To characterize safety culture in emergency medical services (EMS), the authors modified a validated safety culture instrument, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The pilot instrument was administered to 3 EMS agencies in a large metropolitan area. The authors characterized safety culture across 6 domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, job satisfaction, working conditions, and stress recognition. The feasibility
P. Daniel Patterson; David T. Huang; Rollin J. Fairbanks; Henry E. Wang
BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in measuring healthcare provider attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety (often called safety climate or safety culture). Here we report the psychometric properties, establish benchmarking data, and discuss emerging areas of research with the University of Texas Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. METHODS: Six cross-sectional surveys of health care providers (n = 10,843) in 203 clinical
John B Sexton; Robert L Helmreich; Torsten B Neilands; Kathy Rowan; Keryn Vella; James Boyden; Peter R Roberts; Eric J Thomas
Purpose Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee’s perceptions of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data. Materials and methods The SAQ was translated and adapted for the Danish setting (SAQ-DK). The SAQ-DK was distributed to 1,263 staff members from 31 in- and outpatient units (clinical areas) across five somatic and one psychiatric hospitals through meeting administration, hand delivery, and mailing. Construct validity and reliability were tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha (?), and item and subscale scores. Results Participation was 73.2% (N=925) of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed: c2=1496.76, P<0.001, CFI 0.901, RMSEA (90% CI) 0.053 (0.050–0056), Probability RMSEA (p close)=0.057. Inter-scale correlations between the factors showed moderate-to-high correlations. The scale stress recognition had significant negative correlations with each of the other scales. Questionnaire reliability was high, (?=0.89), and scale reliability ranged from ?=0.70 to ?=0.86 for the six scales. Proportions of participants with a positive attitude to each of the six SAQ scales did not differ between the somatic and psychiatric health care staff. Substantial variability at the unit level in all six scale mean scores was found within the somatic and the psychiatric samples. Conclusion SAQ-DK showed good construct validity and internal consistency reliability. SAQ-DK is potentially a useful tool for evaluating perceptions of patient safety culture in Danish hospitals. PMID:25674015
Kristensen, Solvejg; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan; Christensen, Karl Bang
Background Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented Methods The original English language version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context and distributed by e-mail. The survey was carried out on a national basis, covering all 870 Swedish community pharmacies. In total, 7,244 questionnaires were distributed. Scale psychometrics were analysed using Cronbach alphas and intercorrelations among the scales. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. Results SAQ data from 828 community pharmacies in Sweden, including 4,090 (60.22%) pharmacy personnel out of 6,683 eligible respondents, were received. There were 252 (28.97%) pharmacies that met the inclusion criteria of having at least 5 respondents and a minimum response rate of 60% within that pharmacy. The coefficient alpha value for each of the SAQ scales ranged from .72 to .89. The internal consistency results, in conjunction with the confirmatory factor analysis results, demonstrate that the Swedish translation of the SAQ has acceptable to good psychometric properties. Perceptions of the pharmacy (Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions) were moderately to highly correlated with one another whereas attitudes about stress (Stress Recognition) had only low correlations with other factors. Perceptions of management showed the most variability across pharmacies (SD = 26.66), whereas Stress Recognition showed the least (SD = 18.58). There was substantial variability ranging from 0% to 100% in the percent of positive scores for each of the factors across the 252 pharmacies. Conclusions The Swedish translation of the SAQ demonstrates acceptable construct validity, for capturing the frontline perspective of safety culture of community pharmacy staff. The psychometric results reported here met or exceeded standard guidelines, which is consistent with previous studies using the SAQ in other healthcare settings and other languages. PMID:20380741
Summary A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work
R. Flin; G. Fletcher; P. McGeorge; A. Sutherland; R. Patey
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
While organizations are responsible for providing a safe work environment for their employees, it is oftentimes difficult to do so solely through safety engineering. Workers must also be aware of the hazards in their workplace and adjust their behavior to avoid risk. A “Safety Diagnosis Questionnaire” was developed to address the issue of human behavior in the work environment. It
Carl Graf Hoyos; Franz Ruppert
Topic order and location of demographic items were systematically varied in an employee attitude survey distributed to 1,188 office personnel of a single organization. With six questionnaire topic areas arranged in the order that matched employee representatives' perceptions of employee priorities, returns were higher (96%) than with any of five random orders (average 78%). Returns were higher with demographic items
Michael T. Roberson; Eric Sundstrom
BACKGROUND: According to Beck theory, dysfunctional attitude has a central role in emergence of depression. The aim of this study was to determine contributions of dysfunctional attitude and general health index to depression. METHODS: In this case-control study, two groups of subjects participated. The first group consisted of 65 patients with major depression and dysthymic disorder, who were recruited from Noor and Navab Safavi Psychiatry Clinics in Isfahan. The control group was consisted of 65 non-patient individuals who were accompanied or relatives of the patients and was matched with them based on age, sex and education. Both groups completed 26-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-26) and 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Logistic regression and correlation methods were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that by an increase of one level in categorized DAS-26 scores and one score in the physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression subscales of GHQ-28 the risk of depression increase by 6.8, 1.6, 1.9, 3.7, 4.78 times, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Capability of dysfunctional attitude and general health subscales to predict depression supports the Beck's cognitive diathesis stress theory of depression that dysfunctional attitude may be a predisposing risk factor for depression. PMID:23248655
Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Afshar, Hamid; Doost, Hamid Taher Neshat; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Moolavi, Hoseyn
In this article we describe the development of the Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ) that measures first-year university chemistry students' attitude toward chemistry, chemistry self-efficacy, and learning experiences. The instrument was developed as part of a larger study and sought to fulfill a need for an instrument to investigate factors that influence student enrollment choice. We set out to design the instrument in a manner that would maximize construct validity. The CAEQ was piloted with a cohort of science and technology students (n = 129) at the end of their first year. Based on statistical analysis the instrument was modified and subsequently administered on two occasions at two tertiary institutions (n = 669). Statistical data along with additional data gathered from interviews suggest that the CAEQ possesses good construct validity and will prove a useful tool for tertiary level educators who wish to gain an understanding of factors that influence student choice of chemistry enrolment.
Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.; Jones, Alister
Over-the-counter cold remedies are widely used for symptomatic relief of upper respiratory tract infections. The safety of these drugs is not well established in infants and their efficacy is questionable. Our aim was to study the attitude of family physicians and pediatricians toward the use of cold remedies in infants and children. A questionnaire was sent to 400 family physicians
Raanan Cohen-Kerem; Savithiri Ratnapalan; Josephine Djulus; Xu Duan; Rahul V. Chandra; Shinya Ito
ObjectivesTo assess the relationship between changes in clinician attitude and changes in postoperative outcomes following a checklist-based surgical safety intervention.DesignPre- and post intervention survey.SettingEight hospitals participating in a trial of a WHO surgical safety checklist.ParticipantsClinicians actively working in the designated study operating rooms at the eight hospitals.Survey instrumentModified operating-room version Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).Main outcome measuresChange in mean safety attitude
Alex B Haynes; Thomas G Weiser; William R Berry; Stuart R Lipsitz; Abdel-Hadi S Breizat; E Patchen Dellinger; Gerald Dziekan; Teodoro Herbosa; Pascience L Kibatala; Marie Carmela M Lapitan; Alan F Merry; Richard K Reznick; Bryce Taylor; Amit Vats; Atul A Gawande
Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing. PMID:24892302
Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
A positive parent-child relationship is one of the most important determinants of a healthy cognitive, emotional and social development. The relationship from parent to child is determined by parenting styles. Parenting styles are characterised by the two dimensions parental attitudes and rearing practices. The development and the psychometric properties of a questionnaire on parental attitudes and rearing practices (FEPS), which contains an extended version of the Parental Bonding Instrument by Parker et al. (PBI, 1979) and two scales on parental reinforcement and punishment behaviour, is presented. In a sample of 457 women and 159 men factorial and item analysis revealed four scales (care, autonomy, low punishment and low material reinforcement). The care dimension contained items of immaterial reinforcement on the positive pole and items of coldness and ignorance as means of punishment on the negative pole. Based on findings from its first application in a clinical study it can be assumed that the FEPS differentiates between clinical and non-clinical populations. Additionally, varying patterns of the four scales may emerge as risk factors for the development of certain psychiatric/psychological problems. PMID:14722836
Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Schimmelmann, Benno Graf; Tiefensee, Jutta
Chrisler, Johnston, Champagne, and Preston (1994) reported that the title of the Menstrual Joy Questionnaire (MJQ) could prime participants to report positive changes on the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) and greater endorsement of "menstruation as a natural event" on the Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ). This study is a partial…
Aubeeluck, Aimee; Maguire, Moira
This study investigates librarian attitudes towards the completion of questionnaires in Nigerian university libraries. Data was collected from 57 librarians in three Nigerian university libraries. Respondents receive several questionnaires each year. Most respond to all, but those who do not cite lack of time. Those who respond to questionnaires mostly do so to assist the researchers. Library and information science
Esharenana E. Adomi; Blessing T. Ayo; E. D. Nakpodia
Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…
Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -
Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People’s attitudes toward them are however, largely\\u000a overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered\\u000a to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10–15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale\\u000a items that were loaded
Jana Fancovicová; Pavol Prokop
Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any\\u000a behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development\\u000a and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions), self-administered questionnaire
Rajalakshmi R Lakshman; Jill R Landsbaugh; Annie Schiff; Wendy Hardeman; Ken K Ong; Simon J Griffin
Worldwide, epidemiological data indicate that children are a high-risk group for drowning and while progress has been made in understanding toddler drownings, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the drowning risk and protective factors inherent for adolescents and young adults. This study used a self-report questionnaire to establish swimming and water safety knowledge and attitudes of young adults and objectively measured their actual swimming ability using formal practical testing procedures. Participants then completed a short, 12-week intervention that encompassed swimming, survival and rescue skills, along with water safety knowledge applicable to a range of aquatic environments. Knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability were then re-measured following the intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test was performed to detect whether there were significant differences between knowledge, attitude and swim ability scores pre-intervention and post-intervention. A total of 135 participants completed the baseline and follow up questionnaire and all practical testing. Results indicated that these young adults had a very low level of water safety knowledge pre-intervention, although the majority had sound swimming and water safety skills and attitudes. Overall, significant improvements were evident in knowledge (p<0.001) and swim ability (p<0.001) post-intervention, although no changes were observed in attitudes (p=0.079). Previous participation in formal swimming lessons and/or swimming within the school curriculum had no significant impact on water safety knowledge, skills or attitudes of these young adults, and there were few significant gender differences. While it is important to conduct further studies to confirm that these findings are consistent with a more representative sample of young adults, our findings are the first to provide empirical evidence of the value of a comprehensive aquatic education program as a drowning prevention strategy for young adults. PMID:24798651
Petrass, Lauren A; Blitvich, Jennifer D
The Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire (STAQ) was developed as part of a study to assess adolescent commitment to and achievement in science. For this psychometric reappraisal of the 57-item STAQ, data were analyzed from a convenience sample of 1,754 secondary students. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were applied, and results…
Owen, Steven V.; Toepperwein, Mary Anne; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Pruski, Linda A.; Grimes, Kandi
The Body Attitude Test (BAT) is a new self-report questionnaire developed for female patients suffering from eating disorders. Its psychometric characteristics have been tested in a large number of patients and control subjects (eating disorders, Weight Watchers, and normal subjects). Repeated analyses yielded a stable four factor structure: negative appreciation of body size, lack of familiarity with one's own body,
Michel Probst; Walter Vandereycken; Herman Van Coppenolle; Johan Vanderlinden
In this study, the authors evaluated college students' food safety attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and self-reported practices and explored whether these variables were positively influenced by educational intervention. Students (n=59), were mostly seniors, health or non-health majors, and responsible for meal preparation. Subjects completed a food safety questionnaire (FSQ) prior to educational intervention, which consisted of three interactive modules. Subjects completed module pre-, post-, and post-posttests. The FSQ was also administered after exposure to intervention and five weeks later to determine changes in food safety attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and self-reported practices. Students' FSQ attitude scores increased from 114 to 122 (p < or = .001); FSQ belief and knowledge scores improved from 86 to 98 (p < or = .001) and from 11 to 13 (p < or = .001), respectively. Food safety knowledge was also measured by module pre- and posttests, and improved significantly after intervention for all students, with health majors having the greatest increase. Intervention resulted in improved food safety self-reported practices for health majors only. The educational intervention appeared effective in improving food safety beliefs and knowledge. For health majors, attitudes and some self-reported practices improved. For all areas, the strongest effects were seen in health majors. PMID:19192742
Yarrow, Linda; Remig, Valentina M; Higgins, Mary Meck
Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35%). Conclusion: There were gaps identified in the knowledge of respondents. Although good perception and attitude were noted among the respondents, dissemination of information regarding generic medicines may perhaps strengthen generic prescribing. There is a need to introduce ‘Quality by Design’ concept in local manufacturing units. This, in turn, can inculcate confidence in prescribers towards locally manufactured generic medicines. PMID:23093896
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din
The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged <30) and producers with smaller herds were more likely to favour this practice. Two-thirds of producers (66.7%) were concerned that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) might preclude successful treatment of sick cattle. Producers who completed a dairy-health management course (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.69), organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians as very knowledgeable about OFFS (90.9% answered 4 or 5 on a five-point scale) and a favoured (73.1%) source of information about food safety. In contrast, only 13.2% and 30.2% of producers, respectively, indicated that consumers and government personnel are knowledgeable about OFFS. Targeted continuing education for dairy producers in Canada should address the major gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards food safety identified in this study, and veterinarians should be included as key knowledge-transfer informants. PMID:19962773
Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Raji?, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A
Despite the fact that Hawaii has one of the highest seat belt use rates for passenger vehicles in the United States, and has had a mandatory seat belt use law since the 1980s, studies have shown that commercial motor vehicles (CMV) seat belt use rates are low. To better understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive survey of commercial vehicle drivers was conducted in Hawaii to ascertain attitudes and self-reported behaviors regarding seat belt use. A total of 791 drivers responded to a written questionnaire implemented at weigh stations and distributed to various trucking firms and transport centers. Approximately 67% reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a CMV (commercial motor vehicle), yet when asked how often do other CMV drivers use seat belts, only 31% responded "always." Interestingly, 86% of these same drivers reported that they use seat belts "always" when driving a personal vehicle. The major reason cited for non-use of belts was "frequent stops/inconvenience" (29%), and "not safety conscious" (23%). Notably, the self-reported use of safety belts is highest among operators of vans (88% said "always"), followed by buses (87% said "always") and lowest among truck drivers (only 60% said "always"). In this paper, some of the differences between self-reported users and non-users are explored and a multivariate logit model was developed to predict the odds of belt use as a function of various factors. PMID:17920831
Kim, Karl; Yamashita, Eric Y
The Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is a measure of one’s endorsement of societal appearance ideals. The measure has received extensive evaluation in normative samples, but only minimal evaluation in clinical groups. In this study, 440 patients with eating disorders completed the SATAQ-3. Internal consistencies were excellent for the four SATAQ-3 subscales. Groups did not differ by diagnosis on
Rachel M Calogero; William N Davis; J. Kevin Thompson
To provide a more robust assessment of the effectiveness of a domestic abuse prevention education program, a questionnaire was developed to measure children's attitudes to domestic violence. The aim was to develop a short questionnaire that would be easy to use for practitioners but, at the same time, sensitive enough to pick up on subtle changes in young people's attitudes. We therefore chose to ask children about different situations in which they might be willing to condone domestic violence. In Study 1, we tested a set of 20 items, which we reduced by half to a set of 10 items. The factor structure of the scale was explored and its internal consistency was calculated. In Study 2, we tested the factor structure of the 10-item Attitudes to Domestic Violence (ADV) Scale in a separate calibration sample. Finally, in Study 3, we then assessed the test-retest reliability of the 10-item scale. The ADV Questionnaire is a promising tool to evaluate the effectiveness of domestic abuse education prevention programs. However, further development work is necessary. PMID:25324228
Fox, Claire L; Gadd, David; Sim, Julius
Objective To develop and evaluate the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes and knowledge of community pharmacists in Portugal about microbial resistance and the antibiotic dispensing process. Methods This study was divided into the following three stages: (1) design of the questionnaire, which included a literature review and a qualitative study with focus-group sessions; (2) assessment of face and content validity, using a panel of experts and a pre-test of community pharmacists; and, (3) pilot study and reliability analysis, which included a test-retest study covering fifty practising pharmacists based at community pharmacies in five districts situated in Northern Portugal. Questionnaire reproducibility was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 95% confidence interval) computed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Results The correlation coefficients were fair to good (ICC>0.4) for all statements (scale-items) regarding knowledge of and attitudes to antibiotic resistance, and ranged from fair to good to excellent for statements about situations in which pharmacists acknowledged that antibiotics were sometimes dispensed without a medical prescription (ICC>0.8). Cronbach's alpha for this section was 0.716. Conclusions The questionnaire designed in this study is valid and reliable in terms of content validity, face validity and reproducibility. PMID:24599387
Roque, Fátima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cristian; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa
The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students' knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future. PMID:17911665
Tan, Xiaodong; Pan, Jingju; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Chunhong; Xie, Chaojun
IntroductionThe report, To Err is Human, indicated that a large number of deaths are caused by medical error. A central tenet of this report was that patient safety was not only a function of sophisticated healthcare technology and treatments, but also the degree to which healthcare professionals could perform effectively as teams. Research suggests that teamwork comprises four core skills:
David P Baker; Andrea M Amodeo; Kelley J Krokos; Anthony Slonim; Heidi Herrera
In this methodological study we investigated the usefulness and reliability of a questionnaire designed to capture 4 aspects of parental dental attitudes: dental knowledge, child oral health behavior, perceived importance of dental related aims, and parental responsibility. The study was undertaken in a group of 140 parents of schoolchildren aged 8-12 years from four comprehensive schools in Sweden. Test-retest reliability, quantified by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or by Cohen's kappa, varied from acceptable to excellent for different aspects of the questionnaire. The knowledge and responsibility-taking sections were also answered by a group of dental experts who showed a high level of internal agreement. Expert profiles, to which the parental assessments could be compared, were created. Exploration of the 4 aspects showed that this group of parents commonly had a multifocal view on the etiology and prevention of caries. Correlations between their knowledge assessments and the assessments made by the expert group varied from moderately negative to strongly positive. The parents revealed a high degree of dental-related motivation and responsibility, particularly according to oral health behaviors. In conclusion, the results indicate that this 4-part psychometric questionnaire might be a suitable instrument in investigations of priority and responsibility-taking as new aspects of parental dental attitudes, along with dental knowledge and child oral health behaviors. PMID:11318040
Arnrup, K; Berggren, U; Broberg, A G
The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a
I. Young; S. Hendrick; S. Parker; A. Raji?; J. T. McClure; J. Sanchez; S. A. McEwen
Although responses to 24-hour recall and knowledge—attitude—practice questionnaires are commonly used in water—sanitation studies as surrogates for direct observation of behaviour, the validity of this approach is questionable. We therefore compared questionnaire data with those obtained by direct observation of practices related to water storage, handwashing, and defecation among 247 families in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. Analysis of the results indicates that accord between the replies to the questionnaires and the data collected by direct observation was poor and that the responses to the two questionnaires were often contradictory. Significant disagreements between the results of questionnaires and observations arose usually because desirable practices were over-reported by the respondents. The results of the study suggest that in urban Bangladesh 24-hour recall and knowledge—attitude—practice questionnaires should not be used as proxies for direct observation of hygiene practices. PMID:3496987
Stanton, B. F.; Clemens, J. D.; Aziz, K. M. A.; Rahman, M.
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a shop safety attitude scale that could be administered at the beginning of a shop course to help identify students who may be accident repeaters. A semantic differential scale was adapted from one originated by Osgood and his associates (1964) and administered to a sample of 125 university…
Bettis, Mervin Dale
The first objective of this study was to separate the contributions of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) and the Dysfunctional\\u000a Attitude Scale (DAS) to maladaptive cognitive patterns in their relations to symptoms of depression and their potential developmental\\u000a origins: emotional maltreatment, parents’ typical feedback styles, and parents’ dysfunctional attitudes regarding their offspring.\\u000a Other objectives were to examine these relations in
J. M. Oliver; Sarah L. Murphy; Daniel R. Ferland; Michael J. Ross
The Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ) is a self-report measure of children’s behavioral intentions towards peers with\\u000a disabilities. The SAQ has been validated as a measure of elementary school students’ attitudes towards peers with disabilities.\\u000a In the present study, psychometric properties of the SAQ as a measure of middle school students’ attitudes toward autism were\\u000a examined in a sample of 1,007
Jonathan M. Campbell
This study investigated the reliability ofan attitude scale on safety-belt and child safety- seat use. The scale, which consists of 17 behavior-oriented statements, was administered to 169 employees of a petroleum and chemical company. Based on analysis the reliability was high (r = 94) and all item correlations (p < .01) and statement-scale coefficients (p < .001) were statistically significant.
Kathryn E. H. Race
The objective was evaluating the psychometric properties of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among Brazilian young adults of both genders. The sample was composed by 506 undergraduate students (295 females and 211 males), aged between 17 and 29 years old. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for construct validity (N = 506). Correlations between the SATAQ-3 scores and those of the Tripartite Influence Scale (TIS) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were used for convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency (?) and reproducibility (test-retest) through comparison of the means obtained at two different time points and through intra-class correlation. The scale presented a factor structure composed of five factors, replicated in the confirmatory factor analysis with satisfactory values for the measurements of adjustment to the model. Correlations with the BSQ and TIS scores were rho = .52 and rho = -.35, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were satisfactory, and their stability was demonstrated. Brazilian SATAQ-3 had good validity and reproducibility, being indicated for use in samples of Brazilian youths. PMID:24230957
Amaral, Ana C S; Ribeiro, Mário S; Conti, Maria A; Ferreira, Clécio S; Ferreira, Maria E C
Cognitive assessment of depression is not well advanced and the evidence for the validity and reliability of measures is incomplete. This study examined two cognitive assessments of depression-the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS). There were two major objectives of this study. The first objective was to examine the ability of these two measures of cognitions
C. V. Hill; T. P. S. Oei; M. A. Hill
Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular attention ought to be given to these groups as they contribute in large measure to the rate of nonparticipation in the NIP, i.e., to a greater extent than well-known vaccine refusers such as specific religious groups and anthroposophics. Our finding that the proportion of the population inclined to accept vaccinations is smaller than it was 10 years ago highlights the need to increase knowledge about attitudes and beliefs regarding the NIP. PMID:22264347
Objectives To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. Design The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Participants Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18?years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. Measures The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach ? coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. Results The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (?=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: ‘vulnerability of the back’; ‘relationship between back pain and injury’; ‘activity participation while experiencing back pain’; ‘prognosis of back pain’ and ‘psychological influences on recovery’. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (?=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (? between 0.50 and 0.78). Conclusions The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability, responsiveness to change and predictive ability needs to be conducted. PMID:24860003
Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony
Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…
Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.
Background: Doping in sport has become an increasingly prominent topic. The decision to take part in doping practices is multifactorial and often based on many different information sources of varying reliability. This study sought to determine the attitudes of athletes at a Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) university toward doping and to discover if pharmacists are perceived to be a valid information source on medication usage for these athletes. Methods: CIS athletes competing in at least 1 of 8 sports were asked to complete a questionnaire. Participants were asked various questions regarding their perceptions of doping, medication use, information available to them regarding doping and the role of pharmacists in providing advice on medication usage. Results: In total, 92.7% (307/331) of questionnaires were at least partially completed. Generally, these athletes did not feel pressured to dope or that it was prevalent or necessary. The fear of doping violations largely did not alter the use of medications and supplements. The online doping education program administered by the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport was the most used information source (74.5%); pharmacists were used 37.7% of the time. Pharmacists were perceived to be a good source of information about banned substances by 75.6% (223/295) of participants, although only 35% (104/297) consulted a pharmacist each time they purchased a nonprescription medication. Conclusions: It appears that doping is neither prevalent nor worth the risk for these CIS athletes. There also appears to be an opportunity for pharmacists to play a more prominent role in providing advice on medication use to high-performance athletes. PMID:25364352
Malek, Scott; Taylor, Jeff
Aim: To investigate general practitioners’ (GPs’) stated knowledge, use and training needs related to the patient safety features of computerised clinical systems in England.Design: Questionnaire survey.Subjects and setting: GPs from six English primary care trusts.Outcome measures: GPs’ views on the importance of specified patient safety features on their computer system; their knowledge of the presence of specified safety features; previous
C J Morris; B S P Savelyich; A J Avery; J A Cantrill; A Sheikh
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement scale to assess over-the-road commercial motor vehicle operators' attitudes toward safety regulations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the current USA motor carrier safety literature and general safety literature is conducted to determine the existence of a construct and measurement scale suitable for assessing truck drivers' attitudes toward
Matthew A. Douglas; Stephen M. Swartz
Objective To measure the validity of safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards reported on a questionnaire by parents/carers with children aged under 5 years participating in a series of home safety case-control studies. Methods The questionnaire measured safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards being used as exposures in five case-control studies. Responses to questions were compared with observations made during a home visit. The researchers making observations were blind to questionnaire responses. Results In total, 162 families participated in the study. Overall agreement between reported and observed values of the safety practices ranged from 48.5% to 97.3%. Only 3 safety practices (stair gate at the top of stairs, stair gate at the bottom of stairs, stairs are carpeted) had substantial agreement based on the ? statistic (k=0.65, 0.72, 0.74, respectively). Sensitivity was high (?70%) for 19 of the 30 safety practices, and specificity was high (?70%) for 20 of the 30 practices. Overall for 24 safety practices, a higher proportion of respondents over-reported than under-reported safe practice (negative predictive value>positive predictive value). For six safety practices, a higher proportion of respondents under-reported than over-reported safe practice (negative predictive value
Watson, Michael; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Clacy, Rose; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Deave, Toity; Kendrick, Denise
Background. This article describes the development, reliability, and validity of three cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention subscales—CVD prevention behaviors, perceived importance, and perceived effectiveness—of the Preventive Medicine Attitudes and Activities Questionnaire (PMAAQ).Methods. The PMAAQ was administered three times to University of Minnesota family practice residents (178) over 2 years (91% response rate). Stability measures were calculated, and validity was demonstrated in
Kimberly A Murphy; Mark Yeazel
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25285718
Schaefer, Lauren M; Burke, Natasha L; Thompson, J Kevin; Dedrick, Robert F; Heinberg, Leslie J; Calogero, Rachel M; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Higgins, Mary K; Frederick, David A; Kelly, Mackenzie; Anderson, Drew A; Schaumberg, Katherine; Nerini, Amanda; Stefanile, Cristina; Dittmar, Helga; Clark, Elizabeth; Adams, Zoe; Macwana, Susan; Klump, Kelly L; Vercellone, Allison C; Paxton, Susan J; Swami, Viren
domains- 1) type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2) frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3) attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4) theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed...
Lakshman, Rajalakshmi R; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Schiff, Annie; Hardeman, Wendy; Ong, Ken K; Griffin, Simon J
In Turkey, the cultural structure effects the gender roles in the society, and women are subject to violence in an intense manner both inside the family and in their workplaces. In nursing, which is still defined as a woman's job in our country, it is possible to encounter many aggressive and threatening behaviours. Knowing no geographical borders, aggression leads to dissatisfaction and alienation with the profession for the nurses working at the psychiatric institutions in Turkey, thus aggression is a significant health risk in physical, psychological and social dimensions. The research was carried out with 162 randomly selected nurses working in the psychiatric institutions in Istanbul using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. It has been determined that nurses' rate of exposure to verbal/physical assault by the patients and their relatives is high and that they experience an intense uncertainty and conflict, especially in legal issues, and that the duration of working in the psychiatry clinics effects attitudes toward the assaults. It is concluded that the nurses working at the psychiatry clinics in Turkey are under risk in regards to safety and they need protection and support, both in emotional and in legal terms. PMID:16352517
Bilgin, Hülya; Buzlu, Sevim
Background: Traumatic injuries to teeth and their supporting structures during childhood are one of the major problems faced by the dentist in day to day practice. Children usually encounter minor accidents in their routine activities and hence, it of utmost importance to provide emergency care to reduce such outcomes. Most of children with dental trauma present late for treatment due to lack of awareness and knowledge among parents/caretakers resulting in unfavorable long-term prognosis. This study was conducted to evaluate by means of a questionnaire, the knowledge, and usual attitude of the parents/caretakers about the management of avulsed tooth in children of age group 5-14 years. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire containing 6 questions was distributed among 200 parents/caretakers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of parents toward avulsed tooth and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0. Results: A lack of technical information regarding the preservation and management of avulsed tooth was observed among the parents/caretakers. The education status of the study population when associated with the knowledge variables of avulsion showed that most of the variables had statistically significant association with P < 0.04. Conclusion: These data reinforce the need to provide the population with some important information regarding the emergency management of avulsed tooth. This warrants the need of effective communication between dental professionals and caretakers for better handling of dental emergencies. PMID:25395784
Nikam, Atul Pralhad; Kathariya, Mitesh D; Chopra, Kirti; Gupta, Aditi; Kathariya, Renuka
Background The prevalence of mental disorders, espe- cially depression, increasingly creates concern for our mental, social and economic well-being. The public has insufficient knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment. A stigma is attached to mental disorders, which has a multifaceted impact on the lives of patients and their families. A Finnish general population survey studied knowledge of and attitudes
Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck
Background The prevalence of mental disorders, especially depression, increasingly creates concern for our mental, social and economic\\u000a well-being. The public has insufficient knowledge about mental disorders and their treatment. A stigma is attached to mental\\u000a disorders, which has a multifaceted impact on the lives of patients and their families. A Finnish general population survey\\u000a studied knowledge of and attitudes towards mental
Esa Aromaa; Asko Tolvanen; Jyrki Tuulari; Kristian Wahlbeck
The evidence-based practice agenda in many healthcare professions has increased the importance of teaching research skills to students in these professions. However, concern exists that many healthcare educators may be reluctant to teach research. This study investigated potential barriers to their adoption of this role. A questionnaire was…
Ning, Mair; Murphy, Philip; Jinks, Annette Mary
Objectives To determine the longer-term efficacy and safety of initiating treatment for urgency-predominant urinary incontinence (UUI) in women diagnosed using a simple questionnaire rather than an extensive evaluation. Study Design Women completing a 12-week randomized controlled trial of fesoterodine therapy for UUI diagnosed by questionnaire were invited to participate in a 9-month open label continuation study. UUI and voiding episodes were collected using voiding diaries. Participant satisfaction was measured by questionnaire. Safety was assessed by measurement of post void residual volume and adverse event monitoring; if necessary, women underwent specialist evaluation. Longitudinal changes in UUI and voiding episodes were evaluated using linear mixed models adjusting for baseline. Results Of the 567 women completing the randomized trial, 498 (87.8%) took at least one dose of medication during this open label study. Compared to the enrollment visit in the randomized trial, fesoterodine was associated with a reduction in total incontinence episodes/day and urgency incontinence episodes/day at the end of the open label study [adjusted mean (standard error (SE)) 4.6 (0.12) to 1.2 (0.13) and 3.9 (0.11) to 0.9 (0.11) respectively, p-value<.0001 for both]. Most women were satisfied with treatment (89%, 92%, and 93% at 3, 6, and 9 months). Twenty-six women experienced 28 serious adverse events, one of which was considered possibly treatment-related. Twenty-two women had specialist evaluation: 5 women’s incontinence was misclassified by the 3IQ; none experienced harm due to misclassification. Conclusions Using a simple validated questionnaire to diagnose and initiate treatment for UUI in community dwelling women is safe and effective, allowing timely treatment by primary care practitioners. PMID:23659987
HESS, Rachel; HUANG, Alison J.; RICHTER, Holly E.; GHETTI, Chiara C.; SUNG, Vivian W.; BARRETT-CONNOR, Elizabeth; GREGORY, W. Thomas; PINKERTON, JoAnn V.; BRADLEY, Catherine S.; KRAUS, Stephen R.; ROGERS, Rebecca G.; SUBAK, Leslee L.; JOHNSON, Karen C.; ARYA, Lily A.; SCHEMBRI, Michael; BROWN, Jeanette S.
How can a researcher engage a participant in a survey, when the subject matter may be perceived as 'challenging' or even be totally unfamiliar to the participant? The Genomethics study addressed this via the creation and delivery of a novel online questionnaire containing 10 integrated films. The films documented various ethical dilemmas raised by genomic technologies and the survey ascertained attitudes towards these. Participants were recruited into the research using social media, traditional media and email invitation. The film-survey strategy was successful: 11,336 initial hits on the survey website led to 6944 completed surveys. Participants included from those who knew nothing of the subject matter through to experts in the field of genomics (61% compliance rate), 72% of participants answered every single question. This paper summarises the survey design process and validation methods applied. The recruitment strategy and results from the survey are presented elsewhere. PMID:24468445
Middleton, A; Bragin, E; Morley, K I; Parker, M
There is considerable evidence that mass media portrayals of body image contribute to body dissatisfaction, yet the assessment of perceived media influences has been examined fleetingly in highly populated, non-Western cultures, particularly among young males. This research examined the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among adolescent boys in China. In an initial exploratory factor analysis (N=719), a four factor solution emerged with components reflecting General Pressure-Internalization, Sources of Appearance Information, Pressure-Internalization of an Athletic Ideal, and Pressure to be Thin. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analyses in a new sample (n=749) assessed fits of the derived four factor model, a three factor variant, and alternatives reflecting "Western" and "Malay" SATAQ-3 solutions. The derived four factor solution had the most acceptable structure across several fit indices. Patterns of correlation with other self-report measures also provided preliminary support for the validity of the derived solution. PMID:20800561
Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong
How can a researcher engage a participant in a survey, when the subject matter may be perceived as ‘challenging’ or even be totally unfamiliar to the participant? The Genomethics study addressed this via the creation and delivery of a novel online questionnaire containing 10 integrated films. The films documented various ethical dilemmas raised by genomic technologies and the survey ascertained attitudes towards these. Participants were recruited into the research using social media, traditional media and email invitation. The film-survey strategy was successful: 11,336 initial hits on the survey website led to 6944 completed surveys. Participants included from those who knew nothing of the subject matter through to experts in the field of genomics (61% compliance rate), 72% of participants answered every single question. This paper summarises the survey design process and validation methods applied. The recruitment strategy and results from the survey are presented elsewhere. PMID:24468445
Middleton, A.; Bragin, E.; Morley, K.I.; Parker, M
Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum) conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33%) answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum. PMID:22112146
Cyprus does not have a National Food Safety Authority (NFSA), but a multi-level, fragmented system with responsibilities divided among different ministries and governmental agencies, frequently impeding efforts to effectively manage food risks by duplication and overlapping of responsibilities. A population-based survey was carried out to determine the beliefs and attitudes of interested parties concerning the establishment of a NFSA in Cyprus. Information was collected using a random stratified sampling design and a structured questionnaire. A total of 868 questionnaires were collected (704 from regular consumers, 154 from food businesses' representatives, and 10 from public services' directors or acting head officers). About 11% of food businesses' representatives and 45% of consumers reported that they did not know which public authorities are responsible for food control. Moreover, 2 out of 10 (17%) of responders from public agencies, 70% from food businesses and 91% from consumers, although not aware of ongoing efforts to establish a food safety authority in Cyprus (currently under consideration), were supportive of the idea [8 out of 10 (83%) of responders from public services, 93% from food businesses, and 89% of consumers]. Finally, 7 out of 10 (67%) from the public agencies and 84% of representatives from food businesses agreed with the separation of risk assessment from risk management activities. Public opinion in Cyprus as well as public agencies and food businesses' representatives support the establishment of a single independent national food safety authority in Cyprus based on the European paradigm including the division of risk activities. PMID:24378621
Hadjigeorgiou, Andreas; Talias, Michael A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Philalithis, Anastasios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Gikas, Achilleas; Tselentis, Yiannis
College students are one of the most at-risk population groups for food poisoning, due to risky food safety behaviors. Using the Likert Scale, undergraduate students were asked to participate in a Food Safety Survey which was completed by 499 students ages 18–25. Data was analyzed using SPSS and AMOS statistical software. Four conceptual definitions regarding food safety were defined as: general food safety, bacterial food safety, produce food safety, and politics associated with food safety. Knowledge seems to be an important factor in shaping students attitudes regarding general and bacterial safety. Ethnicity plays a role in how people view the politics of food safety, and the safety of organic foods. PMID:23364131
Booth, Rachelle; Hernandez, Magaly; Baker, Erica L.; Grajales, Tevni; Pribis, Peter
Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait. Results The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait. PMID:25214928
Abahussain, Nada A.; Abahussain, Eman A.; Al-Oumi, Fawaz M.
Background Poor adherence to lithium is very common in bipolar patients and it is a frequent cause of recurrence during prophylactic treatment. Several reports suggest that attitudes of bipolar patients interfere with adherence to lithium. The Lithium Attitudes Questionnaire (LAQ) is a brief questionnaire developed as a means of identifying and grouping the problems patients commonly have with taking lithium regularly. The original version is validated in patients, but a validated version in Portuguese is not yet available. Methods One-hundred six patients with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria) criteria under lithium treatment for at least one month were assessed using LAQ. LAQ is a brief questionnaire administered under interview conditions, which includes 19 items rating attitudes towards prophylactic lithium treatment. We analysed the internal consistency, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Portuguese version of LAQ. Results The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.78. The mean total LAQ score was 4.1. Concurrent validity was confirmed by a negative correlation between plasma lithium concentration and total LAQ score (r = -0,198; p = 0.048). We analysed the scale's discriminative capacity revealing a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 71% in the identification of negative attitudes of bipolar patients. Conclusion The psychometric assessment of the Portuguese version of LAQ showed good internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity. The results were similar to the original version in relation to attitudes of bipolar patients towards lithium therapy. PMID:17121674
The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent of existing knowledge about healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to patient safety. A systematic review was performed using two electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) for the period 2000-2012. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles or empirical studies, published in English. The focus groups of the study were physicians, head nurses, nurses and nurse assistants. Altogether, 18 studies met the criteria and were included. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. The investigated themes regarding healthcare professionals' knowledge of patient safety were their existing knowledge level, knowledge deficits and knowledge improvement. Results considered the target groups' overall attitudes to patient safety, attitudes to event reporting and safety attitude improvement. The investigations into healthcare professionals' skills included mathematical skills and those related to achieving patient safety. From this review, it is concluded that further research should be conducted into the investigation of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills in patient safety. PMID:24708205
Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Suominen, Tarja
This study examined psychological empowerment and organizational identification as outcomes of occupational context and predictors of occupational safety performance. In this study, 171 hospital employees from 17 units and 21 occupations completed surveys measuring psychological empowerment, organizational identification, and supervisor safety practices. They also completed measures of 2 dimensions of safety performance: use of personal protective equipment and safety participation. These data were merged with Occupational Information Network (O*NET) context ratings of occupational hazards and physical demands. Results indicated that occupational hazards were negatively related to individual-level psychological empowerment and organizational identification, which were in turn positively related to safety participation. Psychological empowerment and organizational identification also interacted with perceptions of supervisor safety actions in the prediction of personal protective equipment use. Results have implications for organizational safety performance and point to the role of occupational context in psychological empowerment and the extent to which employees participate in the safety of their worksite. PMID:21280944
Ford, Michael T; Tetrick, Lois E
The current study aimed to confirm the factor structure and reliability of the newly translated Greek version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among 1753 Greek-Cypriot high school students. Results of the structural equation modeling indicated a very good fit with the original four-factor structure of the SATAQ-3 for both males and females. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the four subscales were .92 for 'Internalization-General', .82 for 'Internalization-Athlete', .94 for 'Pressure' and .88 for 'Information'. Further analyses showed no significant differences between BMI categories with respect to the Internalization-General, Internalization-Athlete and Information factors but there were significant differences on the Pressure factor. The findings of the current study support the existence of the original four-factor structure of the SATAQ-3. The validity and reliability results of the Greek version of the SATAQ-3 support its use in Greek-speaking countries or populations. PMID:24958653
Argyrides, Marios; Kkeli, Natalie; Kendeou, Panayiota
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
The need to identify the factors that influence the overall safety environment and compliance with safety procedures within airline operations is substantial. This study examines the relationships between job satisfaction, the overall perception of the safety culture, and compliance with safety rules and regulations of airline employees working in flight operations. A survey questionnaire administered via the internet gathered responses which were converted to numerical values for quantitative analysis. The results were grouped to provide indications of overall average levels in each of the three categories, satisfaction, perceptions, and compliance. Correlations between data in the three sets were tested for statistical significance using two-sample t-tests assuming equal variances. Strong statistical significance was found between job satisfaction and compliance with safety rules and between perceptions of the safety environment and safety compliance. The relationship between job satisfaction and safety perceptions did not show strong statistical significance.
Owen, Edward L.
The highest rate of accidents and injuries in British industries has been reported by the construction industry during the past decade. Since then stakeholders have recognised that a possible solution would be to inculcate a good attitude towards health and safety risk management in undergraduate civil engineering students and construction…
Petersen, A. K.; Reynolds, J. H.; Ng, L. W. T.
Thin-ideal (or media) internalization is an important eating disorder risk factor that has become a central target of many prevention programs. However, evidence for its valid assessment in young, mixed-gender, adolescent samples is limited, and the current study is the first to explore the psychometric properties of the 30-item Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3; J. Thompson, P. van den Berg, M. Roehrig, A. S. Guarda, & L. J. Heinberg, 2004) in a nonadult community sample. Two samples of Grade 8 students (M age = 13.68 years), totaling 680 girls (N = 332) and boys (N = 348) completed the SATAQ-3 and other measures, whereas a smaller sample (N = 123) of Grade 10 girls (M age = 15.01 years) served as a comparison group for supplementary analyses. Principal component analyses (PCA) with data from Sample 1 (N = 201) revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues > 1.0, similar to the original authors' structure but with some cross-loading occurring between the Pressures and Internalization-General scales. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted with data from Sample 2 (N = 479) on the factor solution found in the PCA. The model did not fit well, leading to further revisions based on removal of cross-loading items and CFA modification indices, resulting in a 19-item, 4-factor solution with acceptable fit. Examinations of validity and reliability were generally acceptable. The overall findings suggest that an abbreviated version of the SATAQ-3 might be more appropriate than the original version with young-adolescent, mixed-gender audiences. Further examinations of the psychometric properties of the SATAQ-3 with this demographic are indicated. PMID:21928909
Wilksch, Simon M; Wade, Tracey D
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsiveness or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to analyze parental attitudes to and experience of dental care, oral hygiene and dietary habits in children/adolescents with ADHD. Twenty- six parents of 31 subjects, 20 boys and 11 girls, aged 5-19 years with ADHD registered at the Gothenburg Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, were invited. The parents answered a questionnaire regarding different oral problems when visiting the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Gothenburg, for an oral examination of their child. The parents felt the dental care at the Public Dental Service was good, but noted a lack of knowledge regarding child neuropsychiatry among the dental staff which may influence the dental treatment. Fifteen parents reported their children had experienced mouth pain and 15 reported their child had suffered from both discomfort and pain from local anesthesia. Thirteen of the children had a dental trauma and 12 parents reported pain in connection to the dental treatment. Pain related to filling therapy was stated by 11 parents. According to the parents, five children suffered from dental fear but 15 reported the child had a general fear. Pursuant to the parents, the beverage for dinner was mainly milk or water, while sweet drinks were more frequent when thirsty. Seventeen parents reported their children had poor oral hygiene or could not manage to brush their teeth and 14 of the 31 children only brushed once a day or less. The results show that the parents experience a lack of child neuropsychiatric knowledge, care and patience from the dental staff, which may influence the treatment. Oral hygiene/tooth brushing is neglected and the frequent consumption of sugar is difficult for the parents to handle. PMID:25102720
Staberg, Marie; Norén, Jörgen G; Johnson, Mats; Kopp, Svenny; Robertson, Agneta
Background Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective is to describe the process of developing a questionnaire to assess parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics when children suffer from URIs, as well as to evaluate the response rates, the completeness and the reliability (Cronbach) of the questionnaires. Finally, to note any limitations of the study. Methods Literature review, along with pre – testing yielded a questionnaire designed to assess the parents' KAP – level. A postal survey was set, in a national sample of 200 schools stratified by geographical region. The participants consist of a multistage geographical cluster sample of 8000 parents. The influence of demographic characteristics (i.e. sex, age, education) was analyzed. Cronbach index test and factor analysis were used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Results The response rate of the parents was 69%. Islands presented the lowest response rate while in Northern Greece the response rate was the highest. Sixty – eight point nine percent of the sample returned questionnaires fully completed, while 91.5% completed 95% of the questions. Three questions out of 70 were answered in a very low rate which was associated mostly with immigrant respondents. The section describing parents' attitude toward antibiotic use was not completed as much as the sections of knowledge or practices. The questions were factor analyzed and 10 out of the 21 extracted factors were finally evaluated, reducing the number of independent variables to 46. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.55. However, only items that increased the Cronbach when added were eventually included in the final scales raising the internal consistency to 0.68. Limitations of the study, such as the vocabulary and form of the questionnaire and the idiocycrancy of the respondents, emerged during the analysis. Conclusion The response rate and the completeness of the questionnaires were higher than expected, probably attributed to the involvement of the teachers. The study findings were satisfactory regarding the development of a reliable instrument capable to measure parents' KAP characteristics. PMID:19413902
Abstract Objective: Psychotherapy research needs to convince psychotherapists to contribute their time and effort to participate. The present paper describes the development and first results of the Attitudes to Psychotherapy Research Questionnaire (APRQ). Method: The APRQ and additional qualitative questions about exclusion criteria for participation were filled out by a sample of 365 therapists (psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive-behavioral) during an Internet-based research survey. Results: A principle component analysis yielded six factors: Benefits, Damage, Legitimation, Self-doubt, Effectiveness Doubt and External Reasons. Age, external reasons and benefits predicted willingness to participate independent of therapeutic school. Discussion: Results show a changing trend to more positive attitudes to psychotherapy research. To be willing to participate in future research, therapists expected high quality designs, financial compensation, and personal gains. PMID:25047604
Taubner, Svenja; Klasen, Jennifer; Munder, Thomas
This study has two purposes: (a) methodological—to design and test a new instrument able to reflect changes in attitudes toward science over time, and (b) investigative—to find out the effect of two similar curricular treatments on the attitudes of two classes. Items about the relevance of science to students' lives were developed, pilot-tested, and analyzed using Rasch modeling. We then
Marcelle A. Siegel; Michael A. Ranney
Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs. PMID:24885041
A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, p<0.01). Cyclist-drivers had better knowledge of the road rules related to cycling infrastructure than drivers; however knowledge of road rules related to bike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists. PMID:24769133
Johnson, Marilyn; Oxley, Jennie; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith
Household food safety education is needed to minimize the risk of exposure to foodborne pathogens. The Latino population in the United States is growing at a fast rate and has become the largest minority group in this country. However, little research has been done to identify the food safety behavioral risks faced by Puerto Ricans. Ten in-depth household observations and a quantitative survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (n = 100) were conducted to understand food-handling techniques among Puerto Rican caretakers of young children. This was followed by two focus groups (n = 12) to further characterize food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and the proper media channels for the delivery of food safety education. Even though 97% of survey participants reported washing their hands with soap and water before preparing foods, only 1 of the 10 participants in the household observations actually did it. About 60% of the household participants washed the cutting boards with soap and water compared with 89% of survey participants who claimed to do it. In the survey, 5% reported to know the meaning of cross-contamination, and 71% (n = 80) to use the same cutting board for meats and vegetables. Overall, 96% of survey participants did not use a thermometer to check if meats were cooked properly and only 10% defrosted their meats in the refrigerator. Statistically significant relationships (P < 0.05) were found between speaking English and knowing the meaning of cross-contamination and how to use a meat thermometer. Employed individuals and those with higher education were also more likely to be familiar with the term pasteurization. These results fully justify the delivery of culturally appropriate food safety education in this community. PMID:15035366
Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Damio, Grace; González, Anir; Segura-Pérez, Sofia
Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.
Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them. PMID:25657902
Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar
Background Universal BCG vaccination in the UK ended in 2005. The new vaccination policy instead offers a number of different forms of selective vaccination to newborns based on risk of acquiring TB. We set out to assess the attitudes and knowledge of both parents and professionals to the new policy for neonatal BCG vaccination. Methods A short questionnaire was designed, made up of demographic and attitude questions, as well as very basic knowledge questions. The researchers handed out the questionnaire to all parents and professionals in the antenatal and postnatal areas, as well as the paediatric and neonatal units during a 6-week period. The site was the Royal Oldham hospital, a district general hospital with 3250 deliveries per year and multi-ethnic in its population mix. Results A total of 253 completed questionnaires were collected. The ethnic origin of responders was 50.6% White British, 18.2% Bangladeshi, 8.7% Indian, 4% White/Asian, the remaining 18.5% of other origins. 71.5% of responders said they had heard of BCG vaccine. When asked if they knew the new policy for its use, 33.2% answered yes. 24.5% gave the most accurate response when asked who now receives BCG. Conclusion We have found that amongst parents and professionals alike there is a lack of knowledge of the new policy. This has lead to confusion and as knowledge amongst the professionals who identify neonates for vaccination is low, uptake may be sub-optimal. We suggest that units investigate the issue and ensure that the new policy is understood and implemented correctly. PMID:17650337
Gordon, Morris; Roberts, Hannah; Odeka, Egware
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the DBAS-10, a recently proposed abbreviated version of the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale (DBAS).Population: Two hundred and eleven (69 normal sleepers; 142 insomnia suffers) middle-aged and older adults (age 40–79 years) drawn from two separate cohorts of research volunteers.Method: Volunteers in the first cohort (69 normal sleepers; 69 insomnia sufferers)
Jack D Edinger; William K Wohlgemuth
Provincial broiler-chicken marketing boards in Canada have recently implemented an on-farm food safety program called Safe, Safer, Safest. The purpose of this study was to measure broiler chicken producers' attitudes toward the program and food safety topics and use of highly recommended good production practices (GPP). Mailed and Web-based questionnaires were administered to all producers registered in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec in 2008. The response percentage was 33.2% (642 of 1,932). Nearly 70% of respondents rated the program as effective in producing safe chicken, and 49.1% rated the program requirements as easy to implement. Most respondents (92.9%) reported that they do not raise other poultry or keep birds as pets, and 79.8% reported that they clean and disinfect their barns between each flock cycle. Less than 50% of respondents reported that visitors wash their hands or change their clothes before entering barns, 38.4% reported that catching crews wear clean clothes and boots, and 35.8% reported that a crew other than from the hatchery places chicks. Respondents who rated the program requirements as effective or easy to implement were more likely to report the use of five of six highly recommended GPP. Only 21.1% of respondents indicated that Campylobacter can be transmitted from contaminated chicken meat to humans, and 26.6% believed that antimicrobial use in their industry is linked to antimicrobial resistance in humans. Continuing education of producers should focus on improving their awareness of these issues, while mandatory GPP should include those that are known to be effective in controlling Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler chicken flocks. PMID:20615340
Young, Ian; Raji?, Andrijana; Letellier, Ann; Cox, Bill; Leslie, Mira; Sanei, Babak; McEwen, Scott A
To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: ?(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: ?(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826
Lotzin, Annett; Kriston, Levente; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Leichsenring, Irina; Ramsauer, Brigitte; Schäfer, Ingo
A sample of 496 car and sport utility vehicle (SUV) drivers responded to questionnaires that examined attitudes toward vehicle size and safety. The aim of this research is to determine whether drivers perceive larger vehicles to be safer and whether this concern for safety motivates drivers to purchase SUVs. Alternatively, non–safety influences are also examined, including environmental concern, vehicle power,
J. A. Thomas; D. Walton
Objectives: To determine knowledge and attitudes regarding traffic safety devices, measures, and legislation in the general population in Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. Methods: We conducted a baseline random digit dial fixed line telephone verbal survey of Yerevan households in April 2009 with a follow-up survey in May 2010. Survey domains included restraint use, motor vehicle crash experiences, and attitudes regarding traffic safety. Results: In the initial survey, of 2137 numbers dialed, 436 persons were reached and 390 (90%) agreed to participate. Of survey respondents, 90% percent of household cars had seatbelts, while 47% had airbags. Twenty-four percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, 21% wore a belt as a passenger. 39% were unaware of child restraints. Of the 61% who were aware of child restraints, only 32% had ever used one. A follow-up survey was conducted one year later after enforcement efforts were increased. In the follow-up survey, 81% percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, and 69% wore a belt as a passenger. There was no significant increase of awareness or use of child restraints in the follow-up survey. Conclusions: Although cars in Yerevan have seat belts, the majority of drivers and passengers prior to the intervention did not use them. Knowledge and use of child restraints was poor. The follow-up survey conducted after an enforcement campaign was underway in Yerevan showed that improved enforcement greatly increased awareness and compliance with current legislation. This study provides vital baseline information for the formulation of future policy. It also highlights the need for a multi-dimensional road traffic safety initiative through public educational campaigns, enforcement of current laws, and development of novel prevention policies and regulations. PMID:23169129
Chekijian, Sharon Anoush; Truzyan, Nune
Background In Switzerland, nurses are allowed to prescribe and administer morphine in emergency situations without a doctor. Still, nurses and other health professionals are often reluctant to prescribe and administer morphine for pain management in patients. No valid French-speaking instrument is available in Switzerland to assess the attitudes of nurses and other health professionals towards the prescription and administration of morphine. In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version of the questionnaire “Attitudes towards morphine use”. Methods The instrument was derived from an Italian version. Forward and back translations of the questionnaire were performed. Item analysis and construct validity were assessed between April and December 2010 in a cross sectional study including five Swiss hospitals in a sample of 588 health professionals (533 nurses, mean age 38.3?±?10.2 years). Thirty subjects participated in test-retest reliability. Results The time to complete the instrument ranged between 12 and 15 minutes and neither floor nor ceiling effect were found. The initial 24-item instrument showed an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.73, P?0.001), and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.700. Factor analysis led to a six-component solution explaining 52.4% of the total variance. After excluding five items, the shortened version showed an ICC of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.77, P?0.001) and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.741. Factor analysis led to a five-component solution explaining 54.3% of the total variance. The five components were named “risk of addiction/dependence”; “operational reasons for not using morphine”; “risk of escalation”; “other (non-dependence) risks” and “external (non-operational) reasons”. In test-retest, the shortened instrument showed an ICC of 0.797 (95% CI, 0.630 to 0.911, P?0.001) and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.797. Conclusions The 19-item shortened instrument assessing attitudes towards the prescription and administration of morphine showed adequate content and construct validity. PMID:24406097
Construction accidents are caused by an unsafe act (i.e., a person's behavior or activity that deviates from normal accepted safe procedure) and/or an unsafe condition (i.e., a hazard or an unsafe mechanical or physical environment). While there has been dramatic improvement in creating safer construction environments, relatively little is known regarding the elimination of construction workers' unsafe acts. To address this deficiency, this paper aims to develop a system dynamics (SD)-based model of construction workers' mental processes that can help analyze the feedback mechanisms and the resultant dynamics regarding the workers' safety attitudes and safe behaviors. The developed model is applied to examine the effectiveness of three safety improvement policies: incentives for safe behaviors, and increased levels of communication and immersion in accidents. Application of the model verifies the strong potential of the developed model to provide a better understanding of how to eliminate unsafe acts, and to function as a robust test-bed to assess the effectiveness of safety programs or training sessions before their implementation. PMID:24268437
Shin, Mingyu; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Park, Moonseo; Moon, Myunggi; Han, Sangwon
This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.
Social support can have beneficial effects on psychological and physiological well-being. During acute bodily pain, however, the effects of social support on pain are mixed. This variability may be due to the multifaceted nature of both pain and social support, as well as individual differences. In this paper, we present the development, psychometric assessment, and initial validation of the first self-report measure designed to address this variability in the general population; the Responses and Attitudes to Support during Pain questionnaire (RASP). The RASP includes questions on social support from the romantic partner as well as healthcare professionals (HCPs) and addresses different types of social support and pain responses. The development and validation of the RASP comprised four studies. In Study 1, a preliminary RASP version was completed by 179 healthy individuals regarding any type of acute pain. In Study 2, the reduced RASP was completed by 256 women with experiences of menstrual pain. Principal component analysis indicated a 22-item solution with five underlying dimensions reflecting General Partner Support, Emotional Support from HCPs, Anxiety in the Context of HCPs, Pain Behaviors during Partner Support, and Distraction by the Partner. Construct validity was assessed using a measure of adult attachment style. The RASP showed good validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, the 5-factor model received initial support through confirmatory factor analysis in a new sample of 120 individuals with recent musculoskeletal pain. Study 4 provided additional validation of the RASP in a sample of 180 individuals responding in reference to acute back pain. Overall, the RASP is a valid and reliable measure for assessing individual differences in attitudes and responses to social support in relation to acute pain. PMID:25285083
Krahé, Charlotte; Paloyelis, Yannis; Sambo, Chiara F.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Background: The current cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practices among eunuchs (hijras) residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Based on a convenient non-probability snow ball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of study and who fulfilled the selection criteria were approached. A cross section of the general population was also surveyed. An interviewer-based, predesigned, structured, close-ended 18-item questionnaire that had been designed based on the primary objective of the study was used. All the obtained data were analyzed using software, Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Results: According to 188 (86.2%) males, 187 (87.4%) females and 168 (81.2%) eunuchs, good oral health can improve the general health. Most of the study participants including 211 (98.6%) females, 210 (96.3%) males and 205 (99%) eunuchs use either tooth paste or tooth powder to clean their teeth. While, a majority of eunuchs, i.e., 113 (54.6%), were having habit of chewing smokeless tobacco containing products such as betel nut, betel quid, gutkha, etc., The difference in use of tobacco products was statistically significant. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral hygiene practices which are performed among eunuch population. Efforts to increase the awareness of oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of this population. PMID:25425825
Hongal, Sudhir; Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Goel, Pankaj; Byarakele, Chandrashekar; Mishra, Priyesh; Jain, Shubham
of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving. HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00182651,version1-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were, sleepy driving, or driver's error) account for, or contribute to, approximately 90% of RTAs [3-5]. A very
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Objectives To investigate predictors of healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) attitudes towards family involvement in safety-relevant behaviours. Design A cross-sectional fractional factorial survey that assessed HCPs’ attitudes towards family involvement in two error scenarios relating to hand hygiene and medication safety. Each survey comprised two randomised vignettes that described the potential error, how the family member communicated with the HCP about the error and how the HCP responded to the family member’s question. Setting 5 teaching hospitals in London, the Midlands and York. HCPs were approached on a range of medical and surgical wards. Participants 160 HCPs (73 doctors; 87 nurses) aged between 21 and 65?years (mean 37) 102 were female. Outcome measures HCP approval of family member’s behaviour; HCP reaction to the family member; anticipated effects on the family member–HCP relationship; HCP support for being questioned about hand hygiene/medication; affective rating responses. Results HCPs supported family member's intervening (88%) but only 41% agreed this would have positive effects on the family member/HCP relationship. Across vignettes and error scenarios the strongest predictors of attitudes were how the HCP (in the scenario) responded to the family member and whether an error actually occurred. Doctors (vs nurses) provided systematically more positive affective ratings to the vignettes. Conclusions Important predictors of HCPs’ attitudes towards family members’ involvement in patient safety have been highlighted. In particular, a discouraging response from HCP’s decreased support for family members being involved and had strong perceived negative effects on the family member/HCP relationship. PMID:25186154
Davis, Rachel; Savvopoulou, M; Shergill, R; Shergill, S; Schwappach, D
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) examines implicit attitudes through the measurement of response latencies. In this study, the IRAP was used to assess implicit attitudes toward "mainstream" sexual terms (e.g., Kissing) and "BDSM" terms (e.g., Bondage) among individuals reporting BDSM interests and among students who did not…
Stockwell, Fawna M. J.; Walker, Diana J.; Eshleman, John W.
Background Recent educational initiatives by both the World Health Organization and the American Association of Medical Colleges have endorsed integrating teaching of patient safety and quality improvement (QI) to medical students. Curriculum development should take into account learners’ attitudes and preferences. We surveyed students to assess preferences and attitudes about QI and patient safety education. Methods An electronic survey was developed through focus groups, literature review, and local expert opinion and distributed via email to all medical students at a single medical school in the spring of 2012. Results A greater proportion of students reported previous exposure to patient safety than to quality improvement topics (79% vs. 47%). More than 80% of students thought patient safety was of the same or greater importance than basic science or clinical skills whereas quality improvement was rated as the same or more important by about 70% of students. Students rated real life examples of quality improvement projects and participation in these projects with actual patients as potentially the most helpful (mean scores 4.2/5 and 3.9/5 respectively). For learning about patient safety, real life examples of mistakes were again rated most highly (mean scores 4.5/5 for MD presented mistakes and 4.1/5 for patient presented mistakes). Students rated QI as very important to their future career regardless of intended specialty (mean score 4.5/5). Conclusions Teaching of patient safety and quality improvement to medical students will be best received if it is integrated into clinical education rather than solely taught in pre-clinical lectures or through independent computer modules. Students recognize that these topics are important to their careers as future physicians regardless of intended specialty. PMID:23379673
The increasing number of road accidents globally and the cost to world economies calls for all possible actions to mitigate their effects on the economies. The major cause of these accidents especially in developing countries is due to human errors which can be mitigated through attitude and behavior change. This paper discusses how a combination of community policing and Information
Objectives Most evidence-based practice (EBP) edu- cational assessment tools evaluated to date have focused on specific knowledge components or tech- nical skills. Other important potential barriers to the adoption of EBP, such as attitudinal, perceptual and behavioural factors, have yet to be studied, especially in the undergraduate setting. Therefore, we devel- oped and validated a knowledge, attitude and beha- viour
Janice M Johnston; Gabriel M Leung; Richard Fielding; Keith Y K Tin; Lai-Ming Ho
BACKGROUND: Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the
Lars Axelsson; Ingemar Andersson; Anders Håkansson; Göran Ejlertsson
Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666
Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M
University and college campuses are not immune to acts of violence. Unfortunately there is limited information regarding violence in the academic setting among women employees. As such, the purpose of this exploratory research was to examine issues that female faculty and staff members have about safety on and around campus, including concerns…
Fletcher, Paula C.; Bryden, Pamela J.
Foodborne diseases remain an important cause of morbidity in the United States among all age groups. A potentially important contributor to this morbidity is improper food handling and preparation practices in kitchens at restaurants and in private homes. In 1998, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) established numeric scores for restaurant inspections and posted grades for these inspections publicly; by the end of 1998 this initiative was credited with helping to reduce by 13.1% (compared with 1997) the number of hospitalizations for foodborne infections from nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli in the region. In the spring of 2006, the LACDPH Environmental Health Program launched the Home Kitchen Self-Inspection Program, a voluntary self-inspection and education program, to promote safer food hygiene practices at home. This report describes the implementation of this program and the results from its web-based self-assessment questionnaire, the Food Safety Quiz, for the initial program period of 2006--2008. Overall, approximately 13,000 adults completed the quiz; 34% received an A rating, 27% a B, 25% a C, and 14% received a numeric score because they scored lower than 70% on the self-assessment. Use of interactive, online learning tools such as the Food Safety Quiz can be used to promote home food safety in the community. Further research is needed to evaluate and improve the program content and to assess its effect on changing food handling and preparation practices in the home kitchen. PMID:20814405
We interviewed 64 parents by questionnaire after completion of a clinial trial involving their children for their perceptions and attitudes about informed consent. The results show that only a small minority realised that drug trials are designed to assess not only efficacy but safety as well. More worrisome was the majority of parents who felt that drug trials conducted by
S. C. Harth; Y. H. Thong
Kampo medicine has been the primary medical model in Japan until the mid 1800s, regained a prominent role in today's Japanese medical system. Today, 148 herbal Kampo formulas can be prescribed under the national health insurance system, allowing physicians to integrate Kampo in their daily practice. This article aims to provide information about the extent to which Kampo is now used in clinics throughout Japan and about physician's current attitudes toward Kampo. We used the results of a 2008 survey that was administered to physicians throughout Japan (n = 684). The data showed that 83.5% of physicians currently use Kampo in the clinic, although the distribution of physicians who use Kampo differ widely depending on the specialty and provided a breakdown of Kampo usage by specialty. It will be interesting to see how each specialty incorporates Kampo into its respective field as Kampo continues to play a pertinent role in Japanese medical system. PMID:22319543
Moschik, E. C.; Mercado, C.; Yoshino, T.; Matsuura, K.; Watanabe, K.
'In situ simulation' versus 'off site simulation' in obstetric emergencies and their effect on knowledge, safety attitudes, team performance, stress, and motivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Background Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. Methods and design The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safety attitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams. The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safety attitudes questionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the organization, a team-based score on video-assessed team performance and on selected clinical performance. Discussion The perspective is to provide new knowledge on contextual effects of different simulation settings. Trial registration ClincialTrials.gov NCT01792674. PMID:23870501
Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.
Steckel, Richard J.
ContextBureaucratic organisational culture is less favourable to quality improvement, whereas organisations with group (teamwork) culture are better aligned for quality improvement.ObjectiveTo determine if an organisational group culture shows better alignment with patient safety climate.DesignCross-sectional administration of questionnaires.Setting40 Hospital Corporation of America hospitals.Participants1406 nurses, ancillary staff, allied staff and physicians.Main outcome measuresCompeting Values Measure of Organisational Culture, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ),
T Speroff; S Nwosu; R Greevy; M B Weinger; T R Talbot; R J Wall; J K Deshpande; D J France; E W Ely; H Burgess; J Englebright; M V Williams; R S Dittus
To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…
Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert
Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.
Helmreich, R. L.
This study assessed the improvement in relationship quality, effectiveness and safety associated with vardenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The study was conducted in 1433 centres across 21 countries and comprised a baseline patient visit and up to four follow-up visits during an observational period of 1 year. Relationship quality, happiness, satisfaction with vardenafil treatment, and safety and tolerability were assessed by physician interviews and patient and partner questionnaires. Overall, 7496 patients were enrolled in the study, of which 7430 were included in the safety analyses and 6470 in the effectiveness analyses. Relationship quality, assessed by a relationship questionnaire (partnerschaftsfragebogen [PFB]), was improved at last observation carried forward, compared with baseline, in both patients and partners and satisfaction with the effectiveness of vardenafil treatment was high. Vardenafil was well tolerated and adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. These results confirm the well-established effectiveness and safety profiles of vardenafil. This study is the first to demonstrate improvements in relationship quality following vardenafil therapy, in both patients and partners, using the PFB questionnaire. PMID:24397688
Hartmann, Uwe; Hanisch, Jens Ulrich; Mattern, Andreas
The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships,
Georgina Hammock; Deborah South Richardson
Farming is the second most hazardous occupation in the U.S. The high mortality rate is due in large part to farm equipment hazards, particularly tractor overturns. Injuries and deaths associated with tractor overturns could be prevented with the use of a rollover protective structure (ROPS). In spite of the known dangers associated with overturn incidents, farmers are reluctant to retrofit ROPS on older tractors. Few agricultural safety campaigns target the issue of ROPS retrofits, and none have been evaluated systematically. This article reports a study that examines a set of messages that were central to the Community Partners for Healthy Farming project. This study indicates that narrative-based messages and messages incorporating fear appeals are more favorably evaluated by farmers than messages that simply inform farmers or messages that rely on statistics. PMID:12046808
Morgan, S E; Cole, H P; Struttmann, T; Piercy, L
Objective: The article arises from a research project investigating the effectiveness of safety training on changing attitudes toward safety issues. Followed by the training intervention was observed that employees’ helplessness decreased. The researchers have come to the idea of investigating how safety training can reduce perceived helplessness. Thus, this research examined the effectiveness of safety training on reducing employees’ helplessness with attention to the mediating role of attitude toward safety issues. Methods: The current study was an experimental study with the control group. A total of 204 (101 experimental group and 103 control group) completed safety attitude questionnaire and perceived helplessness before a safety training course including four 90-min sessions over 4 consecutive days in Esfahan Steel Company in 2012 between October and December. Only members of the experimental group participated in this course. These questionnaires, approximately 30 days later, again were run on members of both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive indexes, t-, and F-test. Results: Results by comparing the two groups showed that safety training was effective only on individuals with perceived low helplessness (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In individuals with perceived high helplessness, safety training only with changing safety attitudes can reduce the perceived helplessness.
Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohamad Reza
BackgroundAchieving a culture of safety is believed to be an important mechanism for improving patient safety. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) measures provider perceptions of patient safety culture across six domains; higher scores denote more positive perceptions. Although professional differences on the SAQ have been explored, sex differences have not.MethodsThe SAQ was administered to operating room (OR) care givers at
B. T. Carney; P. D. Mills; J. P. Bagian
This study was aimed at gaining a better understanding of the nature of negative attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A sample of 250 students at the University of Tromsø responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes towards GM food, attitude strength, intention to buy such food, and their personal values. Values and attitude strength proved to be important constructs when
Pirjo Honkanen; Bas Verplanken
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791
Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Job insecurity is related to many detrimental outcomes, with reduced job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment being the 2 most prominent reactions. Yet, effect sizes vary greatly, suggesting the presence of moderator variables. On the basis of Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory, we assumed that country-level enacted uncertainty avoidance and a country's social safety net would affect an individual's appraisal of job insecurity. More specifically, we hypothesized that these 2 country-level variables would buffer the negative relationships between job insecurity and the 2 aforementioned job attitudes. Combining 3 different data sources, we tested the hypotheses in a sample of 15,200 employees from 24 countries by applying multilevel modeling. The results confirmed the hypotheses that both enacted uncertainty avoidance and the social safety net act as cross-level buffer variables. Furthermore, our data revealed that the 2 cross-level interactions share variance in explaining the 2 job attitudes. Our study responds to calls to look at stress processes from a multilevel perspective and highlights the potential importance of governmental regulation when it comes to individual stress processes. PMID:22448808
Debus, Maike E; Probst, Tahira M; König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin
Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)
Amo, Michael F.; Bittner, John R.
A questionnaire about dreams (QAD) was administered to 196 high school students to develop an "attitudes toward dreams" questionnaire and to explore the relationship of such attitudes to creativity. The QAD was also administered to 23 high school students who showed evidence of creative achievement and 23 control Ss. (SW)
This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…
Kaiser, Florian G.; And Others
This study investigated the attitudes of 72 Serbian teachers towards the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) in mainstream schools; they were asked to complete "My Thinking About Inclusion Questionnaire" (Stoiber, Goettinger, & Goetz, 1998). It was found that Serbian teachers held overall slightly negative attitudes towards…
Kalyva, Efrosini; Gojkovic, Dina; Tsakiris, Vlastaris
There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…
In the aftermath of the Piper Alpha disaster in 1988 and the subsequent inquiry and recommendations made by Lord Cullen in 1990, there have been legislative changes and a renewed committment to safety by oil companies operating on the UK continental shelf (UKCS). Part of this new regime involves the preparation of a ‘safety case’ for each installation operating on
Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin
With the aim to optimize surgical safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSCL) in 2008. The SSCL has been piloted in many countries worldwide and shown to improve both safety attitudes within surgical teams and patient outcomes. In the study reported here we investigated whether implementation of the SSCL improved the teamwork and safety climate at a single university hospital in Japan. All surgical teams at the hospital implemented the SSCL in all surgical procedures with strict adherence to the SSCL implementation manual developed by WHO. Changes in safety attitudes were evaluated using the modified operating-room version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). A before and after design was used, with the questionnaire administered before and 3 months after SSCL implementation. Our analysis revealed that the mean scores on the SAQ had significantly improved 3 months after implementation of the SSCL compared to those before implementation. This finding implies that effective implementation of the SSCL could improve patient outcomes in Japan, similar to the findings of the WHO pilot study. PMID:24170220
Kawano, Takashi; Taniwaki, Miki; Ogata, Kimiyo; Sakamoto, Miwa; Yokoyama, Masataka
Interstate motorcoach travel has been the fastest-growing transportation mode in recent years. To identify challenges to monitoring compliance with motorcoach safety regulations and to examine factors affecting safety, four focus groups with a total of 32 participants were conducted during 2011, one with federal safety investigators, one with state motor carrier inspectors, and two with motorcoach drivers. Investigators and inspectors expressed concern about falsified logbooks, inadequate sleep among motorcoach drivers, hazards from speeding motorcoaches, practices by motorcoach carriers to mask ownership and avoid oversight, and difficulties keeping up with rapid motorcoach industry growth. Drivers described problems with getting sufficient sleep, pressure to drive longer than permitted, and fears of motor carriers giving them less work if they turned down driving jobs. Drivers said that driving 72–74 mph was acceptable in light traffic. To help assess workload among personnel performing safety oversight, data on numbers of motor carriers, commercial motor vehicles, federal investigators, and state inspectors were obtained from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The data suggested a heavy workload (2.13 inspectors per 1,000 commercial motor vehicles). The focus groups of inspectors, investigators, and drivers indicated the existence of serious motorcoach safety problems, provided insight about the multiple factors contributing to them, and described major obstacles to effective safety oversight. The qualitative nature of focus group research means that these notable findings will need to be measured using other methods such as surveys and observational studies. PMID:23169117
Braver, Elisa R.; Dodd, Robert S.; Cheung, Ivan; Long, Lindsay O.
The aim of this study was to replicate previous research examining attitudes to sport psychology consultation conducted in the US, Germany and the UK, and New Zealand. The study employed the Sport Psychology Attitudes-Revised (SPA-R) questionnaire in order to examine the attitudes elite Irish athletes (N = 240) hold toward sport psychology, and also to compare these attitudes with those
David Lavallee; Des Jennings; Ailsa G. Anderson; Scott B. Martin
Foodborne illness is a challenge in the production and service of ethnic foods. The purpose of the study described in this article was to explore variables influencing the behaviors of U.S. Chinese restaurant owners/operators regarding the provision of food safety training in their restaurants. Seventeen major Chinese cultural values were identified through individual interviews with 20 Chinese restaurant owners/operators. Most participants felt satisfied with their previous health inspections. Several expressed having difficulty, however, following the health inspectors' instructions and in understanding the health inspection report. A few participants provided food safety training to their employees due to state law. Lack of money, time, labor/energy, and a perceived need for food safety training were recognized as major challenges to providing food safety training in Chinese restaurants. Videos, case studies, and food safety training handbooks were the most preferred food safety training methods of Chinese restaurant owners/operators, and Chinese was the preferred language in which to conduct the training. PMID:23858664
Liu, Pei; Kwon, Junehee
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…
Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.
The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies. PMID:24286820
Although a number of instruments for assessing attitudes toward statistics have been developed, several questions with regard to the structure and item functioning remain unresolved. In this study, the structure of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS-36), a widely used questionnaire to measure six aspects of students' attitudes toward…
VanHoof, Stijn; Kuppens, Sofie; Sotos, Ana Elisa Castro; Verschaffel, Lieven; Onghena, Patrick
Focuses on the relationship between attitude and behavior in language. Adolescent male and female subjects were recorded, and index-scores of their linguistic behavior were compared to their assessment of in-group members in a verbal-guise attitude experiment and to their attitudes concerning language usage in a questionnaire. (Author/VWL)
Ladegaard, Hans J.
Aims Medication error reporting is an important measure to prevent medication error incidents in a healthcare system and can serve\\u000a as an important tool for improving patient safety. This study aimed to investigate attitudes of healthcare professionals (doctors,\\u000a nurses, and pharmacists) in reporting medication errors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fifty-six healthcare professionals working at a 900-bed tertiary referral hospital were surveyed. A questionnaire using two
Ajit Sarvadikar; Gordon Prescott; David Williams
Resources made available by DCEG for use in developing study questionnaires. Includes questionnaires reviewed and approved by DCEG’s Technical Evaluation Committee, as well as non-reviewed questionnaire modules to be used as starting points for development.
The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge–attitude–practice (KAP) and their related factors on injury prevention and safety promotion among children's parents in the city area, in order to provide scientific data for the development of Safe School in mainland China. A total of 3617 subjects were investigated in Jinan with the help of a self-administered questionnaire which
Xinting Wang; Na Chen; Zhongfeng Shi; Zhongtang Zhao
Negative attitudes students bring to class can obstruct teaching and learning. These attitudes can be traced to ideas of selfism advanced by modern philosophers. Discusses why students are not learning, examining sources of opposing values and how to recognize obstructive attitudes. Presents suggestions for handling negative attitudes that…
Ruggiero, Vincent Ryan
A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 1200 Australian adults was conducted in March 2002 in order to identify the factors of greatest concern to consumers in relation to the safety and quality of food, to measure recent trends in views about hazards in the food supply, to explore beliefs about the safety of additives and to discover whether consumers use food labels to check for ingredients of concern. Forty five percent of Australians responded that they were more concerned about the safety and quality of food than they were five years previously, while only 5% were less concerned. The most common potential hazards volunteered were additives and chemical residues (28%), followed by food processing/handling/freshness (21%), food hygiene or contamination (14%), and also genetic modification (14%). More than half of the respondents believe that additives and preservatives are harmful to your health and that many foods contain high levels of pesticides. A greater proportion of consumers claimed to be conscious of checking for additives, either general or specific, on food labels than for information on the salt or sugar content of products. Food regulators, journalists, the food industry and health professionals need to work together to correct misconceptions about the risks to health posed by common food additives and pesticide residues. PMID:15003912
Williams, Peter; Stirling, Emma; Keynes, Nick
Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…
Logan, T. K.; Shannon, Lisa; Walker, Robert
. Where was the study child born? City ST ___ ___ Country 6. What is the child's sex? Male Female 7. HowAppendix B: Questionnaire B1: Questionnaire #12;Do not write in this space To protect your child/her as the "study child". This page, which includes his/her personal information, will be separated from the rest
Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)
Education in Science, 1996
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students’ pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency of climate change. The results from the pilot and the final study show the questionnaire
E. M. Dijkstra; M. J. Goedhart
Mailed an attitude questionnaire containing sensitive items (e.g., attitudes towards drugs) and nonsensitive items to U.S. Army senior cadets with instructions to sign or not sign the questionnaire. Chi-square analysis for the 668 respondents show that there were no significant differences for any of the items between Ss who signed and Ss who did not sign their questionnaires. It is
Richard P. Butler
Aim: To explore factors associated with students' attitudes towards their peers with disabilities. Method: All 7th grade students (aged 12-13y) from 12 schools in the Toulouse area were invited to participate (n = 1509). Attitudes were measured using the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes Towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) questionnaire (affective,…
Vignes, Celine; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Sentenac, Mariane; Coley, Nicola; Navarro, Felix; Grandjean, Helene; Arnaud, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
This study investigated relationships between high school counselors' ethical decision-making, gender, attitudes towards gender, and sexual attitudes. Of the 161 respondents, only 157 participants' data sets were included in the data set. Participants completed the Ethical Decision-Making Questionnaire, The Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hendrick,…
Martin-Donald, Kimberly A.
The authors tested the hypothesis that high scorers on the EPQ extraversion scale express more tolerant and humanitarian attitudes towards marginal social groups whereas the high scorers on psychoticism take a more repressive position. The data collected among 249 Polish subjects by means of Eysenck and Eysenck's (Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, 1975) EPQ questionnaire and the scale measuring
Zbigniew Zaleski; Sybil Eysenck; Hans Eysenck
Administered an 80-item questionnaire measuring attitudes toward mechanization to 45 undergraduate students in physical science, biological science, social science, and fine arts. Responses were factor analyzed using a varimax rotation. Factor scores were created for 6 of the resulting factors: Global Mechanism, Mechanical Curiosity, Preference for Hand-made Goods, Alienation, Spiritual Benefits of Technology, and Human Vitalism. These factor scores were
Roy D. Goldman; Bruce B. Platt; Robert B. Kaplan
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293
Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto
Introduction Workplace attitude, beliefs and culture may impact the safety of patient care. This study characterized perceptions of safety culture in a nationwide sample of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 61 Advanced Life Support EMS agencies in North America. We administered a modified version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), a survey instrument measuring dimensions of workplace safety culture (Safety Climate, Teamwork Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition). We included full-time and part-time paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians. We determined the variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies. Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM), we determined associations between safety culture scores and individual and EMS agency characteristics. Results We received 1,715 completed surveys from 61 EMS agencies (mean agency response rate 47%; 95% CI 10%, 83%). There was wide variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies [mean (min, max)]: Safety Climate 74.5 (Min 49.9, Max 89.7), Teamwork Climate 71.2 (Min 45.1, Max 90.1), Perceptions of Management 67.2 (Min 31.1, Max 92.2), Job Satisfaction 75.4 (Min 47.5, Max 93.8), Working Conditions 66.9 (Min 36.6, Max 91.4), Stress Recognition 55.1 (Min 31.3, Max 70.6). Air medical EMS agencies tended to score higher across all safety culture domains. Lower safety culture scores were associated with increased annual patient contacts. Safety climate domain scores were not associated with other individual or EMS agency characteristics. Conclusion In this sample, workplace safety culture varies between EMS agencies. PMID:20809688
Patterson, P. Daniel; Huang, David T.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Simeone, Scott; Weaver, Matthew; Wang, Henry E.
This study examinedfactors related to attitudes aboutgender-role equality in 50Mexican American married mothers and 33 Mexican American married fathers. Each parent completed the Attitudes Toward Gender Scale (a modified version of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale) and other attitude questionnaires. Mothers with communal values who were born in the United States, with higher levels of education, and who placed less
Campbell Leaper; Dena Valin
in mental health. Methods: The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all of training in mental health on attitudes towards depression. Keywords: depression, attitudes, family1 Beliefs and attitudes of French family practitioners towards depression: the impact of training
Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457
Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D
Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N?=?181, n?=?146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p?=?0.021), support for innovation (p?=?0.042) and task orientation (p?=?0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing. PMID:24393065
Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta
In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.
James T. Biehle
This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p?=?0.032), educational level (p?0.0001), sunscreen use (p?=?0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p?=?0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p?0.0001) and regular use of hats (p?=?0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population. PMID:24890922
Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E
PTSD QUESTIONNAIRE Participant's Name _____________________________________ Instructions a bit Extremely 1. Repeated, disturbing memories, thoughts, or images of a stressful military experience from the past? 2. Repeated disturbing dreams of a stressful military experience from the past? 3
New Mexico, University of
Whether developing questions for questionnaires or interviews or focus groups, there are certain guidelines that help to ensure that respondents provide information that is useful and can later be analyzed. This resource offers advice on developing questions for interviews or focus groups. It contains basics conducting the interviews, providing directions to respondents as well as guidelines for composing the content and wording of the questionnaire. This resource is aimed for use in workshops/conferences and is intended for novice evaluators.
Study objectives were to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) and evaluate correlations between factors and maternal feeding practices, attitudes, and perceptions. Mothers (N = 144) were 43% minority race/ethnicity, 24% full-time employed, 54% ...
A study was conducted to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments, and to examine associations between these factors and students' attitudes. A measure of students' environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument was influenced by the four…
Waldrip, Bruce G.; Fisher, Darrell L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and decision making on nuclear energy in the current society. Eighty-nine students attended the instruction and participated in pre and post questionnaires to understand their understandings of nuclear energy. In this study, science knowledge was categorized into content and contextual knowledge, attitude consisted of images, safety, risk, potential, benefits and future roles, and decision making section included preference and alternative about lifetime extension of nuclear power plant. The results of questionnaires were analyzed by correlation, cross-tabulation and regression. As a result, while students' understandings of science knowledge were significantly improved throughout the instruction, they maintained similar attitude and decision making on the issue. Regarding the relationship of the three domains, attitude showed some degree of connection to decision making whereas science knowledge did not show a significant relationship to decision making. This finding challenges SSI teaching in content-based science curriculum and classroom. Reflection and implications on the way of teaching SSI in the classroom were discussed further in this paper.
Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung
Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.
A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…
Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.
Foot Protection Head Protection Safety glasses with side shields Laser safety glasses Safety goggles (employee portion) questionnaire to EH&S: Email: Safety @uci.edu OR Mail: Chemical Hygiene Officer Environmental Health & Safety 244 EH&S Services Facility ZOT Code2725 949-824-6200 #12;University of California
George, Steven C.
Objectives: The objective of this present survey was to look into the attitudes of medical laboratory technology (MLT) graduates towards the internship training period of the MLT Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Faisal University. Material and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed for this purpose. The study period was from December 1st 2002 – 31st December 2004. Two-hundred questionnaires were distributed to recent graduates, and 115 were returned completed. Results: All respondents agreed with the importance and necessity of the internship period, and felt it should not be reduced or eliminated. The most favorite laboratory where they liked to work was microbiology (70%). They all agreed that evaluation report with hospital staff and laboratory set up were vital in achieving the goals of the internship period. The majority stressed the significance of safety precautions and the application of theoretical knowledge before performing technical assignments. Conclusion: The respondents had very positive attitudes towards the internship-training period stressing its importance. The most favorite laboratory rotations were in rank order: Microbiology, Serology followed by Histotechnology, Hematology, Blood Banking and finally Clinical Chemistry. The majority of graduates had a very positive attitude also towards medical laboratory technology as a profession. PMID:23012111
Bashawri, Layla A.M.; Ahmed, Mirghani A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.L.; Al-Salim, Jawaher A.
towards dietary practices, to measure the nutrition knowledge of college students, and to test for relationships among intake, attitudes, and knowledge. Students were recruited and instructed to complete two 3-day food records and three questionnaires...
Weaver, Sara Sanner
High levels of dysfunctional attitudes have been associated with greater severity of depression and poorer response to pharmacological treatment. The goal of our study was to examine this relationship and the changes in dysfunctional attitudes after treatment with fluoxetine, a relatively selective serotonin uptake inhibitor. Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated with both the Cognitions Questionnaire (CQ) and the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) in 115 outpatients diagnosed as having major depressive disorder. After 8 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, 67 of these patients again completed the DAS and the CQ. Dysfunctional attitudes were associated with depression severity both before and after treatment and decreased linearly with treatment of the depression. Negative thinking and dysfunctional attitudes, as measured by both DAS and CQ, were not predictive of the degree of improvement in depressive symptoms. These findings partly support a state-dependent interpretation of dysfunctional attitudes, and provide evidence of significant reductions in these attitudes after treatment with a serotonin uptake inhibitor. PMID:8277301
Fava, M; Bless, E; Otto, M W; Pava, J A; Rosenbaum, J F
It is estimated that in the United States, more than 40,000 patients are injured each day because of preventable medical errors. Patient safety experts and graduate medical education accreditation leaders recognize that medical education reform must include the integration of safety training focused on error causation, system engineering, and…
This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first. PMID:15677172
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Kleinke, Chris L.
Background: Underreporting of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a threat to pharmacovigilance. Various factors related with the knowledge and attitudes are responsible for underreporting of ADRs. Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitudes of doctors to ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eight questionnaires were administered to doctors working in a teaching hospital with an ADR monitoring center. Statistical Analysis Used: The descriptive statistics were used for responses to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to observe the association of knowledge and attitude with experience and position. Results: The response rate was 62.9%. Spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 19.1%. The major factors found to be responsible for underreporting of ADR include inadequate risk perception about newly marketed drugs (77.9%), fear factor (73.5%), diffidence (67.7%), lack of clarity of information on ADR form about reporting (52.9%), lethargy (42.7%), insufficient training to identify ADRs (41.2%), lack of awareness about existence of pharmacovigilance program (30.9%) and ADR monitoring center in the institute (19.1%), and inadequate risk perception of over-the-counter (OTC) product (20.6%) and herbal medicines (13.2%). Experience and position did not influence the knowledge and attitudes of doctors. Conclusion: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes require urgent attention not only to improve the rate of spontaneous reporting, but also for enhanced safety of the patients and society at large. PMID:23633861
Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Goyal, Chhaya; Chandel, Nitibhushansingh; Rafi, Mohammed
It is noted that previous analyses of the boomerang effect (attitude change as a result of training in the direction opposite of that intended) in aviation training environments were limited in that each subscale of the cockpit management attitudes questionnaire (CMAQ) was examined independently. This study develops and utilizes a new algorithm for grouping subjects such that a global attitude change score is derived from the attitude change scores on each CMAQ subscale. By evaluating global attitude change in addition to the more specific attitude change on each subscale, it might be possible to better comprehend the effects of crew resource management training on pilot attitudes.
Irwin, Cheryl M.
This study examined the relationships between identity orientations and attitudes toward cochlear implant (CI). A total of 115 deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) adolescents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Deaf Identity Developmental Scale (DIDS) and an attitudes toward CI questionnaire. The DIDS results showed that participants'…
Most, Tova; Wiesel, Amatzia; Blitzer, Tamar
A sample of 947 subjects completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and beliefs towards the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. A section of the questionnaire was aimed at assessing the role of trust on perception of risks and benefits associated with pesticides on foods. The subjects tended to hold positive attitudes towards eating fruits and vegetables produced by organic agriculture.
Anna Saba; Federico Messina
BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. METHODS: Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination.
Charlotte Walsh; Aradhana Gera; Meeraj Shah; Amit Sharma; Judy E Powell; Sue Wilson
The paper reports on an investigation into pupils' attitudes to loud sounds before and after teaching. This is part of the research project 'Design and validation of a teaching learning sequence about sound, hearing and health' for pupils aged 10 - 11 years. Pupils (41) have answered a multiple-choice questionnaire about their experiences of tinnitus, practices of headphones, attitudes to
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The
M. Laffoy; P. Fitzpatrick; M. Jordan; D. Dowdall
Correlation of questionnaire results from a sample of 1326 students with hypnotic susceptibility scores of 340 of these later hypnotized showed (a) that those volunteering for hypnosis were more favorable in attitude than those who did not volunteer, (b) attitudes toward hypnosis were predictive of susceptibility for females, not for males, and (c) self-predictions yielded significant low positive correlations with
Janet P. Melei; Ernest R. Hilgard
Examines the attitudes of Malaysian managers and executives towards social responsibility and also the extent of socially responsible activities involved, corporate disclosure, and the factors determining the attitudes towards social responsibility. A structured questionnaire was developed based on studies by Ford and McLaughin, Teoh and Gregory Thong, Gill and Leinbach and Jones. A total of 198 responses were used for
Human stem cell research has revived long-standing debates regarding the sanctity and beginning of life. The current study addresses the issue by examining the ability of selected religiosity and personality variables to predict attitudes regarding stem cell research. Participants were given questionnaires measuring attitudes regarding stem cell research, along with the Need for Closure scale, the Internal Control Index, the
Michael E. Nielsen; Jennifer Williams; Brandon Randolph-Seng
This study explored preservice teacher attitudes towards teaching a deaf student who uses Australian Sign Language (Auslan) compared to a student who is new to Australia and speaks Polish. The participants were 200 preservice teachers in their third or fourth year of university education. A questionnaire was created to measure attitudes, and…
Ting, Claire; Gilmore, Linda
... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower Safety Pumpkin Carving Safety Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Safety Removing ...
Background: Although the Canadian Chiropractic Association and the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) endorse vaccination, the prevalence of anti-vaccination attitudes among Canadian chiropractors is unknown. This study describes the prevalence of anti-vaccination attitudes among Canadian chiro- practic students. Methods: An 11-item questionnaire about attitudes toward vaccination was distrib- uted to students enrolled at CMCC during the 1999\\/2000 academic year. The
Jason W. Busse; Abhaya V. Kulkarni; James B. Campbell; H. Stephen Injeyan
unpredictable situations. B. Need for cognition (8-items scale, from (Cacioppo, Petty, & Feng Kao, 1984) Â items, Australia 4 School of Earth and Geographical Sciences, The University of Western Australia 1. Cognitive for the analysis. A. Need for closure (15-items scale, from (Roets & Van Hiel, 2011)) 1. I don't like situations
, United Kingdom, 2 Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, 3 Faculty of Health & Social Care, University of Hull, Hull, England, United Kingdom, 4 Department of Clinical Psychology, University of East Anglia, Norwich, England, United Kingdom, 5 Department
Millar, Andrew J.
Two hundred and twenty-six females and 104 young adult males indicated the extent to which 80 comments concerning chocolate applied to them. Factor analysis indicated that three factors accounted for these data. The first factor was weighted on questions that indicated a craving for chocolate and the tendency to seek comfort from chocolate under emotionally stressful conditions: it was labelled
David Benton; Karen Greenfield; Michael Morgan
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…
Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.
Modern biotechnology will have a large impact on society and requires informed decision-making and critical attitudes toward biotechnology among the public. This study aims to explore these attitudes in secondary education. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed according to the general tripartite theory of attitudes. A total of 574…
Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine
People's assumptions about robots are an important factor affecting their construction and change of attitudes and emotions toward robots. The assumptions should be measured not only to investigate psychological factors determining reactions toward robots but also to study crosscultural attitudes toward robots. As far as measurement of people's attitudes and emotions can contribute to the design of human-robot interaction, questionnaire
Tatsuya Nomura; Takayuki Kanda; Tomohiro Suzuki; Kensuke Kato
This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…
Ali, Ibrahim M.
Analyzes Likert attitude questionnaires given to 28 engineering students during their first semester at a Venezuelan university. Investigates the evolution of students' attitudes when in laboratory sessions using the DERIVE Computer Algebra System (CAS). Suggests that use of DERIVE symbolic calculus software has a positive influence on attitudes…
Machin, Matias Camacho; Rivero, Ramon Depool
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Daniel R. Zalles
To assess physician attitudes and practices in controversial areas of child abuse and neglect, anonymous questionnaires were mailed to pediatricians, family practitioners, and emergency medicine physicians in Pima County (Tucson) and Arizona (statewide). The effects of respondent characteristics on responses to each item were analyzed. Three hundred and ninety-three questionnaires (49.3%) were returned. Responses differed according to gender, age, specialty,
William N. Marshall; Catherine Locke
An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…
Nelson, Linden L.; Slem, Charles M.
Compared nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health/physical education, home economics, science, and social science teachers (44 percent response rate from 1191 questionnaires mailed). Results indicate that teachers who taught something about food/nutrition have had more food/nutrition courses, higher knowledge scores, and more…
Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.
Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)
Perkes, A. Cordell
This study examined attitudes of high school students toward fitness and sports activities taught in physical education, and the perceived effectiveness of their physical education curriculum for improving their fitness and skill levels. Students from six high schools and 17 intact physical education classes agreed to participate. Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 515 students, 159 of whom
G. Linda Rikard; Dominique Banville
This study examined graduate student attitudes towards letter and pass/fail grading systems in the Law School and the School of Education in a selective university in the United States. Fifty-four students completed a questionnaire on goal orientations (ability comparison vs. mastery), amount of effort and stress in each of the two grading…
Michaelides, Michalis; Kirshner, Ben
Obesity stereotypes and anti fat attitudes influence the social behavior of middle school students according to a study presented last June at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Using a series of questionnaires and fat and thin silhouette figures, the researchers quizzed 176 boys and 141 girls between the ages of…
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPERD), 2005
The present study reports attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods among Swedish consumers. A random nation-wide sample of 2000 addressees, aged 18–65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 786 (39%) responded. Most of these consumers were rather negative about GM foods. However, males, younger respondents and those with higher level of education were more positive than were females, older respondents
Maria K. Magnusson; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti
This article discusses resident attitudes to tourism development. Research employing a questionnaire survey and focusing on a proposed development was conducted in a rural New Zealand region. There was general support for this plan, but the community was not homogeneous in its views. Perceived positive impacts were the provision of a community facility, job creation, and the promotion of the
Peter Mason; Joanne Cheyne
This study examined, using social exchange theory, a range of variables involved in determining resident attitudes toward tourism development and the adoption of sustainable tourism. After a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of residents in tourism development, and of the use of social exchange theory, 430 completed questionnaires obtained in a Texas town involved in tourism were
Hwansuk Chris Choi; Iain Murray
This study, undertaken to assess the feasibility of the integration of a multimedia learning provision into a university language curriculum, reports results from a questionnaire of 107 undergraduates' attitudes toward the use of a multimedia program. Implications are that multimedia can play a beneficial role in the curriculum and may facilitate…
Responses to a 40-item questionnaire distributed to 50 mildly mentally retarded (MR) adults indicate that the majority possess accurate information about MR, hold realistic attitudes toward their own needs and abilities, and advocate community integration of the retarded. (Author/JG)
Gan, Jennifer; And Others
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
In order to formulate a parsimonious tool to assess empathy, we used factor analysis on a combination of self-report measures to examine consensus and developed a brief self-report measure of this common factor. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) represents empathy as a primarily emotional process. In three studies, the TEQ demonstrated strong convergent validity, correlating positively with behavioral measures of social decoding, self-report measures of empathy, and negatively with a measure of Autism symptomatology. Moreover, it exhibited good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The TEQ is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for the assessment of empathy. PMID:19085285
Spreng, R. Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Mar, Raymond A.; Levine, Brian
The purpose of this paper is to give evidence for the thesis that if teachers using a questionnaire as a data collection instrument have the questionnaire items translated from one language into another, they cannot assume that the translated items are valid simply because they were translated. Even if the original questionnaire items were…
Griffee, Dale T.
In order to find out the scope and extent of the impact on ship navigation safety at night by light pollution at sea, a questionnaire was carried out and the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were checked with statistical analysis software SPSS (edition 17.0), based on a brief introduction to the design and implementation of the questionnaire for light
Zhu Jinshan; Sun Licheng; Xiao Zhongming; Zhao Chunyang; Li Yin
Applied Research Program (ARP) staff use a variety of methods to develop and test questionnaires, including established Questionnaire Design Principles, empirical methods such as Cognitive Testing and psychometric methods such as Item Response Theory Modeling.
ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the US and Canada.
The content and psychometric properties of the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ) are described. An earlier version of the CLQ was developed to test the hypothesis that claustrophobia is comprised of two distinct but related fears--the fear of suffocation and the fear of restriction [J. Anxiety Disord. 7 (1993) 281.]. The scale was used to assess patients undergoing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure [J. Behav. Med. 21 (1998) 255.] and in participants with panic disorder [J. Abnorm. Psychol. 105 (1996) 146; Taylor, S., Rachman, S., & Radomsky, A. S. (1996). The prediction of panic: a comparison of suffocation false alarm and cognitive theories. Unpublished data.]. On the basis of these studies, we decided to revise and shorten the CLQ, collect normative data, and provide information on the scale's predictive and discriminant validity as well as its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This was done through a set of four interconnected studies that included psychometric analyses of undergraduate and community adult questionnaire responses and behavioural testing. Results indicate that the CLQ has good predictive and discriminant validity as well as good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The CLQ appears to be a reliable and sensitive measure of claustrophobia and its component fears. We encourage the use of the CLQ in a variety of clinical and research applications. The scale is provided in this paper for public use. PMID:11474815
Radomsky, A S; Rachman, S; Thordarson, D S; McIsaac, H K; Teachman, B A
parts: (1) a questionnaire re- garding factors which influenced energy utilization during fall 1985, (2) an opinionnaire relating to attitudes and managerial skills which affected energy utilization, and (3) a subjective questionnaire for historical.... AULYSIS OF DATA For the purpose of this study, Questionnaire Item 14 addressed the principal 's training: "Have you received energy conservation training as support for your current responsibilities?" Table 2 indi- cates that 30 (58...
Huntington, P.; Mayfield, E.
Objective To explore the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for pharmacy workers in China by using a Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), and to assess the psychometric properties of the translated Chinese language version of the PSOPSC. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Data were obtained from 20 hospital pharmacies in the southwest part of China. Methods We performed ?2 test to explore the differences on pharmacy staff in different hospital and qualification levels and countries towards patient safety culture. We also computed descriptive statistics, internal consistency coefficients and intersubscale correlation analysis, and then conducted an exploratory factor analysis. A test–retest was performed to assess reproducibility of the items. Results A total of 630 questionnaires were distributed of which 527 were responded to validly (response rate 84%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 37% to 90%. The positive response rate on three dimensions (‘Teamwork’, ‘Staff Training and Skills’ and ‘Staffing, Work Pressure and Pace’) was higher than that of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) data (p<0.05). There was a statistical difference in the perception of patient safety culture at different hospital and qualification levels. The internal consistency of the total survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach's ?=0.89). Conclusions The results demonstrated that among the pharmacy staffs surveyed in China, there was a positive attitude towards patient safety culture in their organisations. Identifying perspectives of patient safety culture from pharmacists in different hospital and qualification levels are important, since this can help support decisions about action to improve safety culture in pharmacy settings. The Chinese translation of the PSOPSC questionnaire (V.2012) applied in our study is acceptable. PMID:24980042
Jia, P L; Zhang, L H; Zhang, M M; Zhang, L L; Zhang, C; Qin, S F; Li, X L; Liu, K X
The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. PMID:22621303
Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu
In order to study the following two points, we conducted an attitude survey among senior high school students.Study 1The differences in attitudes between nuclear power generation and other science and technologies.Study 2The relationship between students' interests in science and attitudes toward nuclear power generation.In the questionnaire, the attitudes toward nuclear power generation consisted of four questions: (1) pros and cons,
Izumi Komiya; Hiroyuki Torii; Yasuhiko Fujii; Noriyosu Hayashizaki
Background To develop a healthcare environment that is congruent with diversity among care providers and care recipients and to eliminate ethnic discrimination, it’s important to map out and assess caregivers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity. Because of a lack of standardized questionnaires in the Swedish context, this study designed and standardized a questionnaire: the Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions (AAAD, for short). Method The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments. Results Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76). The result of the factor analysis identified six dimensions in the questionnaire: 1) Attitude toward discrimination, 2) Interaction between staff, 3) Stereotypic attitude toward working with a person with a Swedish background, 4) Attitude toward working with a patient with a different background, 5) Attitude toward communication with persons with different backgrounds, 6) Attitude toward interaction between patients and staff. Conclusion This study introduces a newly developed questionnaire with good reliability and validity values that can assess healthcare workers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity in the healthcare environment and healthcare delivery. PMID:23607334
Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…
Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet
A questionnaire was developed to assess high school principals' attitudes regarding the Tennessee Proficiency Test. The questionnaires were distributed statewide to the 147 public high school principals; 121 principals responded. Questionnaire items dealt with issues such as policy statements, remedial activities, graduation requirements, and…
Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas
Objective: The authors examined the effect of supervision on internal medicine residents' attitudes toward and management of depression. Method: Internal medicine residents completed a survey during preclinical conferences. The survey included a published, validated questionnaire, the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, and items developed by the…
Milone, Jennifer M.; Gottumukkala, Aruna; Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.
Background The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem worldwide, which presents a significant threat to public health globally in the 21st century. A substantial evidence has shown that the general community plays a role in the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance. The present study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice towards antibiotic use. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 770 randomly selected Kuwaiti individuals. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. Results The response rate was 88.3%. Nearly three-quarters (72.8%) of respondents had been prescribed antibiotics within 12 months prior to the study period, and 36% of them had not finished the course of treatment. Over one-quarter (27.5%) were self-medicated with antibiotics to treat mainly common cold, sore throat and cough. Self-medication was more prevalent among those who were prescribed antibiotics and those who had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Almost 47% of participants had low knowledge regarding action, use, safety and resistance of antibiotics. Forty one percent of respondents had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Better knowledge was found to be a predictor for positive attitude. Respondents level of agreement that doctors often prescribe antibiotics to meet the patient’s expectation, and that doctors often take time to consider carefully the need for an antibiotic were 52.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Conclusions These findings will aid in the assessment of the adequacy of present public educational campaigns. Also, it will provide further insight in designing future multifaceted interventions to promote specific messages to rationalize antibiotic use, and compensate for knowledge and attitude gaps as an effort towards preventing development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25675405
Awad, Abdelmoneim Ismail; Aboud, Esraa Abdulwahid
Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat; the local population resigns from taking protective action or passes the responsibility on to the authorities; control when an aware population takes preventive action that help reduce their concern. Above analyses led to comparison of Polish and European social attitudes towards floods.
Biernacki, W.; Dzia?ek, J.; Bokwa, A.
Definitions of safety culture abound, but they variously refer to the safety-related values, attitudes, beliefs, risk perceptions and behaviours of all employees. This assembly may seem too inclusive to be meaningful, but each represents a different level of processing and the choice for measurement (or intervention) is more pragmatic than theoretical. The present study addresses mainly attitudes, but also reported
T Lee; K Harrison
This study was conducted in the eastern city of China, a total of 900 questionnaires were distributed and 664 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 73.8%. Safety climate of Chinese manufacturing enterprises and differences in safety climate between different size manufacturing enterprises were examined. The most striking finding in the survey was that safety climate was related
Jing-Peng Yuan; Qing-Guo Ma
Nearly 50 million people in the United States live with a disability. People with disabilities are increasingly represented in professional nursing. It is important to understand attitudes and concerns of nurse leaders who hire and work with nurses with disabilities. Using an exploratory descriptive design, this study surveyed nurse managers from 600 hospitals, with responses from 219 participants. Using a modified version of two subscales of the Employer Attitude Questionnaire, nurse managers expressed attitudes toward work performance, reported concerns or perceived abilities of staff nurses with disabilities to work in administrative positions, rated job performance, and described accommodations extended to staff nurses with a broad range of disabilities. Results indicated that most nurse managers rated work performance as exceptional or above average. Concerns included abilities to perform necessary job tasks, patient safety, and acceptance by the public and by coworkers of the nurses with disabilities. There was a significant positive relationship between nurse managers' previous exposure to nurses with disabilities and their willingness to hire nurses with disabilities. Conclusions indicate a need for the discipline to move beyond advocacy and personal case sharing to research on promotion of effective means of recruitment and retention of professional nurses with disabilities. PMID:20488428
Wood, Danette; Marshall, Elaine S
The problem considered in this paper is the design of a low cost MEMS based attitude estimation unit to be used in ultralight, experimental and sport pilot aircrafts as auxiliary safety tool in VFR flight conditions. The proposed approach relies on a new data fusion scheme based on a dual Kalman filter design and on acceleration-based switch criteria. Attitude information
Roberto Guidorzi; Roberto Diversi; Umberto Soverini
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Trujillo, Anna C.
Background Demographic development is accompanied by an increasingly aging society. Concerning medical education, the treatment of older people as well as the scientific research and exploration of ageing aspects in the coming years need to be considered. Aim of the study was to ascertain medical students’ knowledge, interest, and attitudes regarding older patients and geriatric medicine. Methods Each participant completed a self-designed questionnaire. This questionnaire was based on three validated internationally recognised questionnaires (“Facts on Aging Quiz – FAQ”, “Expectations Regarding Aging – ERA” and the “Aging Semantic Differential – ASD”). The inquiry and survey were performed at the beginning of the summer term in 2012 at the University of Regensburg Medical School. Results A total of n?=?184/253 (72.7%) students participated in this survey. The results of the FAQ 25+ showed that respondents were able to answer an average of M?=?20.4 of 36 questions (56.7%) correctly (Median, Md?=?21; SD ±6.1). The personal attitudes and expectations of ageing averaged M?=?41.2 points on the Likert-scale that ranged from 0 to 100 (Md?=?40.4; SD ±13.7). Respondents’ attitudes towards the elderly (ASD 24) averaged M?=?3.5 points on the Likert-scale (range 1–7, Md 3.6, SD ±0.8). Conclusions In our investigation, medical students’ knowledge of ageing was comparable to previous surveys. Attitudes and expectations of ageing were more positive compared to previous studies. Overall, medical students expect markedly high cognitive capacities towards older people that can actively prevent cognitive impairment. However, medical students’ personal interest in medicine of ageing and older people seems to be rather slight. PMID:25062568
JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWER SHEET DO NOT WRITE IN THIS SPACE N.C. Date Received Reclass New Starting Date in Class Yes No NA (NA if Temporary Job) Notice # Effective Date If Reclassified IS TO BE USED WITH THE JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE (BA 802) ONLY FOR POSITIONS COVERED BY CIVIL SERVICE
Amin, S. Massoud
An adaptive on-line questionnaire, named EDUFORM 1 , is based on Bayesian statistical techniques that both optimize the number of propositions presented to each respondent and create an individual learner profile. Adaptive graphical user interface is generated partially (propositions of the questionnaire, collaborative actions and links to resources) and computational part totally with Bayesian computational techniques. The preliminary results show
Petri Nokelainen; Markku Niemivirta; Jaakko Kurhila; Miikka Miettinen; Henry Tirri
Objective:Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast.Design:A pilot study was used to select questionnaire items and assess test–retest reliability. The questionnaire was then administered to a larger sample of children together with a dietary recall questionnaire. Randomly selected subsets of these children also completed a dietary recall interview or their parents were asked to complete
K Tapper; S Murphy; R Lynch; R Clark; G F Moore; L Moore
This study asks if the Cockpit Management Attitude Questionnaire (CMAQ) can detect differences across countries, and/or across occupations. And if so, can those differences be interpreted? Research has shown that the CMAQ is sensitive to attitude differences between and within organizations, thereby demonstrating its effectiveness with American populations. But the CMAQ was originally designed by American researchers and psychometrically refined for American pilots. The items in the questionnaire, though general in nature, still reflect the ubiquitous Western bias, because the items were written by researchers from and for the one culture. Recognizing this constraint, this study is nonetheless interested in attitudes toward crew behavior, and how those attitudes may vary across country and occupation.
Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. PMID:24018010
Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders
Objective: To pilot test the validity and reliability of the English version of the Children’s Medicines Questionnaire (CMUQ) and to\\u000a explore the attitudes of Australian caregivers towards the use of medicines in children. Setting: Survey of Australian parents and primary care givers of children 0–15 years. Methods: The questionnaire was translated from Finnish to English then back-translated to ensure semantic equivalence.
Michelle Halim; Heather Vincent; Bandana Saini; Katri Hämeen-Anttila; Kirsti Vainio; Rebekah Moles
Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.
Slider, J.E. (Slider Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)); Patterson, M. (SCIENTECH, Rockville, MD (United States))
ABSTRACT Animals that pose a threat of disease are often in conflict with human appreciation of them, despite that they may be endangered in nature. This study examined undergraduate students’ knowledge of, attitudes to- ward, and belief in myths about, bats, controversial animals well known both from mythology,and movies. Factor analysis was,applied to 46 Likert-type items (Bat Attitude Questionnaire) and,five
Pavol Prokop; Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Milan Kubiatko
This study was conducted to determine whether allied health disciplines' attitudes toward preparedness and willingness to participate in interdisciplinary teams differed. A structured questionnaire was used to measure five factors: orientation toward team problem solving, problem-solving confidence, preparedness for interdisciplinary teams, attitudes toward interdisciplinary teams, and self-efficacy in contributing to interdisciplinary teams. There were 410 completed questionnaires, for an overall return rate of 50%. Analysis of variance and Scheffe post-hoc statistical tests were applied in analyzing the data. In general, the respondents were positive for all of the factors. Medical technologists indicated the least preparation for interdisciplinary teams, whereas circulation technologists indicated the least confidence in contributing to the teams. Persons who had participated in interdisciplinary teams were more positive toward team problem solving and were certain of their abilities to contribute to a problem-solving team. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:10189606
Wolf, K N
There is an increasing trend towards consumption of complementary and alternative herbal products in many parts of the world. A cross-sectional sample of 115 community pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was visited and information on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies was collected using a structured questionnaire. All pharmacists acknowledged dispensing herbal products through their pharmacies. Ginseng was the most widely used product (47%), followed by ginkgo (23%), valerian (17%) and S.t John's wort (3.5%). In general, pharmacists had poor awareness about potential herb-drug interactions. While 56% of participating pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of herbal remedies, 30% considered them to be harmless. Community pharmacists need to be better informed about herbal products. PMID:21218728
Alkharfy, K M
Article Sex Differences and Attitudes toward Living Donor Kidney Transplantation among Urban Black Background and objectives Living donor kidney transplantation, the treatment of choice for ESRD, is underused donor kidney transplantation, the Dialysis Patient Transplant Questionnaire was administered in two
empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations usingmeasuresofacculturationtoanalyzetherelativeeffects of heritage% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed
The present study reports demographic differences with respect to Swedish consumers’ attitudes towards organic foods (milk, meat, potatoes, bread), purchase frequency, purchase criteria, perceived availability, and beliefs about organic foods. A random nation-wide sample of 2,000 respondents, aged 18-65 years, were mailed a questionnaire and 1,154 (58 per cent) responded. The majority of consumers, and particularly women and young respondents
Maria K. Magnusson; Anne Arvola; Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto Hursti; Lars Åberg; Per-Olow Sjödén
Purpose – This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It further aimed to investigate public preferences for labelling of genetically-modified foods in these three countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was
Susan Miles; Øydis Ueland; Lynn J. Frewer
A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair.
Blush, S.M. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))
Scotland has a national programme to improve mental health and well-being and addressing stigma among mental health practitioners is a priority. This study explores practitioner attitudes towards patients in medium and low secure forensic mental health settings through qualitative and quantitative approaches. Two questionnaires were used with nursing staff. A qualitative questionnaire asked participants to list examples of positive and negative practice and anti-discriminatory and discriminatory attitudes towards patients within forensic services. A quantitative questionnaire then asked participants to answer questions about a hypothetical man with schizophrenia called Harry. The overall balance of responses was more positive than negative in the qualitative results, particularly regarding patient rights, empowerment and control. However, there were a significant minority of negative attitudes in relation to recovery pessimism and desire for social distance. This was supported by the quantitative results where practitioners showed high stigma scores for avoidance and segregation. There were no significant differences in attitudes between medium and low secure settings. However overall, males reported more negative attitudes in relation to blame and avoidance and younger participants demonstrated more negative attitudes than older participants in relation to fear and danger. The implications for addressing stigma are discussed in relation to the wider national anti-stigma campaign and forensic services specifically. PMID:21050337
Lammie, C; Harrison, T E; Macmahon, K; Knifton, L
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
Purpose: To examine how adolescents’ attitudes and social skills affect current substance use and intentions to use substances in the future.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 2646 seventh graders in their classrooms. The questionnaire was developed to measure the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use, anticipated use, positive attitudes toward drug use, self-efficacy to say “no,” decision-making
Shari L. Barkin; Karen S. Smith; Robert H. DuRant
Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents’ attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents’ attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry. PMID:25237537
Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B.
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).
The effectiveness of a hearing loss prevention program within a college may be dependent on attitudes among students majoring in music. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of music majors toward noise and to compare them to students not majoring in music. Participants ( N = 467) filled out a questionnaire designed to assess attitudes toward noise in youth culture and attitudes toward influencing their sound environment. Results showed that students majoring in music have a healthier attitude toward sound compared to students not majoring in music. Findings also showed that music majors are more aware and attentive to noise in general, likely to perceive sound that may be risky to hearing as something negative, and are more likely to carry out behaviors to decrease personal exposure to loud sounds. Due to these differences, music majors may be more likely than other students to respond to and benefit from a hearing loss prevention program. PMID:19265253
Chesky, Kris; Pair, Marla; Lanford, Scott; Yoshimura, Eri
A survey was made of 375 Russian gynecologists. The questionnaire on family planning and contraceptives was distributed at the beginning of three local educational symposia. Almost all participants filled in the questionnaire on attitudes, knowledge and experience with family planning. The sample consisted of departmental specialists and heads of departments\\/clinics, working mainly at in-or out-patient women's health clinics. The mean
A. Ph. Visser; N. Bruyniks; L. Remennick
Approximately 18% of adolescents are obese. Attitudes about Food is a cross sectional study that seeks to identify lifestyle factors associated with adolescent obesity such as fast food consumption, physical activity, attitudes about fast food...
Baker, Nicole Alexis
Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. This study examined the amount, content and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the USA. Parents of 308 infants aged 6-18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and…
Barr, Rachel; Danzinger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marissa E.; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jenifer
Questionnaires are important tools for assessing attitudes regarding conservation issues. However, they are not easily comparable and their reliability has been insufficiently assessed. We examined factors influencing responses to open- and closed-ended questions about animal conservation to more than 600 schoolchildren (9 years old on average).…
Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Mullin, Stephen J.; Ajtic, Rastko; Brito, José Carlos; ElMouden, El Hassan; Erdogan, Mehmet; Feriche, Monica; Pleguezuelos, Juan M.; Prokop, Pavol; Sánchez, Aida; Santos, Xavier; Slimani, Tahar; Sterijovski, Bogoljub; Tomovic, Ljiljana; Usak, Muhammet; Zuffi, Marco; Bonnet, Xavier
This booklet is a series of 10 unit-organized questionnaires to stimulate discussion on a variety of topics in the area of marriage and family life. These values clarification activities can help 11th and 12th grade students confirm or reevaluate personal attitudes. The units included in this activity are: Love and Marriage; Male and Female…
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments and to examine the associations between these factors and students' attitudes towards science. A measure of students' environment, namely, the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument…
Waldrip, Bruce G.; Fisher, Darrell L.
The article presents the findings of the comparative survey on attitudes (beliefs, preferences) of 222 Slovenian and 230 Finnish early childhood teachers (Turnsek 2005). They have completed the questionnaire on aspect of democratisation of early childhood education, which consisted of attitude (Likart) scales and questions of ranking the…
Turnsek, Nada; Pekkarinen, Asko
The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number
Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner
An experiment was conducted to investigate attitudes toward punishment in relation to beliefs in free will and determinism. College students responded to two questionnaires; one designed to assess attitudes toward punishment and one designed to assess strength of belief in free will or determinism. It was found that subjects who scored higher in belief in determinism recommended more punitive measures
Wayne Viney; David A. Waldman; Jacqueline Barchilon
Global wild animal resources are declining due to various pressures, which will greatly affect local biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding local people's attitudes towards wild animal conservation in high biodiversity areas is of major importance for conservation efforts. Sampling and questionnaire survey methods were employed to examine people's attitudes toward wild animal conservation in a comparative case study of two
Naiyi Yang; Endi Zhang; Min Chen
Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…
Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.
This study investigates the relationships between mathematics anxiety, attitudes toward mathematics and mathematical thinking among university students. A 60-item questionnaire included mathematical thinking rating scale, mathematics anxiety rating scale and mathematics attitudes rating scale completed by 203 university students from the Faculty of Science, Engineering, Food Science, and Human Ecology in one of the public university in Malaysia. The correlation
Maryam Kargar; Rohani Ahmad Tarmizi; Sahar Bayat
This study compares gender differences in attitudes towards prenatal testing, testing in minors, Huntington testing and the creation of designer babies and identifies how risk of genetic disease is perceived by both genders. A questionnaire was developed to explore attitudes towards different types of genetic testing, interpreting risk of genetic disease and concerns relating to genetic testing. A total of
Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…
Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.
The effect of gender on retirement attitudes among college faculty and other university professionals were studied, and variables that might affect attitudes toward retirement were investigated. A 35-item questionnaire was mailed to all faculty and nonteaching professionals at a university center, a four-year college, and a community college of…
Anderson, Kim; And Others
This study examined student teachers' attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Ghana and Botswana. A three-part survey questionnaire consisting of background variables, attitudes, and concerns was completed by 202 students from four teacher training institutions in both countries. One of the institutions was a university and the others…
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Mangope, Boitumelo
This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…
Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate parents' attitudes toward advertising to children, and advertised foods in particular, as well as parental concern regarding children's nutrition habits and the degree to which these perceptions influence television monitoring by parents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire assessing attitudes was distributed among parents of Belgian primary and secondary school children. Parental
Nathalie Dens; Patrick De Pelsmacker; Lynne Eagle
The research reported in this article examined attitudes toward the care of the elderly between and among medical students and residents in training. Data were collected with a 16-item attitude questionnaire. Participants were medical students in their introduction period (prior to clinical experience) and residents of the Department of Internal…
Muangpaisan, Weerasak; Intalapapron, Somboon; Assantachai, Prasert
This study measures advertising students' attitudes toward statistics. Subjects, 275 undergraduate advertising students from two southwestern United States universities, completed a questionnaire used to gauge students' attitudes toward statistics by measuring 6 underlying factors: (1) students' interest and future applicability; (2) relationship…
Fullerton, Jami A.; Umphrey, Don
In the present study, aims were (1) to determine gender differences in self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes and (2) to examine the relationships between self-compassion, academic procrastination, and dysfunctional attitudes. Participants were 251 university students who completed a questionnaire package that…
This study examines the relationship between both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses…
practitioners toward depression: the impact of training in mental health Joanna L. Norton 1 * , Christelle), beliefs and attitudes toward depression and how they vary according to training received in mental health. Methods The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all regions of France
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
This research tested an integrated model derived form Beck's cognitive theory of depression. The integrated model postulated dysfunctional attitudes as a cognitive moderator and automatic thoughts as a cognitive mediator in the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, 355 undergraduates completed the Life Experiences Survey, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the
Seok-Man Kwon; Tian P. S. Oei
The findings of an interviewer-supervised, self-completion questionnaire survey involving a sample of 274 white collar public sector employees are reported. The survey examined the reported use of coping strategies and perceptions measured by a version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (Beck et al. 1991). Main and interaction effects involving coping strategies and dysfunctional attitudes were then used to predict psychological
Andrew Guppy; Lorraine Weatherstone
Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika
Undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory biology course for nonmajors during the fall semester of 2007 were administered the Biology Attitude Scale (Russell and Hollander 1975), a constructed Mathematics Attitude Scale, and a portion of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich and Smith 1993). Together, the…
Partin, Matthew L.; Haney, Jodi J.; Worch, Eric A.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie A.; Scheuermann, Amy; Midden, W. Robert
Objective: To examine the attitudes of doctors and nurses to the practice of allowing family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. Design: An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among doctors and nurses in the paediatric department of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Apart from demographic data, questions were directed to study the
DSY LAM; SN WONG; H HUI; W LEE; KT SO
A "Social Attitude Questionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…
Boardman, William K.
Presents results from study of language attitudes and linguistic behavior among adolescents of both sexes in a rural community in Denmark. Study concludes that traditional pattern of boys/men speaking in a significantly more non-standard way than girls/women is reproduced in present context, and in qualitative attitude-questionnaire male…
Ladegaard, Hans J.
There are still controversial attitudes regarding oocyte donation (OD) programs. The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the opinions of Christians and Muslims regarding an OD program in Iran. 200 adults were randomly assigned to fill out the questionnaires. Part I contained demographic information, and Part II contained 20 questions to reveal their knowledge and attitudes about OD.
Mete Isikoglu; Mohammad A. Khalili
Studied the responses of 788 students at a large metropolitan university on an anonymous questionnaire concerning marihuana. Ss' attitude toward marihuana shifted from strongly negative to strongly positive as frequency of marihuana use increased. With frequency of use controlled, attitude toward marihuana was even more favorable when other drugs had been tried, and also among Ss who were religiously inactive.
Edward R. Martino; Carroll V. Truss
This research applied attachment theory to the study of sexual attitudes and behaviors in a sample of late adolescents. Four hundred and seventy heterosexual undergraduate students completed questionnaires assessing attachment (discomfort with closeness; anxiety over relationships). relationship history, communication about sex. sexual self-efficacy and locus of control, and attitudes to condoms. Eight weeks later, participants reported on sexual behaviors occurring
Judith A. Feeney; Candida Peterson; Cynthia Gallois; Deborah J. Terry
Cross-sex behavior in boys generally is viewed more negatively than cross-sex behavior in girls. The two goals of this study were to assess attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and to explore possible causes for differential evaluations of tomboys and sissies. Eighty undergraduates completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes toward tomboys and sissies, and their expectations for the future adult behavior of
Carol Lynn Martin
Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…
Shankar, Rohit; Laugharne, Richard; Pritchard, Colin; Joshi, Pallavi; Dhar, Romika
The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an in-school questionnaire, the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high-school students in Sakarya, Turkey concerning sun protection and skin cancer. The knowledge and behavior scores of girls were higher than those of boys, whereas boys had better attitude scores. PMID:16549316
Filiz, Tuncay M; Cinar, Nursan; Topsever, Pinar; Ucar, Fatma
The attitudes of child molesters often are considered to contribute to their offenses, and the accurate identification of these cognitive distortions can be important to assessment and treatment. Through the administration of a newly created questionnaire, the attitudes of 50 male incest offenders were compared with those of 25 male batterers and 25 men not seeking treatment. Compared to the
R. KARL HANSON; ROCCO GIZZARELLI; HEATHER SCOTT
The introduction of a team term project into a Korean psychometrics class is described. Students developed an item pool of attitude statements regarding the reunification of South Korea and North Korea. Then teams of students used the item pool to develop attitude questionnaires, survey other students, analyze the results, and recommend which…
Webster, Sandra K.
Informal science education is becoming increasingly popular in today’s classrooms, and for this reason, it is important to understand the effects of informal science education on students. In this study, the Children’s Attitude Survey (Wulf, Mayhew, & Finkelstein, 2009) was used to measure the effects of informal science education on students’ attitude toward science. Questionnaires were administered to two sample
The purpose of this study was to adapt the questionnaire Multimedia Attitude Survey (MAS; Garcia, 2001) to the Greek population in order to evaluate the educational multimedia application "Leonidas" considering the attitudes of ATHENS 2004 team leaders. In addition, the differences among the sex were also investigated. Participants were 232 team…
Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Giannousi, Maria; Derri, Vassiliki; Kellis, Iraklis; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis
Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…
Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald
This study looked at adolescent males' perceived gender role conflict and their attitudes towards the use of guns and violence to solve problems, as measured by the Attitudes toward Guns and Violence Questionnaire (AGVQ), the Gender Role Conflict Scales - Adolescent Version (GRCS-A), and a demographics form. Forty-six male adolescent students from an urban high school setting in Georgia acted
Aimee E Dukes
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship of nursing autonomy and other factors related to attitudes toward caring for dying patients. A cross-sectional survey of nurses was conducted in November 2003 using a self-administered questionnaire. We collected demographic data from 178 (75%) participants and used the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B, Japanese
Mitsunori Miyashita; Yuko Nakai; Tomoyo Sasahara; Yurie Koyama; Yoichi Shimizu; Naoko Tsukamoto; Masako Kawa
The study was conducted to determine the attitude of students towards cooperative learning at a community college. Questionnaires were administered to ninety (90) students and twelve (12) lecturers, in-depth interviews were conducted with three lecturers and two classes were observed to investigate the students attitude towards cooperative…
Objective: The objective of this paper was to assess students' attitudes towards school-based sex and relationships education (SRE). Design: This study featured a cross-sectional survey design. Method: A sample of 715 students from two districts in Tanzania completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects related to their attitudes…
Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.
Pre-service teachers responded to two questionnaires regarding school violence, the Teachers' Attitudes about Bullying, and Trainee Teachers' Bullying Attitudes. Results suggest that teachers across all academic divisions view bullying as a serious concern important to their role within the profession. There were considerable differences regarding…
Craig, Katrina; Bell, David; Leschied, Alan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of pre-service elementary school teachers' attitudes towards mathematics according to their learning styles. Two hundreds eighty one pre-service elementary school teachers were involved in this study. The researchers employed two types of instruments, Learning Style Inventory and Scale of Mathematics Attitude Questionnaire, to collect the data. The learning style inventory
Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…
Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura
We explore the dimensionality of attitudes towards the welfare state among university students in eight countries representing four worlds of welfare: liberal, radical, conservative and social democratic. We use new data from cross-nationally comparable 25-item questionnaires to derive a two-level bi-factorial hierarchical model that specifies six different attitude facets. These facets are clustered into two distinct sets of attitudes: the
CLARA SABBAGH; PIETER VANHUYSSE
Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.
Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah
...involve all types of safety and all organization personnel, the definition of safety culture and several parts of the statement have...Trust and respect permeate the Organization with a focus on teamwork and collaboration; and 9. Inquiring Attitude....
Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711
Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S
Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711
Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S.
The relationship between obstetrician attitudes and patient outcomes from intrapartum care was examined. Obstetrician attitudes were assessed utilizing a newly-designed pilot 35-item obstetrician attitude questionnaire (OAQ). Twelve obstetricians completed the OAQ, who provided intra-partum care to 4,149 women. Outcome measures included delivery…
Dunphy, Bruce; Dunphy, Stacey; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark
Objective To examine consumers’ confidence in their own, and also in other people's, over-the-counter (OTC) skills and to describe their attitude towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Moreover we examined the association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes. Design Cross-sectional survey. Mixed methods (postal and electronic) self-administered questionnaire. Participants Members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel. Main outcome measures Consumers’ confidence in their own, and in other people's, OTC skills was examined. Confidence was measured by three questions regarding obtaining information on, choosing and using OTC medication. Consumers’ attitudes towards availability were assessed using six safety profiles, by asking which channel consumers prefer for each profile. Results The response rate was 68% (n=972). Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills (mean 3.74; 95% CI 3.69 to 3.79, on a 5-point Likert scale), but have less confidence in OTC skills of others (mean 2.92; 95% CI 2.88 to 2.96). Consumers are conservative in their attitudes towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Most consumers prefer painkillers to be available exclusively in pharmacies (41–71% per profile indicated pharmacy only). Moreover, there is an association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes (p=0.005; ?=?0.114). Consumers who are more confident about their own OTC skills prefer OTC painkillers to be more generally available. Conclusions Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills. However, they would prefer painkillers with safety profiles resembling those currently available OTC, to be available as OTC in pharmacies exclusively. Consumers’ confidence in the OTC skills of others is more consistent with their attitudes towards availability of OTC painkillers. Until consumers themselves realise that they are also one of the others, they may overestimate their own OTC skills, which may entail health risks. PMID:24071460
Brabers, A E M; Van Dijk, L; Bouvy, M L; De Jong, J D
© K. Stromswold, 2003 Perinatal Factors Questionnaire (Singleton Version) 1 PERINATAL FACTORS & DEVELOPMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (Singleton Version) Person completing questionnaire: Today's date: Mailing Address E completing this questionnaire, please contact Ellyn Sheffield by phone (732-445-5231) or email (sheffield
, Ernest Catena, Sima Arman, Mel Slater Department of Computer Science University College London Gower different presence question- naires can distinguish between real and virtual experiences. One group of 10 subjects were given two different presence questionnaires in randomised order: the Witmer and Singer
Students coming into science labs need initial and ongoing training about safety standards and best practices. They also need to develop good attitudes about their work and the health and safety of their teachers and fellow students. The "School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide" is a resource for science teachers and school administrators to help…
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.
Examined effects of functional marriage and family course on female undergraduates' masturbatory attitudes and behaviors. Subjects completed questionnaires during course and two years later. Control group also completed questionnaires. Course respondents became substantially more accepting of masturbation by acquaintances and were more likely to…
Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Darling, Carol A.
An extensive questionnaire (181 questions) was devised to examine the relationships and attitudes of angling clubs to their local environment and conservation organizations. Questions related to the fishery itself and the economics of the club were also asked. The questionnaire was sent to 59 coarse-angling clubs that fished shallow Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in England. SSSIs are statutorily
ADRIAN E. WILLIAMS; BRIAN MOSS
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
The purpose of this paper was to explore high-school (grades 10-12) technology teachers' attitudes toward nuclear energy and their implications to technology education. A questionnaire was developed to solicit 323 high-school technology teachers' responses in June 2013 and 132 (or 41%) valid questionnaires returned. Consequently, the…
Lee, Lung-Sheng; Yang, Hsiu-Chuan
This study examined the relationship between college students' gender roles and attitudes toward rape. Subjects were 145 male and 374 female college students with a mean age of 20.1 years. The institution has a 12.5% minority population. Subjects received a questionnaire packet containing the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), an acquaintance or stranger rape scenario, a questionnaire designed to assess
Lynda A. Szymanski; Ann Sloan Devlin; Joan C. Chrisler; Stuart A. Vyse
The purpose of this study was to explore the interplay between young people's attitudes toward computer networks and Internet addiction. After analyzing questionnaire responses of an initial sample of 615 Taiwanese high school students, 78 subjects, viewed as possible Internet addicts, were selected for further explorations. It was found that…
Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Sunny S. J.
Homophobia and heterosexism in women's athletics have been studied extensively using a qualitative approach. Limited research from a quantitative approach has been conducted in the area and none with a sport-specific instrument. The purpose of the current study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure heterosexist attitudes in…
Mullin, Elizabeth M.
This study investigated the relationships between demographic characteristics, motives and attitudes to studying, self-reported study behaviour and measures of outcome. Students taking courses by distance learning received a postal survey containing a short form of the Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Revised…
Richardson, John T. E.
The aims of this study were to assess nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes towards primaryhealth care using a newly developed Canadian instrument, the Primary Health Care Questionnaire (PHCQ). The instrument was refined for use in the UK prior to collecting data from 427 students in degree, Project 2000, health visitor and district nursing courses. Findings indicate that students in
Karen I. Chalmers; Karen A. Luker; Ina J. Bramadat
For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…
Hartnett, Barbara M.; Zettle, Thomas E.
At a southwestern public university, 242 students responded to a questionnaire about their credit-card use and attitudes. The results revealed that about 70 percent of the students held one or more credit cards, and about 10 percent had five or more credit cards. Twenty-two percent never kept copies of their charge slips, and only 49 percent paid…
Joo, S.-H.; Grable, J. E.; Bagwell, D. C.
The purposes of this study were to develop and verify a model that contributes to our understanding of the attitudes toward technology held by students in junior high school, as well as to explore relationships among the factors in this model. We distributed questionnaires to research participants selected on the basis of stratified random…
Yu, Kuang-Chao; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Han, Feng-Nien; Hsu, I-Ying
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting librarians' attitudes toward IT application in libraries. It also aims to identify common underlying factors, which could be used to predict the probable behavior of librarians toward IT innovation in their libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 288 (sample of 682)
Muhammad Ramzan; Diljit Singh
A new self-report measure of children's attitudes toward TV advertising is described. The self-report scale was administered to 300 8- to-10-year-old children, and their parents completed a questionnaire evaluating socioeconomic status, educational level, and peer influence. Results of a factor analysis supported three identifiable factors…
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto
The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the experience of Brazilian psychiatrists in treatment, formal training, attitudes, and knowledge with respect to epilepsy (and associated mental disorders). One hundred fifty-seven Brazilian psychiatrists completed a specially developed questionnaire. Most (95%) had previously treated patients with epilepsy and mental disorders. About one-third (35%) admitted a lack of any formal training in
Renato Luiz Marchetti; Ana Paula Werneck de Castro; Claudiane Salles Daltio; Evelyn Cremonese; João Marcelo Portela Ramos; José Gallucci Neto
A questionnaire was sent to 911 Finnish veterinarians to assess their attitudes and practices to pain relief in animals. Responses to statements about recognition and treatment of pain were either to agree or to disagree. The pain caused by specified surgical and clinical conditions was rated. Inquiries were also posed about the number of analgesics available and their use in
M Raekallio; K. M Heinonen; J Kuussaari; O Vainio
The purpose of the present study was to identify the sources of social support for feminist issues in Israel. Attitudes toward these issues as social problems and toward feminism as a social movement were examined through a questionnaire administered to 2,097 university students studying in the Tel Aviv area in 1985-1986. The study found that Israeli students who considered gender
DAFNA N. IZRAELI; EPHRAIM TABORY
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to find an attitude of Ethiopian corporate sector towards corporate social responsibility (CSR). In addition this research analyzed the opinion of employees, customers' as well the general public about the Ethiopian corporate sector's socially responsible actions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper reviewed the relevant literature of CSR. Through structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews
Rajasekhara Mouly Potluri; Zelalem Temesgen
The effect of an on-site health promotion program on lifestyle behavior, health, attitude, and stress was studied with 41 university faculty and nonacademic administrators. The participants were administered a maximal graded exercise tolerance test, hydrostatic weighing, and the Lifestyle Analysis Questionnaire. While 32 staff were assigned to an…
Horowitz, Stephen M.; And Others
Administered a questionnaire to 267 unmarried students, stratified for race and sex, to assess attitudes toward population control. Results indicate that Ss (a) desired 2.6 children in contrast to the previous norm of 3; (b) generally favored the birth control pill and, if infertile, were willing to adopt children; (c) supported voluntary limitation of family size (including a small but
This study investigated the effect of the cultural background of immigrant children on affective variables in learning three different languages. Participants were students in secondary multicultural classrooms in Spain. A total of 114 students, aged 12 to 16, answered a questionnaire based on Gardner's Attitude = Motivation Test Battery assessing…
Bernaus, Merce; Masgoret, Anne-Marie; Gardner, Robert C.; Reyes, Edith
We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…
Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine
This study examined the attitudes of 194 teachers in 17 regular primary schools in the city of Zagreb (Croatia) and the surrounding area about the integration of children with intellectual or other developmental disabilities. In addition to providing demographic data, the teachers completed a 21-item questionnaire with questions that addressed:…
Kis-Glavas, Lelia; And Others
This study tests the structural equation model between residents’ perceived tourism impacts and attitudes toward host community. The model consisted of five latent constructs and nine path hypotheses and is based upon 732 mailback questionnaires returned by residents of Cheju Island, Korea, a major domestic tourism destination. It was found that residents’ ‘community satisfaction’ was closely related to ‘perceived positive’
Dong-Wan Ko; William P. Stewart
Results are presented of a survey questionnaire based on the 1984 Gallup Poll of Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Public Schools but adapted to solicit the opinions of K-12 public school teachers in South Dakota about South Dakota public schools. Responses were received from 60 percent of the 500 teachers surveyed. Question topics included: (1)…
Webster, Loraine; Wood, Robert W.
This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet
SARAH C. GROGAN; RUSSELL BELL; MARK CONNER
Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)
Grant, John A.
Although receiving financial rewards commensurate with directors and actors, motion picture writers as a group are in a traditionally inferior position. In an attempt to understand the detailed personal aspects of the writers' general situation over half of the best writers contributed to a questionnaire study on their interests, attitudes, and writing habits. As a group they are not greatly
In this study, we examined whether the constructs of usefulness, motivation, likeness, confidence, and anxiety influence the student's attitude towards statistics. Two hundred ninety eight students enrolled in the private university were surveyed by using the questionnaire proposed by Auzmendi (1992). Data analysis was done by structural…
Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate physician attitudes toward the treatment of overweight and obese individuals and to evaluate potential gender differences in treatment recommendations.Research Methods and Procedures: A survey describing several hypothetical patients was sent to 700 randomly selected physicians; 209 (29.9%) returned the survey. Two versions of the questionnaire (one for men and one for
Caitlin Anderson; Carol B. Peterson; Linda Fletcher; James E. Mitchell; Paul Thuras; Scott J. Crow
return your completed feedback form to the course lecturer or directly to the Informatics Teaching: http://www.inf.ed.ac.uk/admin/ITO/questionnaires You can also provide feedback directly to your Evaluation Please rate the course according to the following attributes, on a scale from 1 to 5. Workload
We consider a general design that allows information for different patterns, or sets, of data items to be collected from different sample units, which we call a Split Questionnaire Design (SQD). While SQDs have been historically used to accommodate constraints on respondent burden, this paper shows they can also be an efficient design option. The efficiency of a design can
James O. Chipperfield; David G. Steel
Exit Interview Questionnaire Employee's Name: Department/Unit: Position Title: Date Hired Good Poor Very Poor Comments: #12;Job satisfaction Very High High Average Low Very Low Comments: Overall satisfaction with Memorial as an employer Very High High Average Low Very Low Comments: Overall
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
:_________________ If it is determined that surgery is appropriate for you, this questionnaire will help us provide the best treatment for some activities after surgery. Please fill this form out completely and turn in to your technician. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions. 1. After surgery, would you be interested
Research on attitudes toward the disabled generally has focused on adult perceptions of disabled adults, or children's attitudes toward peers. In view of changing social practices, such as mainstreaming in education and community integration of children with special needs, measures of adults' attitudes toward disabled children are needed. This paper reports on the development and validation of a 30-item self-report questionnaire assessing parental attitudes toward children with handicaps, and presents information concerning several determinants of parental attitudes. The measure is easy to use, reliable, and shows good evidence of construct validity. It detects differences among parents by gender, by parental education and occupational status, by cultural background of parents, by parental familiarity with a handicapped person, and by stimulus (physically disabled vs. mentally retarded child referent). Results are discussed in relation to determinants of parental attitudes toward handicaps. Potential applications of this measure for evaluation of teacher attitudes are suggested. PMID:2963022
Rosenbaum, P L; Armstrong, R W; King, S M
This paper presents an analysis of food risk perceptions of German consumers over the eleven year period from 1992 to 2002. Using factor analysis, we analyse the respondents general risk attitudes and the specific perception of food safety risks. General risk attitude are described by variables relating to environmental, lifestyle and food risks. Food safety concerns are grouped into concern
Jutta Roosen; Kristin Hansen; Silke Thiele
Care of older people is often referred to as a 'Cinderella' service and is not seen as an attractive career option in health care, but with the global population continuing to age, caring for this group will become increasingly important. This article outlines the literature that formed the basis for two studies investigating the attitudes of healthcare staff towards working with older people, including respondents' perceptions of other healthcare professionals' attitudes toward this important area of work. The Multifactorial Attitudes Questionnaire was designed to examine five major themes identified from the literature: ageism; learning environment; working environment; professional esteem; and specialist status. This study is presented in two parts: this article discusses the literature and the design of the questionnaire. The second article, to be published in a subsequent issue of the journal, presents the results from two studies done in Scotland, the first in 1999, with a replication study in 2009. PMID:23646417
Kydd, Angela; Wild, Deidre
Used Rasch measurement to study the psychometric properties of data obtained from a newly developed Diabetes Questionnaire designed to measure diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and self-care. Responses of 26 diabetes patients to the English version of the questionnaire and 24 patients to the Spanish version support the cross-form equivalence and…
Gerber, Ben; Smith, Everett V., Jr.; Girotti, Mariela; Pelaez, Lourdes; Lawless, Kimberly; Smolin, Louanne; Brodsky, Irwin; Eiser, Arnold
Results of a survey of medication safety technology in community hospitals are presented. A written questionnaire was mailed to pharmacy directors at 88 hospitals located in 21 states. Items in the questionnaire addressed current and planned use of technology intended to improve medication safety. Fifty-six usable responses were received for a response rate of 63.6%. Medication safety was considered one
Glen T. Schumock; Vinit P. Nair; Jamie M. Finley; Richard K. Lewis
Aim: To examine attitudes towards psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders as well as their family caregivers by using factor analysis. Materials and Methods: The study included 200 patients and their family caregivers with chronic psychiatric disorders who are attending the psychiatry outpatient services. A self-designed 18-item self-rated questionnaire was used to evaluate the attitude toward psychotropics and factor analysis was done to study the different models of attitudes. Results: In general both patients and caregivers had positive attitude toward the psychotropic medications and there was no significant difference between the patients and caregivers on the various items of the questionnaire assessing the attitude. Factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated that either two-factor or four-factor models explained the attitude of the patients and caregivers. In the two-factor model there was one positive and one negative attitude factor, whereas the four-factor model comprised of two positive and two negative attitude factors. The four-factor model of attitudes provided a more comprehensive solution to how attitudes might be formed among patients and their family caregivers. Factors one and four in the four-factor solution still reflected positive attitudes, but appeared to portray a risk-benefit approach, in which benefits such as the efficacy of psychotropic medications in treating mental illnesses and preventing relapse, and medications being better than other options were being contrasted with the risks of side effects and permanent damage or harm. Conclusion: Attitudes of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their caregivers toward psychotropic medications appear to be shaped by factors such as perceived efficacy or benefit from medicines, the necessity for taking treatment and concerns such as side effects, harm or expense. PMID:25288840
Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Sharma, Aarti; Tyagi, Shikha
Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1) positive beliefs about CAM; 2) environmental influence; and 3) psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research. PMID:21614159
Patterson, Christine; Arthur, Heather
Introduction: The aim of this study is to elucidate how patient safety behavior of nurses is associated with organizational safety climate and nurse's individual factors by covariance structure analysis of the results of the questionnaires, such as professional awareness and job- satisfaction, in 10 Japanese private hospitals. Methodology: In this study, the questionnaire was developed including organizational factors (organizational safety
Takayasu Inoue; Risuke Karima
This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. PMID:23339521
Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald
Objective Safety culture may influence patient outcomes, but evidence is limited. We sought to determine if intensive care unit (ICU) safety culture is independently associated with outcomes. Design Cohort study combining safety culture survey data with the Project IMPACT Critical Care Medicine (PICCM) clinical database. Setting Thirty ICUs participating in the PICCM database. Participants A total of 65 978 patients admitted January 2001–March 2005. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). Methods From December 2003 to April 2004, we surveyed study ICUs using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-ICU version, a validated instrument that assesses safety culture across six factors. We calculated factor mean and percent-positive scores (% respondents with mean score ?75 on a 0–100 scale) for each ICU, and generated case-mix adjusted, patient-level, ICU-clustered regression analyses to determine the independent association of safety culture and outcome. Results We achieved a 47.9% response (2103 of 4373 ICU personnel). Culture scores were mostly low to moderate and varied across ICUs (range: 13–88, percent-positive scores). After adjustment for patient, hospital and ICU characteristics, for every 10% decrease in ICU perceptions of management percent-positive score, the odds ratio for hospital mortality was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.44; P = 0.005). For every 10% decrease in ICU safety climate percent-positive score, LOS increased 15% (95% CI: 1?30%; P = 0.03). Sensitivity analyses for non-response bias consistently associated safety climate with outcome, but also yielded some counterintuitive results. Conclusion In a multicenter study conducted in the USA, perceptions of management and safety climate were moderately associated with outcomes. Future work should further develop methods of assessing safety culture and association with outcomes. PMID:20382662
Huang, David T.; Clermont, Gilles; Kong, Lan; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Sexton, J. Bryan; Rowan, Kathy M.; Angus, Derek C.
The psychometric properties of Richardson's 1977 Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire have been studied by analyzing papers in which this questionnaire was employed. Such review showed that the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire does not measure a unidimensional construct and does not predict the actual use of mental imagery in thinking. Further, a lack of long-term reliability of the questionnaire emerged. In conclusion, use of the questionnaire to assess the verbal-visual cognitive style appears questionable. PMID:9530739
Antonietti, A; Giorgetti, M
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported sex-role characteristics and attitudes toward homosexuality using the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Attitudes toward Homosexuality Scale. Relationships occur for both males and females who are exhibiting greater amounts of cross-sex traits. Females with more instrumental characteristics were more accepting while males with more expressive characteristics were more rejecting. These findings are discussed in relation to those of Weinberger and Millham (1979) who also investigated this relationship, as well as to research investigating the relationship between attitudes toward homosexuality and attitudes toward sex roles and feminism. PMID:6520390
Black, K N; Stevenson, M R
This study examined the relationship for 180 undergraduate students enrolled in a first-year university calculus course between attitudes toward mathematics and approaches to learning mathematics using the Mathematics Attitude Scale and the Approaches to Learning Mathematics Questionnaire, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were negatively related to scores for the Surface Approach and accounted for 10.4% of the variance and scores for the Mathematics Attitude Scale were positively related to scores for the Deep Approach to learning mathematics and accounted for 31.7% of the variance. PMID:17037652
Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Hammoudi, Lakhdar
The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of a Turkish version of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) among young people. The BSQ was initially administrated to female high school students (N?=?665) and administered a second time to a subset of subjects (N?=?144). The subjects also completed the Eating Attitudes Test, the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire (a dieting questionnaire) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), and were weighed, and their body mass indices were calculated. Test-retest reliability of the BSQ was 0.81. The BSQ score correlated highly with the Eating Attitudes Test, Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Higher BSQ scores were also associated with higher body mass index. The results suggest that the Turkish version of BSQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing body image concerns in teenagers. PMID:21953701
Akdemir, Asena; Inandi, Tacettin; Akbas, Duygu; Karaoglan Kahilogullari, Akfer; Eren, Mehmet; Canpolat, Banu Isik
Department: Cost Center #: Facility: PART A: OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS I. Animal Contact for animals. I understand that my choice not to participate in this program might be referred to Human to animals, etc. in teaching or research 5 = Collect tissues or body fluid specimens, perform surgery
) Electrical Stimulator for nerves, bone or brain Ear or Eye implants e.g. cochlear implants Implanted insulin.g. artificial joints, metal plates, screws Any other type of prosthesis or implant? Gun pellets, shrapnel dentures, a dental plate or a brace (not fillings) Do you have any trans-dermal skin patches? (Females only
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531
Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid
Good communication at the accident and emergency (A&E)-general practice interface is important. Such communication will be affected by the attitudes of A&E staff towards local general practitioners (GPs). The objectives of this study were to establish and compare, using a questionnaire, the attitudes of Dublin A&E doctors and nurses towards the services offered by local GPs. A questionnaire was sent
D Gibney; A W Murphy; M Smith; G Bury; P K Plunkett
Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding employees through efforts influencing managerial attitude. PMID:22542265
Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H
The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.
Maroo, Jill Deanne
Four studies are reported on the derivation and assessment of a hypermasculinity scale. In Study 1, a questionnaire measure of hypermasculine values was derived from an initial 122 items, rated on a seven-point scale by 600 men from eight categories, based on occupation or sport interest. Factor analysis and item reduction produced 26- and 16- item scales (Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire, HVQ and Short Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire) with high internal consistencies. There were substantial differences between categories, consistent with predictions based on their gender-stereotypic connotations. Study 2 involved the scales being administered to another similarly composed sample: again high internal consistency and unidimensionality (in a confirmatory factor analysis) were found, and a similar association with category membership. Test-retest reliability was high. In Study 3, the concurrent and discriminative validity of the HVQ was studied, by comparing it with an existing measure of hypermasculinity, male role norms, attitudes to women's rights, gender-related traits, and trait aggression. Associations were found with other gender scales, and there was a moderate association with trait physical aggression. The range of associations reflected the items on the scale, which involve toughness, the need to avoid femininity, and control of women's sexuality, themes familiar from ethnographic accounts of masculinity. Study 4 showed that the HVQ was associated with hostile but not benevolent sexism, and replicated its association with trait aggression. PMID:19793409
This research investigated 68 secondary school students' perceptions of their computer-mediated project-based learning environment and their attitudes towards Project Work (PW) using two instruments--Project Work Classroom Learning Environment Questionnaire (PWCLEQ) and Project Work Related Attitudes Instrument (PWRAI). In this project-based…
Seet, Ling Ying Britta; Quek, Choon Lang
Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…
Attitudes of black counselees toward white counselors were investigated using Rosen's Consequence Model Questionnaire (an adaptation of Edward's decision making paridigm of subjective probability-utility) and Gurin's modification of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Pre-measures revealed an overall favorable attitude toward white…
Harrison, Don K.
AIM: To investigate the attitudes of veterinary practitioners in New Zealand to pain and analgesia, and their use of analgesic drugs, in dogs and cats.METHODS: A questionnaire posted to 1,200 practising veterinarians was used to gather information about the use of analgesia in dogs and cats, assessment of pain, attitudes to pain relief, analgesic drugs and procedures used, factors affecting
VM Williams; BDX Lascelles; MC Robson
AIMS: To quantify the range of attitudes and perceptions of cattle practitioners to painful procedures and conditions in cattle, to identify some of the demographic factors affecting those attitudes and perceptions, and to compare results from veterinarians based in New Zealand with those from the United Kingdom (UK) and Europe.METHODS: A questionnaire, based on one used for similar surveys in
RA Laven; JN Huxley; HR Whay; KJ Stafford
A three-generational sample of 103 college women, 88 of their mothers, and 30 of their maternal grandmothers responded to questionnaires containing the Spence and Helmreich Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS). Intrafamily matched pair analysis tested hypotheses of intergenerational similarities and differences; and several potential correlates of attitudes toward female roles in contemporary society were investigated. Major intergenerational differences prevailed, with
Kathleen F. Slevin; C. Ray Wingrove
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig
This study investigates the relations between teachers' attitudes towards persons with intellectual disability (ID), in-service training on ID, and prior contacts with persons with ID. A sample of Canadian elementary school teachers (N?=?118) completed the Attitudes Toward Intellectual Disability Questionnaire, which measures cognitive,…
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Morin, Diane; Crocker, Anne G.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and practices of elementary, middle, and high school teachers regarding homework. In addition, the study sought to find if there was a relationship between the teachers' attitudes and practices of homework, as well as finding the differences between the grade levels. The questionnaire used…
Peltier, Courtney Pisarich
A questionnaire comprising two scales, the short form of the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG-S; Herek, 1984) and the newly devised Support for Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Scale (SLGHR) were administered to 226 students taking undergraduate psychology courses at universities in the United Kingdom, to assess their attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and their level
Sonja J. Ellis; Celia Kitzinger; Sue Wilkinson
This study aims to investigate Jordanian university students' attitudes towards using video and text chat discourse with anonymous native speakers of English to improve their English proficiency. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire was designed. The study sample consisted of 320 university students enrolled in two Jordanian universities. Results revealed that students' attitudes towards using video and text chat with
Safi M. Mahfouz; Fathi M. Ihmeideh
This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…
Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn
Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179
Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J
In an attempt to examine the relationship between parent-child communication about sex and parent-adolescent attitudes about sex, 12- to 20-year-olds (N = 141) and their parents completed sexual communication and attitude questionnaires. The correlation between parents' and children's attitudes were high for all the early adolescents and low for all the middle adolescents. Only among the late adolescents was there
Terri D. Fisher
Objective To evaluate the impact of rigorous WalkRounds on frontline caregiver assessments of safety climate, and to clarify the steps and implementation of rigorous WalkRounds. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary outcome variables were baseline and post WalkRounds safety climate scores from the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Secondary outcomes were safety issues elicited through WalkRounds. Study period was August 2002 to April 2005; seven hospitals in Massachusetts agreed to participate; and the project was implemented in all patient care areas. Study Design Prospective study of the impact of rigorously applied WalkRounds on frontline caregivers assessments of safety climate in their patient care area. WalkRounds were conducted weekly and according to the seven-step WalkRounds Guide. The SAQ was administered at baseline and approximately 18 months post-WalkRounds implementation to all caregivers in patient care areas. Results Two of seven hospitals complied with the rigorous WalkRounds approach; hospital A was an academic teaching center and hospital B a community teaching hospital. Of 21 patient care areas, SAQ surveys were received from 62 percent of respondents at baseline and 60 percent post WalkRounds. At baseline, 10 of 21 care areas (48 percent) had safety climate scores below 60 percent, whereas post-WalkRounds three care areas (14 percent) had safety climate scores below 60 percent without improving by 10 points or more. Safety climate scale scores in hospital A were 62 percent at baseline and 77 percent post-WalkRounds (t=2.67, p=.03), and in hospital B were 46 percent at baseline and 56 percent post WalkRounds (t=2.06, p=.06). Main safety issues by category were equipment/facility (A [26 percent] and B [33 percent]) and communication (A [24 percent] and B [18 percent]). Conclusions WalkRounds implementation requires significant organizational will; sustainability requires outstanding project management and leadership engagement. In the patient care areas that rigorously implemented WalkRounds, frontline caregiver assessments of patient safety increased. SAQ results such as safety climate scores facilitate the triage of quality improvement efforts, and provide consensus assessments of frontline caregivers that identify themes for improvement. PMID:18671751
Frankel, Allan; Grillo, Sarah Pratt; Pittman, Mary; Thomas, Eric J; Horowitz, Lisa; Page, Martha; Sexton, Bryan
Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.
In order to decrease the casualties, monitor the real-time motion and safety of the fireman in fire scene, an accurate, efficient and low-cost attitude detector is designed. To monitor the attitude angle in real time, the extend Kalman filter for attitude detector based on quaternion is presented internally. To improve the accuracy detector uses the three-axis MEMS gyroscope with range
Zhang Yanru; Tian Guohui; Gao Xin; Zhou Fengyu
BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted. PMID:21165372
McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey
Objective: To investigate attitudes of Iranian senior dental students towards preventive dentistry in relation to their background factors and self-perceived competency in providing preventive care. Materials and Methods: In spring 2008, a questionnaire survey was conducted with all the senior dental students of seven randomly selected state dental schools in Iran. In addition to the respondents’ age and gender, the voluntary questionnaire assessed the students’ attitudes towards preventive dentistry by means of a seven-point semantic differential scale of nine qualities and their opposites, and their self-perceived competency in providing preventive care by five separate questions. To identify the underlying dimensions for attitude, a factor analysis with principle component method and varimax rotation was applied. Independent sample t-test served for statistical analysis. Of the 242 students receiving the questionnaire, 182 students (75%) responded. The mean age of the participants was 26 years and 42% of them were men. Results: Based on the factor analysis, which explained 60% of the total variance, two attitude dimensions were identified; the profession-related dimension and the health service-related dimension. Competency in giving preventive care in all the five specified areas was reported by 44% of the students with no significant gender differences. The mean for the dentist-related dimension was significantly higher among the students who reported competency in giving preventive care (P=0.005). Conclusion: There is room for improvement in senior dental students’ attitudes towards preventive dentistry. In order to create more positive attitudes for future dental professionals, there should be an early and sufficient exposure to preventive aspects of dentistry in the dental curricula. PMID:23323180
Khami, MR.; Murtomaa, H.; Razeghi, S.; Virtanen, J. I.
Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological "tricks" are used to influence us, with the goal being to get us to change our behaviors but to think that it was our idea all along. These tricks include using emotional appeals and persuasion techniques that rely on biases in human problem solving. This power can be used for social marketing, the use of these techniques to promote social well-being, rather than simply for commercial purposes. Understanding how advertising works therefore allows us to use this power to effect positive changes in society. PMID:20407989
Gentile, Douglas A
Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612
Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.
This was developed in collaboration with the White Bear Lake Senior High School Evaluation Committee to evaluate the school's flexible module scheduling program. It includes a questionnaire about the school and its program and a questionnaire form for interviews in the community. Part I of the high school questionnaire has 25 questions about the…
Welch, Wayne W.; And Others
This comprehensive guide leads the user step-by-step through questionnaire creation. Topics include preliminary considerations, writing the questionnaire items, issues that may come up when giving the questionnaire, statistical considerations, and references for further reading. This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.
The construction of a temperament questionnaire for early adult life is described, utilizing the nine categories of the New York Longitudinal Study. A correlation matrix of the nine categories, as generated from the 140 item questionnaire, and a factor analysis are reported, and the significance of the factor is discussed. The questionnaire was administered to 70 young adult subjects of
Alexander Thomas; Mary Mittelman; Stella Chess; Sam J. Korn; Jacob Cohen
Young people are open to traffic accidents because of their age, their attitude, their lack of experience, and their tendency for risk-taking. This study sought an answer to the question of what are the perceptions, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors of young people that lead to traffic safety problems and/or interfere with their…
Basch, Charles E.; And Others
This research explores the early infant feeding practice of gypsy and traveller women and their attitudes towards breast and formula feeding in one primary care trust. This research was undertaken using a quantitative research approach. Two structured questionnaires were administered. The first questionnaire was completed by all health visitors employed by the trust. This questionnaire established that most gypsy and traveller women choose to formula feed their infants and the breastfeeding rate in this community is very low. The second questionnaire was completed by 50% of the gypsy and traveller community who met the inclusion criteria. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) was completed as part of this questionnaire. This questionnaire showed that gypsy and traveller women had a more neutral attitude towards early infant feeding than was expected. This is significant as previous research suggests that women with neutral attitude scores are not fixed in their early infant feeding intentions. This therefore implies that the infant feeding practice of these women could potentially be influenced. This study, therefore, concludes that implementing focused interventions aimed at promoting breastfeeding could potentially increase the breastfeeding initiation rate in this community. PMID:22866529
Summary: Based on the questionnaire surveys to 1000 consumers from 12 supermarkets in Beijing, China, 2004, this paper revealed consumers' attitudes on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM foods. The results show that 64.9% interviewees are not acquaintance to GMOs and GM products, while only 2.3% of respondents have a good understanding. With respect to GMOs labeling, 45.3% of interviewees
Dayuan XUE; Yuqing WANG
Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.
Meek, I. C.
Attitudes toward school and three personality characteristics (introversion, impulsivity, and emotional stability) were measured in Swedish students from 60 sixth grade classes. The School and We Questionnaire (SAW) and a Swedish translation of the High School Personality Questionnaire were completed by 1,319 students. Secondary data analysis was…
This study analyses the attitudes of Western trained doctors to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Shenyang, Northern China. Research methodology involved a series of structured interviews as well as developing a questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed in four centres, 177 were returned. Ninety-eight percent of respondents had some theoretical and practical TCM training; the older doctors having
K. Harmsworth; G. T. Lewith
Trainees in a Title XX project were taught skills in working with parents. To measure training effectiveness, a questionnaire measuring parent attitudes toward the center and the caregivers was given to parents of center children, before and after the training. The parents indicated on the second questionnaire that they were less satisfied with…
Van Kirk, Marilyn
Teachers from schools across the United Arab Emirates were asked to complete two questionnaires. The first questionnaire sought data from the teachers on their experience, qualifications, classes taught and attitudes in relation to inclusion. Information was also sought on the advantages and disadvantages of inclusion, the most difficult…
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic utilization in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among public attending a local hospital. The four-part questionnaire collected responses on demographic characteristics, recent use of antibiotics, knowledge and attitude statements. Cronbach’s alpha for knowledge and attitude statements were 0.68 and 0.74 respectively. Only questionnaires with complete responses were analysed. General linear modelling was used to identify demographic characteristics which contributed significantly to knowledge and attitude. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of obtaining an inappropriate response for each knowledge and attitude statement. The relationship between antibiotic knowledge and attitude was examined using Pearson’s correlation and correlation between related statements was performed using the Chi-square test. In all statistical analyses, a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was positive correlation (p<0.001) between mean knowledge (6.07±2.52) and attitude scores (5.59±1.67). Highest education level (p<0.001) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.001) contributed significantly to knowledge. Gender (p=0.010), race (p=0.005), highest education level (p<0.001), employment status (p=0.016) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.005) contributed significantly to attitude. The differences in score between demographic groups were small. Misconceptions that antibiotics would work on both bacterial and viral infections were reported. Approximately three quarters of respondents expected antibiotics for treatment of coughs and colds. Close to two thirds (60%) believed that taking antibiotics would improve recovery. Several demographic groups were identified as ‘high risk’ with respect to gaps in knowledge and attitude. Conclusions: This study has identified important knowledge and attitude gaps as well as people ‘at risk’. These findings would be useful in strategizing targeted antibiotic awareness campaigns and patient counselling. PMID:23532680
Lim, Ka Keat; Teh, Chew Charn
Since the major causes of accidents are carelessness and a negative or apathetic attitude towards safety, this guide was developed to facilitate safe, stimulating science laboratory activities by providing both general and specific safety information presented in 12 sections. Subject areas considered in these sections include: 1)…
Lulashnyk, Lorne; Boonov, Janet
Background Drug addiction is considered as a problem of the new century which has destructive consequences for both family and society. This ominous phenomenon resulted from many factors. Present research aimed at recognition of inter-personal factors related to addiction and were conducted through a questionnaire to identify the youths at risk of addiction. Objectives Present research aimed at recognition of inter-personal factors related to addiction and were conducted through a questionnaire to identify the youths at risk of addiction. Materials and Methods The design of the present research is correlational analytic. The population consists of all young addicted or non-addicted people between the ages 18 to 35 and the sample consists of 82 addicted and 223 non-addicted young people in Tehran who were selected randomly and simply. The initial form included 120 questions which were administered on the sample in three stages. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistic and factor analysis. Results In this questionnaire four factors of depression and miserableness, having a positive attitude to drug, stress and anxiety and finally seeking high levels of excitement were respectively the strongest factors in predicting the risk of drug-abuse and addiction. The validity of the questionnaire which consists of 75 questions in the final form was calculated through internal consistency. Cronbach alpha of the whole questionnaire was 0.97, which that of the factor of depression and miserableness was 0.96, the factor of a positive attitude to drug was 0.93, the factor of stress and anxiety was 0.90 and the factor of high excitement-seeking was 0.80. Conclusions The evaluation of the questionnaire for identifying the individuals in the risk of addiction showed that the questionnaire benefits from appropriate validity and reliability. Therefore, it can be used in preventive fields and research. Moreover, by illuminating interpersonal factors that are effective in drug abuse, proper strategies can be used to prevent drug addiction. PMID:24971260
Anisi, Jafar; Bahadori, Mohammad Hossein; Jahanbakhsh, Marziyeh
Background The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes. Methods This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among staff nurses working at one public hospital (Kenyatta National Hospital, (KNH) and one private hospital (Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). A convenience sample of 200 nurses filled the questionnaires. Data was collected using the modified Nurses’ Attitudes Towards Computerisation (NATC) questionnaire. Results Nurses had a favorable attitude towards computerisation. Non-users had a significantly higher attitude score compared to the users (p?=?0.0274). Statistically significant associations were observed with age (p?=?0.039), level of education (p?=?0.025), duration of exposure to computers (p?=?0.025) and attitudes towards computerisation. Conclusion Generally, nurses have positive attitudes towards computerisation. This information is important for the planning and implementation of computerisation in the hospital as suggested in other studies. PMID:24774008
The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.
Markley, F. Landis
Background Although usage and acceptance are important factors for a successful implementation of clinical decision support systems for medication, most studies only concentrate on their design and outcome. Our objective was to comparatively investigate a set of traditional medication safety measures such as medication safety training for physicians, paper-based posters and checklists concerning potential medication problems versus the additional benefit of a computer-assisted medication check. We concentrated on usage, acceptance and suitability of such interventions in a busy emergency department (ED) of a 749 bed acute tertiary care hospital. Methods A retrospective, qualitative evaluation study was conducted using a field observation and a questionnaire-based survey. Six physicians were observed while treating 20 patient cases; the questionnaire, based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2), has been answered by nine ED physicians. Results During field observations, we did not observe direct use of any of the implemented interventions for medication safety (paper-based and electronic). Questionnaire results indicated that the electronic medication safety check was the most frequently used intervention, followed by checklist and posters. However, despite their positive attitude, physicians most often stated that they use the interventions in only up to ten percent for subjectively “critical” orders. Main reasons behind the low usage were deficits in ease-of-use and fit to the workflow. The intention to use the interventions was rather high after overcoming these barriers. Conclusions Methodologically, the study contributes to Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) research in an ED setting and confirms TAM2 as a helpful diagnostic tool in identifying barriers for a successful implementation of medication safety interventions. In our case, identified barriers explaining the low utilization of the implemented medication safety interventions - despite their positive reception - include deficits in accessibility, briefing for the physicians about the interventions, ease-of-use and compatibility to the working environment. PMID:23890121
Many health care organizations are adopting crew resource management (CRM) training from the aviation industry as a patient safety practice. Although CRM has high face validity, its effects have not been thoroughly evaluated in aviation or health care. Its potential to improve team communication, coordination, and patient safety, however, makes efforts to study CRM necessary and worthwhile. This article evaluates clinicians' attitudes about and reactions to CRM after they participated in an eight-hour, commercially developed training program. PMID:16153049
France, Daniel J; Stiles, Renee; Gaffney, E Andrew; Seddon, Margaret R; Grogan, Eric L; Nixon, William R; Speroff, Theodore
The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback
Xiao-liang Wang; Xue-xiong Shan
This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China. PMID:23470881
Shen, Jiabin; Li, Shaohua; Xiang, Huiyun; Pang, Shulan; Xu, Guozhang; Schwebel, David C.
In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501
Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F
Purpose - The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and ?2 statistics. Findings - The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research limitations/implications - Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling. PMID:25764294
A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun
Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)
McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.
Safety culture refers to the attitudes, behaviors, and conditions that affect safety performance and often arises in discussions following incidents at nuclear power plants. As it involves both operational and management ...
Alexander, Erin L
The present study investigated the relationship between self-reported sex-role characteristics and attitudes toward homosexuality using the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Attitudes toward Homosexuality Scale. Relationships occur for both males and females who are exhibiting greater amounts of cross-sex traits. Females with more instrumental characteristics were more accepting while males with more expressive characteristics were
Kathryn N. Black; Michael R. Stevenson
The present study describes how adolescents perceive their mood disorders (MD; e.g., acute vs. chronic) and their attitudes\\u000a toward mental health services. The study also explores the relationships between demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions\\u000a of illness and attitudes. Finally, we examine the psychometric properties of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised\\u000a (Moss-Morris et al. in Psychology & Health 17(1):1–16, 2002). Seventy adolescents were
Michelle R. Munson; Jerry E. Floersch; Lisa Townsend
In this research we propose that certain individuals display a cognitive vulnerability to depression, centering around their dysfunctional attitudes for evaluating self-worth. In Study 1, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and the Self-Consciousness Questionnaire. Participants also indicated which adjectives, in a set of depressed and nondepressed content adjectives, were self-descriptive. Depressed individuals, relative
Nicholas A. Kuiper; L. Joan Olinger; Stephen R. Swallow
With emerging westernization, there is growing concern about sexual promiscuity and changing attitudes toward sexuality. A\\u000a questionnaire was administered to 182 adolescents from the city of Mumbai in the age group of 17–21 years in order to examine\\u000a their knowledge about crucial aspects of sexuality and their source of sex related information. The survey also accessed attitudes\\u000a regarding sex education, premarital
Priyanka Dheerendra Joshi
Objective: To examine the provision of practical safety education by Child Safety Education Coalition (CSEC) organizations in England. Design: A postal survey. Setting: Providers of child practical safety education who were also part of CSEC. Methods: In February 2010 all CSEC organizations were sent a self-completion postal questionnaire which…
Mulvaney, Caroline A.; Watson, Michael C.; Walsh, Patrick
Summary Objective To investigate how hypochondriacal attitudes and beliefs, attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and modern health worries (MHWs) related to patient satisfaction with their general practitioner. Design Participants completed a five-part questionnaire anonymously which measured satisfaction with one’s doctor, hypochondriacal beliefs, attitudes to CAM, MHWs and personality. Setting England Participants Included 215 adults from a variety of cultural backgrounds. Main outcome measure The Illness Attitudes Scales measuring the attitudes, fears and beliefs associated with hypochondriasis; Worry about Illness; Concerns about Pain, Health Habits, Hypochondriacal beliefs; Thanatophobia, Disease phobia, Bodily preoccupations; Treatment experience and Effects of symptoms. Results Correlations (around r?=?.10 to .25) and Regressions (R square from .06 to .09) showed demographic and personality variables only modestly related to patient satisfaction. Hypochondriasis, CAM and MHWs were associated with greater patient dissatisfaction as predicted with the former as the most powerful correlate. Conclusion The study indicates the different needs of potential patients in a typical medical consultation. It is important to ascertain patients’ health beliefs and practices with regard to medical history, attitudes to CAM and MHWs to increase consultation satisfaction. PMID:25408919
Objective: The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),1 relating to “Anomalous Perceptions” and “Threatening Events” themes. Method: Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. Results: The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Conclusions: Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas. PMID:23413104
Peters, Emmanuelle R.
ABSTRACT. Background. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are being increasingly used in medical practice. Although they have been touted as having the ability to improve efficiency and safety, little is known about pe- diatricians’ use of and attitudes about PDAs. Objective. Our goals were to 1) determine the per- centage of pediatricians using PDAs and computers, 2) determine perceived strengths and
Aaron E. Carroll; Dimitri A. Christakis
PurposePreventing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is increasingly recognised by safety advocates as a public health priority. CO alarms are the best defence against CO poisoning yet little attention has been placed on developing and evaluating comprehensive CO programs. The presentation shares CO knowledge, attitudes and practices from a household survey conducted in an urban area prior to the implementation of
E M McDonald; W Shields; R Stepnitz; S Frattaroli; D Valentine; A C Gielen
European movement regarding increased consumer concern toward food safety and quality as well as health and nutritional aspect of food is present in Croatia as well. Consumer perceptions and attitudes regarding organic food were analyzed on sample of 124 examinees, by means of face-to-face survey. Aim of paper was to create founded marketing strategies, market segments identification, sales channels and
The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess the relationships of demographic characteristics with attitudes toward abusive parents and abused children in a convenience sample of 183 police recruits. Police academy training staff invited recruits to complete a questionnaire which contained three vignettes and a 36-item questionnaire that depicted child neglect, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and demographic information. Analysis of responses showed that African Americans and Latinos reported more negative attitudes of anger, disgust, sadness, and discomfort toward an abusive parent than the Euro-American group. Women reported more negative attitudes toward an abused child and also more positive attitudes of sympathy and caring toward an abused child. Results partially support previous research suggesting demographic characteristics influence report of attitudes toward abusive parents and abused children. These findings about the influence of demographic characteristics on positive and negative emotional reactions toward abusive parents and abused children add to the literature. PMID:18175484
Patterson, George T
This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338
Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan
This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measure attitudes\\u000a about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse\\u000a psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high endorsement. In Study 2,\\u000a items were administered to 1,398 undergraduate students to examine their
Karen S. BuddSteven; Steven Behling; Yan Li; Sangeeta Parikshak; Rachel A. Gershenson; Rachel Feuer; Christina M. Danko
The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Attitudes Toward Statistics questionnaire were administered to 226 university of technology students. The former scale measures anxiety about learning statistics in terms of Worth of Statistics, Interpretation Anxiety, Test and Class Anxiety, Computational Self-concept, Fear of Asking for Help, and Fear of Statistics Teachers. The latter measures attitudes toward use of statistics and statistics course for which a student was registered. These African students were enrolled in Taxation, Marketing, or Accounting. Participants took a required course in statistics intended to improve statistical skills. There were 150 women and 57 men, chosen because they had no previous mathematics learning. Students' ages ranged between 16 and 26 years (M = 20.1, SD = 2.0). There were no statistically significant sex differences on attitudes and anxiety toward statistics, but there were significant differences among areas of study programs. PMID:19708400
This study assesses medical students' use of and attitudes towards club drugs, classified as "Generation I" (i.e., cocaine and lysergic acid diethylamide), and "Generation II" (i.e., methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA], ketamine, gamma hydroxybutyrate, methamphetamine, rohypnol, dextromethorphan) club drugs based on their initial widespread use in club settings. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 340 medical students. The prevalence of any club drug use was 16.8%, with MDMA (11.8%) and cocaine (5.9%) the most commonly used. Results discussed also include the relationship of age and gender to having ever used club drugs and to their attitudes regarding use. Additionally, the study identifies differences in patterns of use and attitudes toward Generation I versus Generation II club drugs based on age, gender, and participants' prior club drug use. Findings are compared to those of earlier studies about medical students and those in a similar age group in the general population. PMID:19042589
Horowitz, Alex; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Franklin, John
The feasibility of identification of personality-based population clusters was investigated along with the relationships of these subpopulations to relevant attitude and performance measures. The results of instrumental and expressive personality tests, using the Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) test battery and the Cockpit Management Attitudes Questionnaire, suggest that theoretically meaningful subpopulations exist among aviators, and that these groupings are useful in understanding of personality factors acting as moderator variables in the determination of aviator attitudes and performance. Out of the three clusters most easily described in terms of their relative elevations on the PCI subscales ('the right stuff', the 'wrong stuff', and the 'no stuff'), the members of the right stuff cluster tended to have more desirable patterns of responses along relevant attitudinal dimensions.
Gregorich, Steve; Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Chidester, Thomas
Objectives Midlife women's knowledge, positive attitudes and management toward menopause may improve the quality of peri and post-menopause life. This study was to identify correlations of the knowledge, attitude, symptoms and management toward menopause in middle-aged women. Methods We used a cross-sectional questionnaire study applying to 231 perimenopausal and menopausal women aged from 40 to 59 years old. The completed data of 189 perimenopausal and menopausal women were analyzed through t-test, ANOVA and pearson's correlation coefficient using the SPSS statistical programme. Results The menopausal women showed significantly higher physical symptoms than perimenopausal women. The menopausal women showed significantly higher psychosomatic symptom than perimenopausal women. There was a significant correlation between the menopausal attitude and management. Conclusion This study suggests that the fundamental data of developing midlife women's symptom index (MSI) and providing menopause management could be a strategy to encourage successful menopausal transition in middle-aged women. PMID:25580423
Kwak, Eun Kyung; Park, Hyun Soon
The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors’ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to others. Some feel that psychiatry is unscientific, imprecise and treatment is not effective. Traditional teaching methods are directed more towards imparting knowledge than changing the attitudes of students. Newer teaching and assessment techniques should be used to bring about attitudinal changes and develop interest among medical students. Case based and problem based learning, small group teaching, simulated patients, using movies, multidisciplinary seminars, integrated teaching, attitude questionnaires, objective structured clinical examinations etc., could be introduced in the curriculum to achieve this objective.
The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire that measures students' motivation toward science learning (SMTSL). Six scales were developed: self-efficacy, active learning strategies, science learning value, performance goal, achievement goal, and learning environment stimulation. In total, 1407 junior high school students from central Taiwan, varying in grades, sex, and achievements, were selected by stratified random sampling to respond to the questionnaire. The Cronbach alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.89; for each scale, alpha ranged from 0.70 to 0.89. There were significant correlations (p?<?0.01) of the SMTSL questionnaire with students' science attitudes (r?=?0.41), and with the science achievement test in previous and current semesters (rp?=?0.40 and rc?=?0.41). High motivators and low motivators showed a significant difference (p?<?0.01) on their SMTSL scores. Findings of the study confirmed the validity and reliability of the SMTSL questionnaire. Implications for using the SMTSL questionnaire in research and in class are discussed in the paper.
Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin; Shieh, Shyang-Horng
This research project was designed as part of a larger effort to help Human Factors (HF) implementers, and others in the aviation maintenance community, understand, evaluate, and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions; on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2001, three issues were addressed. First a prototype process for measuring performance was developed and used. Second an automated calculator was developed to aid the HF implementer user in analyzing and evaluating local survey data. These results include being automatically compared with the experience from all MRM programs studied since 1991. Third the core survey (the Maintenance Resource Management Technical Operations Questionnaire, or 'MRM/TOQ') was further developed and tested to include topics of added relevance to the industry.
Taylor, James C.
Unrelieved pain is a worldwide health care problem that can lead to unnecessary complications and increased health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to examine nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pain in Saudi Arabia. A descriptive design was employed using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey regarding pain. The study took place in a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. All nurses employed in the hospital were eligible to participate. A total of 775 questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in acute care, intensive care, and nursing education and administration settings. In all, 593 respondents completed the questionnaires, representing a response rate of 76.5%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most participants were from overseas (97.5%), speaking 23 different languages; 36.5% of nurses held a bachelors of science degree in nursing or the equivalent. The mean score of correctly answered items in was 16.9 (95% confidence interval, 16.6-17.31) out of a total possible score of 40. Nurses demonstrated some misconceived attitudes such as not giving the required dose of morphine to a smiling patient despite the patient being in pain. It is of concern that the findings identified problems of inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes regarding pain assessment and management in Saudi Arabia. Considering these problems, the development of pain programs and policies affecting national and international nurses is highly imperative. PMID:25179424
Eid, Thurayya; Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Almazrooa, Adnan
Background: Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Results: Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Conclusions: Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed. PMID:25838929
Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser
The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.
Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; U?ak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the relationship between teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and their perceptions of students' attitudes about Science and Technology (S&T), gender differences in students' patterns of S&T learning, and teachers' perceptions of scientists and S&T A sample of 50 grade 4 to 8 teachers completed an original questionnaire and 10 of those participants were subsequently interviewed. The quantitative results suggested that teachers that perceive their students' attitudes as positive and hold no prejudices about scientists or negative opinions about S&T tend to perceive no gender differences in students' attitudes. The qualitative analyses concerning teachers' beliefs about scientists/S&T principally confirmed all quantitative findings. The further exploration of the relationships between teachers' attitudes and their beliefs concerning scientists/S&T, however, indicated that the results are two-edged.
Haase, Rita P.
This study investigated teachers' attitudes towards proofs in the secondary school mathematics curriculum. The study was motivated by a desire to fill a gap existing in the literature in relation to teachers' attitudes towards proofs. Thirty-four secondary school mathematics teachers' responses to a Likert type questionnaire and interviews were summarised using the five themes of utility, positive attitudes, methods of proof, negative attitudes, and suitability of level of students to perform proofs. The teachers expressed neutral attitudes on technology as a method of proof and disagreed that verbal proof was a valid method for proving the viability of mathematical claims. The implications of the results are discussed using the context of Zimbabwean classrooms with a view to promote debate on how teachers could implement learner-centred reform.
Nyaumwe, Lovemore; Buzuzi, George
Background A person's beliefs can influence the progression of his/her disease;and battling an illness can trigger severe anxiety about death. This study aims to compare the attitude toward death between healthy people and those suffering from diabetes and cancer. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 300 individuals were selected by convenient sampling method. Three groups were matched by gender, age, education, and monthly income. Information was collected through a Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR) questionnaire and Analyzed Via Covariance (ANCOVA). Results The results indicated no difference in death attitude among the three groups (f=2.705, p<0.05). All the three groups displayed a higher mean in neutral and approach acceptance. Conclusion In this study, it was found that disease did not seem to change death attitudes; rather the patients' current attitude had been shaped by previous stages of their sickness. PMID:25250117
Nozari, Masoumeh; Dousti, Yarali
Women with intellectual disability have historically not been provided the opportunity to become mothers. Attitudes held by future professionals will determine the level and quality of support these women are provided. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the attitudes of students from Education, Disability and Midwifery towards the sexuality and parenting of people with an intellectual disability, and to further examine the attitudes held by Midwifery students following a lecture strategy. A questionnaire assessing attitudes towards the sexuality and parenting of people with intellectual disability was implemented and contained the themes of marriage, parenting, sexual intercourse and sterilization. Significant differences were found between student groups on the themes of sterilization and parenting, with further analysis indicating that Disability students held significantly more positive attitudes than the other two groups. Students reported less positive attitudes towards parenting than marriage, sterilization and sexual intercourse. Respondents' age was significantly associated with their attitudes on parenting, indicating that older students held more conservative attitudes towards the ability of people with an intellectual disability to parent. In addition, this research indicated that the attitudes of Midwifery students became more positive following a lecture delivered after the questionnaire. PMID:20636177
Jones, Linda K; Binger, Tara E; McKenzie, Christine R; Ramcharan, Paul; Nankervis, Karen
Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)
Objective To assess the changing perceptions and attitudes of undergraduate dental students towards e-learning between 2001-2004.Design, sample and setting This was a retrospective analysis of online questionnaire data, collected from four successive cohorts of final year students undertaking an online therapeutics course in a large teaching hospital.Methods Students were required to complete a structured and open questionnaire relating to their
S. Rice; M. Uddin; P. A. Reynolds
The purpose of this survey was to define attitudes and opinions of two types of physicians, medical students and lawyers\\u000a in the area of euthanasia and related issues and problems. A questionnaire was used as the source of data. There were four\\u000a groups of test persons: oncologists, home care physicians (family doctors), third-year medical students and lawyers. The questionnaire\\u000a included
S. Radulovic; S. Mojsilovic
Objective: To compare attitudes and practices of Australian medical practitioners, by specialty, to a range of medical decisions at the end of life.\\u000aDesign, setting and participants: As part of an international study, in 2003, a structured questionnaire was mailed to 2964 medical practitioners drawn from membership registers of Australian and Australasian professional colleges. Data from 1478 questionnaires were statistically
Malcolm H Parker; Colleen M Cartwright; Gail M Williams
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to ascertain whether personal interviews carried out for cancer case-control studies cause stress to participants. DESIGN--Retrospective postal questionnaires were sent to women at least three months after interview for a case-control study of the aetiology of cervical cancer. The questionnaire covered attitudes to taking part in the study, stress engendered by participation, whether any particular questions
C Taylor; P Trowbridge; C Chilvers
Introduction: Parental attitude is an important factor in prediction of child abuse. Awareness of people's attitudes is important in the prediction of their behavior and controlling it. This study was conducted to determine the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 mothers referred to the 13 health centers of Tabriz with children aged 2-12, they were selected by a multistage method and their attitudes were assessed using a questionnaire within 2 months. Higher score were representing more negative attitudes. Results: The results showed that the mean score of total attitude toward child abuse was significantly higher than the middle and was significantly associated with mothers' educational level, employment status, attendance status, number of children they have, and economic status. Conclusion: The results showed that although the mothers' attitudes toward child abuse were negative, because of the relationship between mothers' attitudes with their demographic characteristics, it is necessary to enhance mothers' quality of life, and their social and spiritual support to improve their attitudes and prevent the child abuse.
Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Asadollahi, Maliheh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohhammad; Hallaj, Marzieh
Background Suicide is a grave public health issue that is responsible for a high mortality rate among individuals aged 15–44 years. Attitudes toward suicide among medical staff members have been associated with appropriate therapeutic responses to suicidal individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of parental rearing on attitudes toward suicide among Japanese medical college students. Methods We examined the association between parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide in 160 medical college students in Japan. The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess the attitudes and behaviors of parents. The attitudes toward suicide were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire. Results The mean age of the subjects was 25.2±4.0 years old. The majority of the participants in our study agreed that anyone could commit suicide (88.8%) and that suicide is preventable (86.3%). After adjusting for age and sex, multivariate regression analysis revealed that maternal care approached a statistically significant association with the “right to suicide” attitude. Under the same conditions, maternal care was shown to be significantly associated with the “common occurrence” attitude. No other significant relationships were observed between parental bonding and attitudes toward suicide. Conclusion This study suggests that a higher level of maternal care ensures that children think that suicide occurs less commonly. The promotion of best practices for suicide prevention among medical students is needed. Child rearing support might be associated with suicide prevention. PMID:25364256
Hashimoto, Kojiro; Sugawara, Norio; Tanaka, Osamu; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yasui-Furukori, Norio
The validity of an algorithm using GPS carrier Doppler phase measurements for determining the attitude in three dimensions (heading, pitch, and roll) of a space platform that also is undergoing attitude variation is assessed via a simulation. The space platform is taken to revolve in a circular orbit appropriate for the Space Station and Shuttle. It is shown that the multipath effects are potentially the dominant source of error in carrier Doppler phase measurements. A model for the multipath phase errors is presented, and ways to reduce the effects are studied. Preliminary 1-sigma error in heading, pitch, and roll using a 5-meter antenna separation is indicated to be 0.015 deg, which compares favorably with the performance of earth sensors currently used for spacecraft attitude measurements.
Rath, J.; Ward, P.
This study investigated the relationship between attitudes and cultural background of 52 eighth?grade Arab students in Canada and their reading comprehension of texts with English and Arabic content. An attitudes questionnaire, semi?structured interviews and stories with cultural content in Arabic and English were used. Contrary to predictions made by schema theory, students scored higher whenever they read texts in English,
This paper presents results from a study that explored children's attitudes of robots using a qualitative approach in the form of writing stories. This approach was chosen as complimentary to quantitative methods using questionnaires that were previously used to enquire about children's attitudes and perceptions towards both physical, emotional and personality aspects of robots. Results suggest that narrative can be
Sarah Woods; Megan Davis; Kerstin Dautenhahn; Joerg Schulz
This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…
This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.
ORIGINAL PAPER The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire Robert S. E. Hurley Æ Molly Losh Æ Morgan Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), was administered to 86 parents of autistic individuals and 64 email@example.com J. S. Reznick Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
van Lambalgen, Michiel
A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.
Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.
The study assessed young adults' attitudes toward childlessness and identified certain factors which predict positive or negative attitudes toward childlessness. The author anticipated finding changes in attitudes because of recent social developments such as awareness of world overpopulation, availability of birth control methods, pressure for…
The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…
Willoughby, Brian J.
Students' attitudes toward science significantly alter their achievement in science. Therefore, identification and influence of attitudes became to be an essential part of educational research. This study has been initiated by the idea that; research in students' attitudes toward science often involves science in general, but particular disciplines like biology or chemistry have been overlooked. Thus, this study is about
Pavol Prokop; Gaye Tuncer
Numerous analyses have been performed to identify resident attitudes toward tourism. This article extends the subject by introducing a broad, synthetic conceptual model of attitudes. Using data from a survey, two sets of specific models derived from this general one are evaluated using structural equation modeling (e.g., LISREL). The value-attitude models indicate that the strength of resident values regarding economic
Rebecca L. Johnson
Describes construction of an attitude scale and its use in assessing attitudes of college students in relation to the discovery method of teaching. Study revealed that attitudes can be changed by training which involves working with children in real classrooms. (PS)
Bollen, F. A.
This study examined correctional officers' views and attitudes about working with inmates with AIDS. At three prisons in Texas, 153 correctional officers were administered the AIDS in Prison Scale, the AIDS Attitude Scale, an AIDS\\/HIV Knowledge Test, and a Homophobia Scale. Correctional officers who had more positive attitudes about people with AIDS, who were more knowledgeable about AIDS\\/HIV, and who
KATHERINE J. MAHAFFEY; DAVID K. MARCUS
Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614
Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.
Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire assesses three facets-reports, peer ratings, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 435-448. Other references include: Gross, J.J. (2000). The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. In J. Maltby, C.A. Lewis, & A
Gross, James J.
A sample of 202 students filling in a student evaluation of teaching (SET) questionnaire were asked to complete another questionnaire asking about the specific reasons for awarding a score to the specific SET questionnaire items. The aim was to find out what influenced students' judgements on those items. It was found that students' interpretation of some questions differed from the
S. Ian Robertson
Diseases spread through food still remain a common and persistent problems resulting in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study is to explore the pattern of sociodemographic distribution and to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases and food safety. A total of 430 food handlers were randomly selected from Kota Bharu district and interviewed by using structured questionnaire. Distribution of food handlers was Malays (98.8%), females (69.5%), married (81.4%), working in food stalls (64.2%), involved in operational areas (49.3%), having no license (54.2%) and immunized with Ty2 (60.7%). The mean age was 41 +/- 12 years and the mean income was RM 465 +/- 243/month. The educational level was found as no formal education (10.5%), primary school (31.9%), secondary school (57.0%) and diploma/degree holders (0.7%). A significant number of food handlers (57.2%) had no certificate in food handlers training program and 61.9% had undergone routine medical examinations (RME). Almost half (48.4%) had poor knowledge. Multiple logistic regression showed type of premise [Odd ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% Confidence interval (CI) =1.8-7.5, p = 0.0004], educational level (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4, p = 0.0003) and job status of food handlers (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8, p = 0.0031) significantly influenced the level score of knowledge. No significant difference of attitude and practice between trained and untrained food handlers. Findings of this preliminary study may help in planning health education intervention programs for food handlers in order to have improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice towards food-borne diseases and food safety. Furthermore, it will in turn reduce national morbidity and mortality of food-borne diseases. PMID:12236444
Zain, Maizun Mohd; Naing, Nyi Nyi
various traffic safety policies, including speed limit selection, seat belt legislation, and drunk-driving- 1 - Driver Attitudes and Choices: Speed Limits, Seat Belt Use, and Drinking-and-Driving Young driving behavior and traffic safety issues can contribute to design and policy solutions, such as, speed
Kockelman, Kara M.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of voice output, as a characteristic of a child's AAC system, on the attitude of unfamiliar peers. The need to develop a suitable tool to measure the attitudes of peers led to the development of the Communication Aid/Device Attitudinal Questionnaire (CADAQ). A descriptive survey design was used and the suitability of the CADAQ was tested in a pilot study. One hundred and fifteen participants, aged 11-13 years, viewed a videotape of a 13-year-old boy with cerebral palsy, communicating with the use of an AAC device. Attitudes were measured according to three dimensions: affective/behavioural, cognitive/belief and communication competence. Data were analysed with a 2 (group) x 2 (gender) x 3 (dimension) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with infinity = .05. An item analysis, Cronbach Alpha's and scale intercorrelations between the 3 dimensions of the CADAQ were computed to determine the internal consistency of the CADAQ. Results reflected more favourable attitudes to the presence of voice output in comparison to the no voice option. Girls held more positive attitudes to the peer with disabilities and little or no functional speech (LNFS). Good internal consistency of the CADAQ was demonstrated. PMID:14968695
Lilienfeld, M; Alant, E
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
Introduction: Emergency Contraception is a grossly underu–tilized option of prevention of pregnancy. It is a safe and effective method which can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and unwanted childbirth. Knowledge and attitude of Nursing personnel who are both service providers and health educators to the community can influence the contraceptive behavior of the people exposed to them. A few studies done in our country indicate that their awareness regarding EC is low. Aim: To explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC amongst Nursing Personnel in a medical college hospital. Materials and Methods: In this study, 185 nursing personnel participated. A predesigned, pretested questionnaire was used to collect their responses regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of EC. Descriptive analysis of data was done. Results : Out of the total, 52.43% of the participants had good knowledge regarding the general information of EC, 51.35% had positive attitude towards EC, 47.56% had expressed willingness to use EC if indicated whereas only 22.7% had ever used EC. 72.97% had expressed willingness to attend awareness programmes on EC. Conclusion :Even though knowledge and attitude towards EC among the participants was marginally good they had many misconceptions regarding specific aspects like mode of action, indications and timing of administration. More awareness programmes would definitely clear their misconceptions and apprehensions and encourage Nursing Personnel to personally use and promote EC to others. PMID:25386489
Shanthini N, Fatima
There is little information about health professionals’ behavior regarding oral health care during pregnancy. We evaluated attitudes of obstetricians/gynecologists, nurses, and dentists working at a public community service towards pregnant women’s oral health. Health professionals responded to a self-applied questionnaire. Cluster analysis identified two clusters of respondents; Chi-square, Student’s t test, and logistic regression were used to compare the two clusters in terms of the independent variables. Respondents were categorized into cluster 1 ‘less favorable’ (n = 159) and cluster 2 ‘more favorable’ (n = 124) attitudes. Professionals that had attended a residency or specialization program (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.15–3.77, p = 0.016) and worked exclusively at the public service (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.10–4.20, p = 0.025) presented more favorable attitudes. Obstetricians/gynecologists (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.09–0.54, p = 0.001) and nurses (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, p = 0.013) showed less favorable attitudes than dentists. Health care providers’ attitudes regarding pregnant women’s oral health were related to their occupation, qualification, and dedication to the public service. PMID:23202756
Alves, Renata Toledo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida; Costa, Luciane Rezende; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Paiva, Saul Martins
Introduction: As gender role attitudes and the evaluation of parenthood and childlessness have subtle variations in each society, cross-country studies focusing on infertility are needed to draw a complex picture in the psychosocial context of infertility. This study investigates similarities and differences between German and Hungarian infertile couples regarding infertility specific quality of life and personal gender role attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data of 540 participants (270 couples) attending the first fertility consultation in one fertility clinic in Germany and in five fertility clinics in Hungary. Data were collected between February 2012 and March 2013. Two psychological questionnaires were applied: The FertiQoL to measure infertility specific quality of life and the PAQ to measure gender role attitudes like “instrumental” acting (as a traditional “masculine” attitude) and “expressive” communicating (as a traditional “femine” attitude) and their combinations “combined” attitude (as both “instrumental” and “expressive”) and “neutral” attitude (neither “instrumental” nor “expressive”). Results: German couples seeking assisted reproduction treatment are older aged and have longer lasting relationships than Hungarian couples. Hungarian couples scored higher on all quality of life scales than did German couples. In the Hungarian group, “combined” attitudes (use of both “expressive” and “instrumental” attitudes) is associated with higher levels of quality of life compared with other gender role attitudes. In the German group, individuals with “combined” attitudes seem to show better quality of life than those in “expressive” and “neutral” clusters. Conclusions: The strategy of using combined “expressive” and “instrumental” attitudes proved to act as a buffer against infertility-related stress for both members of the couple in two European countries and can therefore be recommended as helpful in counselling the infertile couple. PMID:25484375
Cserepes, R. E.; Bugán, A.; Korösi, T.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wischmann, T.
Introduction: As gender role attitudes and the evaluation of parenthood and childlessness have subtle variations in each society, cross-country studies focusing on infertility are needed to draw a complex picture in the psychosocial context of infertility. This study investigates similarities and differences between German and Hungarian infertile couples regarding infertility specific quality of life and personal gender role attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data of 540 participants (270 couples) attending the first fertility consultation in one fertility clinic in Germany and in five fertility clinics in Hungary. Data were collected between February 2012 and March 2013. Two psychological questionnaires were applied: The FertiQoL to measure infertility specific quality of life and the PAQ to measure gender role attitudes like "instrumental" acting (as a traditional "masculine" attitude) and "expressive" communicating (as a traditional "femine" attitude) and their combinations "combined" attitude (as both "instrumental" and "expressive") and "neutral" attitude (neither "instrumental" nor "expressive"). Results: German couples seeking assisted reproduction treatment are older aged and have longer lasting relationships than Hungarian couples. Hungarian couples scored higher on all quality of life scales than did German couples. In the Hungarian group, "combined" attitudes (use of both "expressive" and "instrumental" attitudes) is associated with higher levels of quality of life compared with other gender role attitudes. In the German group, individuals with "combined" attitudes seem to show better quality of life than those in "expressive" and "neutral" clusters. Conclusions: The strategy of using combined "expressive" and "instrumental" attitudes proved to act as a buffer against infertility-related stress for both members of the couple in two European countries and can therefore be recommended as helpful in counselling the infertile couple. PMID:25484375
Cserepes, R E; Bugán, A; Korösi, T; Toth, B; Rösner, S; Strowitzki, T; Wischmann, T
The stigma of mental illness is a severe burden for people suffering from mental illness both in private and public life, also affecting their relatives, their close social network, and the mental health care system in terms of disciplines, providers, and institutions. Interventions against the stigma of mental illness employ complementary strategies (e.g., protest, education, and contact) and address different target groups (e.g., school children and teachers, journalists, stakeholders). Within this framework, the World Psychiatric Association has adopted an Action Plan with the goal to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists (psychiatrists and general practitioners). The questionnaire comprises scales about perceived stigma in terms of the perception of societal stereotypes, self-stigma in terms of stereotype agreement, perceived stigma in terms of structural discriminations, discrimination experiences, stigma outcomes, and attitudes toward a second medical discipline. It is available in several languages (Arab, English, German, Japanese, Polish, and Spanish) and can easily be adapted for utilization in other medical specialties. PMID:21947511
Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose; Zielasek, Jürgen; Stuart, Heather; Arboleda-Florez, Julio; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Gureje, Oye; Jorge, Miguel R; Kastrup, Marianne; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tasman, Allan; Sartorius, Norman
Reviews conclusions about public attitudes toward science and technology drawn by the director of the National Science Foundation, John B. Slaughter, from a recent survey conducted by the National Science Foundation. Slaughter's comments about the United States' slowing rate of investment in research and development are also included. (SR)
USA Today, 1982
Scores on the Parental Attitudes Research Instrument and on Rotter's Internality-Externality Scale were compared for 28 lower class black mothers of high risk infants and 34 mothers of same-age infants from the general population of a Southern University town. (GO)
Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.
This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…
Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.
This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.
In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…
This report summarizes the findings of three studies related to the effects of schooling on the employability development of youth. The first two studies described investigate determinants of attitudes and misbehavior in high school that are presumed to affect labor market outcomes later. The third study is presented as a complement to the first…
Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Dorsten, Linda Eberst