-the-counter (OTC) product (20.6%) and herbal medicines (13.2%). Experience and position did not influence the knowledge and attitudes of doctors. Conclusion: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes require urgent attention not only to improve the rate of spontaneous reporting, but also for enhanced safety of the patients and society at large.
Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Goyal, Chhaya; Chandel, Nitibhushansingh; Rafi, Mohammed
Objective To determine staff and consumer-focused food safety training needs in community-based homes for people with developmental disabilities as well as dietitians’ perceptions of food-handling practices in these homes.Design Direct-care staff and dietitians were surveyed according to a modified Dillman method using a mailed, self-administered questionnaire. Main outcome measures included food-handling knowledge, attitudes, and practices of staff and consumers as
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration conducts the National Survey of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behaviors on a periodic basis to monitor the publics attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior regarding drinking and driving. The...
? ? ? ? ? Objective: To determine the opinions and attitudes of Canadian nephrologists about dialysis modality decisions and optimal dialysis system design. ? ? ? ? ? Participants: Members of the Canadian Society of Nephrology. ? ? ? ? ? Intervention: A mailed survey questionnaire. ? ? ? ? ? Results: A 66% response rate was obtained. Decisions
Beverly Jung; Peter G. Blake; Ravindra L. Mehta; David C. Mendelssohn
Soldiers' and food service personnel's perceptions and attitudes toward the Nutrition Initiatives, as well as their nutrition awareness of knowledge, were assessed via questionnaires and interviews at the Ft. Riley NCO Academy civilian-contractor operatio...
A survey of physicians in the 11 counties represented by the Rochester (New York) Regional Hospital Council, undertaken in the summer of 1964 to explore the attitudes of the physicians toward small community practice, is documented. Questionnaires were se...
The 1988 Omnibus State Safety Survey is part of a multi-year study providing periodic information on highway safetyattitudes, perceptions, and reported behaviors of adult residents throughout the State of Michigan. The telephone survey instrument contain...
A. C. Wagenaar F. M. Streff L. J. Molnar R. H. Schultz
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity among Aboriginal women is a growing concern, with increasing prevalence rates linked to a sedentary lifestyle. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy body weight; however prior to addressing health enhancing behaviors, understanding lifestyle practices, attitudes and beliefs are important. METHODS: A mixed methods approach assessed physical activity (PA) practices (n=58), and attitudes and beliefs (n=19) among First Nations women. The Modifiable Activity Questionnaire assessed PA, and a focused ethnography explored attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Self-reported PA was highest in the youngest age group. Both total and leisure-time PA decreased when house-related activities were not accounted for. Younger participants reported sport-related activities, while older participants reported traditional activities (e.g. berry picking, fishing). Participants' believed PA promoted good health, yet personal (i.e. lack of time), community-specific (i.e. lack of opportunities/encouragement) and environmental (i.e. inclement weather, safety) factors acted as barriers. Age-specific, women-only programs were highlighted as potential enablers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the need to assess cultural specific practices, attitudes and beliefs as PA programs that focus on reducing barriers identified in the community and are designed based on expressed interest and preferences may improve leisure-related PA levels among all age groups. PMID:23223757
Two hundred and twenty-six females and 104 young adult males indicated the extent to which 80 comments concerning chocolate applied to them. Factor analysis indicated that three factors accounted for these data. The first factor was weighted on questions that indicated a craving for chocolate and the tendency to seek comfort from chocolate under emotionally stressful conditions: it was labelled
130 undergraduates responded to 3 questionnaires over a 6-wk period before and after the 1980 presidential election. The questionnaires assessed self-monitoring tendency, attitudes, and intentions with respect to voting in the election and smoking marihuana, and included self-reports of actual behavior. Low self-monitors tended to exhibit stronger attitude–behavior correlations than high self-monitors. There was, however, no difference in the predictability
Nina Thornburg's (1988) Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and AttitudesQuestionnaire was distributed to 326 randomly selected Illinois psychologists. Of 117 usable questionnaires received, the mean score for knowledge questions was 7.5 of a maximum score of 18. Respondents were most knowledgeable about near-death elements of peace, out-of-body transcendence, and tunnel\\/light phenomena. The mean score for the attitude portion of the instrument
This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first. PMID:15677172
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SEF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Satisfaction with Teaching Questionnaire was used. In a study by its developers this scale discriminated between students choosing to be teachers and those choosing other…
|College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
This study examined correlations between teachers’ attitudes toward mathematics\\/teaching mathematics and the practice of developmentally appropriate mathematics. This study tested two independent variables: (1) kindergarten teachers’ attitudes toward mathematics; and (2) kindergarten teachers’ attitudes toward teaching mathematics; and their relationships with the practice of developmentally appropriate mathematics.The researcher designed a survey questionnaire by cross?referencing several instruments and the review of
This article presents the results of a survey examining the attitudes of young Japanese people towards whaling and its controversies. Using an online and paper-based questionnaire, 529 useable surveys were completed by Japanese students (between 15 and 26 years old) from May to December 2007. Factorial analysis, correlation and regression models were used to identify relational predictors underlying the attitudes
Samples of American and German youth were given anonymous questionnaires on social and ethical attitudes. German youth differed from American in more highly valuing obedience to authority, honor, and loyalty to the state. They have more faith in their national superiority and show less tolerance and respect for individuals. Compared to Nazi youth, the attitudes of anti-Nazi youth were more
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, such attitudes and beliefs on mood stabilizers have not been analysed by socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHODS: The Mood Stabilizer Compliance Questionnaire (MSQC) was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder representative of patients treated
Purpose: To explore knowledge, attitudes toward, and experience with, the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) among teenagers in Sweden.Methods: A questionnaire with 23 questions concerning the students’ demographics, knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experience of the ECP was delivered to a random sample of 20 classes in senior high school in two medium-sized cities in Sweden. The participation rate was 100%
The focus of this study is the relationship between language attitude, beliefs, efficacy, English language competence, and language achievement. Two hundred and eighty-five students from five metropolitan primary schools in Western Australia completed a specially designed questionnaire based on the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (Gardner,…
|Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation…
|A study was conducted to discover if the stated reading attitudes and interests of sixth grade students were relevant to their self-selected reading materials. Fifty students completed questionnaires concerning their reading attitudes and interests and used log sheets to record information about their self-selected reading materials. The results…
Human stem cell research has revived long-standing debates regarding the sanctity and beginning of life. The current study addresses the issue by examining the ability of selected religiosity and personality variables to predict attitudes regarding stem cell research. Participants were given questionnaires measuring attitudes regarding stem cell research, along with the Need for Closure scale, the Internal Control Index, the
Michael E. Nielsen; Jennifer Williams; Brandon Randolph-Seng
|Understanding youth's perceptions of their civic skills is important for enriching the lives of youth as well as society. This study explored the relationship between civic attitudes, leadership skills, and ethnic identity in Northwest Georgia schools using two measures, the Civic Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire (CASQ) and the Multigroup…
Anglin, Ashley Elizabeth; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Johnson, Laura Renee
One hundred one chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients attending a specialist CFS clinic were compared with 45 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on a range of standardized questionnaire measures, to investigate whether CFS patients are characterized by particular personality traits or social attitudes. No differences were found between CFS and RA patients in measures of perfectionism, attitudes toward mental illness, defensiveness,
This study focuses on environmental awareness and attitude among Iranian students in Malaysian universities. It evaluates the awareness and attitude of a group of 541 from 14 universities. The figure to 541 is considered the representative of these students and the selection was based on Stratified Random sampling method and G-power soft ware. A set of questionnaire which comprised of
Z. Aminrad; M. Azizi; M. Wahab; R. Huron; M. Nawawi
Understanding youth's perceptions of their civic skills is important for enriching the lives of youth as well as society. This study explored the relationship between civic attitudes, leadership skills, and ethnic identity in Northwest Georgia schools using two measures, the Civic Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire (CASQ) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). In sharp contrast with Georgia school demographics,
Ashley Elizabeth Anglin; Julie S. Johnson-Pynn; Laura Renee Johnson
It was hypothesized that the tendency to find positive correlations between various measures of personality traits may accrue because of the willingness of S to ascribe to himself either socially desirable or undesirable attitudes on several samples of his self-attitudes. It was found that social desirability did influence the probability of ascribing to oneself items from several kinds of questionnaires,
This study examined home health care workers' attitudes toward the elderly and their elderly clients. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 106 home health care workers in South Central Florida in October 1994, using the Attitudes Toward the Elderly Questionnaire (ATE). Estimated internal consistency reliability of the scale was .60, using Cronbach's alpha. Findings suggest that home health
|This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…
Objective: To examine the attitudes of neonatologists, obstetricians, midwives, and neonatal nurses toward perinatal autopsy and survey physicians about whom they perceive influence women’s decisions on autopsy consent.Methods: A postal survey that incorporated a questionnaire of eight fictitious case scenarios and combined three factors (confidence of antemortem diagnosis, intention to have future pregnancy, and parental attitude toward autopsy) in various
|IN JANUARY OF 1965, THE COLLEGE ASKED 477 POLITICAL SCIENCE I STUDENTS TO COMPLETE A QUESTIONNAIRE INDICATING THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD SEVERAL CONTROVERSIAL CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SHOWED A RELATION OF ATTITUDES TO SEX AND AGE. VERY GENERALLY, WOMEN STUDENTS HELD FEWER POLARIZED AND MORE PACIFISTIC OPINIONS IN POLITICAL MATTERS…
Attitudes of pharmacists and pharmacy students were measured by a 73-item questionnaire. Responses were obtained from 56 graduating seniors and 112 recent graduates of the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The two sets of responses enable comparison of the attitudes of graduating seniors after completion of a…
Objective: This study was designed to assess physicians’ attitudes toward obese patients and the causes and treatment of obesity.Research Methods and Procedures: A questionnaire assessed attitudes in 2 geographically representative national random samples of 5000 primary care physicians. In one sample (N = 2500), obesity was defined as a BMI of 30 to 40 kg\\/m2, and in the other (N
Gary D. Foster; Thomas A. Wadden; Angela P. Makris; Duncan Davidson; Rebecca Swain Sanderson; David B. Allison; Amy Kessler
The paper reports on an investigation into pupils' attitudes to loud sounds before and after teaching. This is part of the research project 'Design and validation of a teaching learning sequence about sound, hearing and health' for pupils aged 10 - 11 years. Pupils (41) have answered a multiple-choice questionnaire about their experiences of tinnitus, practices of headphones, attitudes to
A sample of 947 subjects completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and beliefs towards the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. A section of the questionnaire was aimed at assessing the role of trust on perception of risks and benefits associated with pesticides on foods. The subjects tended to hold positive attitudes towards eating fruits and vegetables produced by organic agriculture.
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from
This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in eating attitudes and body shape concerns amongst adolescent schoolgirls representing South Africa's ethnically and culturally diverse population currently undergoing epidemiological transition. Method A questionnaire survey, including the Eating Attitudes Test, Body Shape Questionnaire and a Body Silhouette Chart, was administered to 228 South African schoolgirls (60 black,
Background. There are few theoretically derived questionnaires of physical activity determinants among youth, and the existing questionnaires have not been subjected to tests of factorial validity and invariance. The present study employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factorial validity and invariance of questionnaires designed to be unidimensional measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy about
R. W. Motl; R. K. Dishman; S. G. Trost; R. P. Saunders; M. Dowda; G. Felton; D. S. Ward; R. R. Pate
The present study assessed the impact of parents, peers, siblings, cigarette advertising, and sponsorship as role models influencing attitudes toward smoking and smoking behavior in seventh- and eleventh-grade students. The participants completed an anonymous questionnaire concerning their current and future smoking behavior, attitudes toward a cigarette advertising ban, general attitudes toward smoking, and smoking status of parents and siblings. Fifty-one
This paper reports an investigation of cognitive style, gender, attitude toward using computer?assisted learning (CAL) and academic achievement among university students. A Group Embedded Figures Test was used to assess students’ cognitive style and a questionnaire was used for the evaluation of students’ attitude toward CAL. The results revealed that students have positive attitudes toward CAL but they were not
Racial preference and racial attitudes were assessed in a group of black preschoolers between 4 and 5.5 years of age using the Clark Doll Test and Preschool Racial Attitudes Measure (PRAM) II. Parents were classified as activists or nonactivists based on their history of civil rights activism as revealed by a questionnaire. Racial attitudes of the…
Data based on questionnaire measures from parents in New Zealand, the UK, and Sweden on attitudes toward advertising to children is presented. There is cross-national evidence that attitudes in this area are affectively strong and consistent and data is presented on responses to particular attitude statements that support this claim. An exploratory factor analysis on the Swedish and UK data
Background: The goal of this pilot study was to assess attitudes toward cognitive enhancement (CE) in users and nonusers of prescription or illicit stimulants for CE. Methods: Self-rating questionnaires were used to assess general attitudes toward CE in a sample of 1,035 high school students and 512 undergraduate university students in Germany. Attitudes were also assessed in a subgroup of
Andreas G. Franke; Caroline Bonertz; Michaela Christmann; Stefan Engeser; Klaus Lieb
1120 questionnaires are collected by survey, and structural equation model (SEM) is applied to research effect of current Chinese cultural values on consumption attitude loyalty. The research indicates that cultural values of ldquolong term versus short term orientationrdquo, ldquouncertainty avoidancerdquo, ldquotime orientationrdquo, ldquoaffectivity versus affective neutralityrdquo positively affect attitude loyalty, cultural value of ldquomaterial comfortrdquo negatively affects attitude loyalty, and
People's assumptions about robots are an important factor affecting their construction and change of attitudes and emotions toward robots. The assumptions should be measured not only to investigate psychological factors determining reactions toward robots but also to study crosscultural attitudes toward robots. As far as measurement of people's attitudes and emotions can contribute to the design of human-robot interaction, questionnaire
|Modern biotechnology will have a large impact on society and requires informed decision-making and critical attitudes toward biotechnology among the public. This study aims to explore these attitudes in secondary education. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed according to the general tripartite theory of attitudes. A total of 574…
Objectives: To determine whether the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of blood donors evolve over time. Materials and Methods: Using questionnaires a 7-year longitudinal study of a cohort of 126 donors was performed to gather their sociodemographic characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs and motivations relating to blood donation. Results: Changes were observed in a large number of beliefs and attitudes, with
A. Fernández-Montoya; A. López-Berrio; J. D. Luna del Castillo
Definitions of safety culture abound, but they variously refer to the safety-related values, attitudes, beliefs, risk perceptions and behaviours of all employees. This assembly may seem too inclusive to be meaningful, but each represents a different level of processing and the choice for measurement (or intervention) is more pragmatic than theoretical. The present study addresses mainly attitudes, but also reported
To investigate the dimensions of safety climate among Japanese nurses, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted. The subjects involved in the survey included 293 full-time nurses (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses) working in a public hospital, excluding directors of nursing. A total of 221 of the 293 nurses answered the questionnaires. Among 221 questionnaires, the questionnaires, which had missing values in the question items used in this study, were excluded from the analyses. Consequently, a total of 201 questionnaires were analyzed. The average age of the subjects was 34.7 yr. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, 5 factors were extracted as follows: intellectual development regarding medical safety among nurses, accumulated fatigue, nursing conditions, supervisors' attitudes, and communication with physicians. All the values of Cronback's coefficient alpha among these 5 factors were between 0.804 and 0.892. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis of the 5 factors, the value of the GFI (Goodness of Fit Index) was 0.868. The value of the CFI (Comparative Fit Index) was 0.943. The value of the RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) was 0.062. The results of this study will contribute to the investigation of the dimensions of a nurses' safety climate scale in the future. The associations between the dimensions of the safety climate and the motivation to work toward improving patients' safety among Japanese nurses will need to be examined, as will those between the dimensions of the safety climate and actual clinical mistakes. PMID:18413969
|Background: The School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) questionnaire was developed as a surveillance instrument to measure physical activity, nutrition attitudes, and dietary and physical activity behaviors in children and adolescents. The SPAN questionnaire has 2 versions. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of…
Thiagarajah, Krisha; Fly, Alyce D.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bai, Yeon; Lo, Kaman; Leone, Angela; Shertzer, Julie A.
In this study we examined relationships among gender role identity, support for feminism, nontraditional gender roles, and willingness to consider oneself a feminist in a sample of college students (N=301). For female participants, we found positive relationships among higher masculinity on the PAQ (Personal Attributes Questionnaire), nontraditional attitudes toward gender roles, and the combined SRAI (Sex Role Attitudinal Inventory). A
Paige W. Toller; Elizabeth A. Suter; Todd C. Trautman
A questionnaire looking at attitudes towards male homosexuality was circulated to 94 members of the Gay Medical Association (GMA) and 510 members of various homophile organisations. The response rates were 56% and 34.7% respectively. Some clear differences emerged between the two groups in looking at stereotypes of male homosexuals. Nearly hlf the respondents in both the groups agreed that male
A 31-item questionnaire examining doctors' attitudes to male homosexuality was circulated to 510 psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists and 510 general practitioners (GPs) in the Midlands region of the United Kingdom. In spite of the low response rates, the psychiatrists showed consistently more liberal responses. However, 3% of the psychiatrists and 9% of the general practitioners still see homosexuality as an
A survey of 376 first-year Arab university students at Sultan Qaboos University (Oman) investigated attitudes about the use of English as a medium for instruction in science and technology. Questionnaires elicited information about student language background, reasons for studying English, patterns of present and future use of English, and…
The objective of this study was to analyze physicians' attitudes towards induced abortion with normal fetuses and fetuses known to have an abnormality in various degrees. A total of 193 physicians (internists, pediatricians, gynecologists and neurologists) answered a self-administered questionnaire. The questions were about voluntary abortion; voluntary abortion with malformed fetus; abortion because the fetus has anencephaly; and two questions
The University of Montana offered an MBA accounting class with a live television component during the fall quarter, 1988. Three separate classroom situations were involved. Pre- and post-quarter questionnaires were administered to the three groups of students. This research project was designed to determine what, if any, differences existed between these three groups of MBA students with regard to attitudes.
|In this study, which investigates the association of parity and maternal attitudes during pregnancy, a 30-item questionnaire was completed by 17 primiparous and 33 multiparous mothers in their 8th month of pregnancy at the Obstetrics-Gynocology Clinic at a university medical center. Measures were obtained on five scales: quality of available…
The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents
|The purpose of this survey was to assess public attitudes about drug addiction, addicts, and treatment for this condition. Four reference groups were sampled: (1) law-enforcement representatives; (2) college student non-users; (3) student users of marihuana; and (4) post-withdrawal narcotic addicts. Data was obtained from a questionnaire…
|Obesity stereotypes and anti fat attitudes influence the social behavior of middle school students according to a study presented last June at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Using a series of questionnaires and fat and thin silhouette figures, the researchers quizzed 176 boys and 141 girls between the ages…
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPERD), 2005
The question investigated by surveying mainstream Australians in Brisbane was whether studying Japanese floral art or a Chinese martial art changed their attitudes towards Asians or Asian culture. This was tested by an anonymous questionnaire with 44 questions. None of them began a course because of a special interest in Asia, yet eventually they learned about Asian culture and became
In 1979, a sample of 2,149 pupils aged 8?16 was selected from schools in Belfast and a questionnaire administered which included Peatling's instrument ‘Thinking about the Bible’ and Francis’ ‘Religious Attitude Scale’. Pupils had an increasing preference for abstract thinking and a decreasing preference for concrete thinking as they got older. Grammar school pupils were more inclined to prefer abstract
Little is know about attitudes toward suicide and how these attitutes interrelate with religious membership. A suicide opinion questionnaire was administered to two adult samples of church-going members of the Judaic and Christian religions. The results indicate statistically significant differences between Jews and Christians on 35 of the 100 SOQ items, and they are discussed in terms of 15 SOG
Animal rights movements have increased the scope and intensity of their activities over the past decade. While it is generally assumed that doctors and other members of the health care professions favour the use of animals for science, few data are available. Student protests in various medical schools against use of animals in teaching laboratories indicated further need for objective data. A questionnaire about attitudes to the use of animals for teaching purposes was distributed to all the medical students at the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, present during classes on a given day. All students present (200) returned the questionnaire (70% of the student body). Also queried were attitudes towards related subjects. A high percentage of medical students surveyed had significant reservations about animal experimentation for teaching purposes and about the preferential priority for human life over that of animals. These attitudes, if confirmed, have serious implications for educators both in the health fields and otherwise. PMID:7623684
Objective: To assess the validity of the CAGE (cut down, annoyed, guilty feelings, eye-opener) questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism\\u000a Screening Test (MAST) in distinguishing between elderly patients with and without alcohol abuse or dependence disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: A cross-sectional study, in which patients were interviewed with a “gold standard,” the alcohol module of the Revised Diagnostic\\u000a Interview Schedule (DIS-III-R), and two
Thomas V. Jones; Byron A. Lindsey; Pamela Yount; Rebecca Soltys; Bahar Farani-Enayat
In order to formulate a parsimonious tool to assess empathy, we used factor analysis on a combination of self-report measures to examine consensus and developed a brief self-report measure of this common factor. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) represents empathy as a primarily emotional process. In three studies, the TEQ demonstrated strong convergent validity, correlating positively with behavioral measures of social decoding, self-report measures of empathy, and negatively with a measure of Autism symptomatology. Moreover, it exhibited good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The TEQ is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for the assessment of empathy.
Spreng, R. Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Mar, Raymond A.; Levine, Brian
|An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
In order to study the following two points, we conducted an attitude survey among senior high school students.Study 1The differences in attitudes between nuclear power generation and other science and technologies.Study 2The relationship between students' interests in science and attitudes toward nuclear power generation.In the questionnaire, the attitudes toward nuclear power generation consisted of four questions: (1) pros and cons,
I distributed Nina Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and AttitudesQuestionnaire to 750 nurses in three Verona hospitals, and received 476 completed questionnaires. Questionnaire respondents had a modest knowledge of near-death experiences (NDEs). Nevertheless, respondents expressed a positive attitude towards NDEs in general, and towards patients who had had NDEs. Thirty-four percent of the nurses had personally encountered NDErs, and those
Despite highly vocal opposition to specific projects near Los Angeles, opinion surveys still found strong support for wind energy. The first, a mail survey Consumer Attitude and Choice in Local Energy Development, was conducted by Robert Thayer at the University of California's Davis campus. The other survey, conducted by Dr. Phyllis Bosley at Towson State University targeted national environmental leaders. The Thayer survey examined how people view four energy technologies - biomass, nuclear, fossil, and wind - and where they would find them most acceptable. Of the six factors Thayer measure - safety, reliability, environmental impacts, cost, dependence on foreign oil, and visual impacts - wind energy's big bugaboo, visual impact, was the least important. Wind turbines do produce a strong NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) response among customers, however. The Bosley study of national environmental leaders found, somewhat surprisingly, that the Sierra Club held slightly more positive views toward wind energy than environmental leaders in general. Nationally, solar was seen as the most cost effective energy source, followed by wind. The survey compared attitudes toward four energy technologies: solar, wind, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. There was general agreement among the environmentalists that both wind and solar were environmentally superior energy sources to fossil fuels and nuclear power.
Applied Research Program (ARP) staff use a variety of methods to develop and test questionnaires, including established Questionnaire Design Principles, empirical methods such as Cognitive Testing and psychometric methods such as Item Response Theory Modeling.
Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Questionnaire Design & Testing: Questionnaire Design Principles Cognitive Testing Item Response Theory Modeling Guides & Reports International Collaboration Areas of Research Tools Surveys
Text VersionPage 1. This document is one component of the donor history questionnaire documents (Version No. ... Full-Length Donor History Questionnaire ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure patient safety culture in five Belgian general hospitals. Safety culture plays an important role in the approach towards greater patient safety in hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Patient Safety Culture Hospital questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in five general hospitals. It evaluates ten patient safety culture dimensions and two outcomes. The scores
Johan Hellings; Ward Schrooten; Niek Klazinga; Arthur Vleugels
The problem considered in this paper is the design of a low cost MEMS based attitude estimation unit to be used in ultralight, experimental and sport pilot aircrafts as auxiliary safety tool in VFR flight conditions. The proposed approach relies on a new data fusion scheme based on a dual Kalman filter design and on acceleration-based switch criteria. Attitude information
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration conducted its second national survey of distracted driving to monitor the public's attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior about cell phones, texting, and driver choices. The first distracted dri...
A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair.
Blush, S.M. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))
The increase in skin cancer prevalence globally has prompted a range of health promotion sun safety initiatives. An area where evidence has been lacking is on the long-term impact of some of these initiatives on the attitudes and sun protection behaviour of young adults and of the sun protection measures used by people using city parks. This article disseminates a study that examined the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of 18- to 28-year-old Caucasian park users. An interview questionnaire was used with behaviour validation incorporated to corroborate the results and reduce recall bias. A cross comparison of answers and placement into pre-coded responses were made at regular intervals to ensure consistency of data collection. Knowledge of risks associated with sun exposure and knowledge of sun protection methods was high. The most common sources of knowledge on skin cancer prevention were parents and family, followed by television, then magazines and newspapers. Surprisingly, the citing of school sun safety health promotion initiatives as a source of knowledge was low. The vast majority of females and males felt that a suntan had aesthetic qualities and made them look more attractive and healthy. Only a small number of the participants' sun protection behaviour in the park corresponded with their reported normal sun protection behaviour. Males in this study use sunscreen less than females. Females also used sunscreen with a higher sun protection factor. Seeking a tan is intentional behaviour undertaken by the majority of the participants, although females were more likely to seek a tan in comparison to males. The majority of participants had experienced sunburn in the summer period with some reporting severe sunburn. Recommendations are made for a gender specific health promotion approach, which targets familial education with a supportive environment in the school or public domain. PMID:21510096
In order to find out the scope and extent of the impact on ship navigation safety at night by light pollution at sea, a questionnaire was carried out and the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were checked with statistical analysis software SPSS (edition 17.0), based on a brief introduction to the design and implementation of the questionnaire for light
Zhu Jinshan; Sun Licheng; Xiao Zhongming; Zhao Chunyang; Li Yin
Background To develop a healthcare environment that is congruent with diversity among care providers and care recipients and to eliminate ethnic discrimination, it’s important to map out and assess caregivers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity. Because of a lack of standardized questionnaires in the Swedish context, this study designed and standardized a questionnaire: the Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions (AAAD, for short). Method The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments. Results Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76). The result of the factor analysis identified six dimensions in the questionnaire: 1) Attitude toward discrimination, 2) Interaction between staff, 3) Stereotypic attitude toward working with a person with a Swedish background, 4) Attitude toward working with a patient with a different background, 5) Attitude toward communication with persons with different backgrounds, 6) Attitude toward interaction between patients and staff. Conclusion This study introduces a newly developed questionnaire with good reliability and validity values that can assess healthcare workers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity in the healthcare environment and healthcare delivery.
This paper analyzes the reliability and validity of a questionnaire designed by Archbold, Lutman, Gregory, O'Neil, and Nikolpoulos (2002) for the assessment of pediatric cochlear implantation. Parents of 61 youngsters (age range 5 to 16 years), who had the implant for at least 3 years, responded to the questionnaire and to an interview. The alpha reliability of the 11 questionnaire scales varied between .41 and .74. Content validity was assessed by comparison with parents' responses to an interview. In general, there was agreement between parents' concerns and views expressed in the interview and as assessed by the questionnaire. However, extra issues were identified in the interview, which suggest the need for increasing the breadth of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was assessed by identifying contrasting cases, with very low or very high scores in each scale, and analyzing the descriptions obtained in the interviews. For nine scales this analysis provided support for the validity of the questionnaire; two scales did not produce positive results. Correlations with interview scores were calculated for only four scales: two were positive and significant whereas two were not significant. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scales identified four components, interpreted as the child's functioning in social situations, attitudes to the process of implantation, support required in the long term, and effective use of the implant. Suggestions for further research and descriptive comments provided by parents are included. PMID:15932922
Based on the sociotechnical systems approach, an understanding of safety culture as deeply rooted assumptions about the interplay of people, technology, and organization in their relation to safety is presented. As a complement to audit methods aimed at assessing formal safety management, a questionnaire was developed which allows some indications of these assumptions to be captured by providing data on
Several times during the last decade consumers have been warned about different incidents concerning food safety, like, salmonella in eggs, cheese and poultry, and pesticides residues in tomatoes. The problem of food safety is still to be a largely latent concern for consumers. The main research goal of this paper is to investigate consumers' risk attitudes and risk perceptions concerning
Tatiana Novoselovaab; Miranda P. M. Meuwissen; Ivo A. C. M. van der Lans; Natalia I. Valeeva
Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child’s environment influenced stuttering and that children who stuttered had the potential to overcome the condition. They did not
BACKGROUND--Studies of patient attitudes to asthma and its control have focused on crisis action, and little attention has been paid to attitudes to regular preventive medication. It is not clear whether attitudes to regular medication are related to the degree of distress or interference with life perceived by patients as being caused by their asthma. For this reason this study examined how far dislike of medication related to dislike of other aspects of interference of asthma with daily life. METHODS--Three hundred and ninety one patients were surveyed with a questionnaire which assessed their dislike of the interference of asthma with their physical, social, and emotional functioning, together with dislike of regular asthma medication. A response was received from 320 patients (82%). RESULTS--Four attitude clusters were identified. Recorded in descending factor order, these were (1) dislike of asthma medication, (2) dislike of disability, (3) dislike of public life interference, and (4) dislike of social and emotional interference. The attitude clusters were not related: in particular, dislike of asthma medication could not be predicted from other dislikes, or from asthma best function ratio (ratio of best recorded peak expiratory flow rate in the previous year to predicted value), age, or sex. The most significant predictors of the patients' dislike of taking their own inhaled steroid were (1) dislike of using bronchodilator, (2) dislike of steroids generally, and (3) dislike of taking medicine every day. CONCLUSIONS--Patient attitudes to regular asthma medication are not related to general anxieties and dislikes about asthma, nor to the potential for asthma control as judged by the best function ratio. Patients were not always consistent in their attitude to inhaled steroids in general, nor to their own named inhaled steroid in particular. A general cluster of antimedication attitudes existed, independent of whether the medication was for prophylaxis or relief. Attitudes to asthma medication may be helpful in predicting patient behaviour.
Osman, L M; Russell, I T; Friend, J A; Legge, J S; Douglas, J G
A questionnaire survey of women attending slimming and fitness gyms in London and Lahore was conducted using the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test. Twenty-nine South Asian and 40 White women in London and 35 English-speaking women in Lahore were recruited into the study. Similar associations between body mass, body dissatisfaction and eating attitudes were found in all
|Objective: The authors examined the effect of supervision on internal medicine residents' attitudes toward and management of depression. Method: Internal medicine residents completed a survey during preclinical conferences. The survey included a published, validated questionnaire, the Depression AttitudeQuestionnaire, and items developed by the…
Milone, Jennifer M.; Gottumukkala, Aruna; Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.
The central purpose of the current study is to correlate level of support for the death penalty, death-qualification status, attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP), legal authoritarianism (RLAQ (Revised Legal AttitudesQuestionnaire)), and demographic indices with attitudes toward the execution of the elderly and the physically disabled. Two hundred and fifty residents of the 12th Judicial Circuit in Florida completed
This study aims to determine the extent to which career attitudes of managers in one company in China central regions is conform with the protean career attitudes. Questionnaire assessing protean career attitudes is used to explore the career profiles, such as success criteria, psychology contract, career self-responsibility, self directed career management, value-driven predisposition. We produce six career profiles based on
|This study investigated the efficacy of extracurricular science intervention in promoting students' science learning performance and attitudes toward science. The Junior High School Student Questionnaire (JSSQ) was used to measure attitudes toward science, sexist attitudes and perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Twenty-eight eighth…
This longitudinal study investigated whether attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia (E) are stable among patients with noncurable malignancy, and whether depression and various coping strategies were related to such attitudes. Thirty patients with noncurable malignancies completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward PAS and E, depression, and coping. Three months later, and subsequently at six-month intervals, repeated measures were obtained
Jaime Pacheco; Paul J. Hershberger; Ronald J. Markert; Geetika Kumar
This study aimed to provide an understanding of teenagers' attitudes and perceptions towards public transit, within the context of the wider issue of teenage mobility. The study found that there are a number of significant restrictions on teenage mobility in the United States, including driving age regulations, travel costs, parental safety concerns, and low-density urban development patterns that limit teenagers'
Alisdair Cain; Peter Hamer; Jennifer Sibley-Perone
Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. PMID:24018010
Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders
Students coming into science labs need initial and ongoing training about safety standards and best practices. They also need to develop good attitudes about their work and the health and safety of their teachers and fellow students. The School Chemis
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored a survey on public perceptions of highway safety issues. The intent of the survey was to assess attitudes, behaviors, and reported actions of the American driver and awareness of public informat...
|Presents implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act for science teachers both as workers and as they encourage, in students, the development of positive safetyattitudes for future occupations. (PEB)|
The research goal was to develop a battery of reliable and valid questions that measure the self-care knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of diabetic patients in content areas specified by experts as most important. Questionnaires were developed and admini...
... FDA's “Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaires and Accompanying ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducts the Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey (MVOSS) on a periodic basis to monitor the publics attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior regarding occupant protection devices (seat be...
Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…
|Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite…
|The Environmental (2-MEV) Scale questionnaire was developed in Europe to measure adolescents' attitudes and gauge the effectiveness of educational programs. It also formed the basis for the Theory of Ecological Attitudes. In the present four-year study, the 2-MEV Scale was modified for use with 9-12-year-old children in the United States. Initial…
ObjectivesIn an effort to improve patient safetyattitudes and skills among third-year medical students, two patient safety training sessions were added to their curriculum, complementing a previously implemented second-year curriculum on quality improvement, patient safety and teamwork.MethodsSafetyattitudes and skills were assessed before and after students completed the medicine clerkship training and were compared with historical controls. Students identified and
L W Hall; S D Scott; K R Cox; J W Gosbee; B J Boshard; K Moylan; K C Dellsperger
Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.
Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J
The study developed and implemented a questionnaire to examine misconceptions related to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among 57 college students enrolled in Psychology 101 courses at Essex Community College in Maryland. The questionnaire covered etiology and epidemiology of AIDS and the personal attitudes and experiences of the…
This study was conducted to determine whether allied health disciplines' attitudes toward preparedness and willingness to participate in interdisciplinary teams differed. A structured questionnaire was used to measure five factors: orientation toward team problem solving, problem-solving confidence, preparedness for interdisciplinary teams, attitudes toward interdisciplinary teams, and self-efficacy in contributing to interdisciplinary teams. There were 410 completed questionnaires, for an overall return rate of 50%. Analysis of variance and Scheffe post-hoc statistical tests were applied in analyzing the data. In general, the respondents were positive for all of the factors. Medical technologists indicated the least preparation for interdisciplinary teams, whereas circulation technologists indicated the least confidence in contributing to the teams. Persons who had participated in interdisciplinary teams were more positive toward team problem solving and were certain of their abilities to contribute to a problem-solving team. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:10189606
Three hundred British parents completed a long questionnaire on their attitudes to, and behaviour concerning, pocket-money allowances for their children. This study focused, through multiple regressions, on the demographic and psychographic predictors of specific attitudes. As has been established in previous studies, results indicated that most parents (88.4%) were in favour of pocket-money schemes; they should begin around 6 years-old
A new self-report measure of children's attitudes toward TV advertising is described. The self-report scale was administered to 300 8- to-10-year-old children, and their parents completed a questionnaire evaluating socioeconomic status, educational level, and peer influence. Results of a factor analysis supported three identifiable factors reflecting theoretically based constructs of children's attitudes toward TV advertising: enjoyment, credence and behavioral-intention. The
A sample of 368 car owners answered a mailed questionnaire constructed on the basis of a model of attitudes toward seat-belt use. A factor analysis yielded a belief pattern interpreted in terms of 5 factors-Discomfort, Worry, Risk, Effect, and Inconvenience. The model appeared useful since an independent measure of attitude to seat-belt use could be predicted (r = .84) from
LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will recognize there are gender differences with respect to knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among adolescents.This cross-sectional study compared the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding breastfeeding among male and female adolescents. The study was a convenience sample of N=186 drawn from four metropolitan high schools in Reno, NV. The questionnaire was an 18 item survey with a
When an attitude changes from A1 to A2, what happens to A1? Most theories assume, at least implicitly, that the new attitude replaces the former one. The authors argue that a new attitude can override, but not replace, the old one, resulting in dual attitudes. Dual attitudes are defined as different evaluations of the same attitude object an automatic, implicit
Timothy D. Wilson; Samuel Lindsey; Tonya Y. Schooler
This study was designed to explore attitudes of Nigerian, i.e., Igbo, students toward caring for aged parents. A questionnaire consisting of descriptive information and eighteen statements of attitudes about supporting aged parents was administered to 134 students in a Nigerian teacher training college. Students expressed strong support for caring for aged parents; however, male students were not as keen about supporting aged parents as were females. Students' age correlated negatively with the desire to support aged parents in that older students were less willing to care for their aged parents than were younger students. Factors such as birth order, place of residence in the past five years, religion, and educational levels of the mother and father had no significant relationship with attitudes toward supporting aged parents. PMID:2628350
The present study explored attitudes toward feminism in 245 U.S. college students and their older relatives. Participants\\u000a completed a scale of attitudes towards feminism, political orientation, a religiosity measure, and a demographic questionnaire.\\u000a Results indicated that older adults were more conservative than younger adults on their attitudes towards feminism, religiosity,\\u000a and political orientation measures. In the young adult sample, attitudes
Kathryn E. Fitzpatrick Bettencourt; Tammi Vacha-Haase; Zinta S. Byrne
Using basic learning theory the S-R behaviorial approach to the formation of attitudes defines an attitude in terms of a conditioned anticipatory implicit response to a stimulus object. Described in this study is a model used to investigate observational learning of attitudes in a laboratory situation. (SM)
As the Asian region moves to becoming a strong economic force and advertisers continue to increase their spending targeted toward Asian consumers, it is important to examine how these consumers feel about advertising. Consumers' attitudes towards advertising have been found to influence assessments of other desired advertising outcomes such as attitude toward individual advertisements and brand attitude. A study was
The present study reports demographic differences with respect to Swedish consumers’ attitudes towards organic foods (milk, meat, potatoes, bread), purchase frequency, purchase criteria, perceived availability, and beliefs about organic foods. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 respondents, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 1,154 (58 per cent) responded. The majority of consumers, and particularly women and young respondents
Maria K. Magnusson; Anne Arvola; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti; Lars Åberg; Per-Olow Sjödén
Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was
Background Over the past few decades, drug and overall healthcare expenditure have risen rapidly in most countries. The present study investigates the attitudes and the factors which influence physician prescribing decisions and practice in Greece and Cyprus. Methods A postal questionnaire was developed by researchers at the Department of Health Economics at the National School of Public Health in Greece, specifically for the purposes of the study. This was then administered to a sample of 1,463 physicians in Greece and 240 physicians in Cyprus, stratified by sex, specialty and geographic region. Results The response rate was 82.3% in Greece and 80.4% in Cyprus. There were similarities but also many differences between the countries. Clinical effectiveness is the most important factor considered in drug prescription choice in both countries. Greek physicians were significantly more likely to take additional criteria under consideration, such as the drug form and recommended daily dose and the individual patient preferences. The list of main sources of information for physicians includes: peer-reviewed medical journals, medical textbooks, proceedings of conferences and pharmaceutical sales representatives. Only half of prescribers considered the cost carried by their patients. The majority of doctors in both countries agreed that the effectiveness, safety and efficacy of generic drugs may not be excellent but it is acceptable. However, only Cypriot physicians actually prescribe them. Physicians believe that new drugs are not always better and their higher prices are not necessarily justified. Finally, doctors get information regarding adverse drug reactions primarily from the National Organisation for Medicines. However, it is notable that the majority of them do not inform the authorities on such reactions. Conclusion The present study highlights the attitudes and the factors influencing physician behaviour in the two countries and may be used for developing policies to improve their choices and hence to increase clinical and economic effectiveness and efficiency.
This article outlines the development of an instrument to measure pre-service primary teachers' attitudes to teaching mathematics. A trial questionnaire was devised using the set of Fennema-Sherman scales on students' attitudes to the subject mathematics as a model. Analysis of the responses to the questionnaire by 155 student teachers was carried out to develop meaningful attitude scales and to refine the instrument. The end-product is a new instrument which can be used to monitor the attitudes of student teachers. The attitude scales identified in the analysis and built into the final form of the questionnaire are (i) anxiety, (ii) confidence and enjoyment, (iii) desire for recognition and (iv) pressure to conform.
Objective:Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast.Design:A pilot study was used to select questionnaire items and assess test–retest reliability. The questionnaire was then administered to a larger sample of children together with a dietary recall questionnaire. Randomly selected subsets of these children also completed a dietary recall interview or their parents were asked to complete
K Tapper; S Murphy; R Lynch; R Clark; G F Moore; L Moore
To assess the kind and degree of attitude changes occurring during a 2-month submerged mission, two enlisted crews of one fleet ballistic missile submarine (FBM) (n = 101 each) were administered the Submarine AttitudeQuestionnaire before and after two 55-day submerged missions interspersed with a rehabilitation period of the same duration. Results showed that time-in-service and pay grade bore a U-shaped relationship to positive attitudes toward the service. During submergence, most attitudes became negative and then reversed polarity during rehabilitation. However, there were no cumulative effects upon attitudes during successive missions. Attitudes pertaining to the realities of the mission (for example, boredom, hazardous aspects) became more negative but recovered faster. On the other hand, attitude changes related to long-range expectancies in terms of goal achievement of the crew members were less likely to recover. Several possible explanations for these attitude changes are discussed in the context of the mission of the FBM submarine. Suggestions for preventing or alleviating untoward attitude changes during long submarine missions are also presented. PMID:505625
This study was designed to measure the effects of subliminal backward messages on attitudes. It was hypothesized that subliminal backward-recorded messages would influence the attitudes of listeners. Three subliminal backward-recorded messages from a popular song were used. 82 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: a three-message group heard a tape containing the backward messages recorded three times in succession, a six-message group heard a tape with the same backward messages recorded six times in succession, two control groups heard nonbackward recorded music. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups on a posttape attitudequestionnaire. The results are discussed in terms of unconscious processing and the tricomponent theory of attitudes and attitude change. PMID:1484773
Introduction It had been suggested that those more knowledgeable about mental illness are less likely to endorse negative or stigmatizing\\u000a attitudes. This study aimed to evaluate the attitude of doctors in Nigeria towards the mentally ill.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Medical doctors (n = 312) from eight selected health institutions in Nigeria completed various questionnaires on knowledge and attitude towards\\u000a people with mental illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Beliefs in supernatural
Background Stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness can impede help-seeking and adversely affect treatment outcomes, especially\\u000a if such attitudes are endorsed by medical personnel. In order to help identify targets for anti-stigma interventions, we comprehensively\\u000a examined negative attitudes towards mental illness displayed by Sri Lankan doctors and medical students and compared these\\u000a with equivalent UK and other international data.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method A self-report questionnaire
Sunera Mayanthi Fernando; Frank P. Deane; Hamish J. McLeod
The attitudes of pediatric neurosurgeons to managed and rationed care for children with severe neurological disabilities were\\u000a surveyed as reflected in responses from International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery (ISPN) members to a questionnaire.\\u000a Of 399 ISPN members, 156 (39.1%) responded to the questionnaire. There were 15 questions, which were designed to explore what\\u000a care is medically indicated, whether all medically
This report describes media use patterns of young men for television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. Data were drawn from the 1989 Youth Attitude Tracking Study/Alternate Questionnaire Study (YATS/AQS), a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview...
D. L. Fountain D. M. Sotolongo M. A. Waitman R. M. Bray
Results of a survey conducted by the Iowa County Health Resource Committee to determine the health attitudes of Iowa County, Wisconsin citizens are reported. A questionnaire was mailed to 340 providers and consumers; 225 citizens responded (66 percent) . ...
This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)
|This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)|
A questionnaire containing attitude and alienation items and background information was administered to 974 enlisted men at Fort Knox during the week prior to beginning basic training (March 1970) and during their final week of basic training (May 1970). ...
Two anonymous questionnaires assessing attitudes toward gay issues were administered to adults living in the Shreveport/Bossier City, Louisiana area. In both, demographic data were obtained regarding gender, education, religion, age and marital status. In the second questionnaire, family groups were given the questionnaire. In the first survey, the results generally supported previous findings that religiosity, gender, and education at or below the high school level appeared to be associated with negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian issues. The variable most frequently associated with positive attitudes toward gay and lesbian issues was whether or not the individual had at least one gay friend, relative, or acquaintance. In the second study, the questionnaire was analyzed in terms of the entire group of subjects, family groups, and family positions. This second questionnaire indicated that similarities are most likely to exist among mothers and daughters, and same sex siblings. In regard to family members, wives/mothers and daughters had more positive attitudes toward homosexuality than sons, fathers, grandparents, other relatives, and in-laws. PMID:10546974
...Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY...Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form. OMB...and 4730SP, Federal Labor Standards Questionnaires, will be used by HUD and...
A questionnaire was sent to over two hundred suppliers of EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer) related equipment and services to ask those suppliers to comment on six basic issues of concern to the industry. They are: competition, reliability, security, consum...
Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk Unit of Activity = Times Interval = Year Your search found
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A general FORTRAN computer program for analyzing categorical or frequency data obtained from questionnaires is described. A variety of descriptive statistics, chi square, Kendall's tau and Cramer's statistic are provided. (Author/JKS)
|A general FORTRAN computer program for analyzing categorical or frequency data obtained from questionnaires is described. A variety of descriptive statistics, chi square, Kendall's tau and Cramer's statistic are provided. (Author/JKS)|
Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Walk/Bike Used as transport to/from: = School Your search found
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The questionnaire is probably the most common form of data collection tool used in nursing research. There is a misconception that anyone with a clear grasp of English and a modicum of common sense can design an effective questionnaire. Contrary to such common belief, this article will demonstrate that questionnaire design is a complex and time consuming process, but a necessary labour to ensure valid and reliable data is collected. In addition, meticulous construction is more likely to yield data that can be utilized in the pursuit of objective, quantitative and generalizable truths, upon which practice and policy decisions can be formulated. This article examines a myriad of fundamental issues surrounding questionnaire design, which encompass question wording, question order, presentation, administration and data collection, amongst other issues. PMID:10693384
Skip to Content Areas of Research Tools Surveys & Studies Research Networks Funding Publications About ARP Physical Activity Questionnaire Search Results Search:? You searched for: Mode = Bike Duration of Activity = Min. Interval = Day or Weekday
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The Brunel Lifestyle Physical Activity Questionnaire a4 If you add together each session of pre-planned physical activity that you engage in during a normal week, how much time would you estimate that you spend in total?
Objectives To identify service users' views and attitudes to access, physiotherapy and patient-autonomous health-seeking behaviours. Study design Mixed qualitative and quantitative questionnaire. Setting Twenty-six locations representing a range of socio-economic and geographical settings throughout Scotland. Participants Three thousand and ten patients over 16 years of age. Methods Postal questionnaires containing a mix of open and closed questions, attitude statements and
Valerie S. Webster; Lesley K. Holdsworth; Angus K. McFadyen; Helen Little
Purpose: To examine how adolescents’ attitudes and social skills affect current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 2646 seventh graders in their classrooms. The questionnaire was developed to measure the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use, anticipated use, positive attitudes toward drug use, self-efficacy to say “no,” decision-making
\\u000a In order to find out the students’ attitudes difference toward books and computers and compare the difference between the\\u000a Westerns and Chinese, this study investigated the attitudes toward books and computers of Chinese college students through\\u000a questionnaire revised from CAM questionnaire scale. The results showed: firstly, similar to Westerns results, the college\\u000a students in China preferred books than computers, and
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
The relation between maternal and paternal attitudes concerning paternal roles and paternal involvement with their 3-5-month-old infants was examined. A questionnaire-based study revealed that maternal attitudes predicted paternal involvement as reported by mothers. A 2nd study revealed that both maternal and paternal attitudes predicted paternal involvement as reported by both mothers and fathers. In a 3rd observational-based study, patterns of
I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and AttitudesQuestionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death
The literature regarding breaking bad news distinguishes three disclosure models: non-disclosure, full-disclosure and individualized disclosure. In this study, we investigated the relations between attitudes regarding disclosure of bad news and global professional attitudes regarding medical care in a sample of medical students (n=88). The Attitudes towards Breaking Bad News Questionnaire was developed and factor analysed to provide a valid and
AimTo examine the hypothesis that knowledge about physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia is associated with a more restrictive attitude towards PAS.DesignA questionnaire about attitudes towards PAS, including prioritisation of arguments pro and contra, was sent to Swedish veterinary surgeons. The results were compared with those from similar surveys of attitudes among the general public and physicians.ParticipantsAll veterinary surgeons who were
Henrik Lerner; Anna Lindblad; Bo Algers; Niels Lynöe
Objective To examine consumers’ confidence in their own, and also in other people's, over-the-counter (OTC) skills and to describe their attitude towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Moreover we examined the association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes. Design Cross-sectional survey. Mixed methods (postal and electronic) self-administered questionnaire. Participants Members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel. Main outcome measures Consumers’ confidence in their own, and in other people's, OTC skills was examined. Confidence was measured by three questions regarding obtaining information on, choosing and using OTC medication. Consumers’ attitudes towards availability were assessed using six safety profiles, by asking which channel consumers prefer for each profile. Results The response rate was 68% (n=972). Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills (mean 3.74; 95% CI 3.69 to 3.79, on a 5-point Likert scale), but have less confidence in OTC skills of others (mean 2.92; 95% CI 2.88 to 2.96). Consumers are conservative in their attitudes towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Most consumers prefer painkillers to be available exclusively in pharmacies (41–71% per profile indicated pharmacy only). Moreover, there is an association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes (p=0.005; ?=?0.114). Consumers who are more confident about their own OTC skills prefer OTC painkillers to be more generally available. Conclusions Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills. However, they would prefer painkillers with safety profiles resembling those currently available OTC, to be available as OTC in pharmacies exclusively. Consumers’ confidence in the OTC skills of others is more consistent with their attitudes towards availability of OTC painkillers. Until consumers themselves realise that they are also one of the others, they may overestimate their own OTC skills, which may entail health risks.
Brabers, A E M; Van Dijk, L; Bouvy, M L; De Jong, J D
|The research reported in this article examined attitudes toward the care of the elderly between and among medical students and residents in training. Data were collected with a 16-item attitudequestionnaire. Participants were medical students in their introduction period (prior to clinical experience) and residents of the Department of Internal…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young Chinese consumers' money attitudes influence their compulsive buying behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 303 undergraduate students from Tianjin and Ningbo (two major cities in coastal China) answered a self-administered questionnaire. Findings – Money attitudes were found to significantly affect young Chinese consumers' compulsive buying behaviour. Specifically, the Retention-Time
Dongjin Li; Ying Jiang; Shenghui An; Zhe Shen; Wenji Jin
The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision…
Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of nursing autonomy and other factors related to attitudes toward caring for dying patients. A cross-sectional survey of nurses was conducted in November 2003 using a self-administered questionnaire. We collected demographic data from 178 (75%) participants and used the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B, Japanese
Questionnaires that assesed educational goals, career goals, preferred and expected career commitment, sex-role attitudes, age, college class, height, and weight were completed by 884 male and female undergraduates representing two racial groups and two age groups. Age, size, and college class were unrelated to women's goals and attitudes. (Author)
|Attitudes of a random sample of students at a large university toward foreign students and international programs were surveyed before and after the seizure of U.S. hostages in Iran. A newly developed "International Issues Questionnaire" covered attitudes toward foreign students as teaching assistants, funding exchange programs with student fees,…
|The purpose of this research study was to develop and test new instruments for assessing attitudes and coping responses to air pollution, and to gain insight into the factors influencing these attitudes and coping responses. Concern for air pollution was measured by two instruments a forced choice questionnaire which paired air pollution control…
Despite a burgeoning literature on some aspects of elder suicide, little is known about the specific attitudes that older people hold about suicide. The present study examined attitudes toward suicide and suicidal risk among 96 younger and 79 older adults. Participants completed the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire and the Suicide Risk Scale. Regarding suicidal risk, younger adults scored significantly higher than
DANIEL L. SEGAL; MELISSA S. MINCIC; FREDERICK L. COOLIDGE; ALISA ORILEY
Research has found that computer attitudes not only play an influential role in determining the extent to which students accept the computer as a learning tool but also future behaviours towards the computer such as using it for further study and vocational purposes. A sample of 183 post-secondary students was assessed for their computer attitudes using a Likert-type questionnaire with
Young women tennis players, their parents, and their coaches attending one of two tennis tournaments responded to questionnaires concerning their attitudes toward weight, eating, and tennis. Most of the players and parents appeared to have reasonable eating patterns, normal self concepts, and healthy attitudes about tennis. However, players and parents were concerned about their weight: and players, mothers, and coaches
|Four general hypotheses concerning the sources of university students' political attitudes are presented and evaluated in this paper. A cross-sectional survey of American male Harvard University graduate students was conducted with a questionnaire dealing with attitudes toward United States involvement in Vietnam. Responses were analyzed by…
The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes and practices among general music teachers in Japan (n = 135) and the USA (n = 136) concerning the integration of music with other academic subjects. Teachers completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, and results revealed significant differences in both areas. Music teachers from the USA obtained higher attitude ratings towards the use
Stephen F. Zdzinski; Masafumi Ogawa; Charlene Dell; Ching Ching Yap; Cedric Adderley; Rosetta Dingle
Purpose – Examines the similarities and differences in the dimensionality of advertising attitudes between Turkish and New Zealand consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data, collected by questionnaire from 303 respondents in Turkey and 189 respondents in New Zealand were first analysed separately using principal components analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of advertising attitudes. The factor congruency technique was then used
|To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)|
This study aimed to investigate differences in self-reported driver attitudes and behaviour in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Norway. Age, gender and education were controlled for. An additional aim was to investigate the relations between demographics, personality variables, driver attitudes and behaviour in the complete sample and across the different geographical areas. To obtain these aims, a questionnaire was
The attitudes of older people towards old age homes (OAH) in Hong Kong and the factors which influenced their attitudes were investigated. A total of 197 non-institutionalised older subjects were interviewed with a standard questionnaire. A quarter of them admitted to having thought about going into an OAH, though most had never visited one. Half of them would consider an
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. METHODS: A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration
Daniela Anastasi; Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Paolo Marinelli; Italo F Angelillo
This study examines the relationship between both first language ( L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners ' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners ' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses using these four variables are summarised on two levels.
|This study measures advertising students' attitudes toward statistics. Subjects, 275 undergraduate advertising students from two southwestern United States universities, completed a questionnaire used to gauge students' attitudes toward statistics by measuring 6 underlying factors: (1) students' interest and future applicability; (2) relationship…
This study examined the relationships of mentoring and satisfaction with mentoring with work attitudes of nurses and the moderating roles of gender and social support in the relationships. Questionnaires were used to collect data on mentoring, satisfaction with mentoring, social support (from friends, family, professional association members, co)workers and supervisors) work attitudes, (job involvement, job satisfaction, organizational commitment) and demographic
The article presents the findings of the comparative survey on attitudes (beliefs, preferences) of 222 Slovenian and 230 Finnish early childhood teachers (Turnšek 2005). They have completed the questionnaire on aspect of democratisation of early childhood education, which consisted of attitude (Likart) scales and questions of ranking the preferences. The descriptive statistics were made, cluster analysis, analysis of variance (Chi?square
|Describes and analyzes attitudes of two Portuguese elementary teachers toward mathematics, mathematics teaching, and use of computers in instruction. Semistructured interviews and questionnaires, before and after an inservice LOGO computer course, showed that both teachers changed their attitude, but only one implemented her ideas in teaching.…
|Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…
|Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or…
Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald
Correlated attitudes concerning the job in general and specific aspects of the work situation with termination decisions and recorded frequency of absences during the year following administration of job attitudequestionnaire to 160 nonsupervisory female employees. Overall satisfaction and satisfaction with several intrinsic aspects of the work situation were significantly related to the termination criterion. None of the extrinsic variables
The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational AttitudesQuestionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…
This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…
Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of
|The effects of parity (the number of children a mother bears) and time on the formation of maternal attitudes in the neonatal period are investigated in this study. Subjects were medically normal women, 47 multiparae and 37 primiparae, who delivered healthy, full-term infants. Each woman completed a battery of eight attitudequestionnaires at 1-2…
|Using a questionnaire, this study examined Jordanian undergraduate students attitudes toward learning the Hebrew language. Results show that students express a neutral, guarded attitude toward Jewish language and culture. In general, the results indicate the importance of learning Hebrew and suggest that learning is intrinsically motivated.…
An investigation into the attitudes of public library staff in the UK towards the Internet involved use of a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The use of an attitude measurement model, an amended version of the technology acceptance model in a questionnaire survey is detailed here and its value to the study in question deliberated on. Quantitative results
This article describes an investigation of the effect of attitude toward and use of different components of an online smoking cessation program on stage transition based on the Transtheoretical Model. Participants were 299 users of the StopSmokingCoach, an online smoking cessation program, who completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes toward the program and its components within 6 months after
Loes Meeussen; Claudia Put; Jeroen Meganck; Steven De Peuter
To assess whether newspaper advertising would affect attitudes toward handicapped children, a series of newspaper advertisements were run over a five-month period. It was concluded that the ads produced significant difference in attitudes of persons manifest by their response to the questionnaire. (SB)
Investigates how African American male and female college students differ in their attitudes concerning rape. Two hundred and ten college students completed a 12-item questionnaire designed to measure their views toward this issue. Differences are discussed in the context of sexism and rape myths. Strategies for changing students' attitudes toward…
Sapp, Marty; Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; Johnson, James H., Jr.; Hitchcock, Kim
Attitudes toward suicide are often investigated by means of questionnaires, most of which are overly long or of low psychometric quality. Eskin's (2004) Attitudes Towards Suicide Scale is short and first investigations suggest good psychometric properties, but its factor structure has scarcely been explored. Hence, we examined this instrument by a data-analytic approach that combines Mokken scaling and confirmatory factor
Ingo W. Nader; Ulrich S. Tran; Patricia Baranyai; Martin Voracek
This paper is based on the findings of research into the attitudes towards business ethics of a group of business students in Western Australia. The questionnaire upon which the research was based was originally used by Preble and Reichel (1988) in an investigation they undertook into the attitudes towards business ethics held by two similar groups of United States and
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding children's nutrition habits and the degree to which these perceptions influence television monitoring by parents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire assessing attitudes was distributed among parents of Belgian primary and secondary school children. Parental
This paper examines the impact of dispositional Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC) on different political attitudes and on the “person blame” and the “system blame” dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-four psychology students completed a questionnaire containing the Italian version of the Need for Closure scale, a measure of political and ideological attitudes, a measure of the person-system blame dimensions, and
Antonio Chirumbolo; Alessandra Areni; Gilda Sensales
In the present study, aims were (1) to determine gender differences in self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes and (2) to examine the relationships between self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes. Participants were 251 university students who completed a questionnaire package that…
Pre-service teachers responded to two questionnaires regarding school violence, the Teachers' Attitudes about Bullying, and Trainee Teachers' Bullying Attitudes. Results suggest that teachers across all academic divisions view bullying as a serious concern important to their role within the profession. There were considerable differences regarding…
Background. Little information exists regarding the impact of universal precautions training programs on preclinical students? knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Methods. We developed, implemented, and assessed an educational program in universal precautions for and year medical and preclinical physician assistant students. Students (n = 170) completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires to assess universal precautions knowledge and to evaluate attitudes about their
D. J. Diekema; S. S. Schuldt; M. A. Albanese; B. N. Doebbeling
This research applied attachment theory to the study of sexual attitudes and behaviors in a sample of late adolescents. Four hundred and seventy heterosexual undergraduate students completed questionnaires assessing attachment (discomfort with closeness; anxiety over relationships). relationship history, communication about sex. sexual self-efficacy and locus of control, and attitudes to condoms. Eight weeks later, participants reported on sexual behaviors occurring
Judith A. Feeney; Candida Peterson; Cynthia Gallois; Deborah J. Terry
A validated questionnaire measuring the attitude of engineering students toward statistics was administered to 46 male and 17 female undergraduate engineers during the first and last week of class. The objective was to test the hypothesis that a newly designed computer-integrated statistics course positively affects students' attitudes toward statistics. For the students as a whole, no significant difference is found
This report presents the results of a 93-item student attitude measure, the Student Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ.) The SOQ measures attitudes in the following areas: general listing of school, interest in learning, unfair punishment, self concept, friendly atmosphere, envolvement in decision making, class discussions, positive reinforcement,…
Women with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are prone to have sexual relationship difficulties and dysfunctional attitudes toward sexuality. A sample of 34 heterosexual couples composed of women meeting BPD criteria was compared to a sample of dating or married women from the general population. A short form of the Sexual Activities and AttitudesQuestionnaire (SAAQ) was used to measure six
The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Positive communication was significantly more frequent than negative communication;
Objective. This study examines the relations between multiple measures of parenting attitudes and behaviors and to child development in a sample of low-SES rural Appalachian European American families. Design. Seventy mothers completed questionnaire measures of parenting attitudes and behaviors, described their parenting behaviors in open-ended interviews, and were observed interacting with their child in the laboratory. Children were assessed with
Margaret Fish; Martin J. Amerikaner; Conrae J. Lucas
Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…
Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald
The present paper describes two studies assessing the relation of implicit death attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to explicit death attitudes as measured by questionnaires. In Study 1, 45 university students and 51 funeral service students completed the revised Death Anxiety Scale (DAS-R) and completed paper and pencil versions of the IAT measuring how much they
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of pre-service elementary school teachers' attitudes towards mathematics according to their learning styles. Two hundreds eighty one pre-service elementary school teachers were involved in this study. The researchers employed two types of instruments, Learning Style Inventory and Scale of Mathematics AttitudeQuestionnaire, to collect the data. The learning style inventory
The impact of information and communication technologies and computers on our daily lives has been steadily increasing. This fact influences the change of attitudes toward information and communication technologies. In our contribution we focused on finding the differences between gender and age accord- ing to computer attitudes. A questionnaire with 33 Likert type items was used in our research. The
|Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…
Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
An Attitude Toward Blindness Questionnaire (ATBQ) was developed to assess individual progress through a Veterans Administration blind rehabilitation program. The instrument is also meant to measure attitudes toward blindness for blind persons, rehabilitation workers, and a "naive" group without contact with the blind. A method of assessing model…
The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number
|Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
|Undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory biology course for nonmajors during the fall semester of 2007 were administered the Biology Attitude Scale (Russell and Hollander 1975), a constructed Mathematics Attitude Scale, and a portion of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich and Smith 1993). Together, the…
Partin, Matthew L.; Haney, Jodi J.; Worch, Eric A.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie A.; Scheuermann, Amy; Midden, W. Robert
Studied the responses of 788 students at a large metropolitan university on an anonymous questionnaire concerning marihuana. Ss' attitude toward marihuana shifted from strongly negative to strongly positive as frequency of marihuana use increased. With frequency of use controlled, attitude toward marihuana was even more favorable when other drugs had been tried, and also among Ss who were religiously inactive.
This study examined how proenvironmental messages contained within entertainment programming impacted an individual’s environmental attitude accessibility, descriptive and injunctive norm accessibility, behavioral intent, and behavior. Participants filled out a questionnaire about their environmental attitudes at least a week in advance of the experiment. When participants came to the computer lab they were exposed to one of four television show clips
Psychiatric genetic research brings on the possibility of psychiatric genetic testing. The optimal and responsible utilization of genetic testing depends on knowledge of the potential consumers' attitudes and expectations re- garding testing. The aim of this study was to assess potential consumers' attitudes and expectations toward psychiatric genetics and factors influencing their intentions to test. A questionnaire constructed to assess
Mett Marri Laegsgaard; Ann Suhl Kristensen; Ole Mors
Male and female college students' (total N = 220) perception of attitude similarity to opposite sex others of either high, medium, or low physical attractiveness was measured. This was accomplished by using the discrepancy between an S's response to a 15 item attitudequestionnaire pertaining both to self and to a 5 “X 7” full length color photograph previously rated
Attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward women, sexual conservatism, social desirability, masculinity, femininity, and psychological androgyny were measured in 104 male and female subjects. Both nonfeminist and conservative sexual attitudes independently correlated with antihomosexual attitudes. Antihomosexual individuals held more stereotyped attitudes regarding women and defined acceptable heterosexual behaviors more narrowly than prohomosexual individuals. Psychological androgyny, measured with Bem's Sex-Role Inventory, did
BACKGROUND: Drug abuse is hazardous and known to be prevalent among young adults, warranting efforts to increase awareness about harmful effects and to change attitudes. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of a group of medical students from Pakistan, a predominantly Muslim country, regarding four drugs namely heroin, charas, benzodiazepines and alcohol. RESULTS: In total, 174 self-reported questionnaires
Majid Shafiq; Zaman Shah; Ayesha Saleem; Maham T Siddiqi; Kashif S Shaikh; Farah F Salahuddin; Rizwan Siwani; Haider Naqvi
Objective: To learn more about the attitudes of German general practitioners (GPs) concerning euthanasia and the frequency of its performance in Germany. Methods: 500 GPs from all parts of Germany were randomly selected from telephone listings, and were sent a postal questionnaire with anonymous return envelopes. Participants were asked to make decisions based on hypothetical scenarios involving terminally ill patients
Robin T Maitra; Anja Harfst; Lise M Bjerre; Michael M Kochen; Annette Becker
|The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments and to examine the associations between these factors and students' attitudes towards science. A measure of students' environment, namely, the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument…
|Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. This study examined the amount, content and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the USA. Parents of 308 infants aged 6-18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and…
The aim of this research note is to give an overview of possible techniques which could be employed to secure a higher response rate to a mailed questionnaire. During late 1989 and early 1990 the Centre for South African Politics conducted a attitude survey among the South African elite on topics related to the process of political change in South
|To develop a comprehensive and uniform self-report questionnaire, 164 AIDS-related items were identified and placed into five groups: (1) factual knowledge; (2) misconceptions; (3) attitudes; (4) perceived susceptibility; and (5) perceived self-efficacy. These items originated from 18 AIDS studies involving children and adolescents and were…
This study investigates the attitudes and behaviour of airline front-line personnel in Britain and Italy, in situations of service failure and recovery. Attitudes towards service recovery are explored through hypothetical scenarios in a questionnaire, and actual behaviours are recorded by using the critical incident technique. The results show that respondents’ attitudes toward service recovery differ by nationality with regard to
A longitudinal study of attitude toward school was conducted among 30 elementary school boys. A projective test of attitudes toward school (ATS) and a teacher's questionnaire were employed for the test–retest. According to the ATS measure, there was a significant difference in the attitude toward school between Grades 3 and 5 although there was no significant difference according to the
The relationship between obstetrician attitudes and patient outcomes from intrapartum care was examined. Obstetrician attitudes were assessed utilizing a newly-designed pilot 35-item obstetrician attitudequestionnaire (OAQ). Twelve obstetricians completed the OAQ, who provided intra-partum care to 4,149 women. Outcome measures included delivery…
Dunphy, Bruce; Dunphy, Stacey; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark
Background: There is a paucity of research in attitudes of care staff in residential and nursing homes regarding sexuality and older people in the United Kingdom. Aims: To investigate the attitudes of care staff in residential and nursing homes regarding residents' sexuality. Design: A descriptive questionnaire survey using the attitudinal part of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS).
Walter Pierre Bouman; Jon Arcelus; Susan Mary Benbow
A methodology is described that enables to use safety management audit assessments and safety culture questionnaire results for estimating the reductions in the reliability of safety barriers in major hazard plants. The critical issue is the establishment of weight factors in combination with the anchoring of “good” safety management. A method is proposed to derive weight factors from statistical accident
Presentation of the Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire (NQQ) has become an annual "tradition" at the meetings of the American Society of Nephrology. It is a very popular session judged by consistently large attendance. Members of the audience test their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by experts. They can also compare their answers in real time, using audience response devices, to those of program directors of nephrology training programs in the United States, acquired through an Internet-based questionnaire. Topics presented here include transplantation issues. These cases, along with single best answer questions, were prepared by Dr. Hricik. After the audience responses, the "correct" and "incorrect" answers were then briefly discussed and the results of the questionnaire were displayed. This article aims to recapitulate the session and reproduce its educational value for a larger audience-that of the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. Have fun. PMID:22595824
Hricik, Donald E; Glassock, Richard J; Bleyer, Anthony J
Introduction: The aim of this study is to elucidate how patient safety behavior of nurses is associated with organizational safety climate and nurse's individual factors by covariance structure analysis of the results of the questionnaires, such as professional awareness and job- satisfaction, in 10 Japanese private hospitals. Methodology: In this study, the questionnaire was developed including organizational factors (organizational safety