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\\u000a Background Provider attitudes about issues pertinent to patient safety may be related to errors and adverse events. We know of no instruments\\u000a that measure safety-related attitudes in the outpatient setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To adapt the safetyattitudesquestionnaire (SAQ) to the outpatient setting and compare attitudes among different types of\\u000a providers in the outpatient setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We modified the SAQ to create a 62-item
Isitri Modak; J. Bryan Sexton; Thomas R. Lux; Robert L. Helmreich; Eric J. Thomas
Background Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. Methods The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted SafetyAttitudeQuestionnaire in Chinese (SAQ-C). Hospitals and their healthcare workers participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The psychometric properties of the five SAQ-C dimensions were examined, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, perception of management, and working conditions. Additional safety measures were asked to assess healthcare workers' attitudes toward their collaboration with nurses, physicians, and pharmacists, respectively, and perceptions of hospitals' encouragement of safety reporting, safety training, and delivery delays due to communication breakdowns in clinical areas. The associations between the respondents' attitudes to each SAQ-C dimension and safety measures were analyzed by generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the clustering effects at hospital levels. Results A total of 45,242 valid questionnaires were returned from 200 hospitals with a mean response rate of 69.4%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.792 for teamwork climate, 0.816 for safety climate, 0.912 for job satisfaction, 0.874 for perception of management, and 0.785 for working conditions. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good model fit for each dimension and the entire construct. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers holding positive attitude was 48.9% for teamwork climate, 45.2% for perception of management, 42.1% for job satisfaction, 37.2% for safety climate, and 31.8% for working conditions. There were wide variations in the range of SAQ-C scores in each dimension among hospitals. Compared to those without positive attitudes, healthcare workers with positive attitudes to each SAQ dimension were more likely to perceive good collaboration with coworkers, and their hospitals were more likely to encourage safety reporting and to prioritize safety training programs (Wald chi-square test, p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions Analytical results verified the psychometric properties of the SAQ-C at Taiwanese hospitals. The safety culture at most hospitals has not fully developed and there is considerable room for improvement.
Background Patient safety has been a priority for many societies and health care systems in the last decades. Identification of preventable risks and aversion of potentially unsafe situations and fatal complications in maternity units is life saving. The explicit need to focus on quality of care underpins the aim of the study to initially evaluate the safety culture and teamwork climate in the public Maternity Units of the 5 Regional Hospitals in Cyprus as measured by a validated safetyattitudes tool. Methods Data were collected from 140 midwives working in the public sector all over Cyprus by the Greek Version of the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire-Labor version. Results One hundred and six (75.71%) registered midwives completed the questionnaire fully. The median of total work experience as a registered midwife was 3 years (IQR: 2-18.25); whereas the median of total working experience in the nursing and maternity units was 5 years (IQR: 2-21.75). Experienced midwives rated the following domains higher: team work, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions as opposed to the midwives with less experience. Additionally those with a longer working life in the current maternity units rated these domains higher: safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions as opposed to the less experienced midwives. Conclusions The high mean total score on team work and safety climate in the more experienced group of midwives is a predominant finding for the maternity units of Cyprus. In Cyprus where facilities are small in size and midwives know each other, share more responsibility towards patient safety. It could be suggested that younger midwives need more support and teamwork practice to enhance the safety and teamwork climate towards self-confidence.
ObjectiveTo test the psychometric soundness of the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) in Turkish hospitals, examine differences in perceptions of safety and provide baseline data.MethodsThe SAQ (inpatient version) was translated with the back-translation technique into Turkish. Ten out of 50 teaching hospitals belonging to the Ministry of Health in Turkey were selected randomly. The Turkish version of the SAQ was administered
background NICU safety culture, as measured by the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ), varies widely. Associations with clinical outcomes in the adult ICU setting make the SAQ an attractive tool for comparing clinical performance between hospitals. Little information is available on the use of the SAQ for this purpose in the NICU setting. objectives To determine whether the dimensions of safety culture measured by the SAQ give consistent results when used as a NICU performance measure. methods Cross-sectional survey of caregivers in twelve NICUs, using the six scales of the SAQ: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition, perceptions of management, and working conditions. NICUs were ranked by quantifying their contribution to overall risk-adjusted variation across the scales. Spearman Rank Correlation coefficients were used to test for consistency in scale performance. We then examined whether performance in the top four NICUs in one scale predicted top four performance in others. results There were 547 respondents in twelve NICUs. Of fifteen NICU-level correlations in performance ranking, two were greater than 0.7, seven were between 0.4 and 0.69, the six remaining were less than 0.4. We found a trend towards significance in comparing the distribution of performance in the top four NICUs across domains with a binomial distribution p = .051, indicating generally consistent performance across dimensions of safety culture. conclusion A culture of safety permeates many aspects of patient care and organizational functioning. The SAQ may be a useful tool for comparative performance assessments among NICUs.
Profit, Jochen; Etchegaray, Jason; Petersen, Laura A; Sexton, J Bryan; Hysong, Sylvia J; Mei, Minghua; Thomas, Eric J
BackgroundPatient safety is fundamental to healthcare quality. Attention has recently focused on the patient safety culture of an organisation and its impact on patient outcomes. A strong safety climate appears to be an essential condition for safe patient care in the hospital. A number of instruments are used to measure this patient safety climate or culture. The SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire
Els Devriendt; Koen Van den Heede; Joke Coussement; Eddy Dejaeger; Kurt Surmont; Dirk Heylen; René Schwendimann; Bryan Sexton; Nathalie I. H. Wellens; Steven Boonen; Koen Milisen
Objectives To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results\\u000a against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The safetyattitudesquestionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU.\\u000a All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses,
BACKGROUND: How to protect patients from harm is a question of universal interest. Measuring and improving safety culture in care giving units is an important strategy for promoting a safe environment for patients. The SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) is the only instrument that measures safety culture in a way which correlates with patient outcome. We have translated the SAQ to
BACKGROUND: Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented
Annika Nordén-Hägg; J Bryan Sexton; Sofia Kälvemark-Sporrong; Lena Ring; Åsa Kettis-Lindblad
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings.
Background Tens of millions of patients worldwide suffer from avoidable disabling injuries and death every year. Measuring the safety climate in health care is an important step in improving patient safety. The most commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ). The aim of the present study was to establish the validity and reliability of the translated version of the SAQ. Methods The SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context. The survey was then carried out with 374 respondents in the operating room (OR) setting. Data was received from three hospitals, a total of 237 responses. Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results The Cronbach’s alpha values for each of the factors of the SAQ ranged between 0.59 and 0.83. The CFA and its goodness-of-fit indices (SRMR 0.055, RMSEA 0.043, CFI 0.98) showed good model fit. Intercorrelations between the factors safety climate, teamwork climate, job satisfaction, perceptions of management, and working conditions showed moderate to high correlation with each other. The factor stress recognition had no significant correlation with teamwork climate, perception of management, or job satisfaction. Conclusions Therefore, the Swedish translation and psychometric testing of the SAQ (OR version) has good construct validity. However, the reliability analysis suggested that some of the items need further refinement to establish sound internal consistency. As suggested by previous research, the SAQ is potentially a useful tool for evaluating safety climate. However, further psychometric testing is required with larger samples to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument for use in Sweden.
BACKGROUND: Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. METHODS: The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
Describes eight safety concepts developed by the author to teach safety and accident prevention in industrial arts shops and to promote more positive student attitudes toward shop safety. Stressing several general safety concepts instead of requiring dozens of rules has been found to work. (MF)
Problem: Safety in the construction industry is a major issue in Hong Kong, representing about 46% of all occupational injuries in 1998. This study explored linear and curvilinear relations between age and safety performance (accident rates and occupational injuries), as well as safetyattitudes, in construction workers in Hong Kong. Method: A Chinese version of the SafetyAttitudeQuestionnaire (SAQ
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices and attitudes toward drugs in high school students. The instrument has 59 items (multiple choice or completion), some with several parts. The question pertain to aspirations for the future, general attitudes and opinions, biographic and demographic data, family background and relationships, alcohol…
The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects…
Describes the development of a self-rating questionnaire to measure students' study habits and attitudes. Cross-validation on freshmen showed correlations of .50 and .52 with grades at the end of the semester. A final revision of the questionnaire \\
The aim of this article is to show how job stress, physical working conditions, commitment and involvement in safety work, and attitudes towards safety and accident prevention work among employees on offshore petroleum platforms have changed from 1990 to 1994. In 1990 a self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out among personnel on offshore oil installations in the Norwegian part of
There are no established questionnaires that evaluate habitual sleep practices in the context of beliefs and attitudes about sleep. This study describes an effort to develop and evaluate a questionnaire that assesses habitual sleep; behaviors associated with sleep and potential sleep problems; sleep hygiene; social and environmental determinants of sleep; beliefs and attitudes about sleep as it relates to health, safety, and functioning; and knowledge about sleep. A total of 124 participants completed the final questionnaire. Overall, the questionnaire and subscales demonstrated moderate internal consistency, and concurrent and divergent validity were demonstrated by comparing various subscales to existing measures. Future studies may utilize the descriptive data to determine the role of behavioral, social, and environmental determinants of healthy sleep. PMID:23514261
Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gooneratne, Nalaka S; Patel, Nirav P
Background: Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience major obstacles towards social, educational and vocational integration. Negative attitudes toward persons with ID has remained relevant over time and has led to discrimination and stigma. Objective: The present study describes the development of a new questionnaire…
Morin, D.; Crocker, A. G.; Beaulieu-Bergeron, R.; Caron, J.
An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854
The psychometric soundness of the Swansea Muscularity AttitudesQuestionnaire (SMAQ) was examined using two independent samples of Canadian male post-secondary students (Ns=250 and 310, respectively). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the final 19-item version of the SMAQ is represented by three latent constructs, which we have labeled: intention to become more muscular (eight-items), positive attributes of muscularity (nine-items),
A valid, reliable, and age?appropriate instrument to measure adolescent responses to menarche was constructed. The Adolescent Menstrual AttitudeQuestionnaire is a 5?point Likert scale (with six subscales) with versions for pre? and postmenarcheal girls. Scale development included (a) content validation, (b) testing (with 860 premenarcheal and 1,013 postmenarcheal girls), (c) discriminant analysis (to identify items unique to the pre? and
As North American medical schools reformulate curricula in response to public calls for better patient safety, surprisingly little research is available to explain and improve the translation of medical students' knowledge and attitudes into desirable patient safety behaviors in the clinical setting. A total of 139 fourth-year medical students at Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, 96% of the 2010 graduating class, completed the Attitudes toward Patient SafetyQuestionnaire and a self-report of safety behaviors. The students were exposed to informal discussions of patient safety concepts but received no formal patient safety curriculum. Most students recognized errors and responded with attitudes supportive of patient safety but desired behaviors were less common. In particular, errors went unreported, owing, in part, to the relationships of power and social influence undergirding the traditional authority gradient in the culture of medicine. A deeper understanding of patient safetyattitudes, behavior, and medical culture is required to better inform instructional design decisions that influence desired patient safety behaviors and improve patient care. PMID:21788294
Background To develop a Korean version of the Integrative Medicine AttitudeQuestionnaire (IMAQ) in order to evaluate physician attitudes toward integrative medicine/complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Methods We developed a Korean IMAQ through careful translation of the 28-item questionnaire developed by Schmidt et al. A web-based survey was sent via email to 118 primary care physicians in Korea. The complete respose rate wasa 52.5%. The questionnaire's reliability and validity were verified using Cronbach's ?, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis. Results Although the Korean IMAQ exhibited excellent internal consistency, its validity was insufficient. Our results suggest that Western and Korean physicians may have different understandings of CAM and the concept of holism, as factor analysis showed that incorrectly classified items were mainly part of the holism conceptual domain. Furthermore, the sum of the items within the holism conceptual domain was not significantly different for physicians who had previously received CAM education. Conclusion This study developed and tested the first Korean IMAQ. We found that this version of the questionnaire lacks sufficient validity and requires further modification.
This article describes the development of the Maternal AttitudesQuestionnaire (MAQ), a 14-item self-report instrument measuring cognitions relating to role change, expectations of motherhood, and expectations of the self as a mother in postnatal women. This questionnaire was found to have good test-retest and internal reliability. In a large sample of women (n=483) at 6–8 weeks postpartum, scores on the
Rachel Warner; Louis Appleby; Anna Whitton; Brian Faragher
Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing.
Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
The development, testing, and characteristics of an instrument--Computers and Robots AttitudeQuestionnaire--that can be used to measure the attitudes of secondary students towards computers and robots are described. Individual questionnaire items are largely content-free and may be answered by students with no specialist knowledge of…
Purpose – The objective of this study, part of a larger overall project on food safety management in the fish producing and processing companies in Mauritius, is to generate information on the knowledge, attitude and perception of key informants at the managerial level in these sectors with respect to food safety and its management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structured questionnaire was
Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…
This paper provides information on the reliability and validity of an employee questionnaire developed in a study of patient safety in outpatient surgery. The Systems Engineering Intervention in Outpatient Surgery (SEIPS), a collaborative community perspe...
P. Carayon C. J. Alvarado A. S. Hundt S. Springman A. Borgsdorf
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
The Greek Sexuality AttitudesQuestionnaire–Learning Disabilities (GSAQ-LD) was developed as a research instrument for use with a Greek sample in order to assess its attitudes towards the sexuality of people with and without learning disabilities (LD). The 45-item, Likert-type questionnaire consists of four different scales, each of which indicated satisfactory item characteristics, adequate reliability and homogeneity, and preliminary support for
To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -
Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren
A questionnaire was constructed for measuring the attitudes of schoolchildren towards learning French. Factor analysis revealed a primary factor accounting for over 60% of the total variance, and an empirical validation study showed that the attitudes of children who obtained high scores on teachers’ ratings of attentiveness and enthusiasm were significantly better than those given low ratings. A subsequent replication
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People’s attitudes toward them are however, largely\\u000a overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered\\u000a to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10–15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale\\u000a items that were loaded
The great majority of questionnaires measuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy burden upon the generalizability of the obtained results. In light of recent
The Legal AttitudesQuestionnaire (LAQ) predicts juror bias, but there is little evidence concerning its reliability and construct validity. Two studies provide such evidence for two versions of the LAQ. In Study 1 a questionnaire containing both versions of the LAQ, measures of related and unrelated constructs, and demographic questions was completed by 294 undergraduates. In Study 2 a shortened
This paper concerns organizational safety culture and the structure or architecture of employee attitudes to safety as part of that culture. It begins by reviewing the somewhat scant literature relevant to this area, and then reports a study, conducted in a European company, which collected and factor analysed data on employee attitudes to safety. The framework provided for the study
This research note reports on the development of a measure for assessing attitudes to professional roles of persons working, or preparing to work, in child care services. The measure has been trialled on groups of college students undertaking early childhood care and teaching courses, and reliability and validity data have been used to refine the instrument.
Lautenschlager and Flaherty (1990) unexpectedly found that more socially desirable responding occurred on a computer version of an attitude and personality questionnaire than on a paper-and-pencil version. The present study attempted to replicate and extend their findings in a noncollege environment. Male Navy recruits (N = 246) completed several questionnaires in either a computer-administered or paper-and-pencil condition and in either
Stephanie Booth-Kewley; Jack E. Edwards; Paul Rosenfeld
Worldwide, epidemiological data indicate that children are a high-risk group for drowning and while progress has been made in understanding toddler drownings, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the drowning risk and protective factors inherent for adolescents and young adults. This study used a self-report questionnaire to establish swimming and water safety knowledge and attitudes of young adults and objectively measured their actual swimming ability using formal practical testing procedures. Participants then completed a short, 12-week intervention that encompassed swimming, survival and rescue skills, along with water safety knowledge applicable to a range of aquatic environments. Knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability were then re-measured following the intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test was performed to detect whether there were significant differences between knowledge, attitude and swim ability scores pre-intervention and post-intervention. A total of 135 participants completed the baseline and follow up questionnaire and all practical testing. Results indicated that these young adults had a very low level of water safety knowledge pre-intervention, although the majority had sound swimming and water safety skills and attitudes. Overall, significant improvements were evident in knowledge (p<0.001) and swim ability (p<0.001) post-intervention, although no changes were observed in attitudes (p=0.079). Previous participation in formal swimming lessons and/or swimming within the school curriculum had no significant impact on water safety knowledge, skills or attitudes of these young adults, and there were few significant gender differences. While it is important to conduct further studies to confirm that these findings are consistent with a more representative sample of young adults, our findings are the first to provide empirical evidence of the value of a comprehensive aquatic education program as a drowning prevention strategy for young adults. PMID:24798651
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the volume of empirical research directed toward the issue of sex-roles, including the development of evaluative instruments such as the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). The United States Military Academy's Project Athena, designed to examine…
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality,
ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.
Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele
There have been a number of sexual counseling programs for spinal cord injured individuals, but little attempt has been made to assess the impact of such programs. One reason for this has been the lack of reliable and valid assessment devices. The present paper attempted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Sexual Attitude and Information Questionnaire (SAIQ) as
The present article establishes the factorial structure of the Legal AttitudesQuestionnaire, one of the most frequently used measurements for the studyof legal authoritarianism, in several Spanish samples consisting of a communitypopulation (N1 = 618 and N2 = 533). In study 1, confirmatory factorial analysesare carried out by LISREL for different models, based on theory and on previousexploratory analyses. In study
Juan García García; Emilia Inmaculada De La Fuente Solana; MA Del Rosario Martínez Arias; Leticia De La Fuente Sánchez
Empathic responding is implicated in antisocial behaviors such as bullying, sexual offending, and violent crime. Identifying children and adolescents at risk for antisocial behavior and evaluating interventions designed to address problem behaviors require valid and reliable measures. Definitional controversies and limited measurement models have hindered measurement. This study describes the development and analysis of the Children's Empathic AttitudesQuestionnaire (CEAQ)
Jeanne Funk; Christine Fox; Margaret Chan; Kathleen Curtiss
Despite the attention for corporate, brand and product images, only few studies focus on methodological comparisons of image research methods. This article presents a comparison of two current instruments: the Q-sort method and a Likert attitudequestionnaire. The study applies both methods to measure the image of beef, using the same assertions in similar samples of consumers. The two methods
Klooster ten Peter M; Martijn Visser; Jong de Menno D. T
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses’ pain management practices being readily available. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low
Sammary.—S\\\\ade and Jenner's questionnaire, developed in Great Brkain, which measures women's attitudes to females' social role was given to Dutch men and women (n = 728). A detailed investigation of the internal consis- tency by applying an optimal scaling procedure indicated ways to improve the validity by different weighting of the response categories and by eliminating items that did not
F. O. A. HUBBARD; M. H. VAN IJZENDOORN; L. W. C. TAVECCHIO
This study presents the development and basic psychometric characteristics of the "School Safety and Security Questionnaire" (SSSQ). This new measure was constructed to assess middle grade students' perceptions of safety and security during the school year. The content validity of the theoretically-based instrument was assessed and the measure was…
With increasing numbers of studies on research ethics and a need to improve the recruitment of research subjects, the ability to measure attitudes toward biomedical research has become important. The Research AttitudesQuestionnaire is a significant predictor of the public’s attitudes toward and willingness to participate in research, yet limited data are available on its psychometric properties. This study establishes the scale’s internal consistency and dimensionality using a large Internet-based sample from the United States. One item was removed due to a poor item-total correlation, and three additional items were removed which formed a reverse-wording measurement artifact factor. With improved internal consistency and dimensionality, the seven-item version has the advantages of shorter administration time and improved psychometric properties.
Rubright, Jonathan D.; Cary, Mark S.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Kim, Scott Y. H.
The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a large sample of 925 introductory psychology students. Internal consistency analysis and factor analysis did not support the scale's original factor structure. Accordingly, it is recommended that the subscales be abandoned and that the 14 items of the ATHQ be utilized as a unidimensional scale. Although attitudes toward hypnosis have been described as an important determinant of hypnotic responding, there has been very little research evaluating this association. If employed as a unidimensional scale, the ATHQ could be a very useful tool in future studies on this topic. PMID:22443023
IntroductionThe report, To Err is Human, indicated that a large number of deaths are caused by medical error. A central tenet of this report was that patient safety was not only a function of sophisticated healthcare technology and treatments, but also the degree to which healthcare professionals could perform effectively as teams. Research suggests that teamwork comprises four core skills:
David P Baker; Andrea M Amodeo; Kelley J Krokos; Anthony Slonim; Heidi Herrera
Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek
\\u000a The present paper reports comparative results of safety climate in healthcare and staff attitudes to error reporting and interaction\\u000a with patients between China and Japan. Using two language versions of questionnaire, we collected response data from hospital\\u000a staff in China (in 2008) and Japan (in 2006). Significant differences were observed in most dimensions of safety climate between\\u000a these two countries,
Objective To characterise current safety practices for the use of oral chemotherapy. Design Written questionnaire survey of pharmacy directors of cancer centres. Setting Comprehensive cancer centres in the United States. Results Respondents from 42 (78%) of 54 eligible centres completed the survey, after consulting with 89 colleagues. Clinicians at 29 centres used handwritten prescriptions, two used preprinted paper prescriptions, and six used electronic systems for most oral chemotherapy prescribing. For six commonly used oral chemotherapies, on average 10 centres required a diagnosis on the prescription, 11 required the protocol number, four required the cycle number, nine required double checking by a second clinician, 14 required a calculation of body surface area, and 14 required a calculation of dose per square metre of body surface area. Only a third of centres requested patients' written informed consent when oral chemotherapy was given off protocol. Nearly a quarter (10) of centres had no formal process for monitoring patients' adherence. In the past year respondents at 10 centres reported at least one serious adverse drug event related to oral chemotherapy, and respondents at 13 centres reported a serious near miss. Conclusion Few of the safeguards routinely used for infusion chemotherapy have been adopted for oral chemotherapy at US cancer centres. There is currently no consensus at these centres about safe medication practices for oral chemotherapy.
Background Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. Objective To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. Methods After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). Conclusions The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates that most kidney transplant recipients own and are comfortable using mobile phones and that many of these patients already own and use smart mobile phones. The respondents felt that mHealth offers an opportunity for improved self-efficacy and improved provider driven medical management. Respondents were comfortable with the idea of being monitored using mobile technology and are confident that their privacy can be protected. The small subset of kidney transplant recipients who are less interested in mHealth may be less technologically adept as reflected by their lower mobile phone ownership rates. As a whole, kidney transplant recipients are receptive to the technology and believe in its utility.
Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton
Consumers' attitudes have been shown to influence and predict behaviour. This review highlights the diverse consumer attitudes towards the safety of food. The diversity among consumers is based on a variety of factors, including demographics and socio-economic status. The relationship between consumer attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding food safety is also examined in this paper. It indicates that different attitudes
Attitudes to aging in mid-life have been found to be a predictor of health and well-being. The main purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire (RAQ) to the understanding of middle-aged women's attitudes towards their aging. An additional purpose was to expand the existing information regarding the dimensions of the new version of the RAQ. Middle-aged Melbourne women (n = 381) were asked to complete the RAQ, in addition to another attitudes-to-aging scale (Worries About Aging). Factor analysis of the RAQ was used to explore its dimensionality, and frequencies of responses were used to assess the spread of response of both instruments. The factors extracted in the factor analysis of the RAQ were interpretable and meaningful in terms of emotions related to aging. They were also similar to the factors described by previous data. The RAQ was more effective in its distribution ability than the Worries About Aging Scale. With some modifications, the RAQ may be more informative than was the Worries About Aging Scale in its ability to assess emotions, opinions and beliefs associated with aging in middle-aged women. PMID:11770187
Netz, Y; Guthrie, J R; Garamszegi, C; Dennerstein, L
Background Recently, many scientists including bacteriologists have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the general population regarding antibiotic use. However, relatively few works have published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we analyze the present status of Chinese medical (MS)- and non-medical (NS) students’ KAP on the use of antibiotics, and examine the influence of Chinese medical curriculum on the appropriate usage of antibiotics among medical students. Methods In this study, 2500 students from 3 universities (including one medical university) in Northeastern China participate in the questionnaire survey on students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward antibiotic usage. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi square test were used to analyze questionnaire-related discrete and categorical variables respectively, in order to assess the impact of the medical curriculum on students’ KAP towards antibiotics. Results 2088 (83.5%) respondents (MS-1236 and NS-852) were considered valid for analysis. The level of knowledge of MS on the proper use of antibiotics was significantly higher than that of NS (p?0.0001). However, based on their responses on actual practice, MS were found to rely on antibiotics more than NS (p?0.0001). Moreover, the knowledge and attitude of MS towards antibiotic use improved with the increase in grade with discriminate use of antibiotics concurrently escalating during the same period. Conclusions This study indicates that Chinese medical curriculum significantly improves students’ knowledge on antibiotics and raises their attention on antibiotic resistance that may result from indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The study also shows an excessive use of antibiotics especially among the more senior medical students, signifying a deficiency of antibiotics usage instruction in their curriculum. This might explain why there are frequent abuses of antibiotics in both hospital and community settings from a certain angle.
We examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ), comparing the original three-factor model to a later-suggested two-factor model. We evaluated the construct validity of the ACQ by investigating the associations between the resulting factors and other eating-related questionnaires such as the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Food Thought Suppression Inventory. Finally, we compared the scores on several scales regarding eating behavior between different groups (men versus women, dieters versus non-dieters and cravers versus non-cravers). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Dutch ACQ indicated the best global fit indices for the two-factor model, with the resulting factors being "Negative consequences and Guilt" and "Craving and emotional eating". Both factors were associated with other eating-related dimensions. However, craving seemed to be uniquely associated with the amount of chocolate consumed per week, whereas guilt correlated strongly with restraint. Finally, women scored higher on nearly all scales, but there was no significant gender difference with regard to chocolate consumption. Dieters reported more disinhibition, restraint, food-thought suppression and guilt, but they did not significantly differ from non-dieters with regards to their levels of craving, hunger nor consumption. PMID:24530692
Van Gucht, Dinska; Soetens, Barbara; Raes, Filip; Griffith, James W
Background Patient safety has been a priority in primary healthcare in the last years. The prevailing culture is seen as an important condition for patient safety in practice and several tools to measure patient safety culture have therefore been developed. Although Dutch primary care consists of different professions, such as general practice, dental care, dietetics, physiotherapy and midwifery, a safety culture questionnaire was only available for general practices. The purpose of this study was to modify and validate this existing questionnaire to a generic questionnaire for all professions in Dutch primary care. Methods A validated Dutch questionnaire for general practices was modified to make it usable for all Dutch primary care professions. Subsequently, this questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 2400 practices from eleven primary care professions. The instrument’s factor structure, reliability and validity were examined using confirmatory and explorative factor analyses. Results 921 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 615 were eligible for factor analysis. The resulting SCOPE-PC questionnaire consisted of seven dimensions: ‘open communication and learning from errors’, ‘handover and teamwork’, ‘adequate procedures and working conditions’, ‘patient safety management’, ‘support and fellowship’, ‘intention to report events’ and ‘organisational learning’ with a total of 41 items. All dimensions had good reliability with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.70 – 0.90, and the questionnaire had a good construct validity. Conclusions The SCOPE-PC questionnaire has sound psychometric characteristics for use by the different professions in Dutch primary care to gain insight in their safety culture.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate patient attitudes and expectations relative to dental implant treatment. A questionnaire was mailed to all 400 patients that had received dental implant treatment at a large multi-specialist clinic during 2008. The questionnaire included questions relative to the reasons for dental implant treatment, if the patient earlier had considered dental implants, expectations of the treatment, discomfort during and after surgery, and how the patient perceived the esthetic outcome. The response rate was 61% (114 men/130 women). The stated reason for tooth loss was in 50% of the patients periodontitis,19% caries, 8% accidents,13% other reasons, and 10% no stated reason. Almost all patients (96%) were satisfied with the esthetic appearance and also regarding the information of the treatment (94%). Regarding the time between surgery and completion of prosthetic work, 79% (n = 192) found it to be reasonable. 71% (n = 170) thought the cost was what they had expected. 47% of the patients experienced the implant surgery better than expected and 48% as expected. In conclusion, the present study revealed that almost all patients were satisfied with the function and esthetics of the dental implant reconstruction and most patients were also satisfied regarding the costs and treatment duration. PMID:22611900
Johannsen, Annsofi; Wikesjö, Ulf; Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Gunnar
Background Reporting incidents can contribute to safer health care, as an awareness of the weaknesses of a system could be considered as a starting point for improvements. It is believed that patient safety education for specialty registrars could improve their attitudes, intentions and behaviour towards incident reporting. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a two-day patient safety course on the attitudes, intentions and behaviour concerning the voluntary reporting of incidents by specialty registrars. Methods A patient safety course was designed to increase specialty registrars' knowledge, attitudes and skills in order to recognize and cope with unintended events and unsafe situations at an early stage. Data were collected through an 11-item questionnaire before, immediately after and six months after the course was given. Results The response rate at all three points in time assessed was 100% (n = 33). There were significant changes in incident reporting attitudes and intentions immediately after the course, as well as during follow-up. However, no significant changes were found in incident reporting behaviour. Conclusions It is shown that patient safety education can have long-term positive effects on attitudes towards reporting incidents and the intentions of registrars. However, further efforts need to be undertaken to induce a real change in behaviour.
The aim of this study was to establish the differential item functioning and construct equivalence of the Aviation Gender AttitudeQuestionnaire (AGAQ) to determine the generalizability of the instrument across 2 national cultures (South African and Australian). Data were collected from 544 South African and 1,064 Australian aircraft pilots and analyzed by means of various analytical procedures. To establish the
Leopold P. Vermeulen; Pieter Schaap; Jim I. Mitchell; Alexandra Kristovics
The Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ) is a self-report measure of children's behavioral intentions towards peers with disabilities. The SAQ has been validated as a measure of elementary school students' attitudes towards peers with disabilities. In the present study, psychometric properties of the SAQ as a measure of middle school students'…
Aim To explore the factor structure, reliability, and potential usefulness of a patient safety climate questionnaire in UK health care. Setting Four acute hospital trusts and nine primary care trusts in England. Methods The questionnaire used was the 27 item Teamwork and Safety Climate Survey. Thirty three healthcare staff commented on the wording and relevance. The questionnaire was then sent to 3650 staff within the 13 NHS trusts, seeking to achieve at least 600 responses as the basis for the factor analysis. 1307 questionnaires were returned (36% response). Factor analyses and reliability analyses were carried out on 897 responses from staff involved in direct patient care, to explore how consistently the questions measured the underlying constructs of safety climate and teamwork. Results Some questionnaire items related to multiple factors or did not relate strongly to any factor. Five items were discarded. Two teamwork factors were derived from the remaining 11 teamwork items and three safety climate factors were derived from the remaining 11 safety items. Internal consistency reliabilities were satisfactory to good (Cronbach's alpha ?0.69 for all five factors). Conclusions This is one of the few studies to undertake a detailed evaluation of a patient safety climate questionnaire in UK health care and possibly the first to do so in primary as well as secondary care. The results indicate that a 22 item version of this safety climate questionnaire is useable as a research instrument in both settings, but also demonstrates a more general need for thorough validation of safety climate questionnaires before widespread usage.
Hutchinson, A; Cooper, K L; Dean, J E; McIntosh, A; Patterson, M; Stride, C B; Laurence, B E; Smith, C M
Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular attention ought to be given to these groups as they contribute in large measure to the rate of nonparticipation in the NIP, i.e., to a greater extent than well-known vaccine refusers such as specific religious groups and anthroposophics. Our finding that the proportion of the population inclined to accept vaccinations is smaller than it was 10 years ago highlights the need to increase knowledge about attitudes and beliefs regarding the NIP.
Objectives To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. Design The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Participants Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18?years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. Measures The 34-item Back Pain AttitudesQuestionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach ? coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. Results The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (?=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: ‘vulnerability of the back’; ‘relationship between back pain and injury’; ‘activity participation while experiencing back pain’; ‘prognosis of back pain’ and ‘psychological influences on recovery’. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (?=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (? between 0.50 and 0.78). Conclusions The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability, responsiveness to change and predictive ability needs to be conducted.
Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony
Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…
Considerable lack of publications and inconsistent results on construct validity make it difficult to choose an appropriate instrument to measure recovery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate additional psychometric aspects of two established measures of personal recovery with differing focuses. Bivariate associations of the recovery measures with personal, clinical and subjective factors were conducted as indicators of concurrent (convergent and divergent) validity. The scales were also tested concerning internal consistency. The sample comprised of 81 inpatients on an acute psychiatric ward (main diagnoses: 27% substance-related disorders, 27% schizophrenic disorders, 25% affective disorders, 10% neurotic or stress-related disorders, and 11% personality disorders). The "Recovery AttitudesQuestionnaire (RAQ)" has to be reevaluated before further administration due to serious psychometric shortcomings concerning internal consistency and concurrent validity. The "Recovery Process Inventory (RPI)" total scale showed acceptable concurrent and within-scale validity and can be recommended in order to measure the personal recovery process for clinical and scientific purposes. PMID:23859131
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality, emotionality, and tests of the pleasantness, sweetness, and intensity of sugar and chocolate was examined. The results yielded a clear two-factor structure of the ACQ: The first factor (guilt) was composed of items concerning negative consequences of chocolate eating including the feeling of guilt. The second factor (craving) comprised items related to craving and emotional chocolate eating. Guilt correlated significantly with "emotional eating", "restrained eating", and with neuroticism. Craving correlated significantly with "emotional eating" and "external eating", with neuroticism, and with the "difficulty identifying feelings" facet of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale; further, it correlated highly with the average reported chocolate consumption and with the ratings of the intensity of taste of sugar. In conclusion, results support the validity of the German version of the ACQ and showed a stable factor structure and a good internal consistency. PMID:18068267
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement scale to assess over-the-road commercial motor vehicle operators' attitudes toward safety regulations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of the current USA motor carrier safety literature and general safety literature is conducted to determine the existence of a construct and measurement scale suitable for assessing truck drivers' attitudes toward
Background The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. Methods A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in eating disorders. Results Respondents generally supported a role for compulsory measures under mental health legislation in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Compared to 'mild' anorexia nervosa, respondents generally were less likely to feel that patients with 'severe' anorexia nervosa were intentionally engaging in weight loss behaviours, were able to control their behaviours, wanted to get better, or were able to reason properly. However, eating disorder specialists were less likely than other psychiatrists to think that patients with 'mild' anorexia nervosa were choosing to engage in their behaviours or able to control their behaviours. Child and adolescent psychiatrists were more likely to have a positive view of the use of parental consent and compulsory treatment for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa. Three factors emerged from factor analysis of the responses named: 'Support for the powers of the Mental Health Act to protect from harm'; 'Primacy of best interests'; and 'Autonomy viewed as being preserved in anorexia nervosa'. Different scores on these factor scales were given in terms of type of specialist and gender. Conclusion In general, senior psychiatrists tend to support the use of compulsory treatment to protect the health of patients at risk and also to protect the welfare of patients in their best interests. In particular, eating disorder specialists tend to support the compulsory treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa independently of views about their decision-making capacity, while child and adolescent psychiatrists tend to support the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa in their best interests where decision-making is impaired.
Tan, Jacinta OA; Doll, Helen A; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Stewart, Anne; Hope, Tony
Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…
ObjectivesTo determine applicability of the Japanese-translated versions of the Ben-Tovim Walker Body AttitudesQuestionnaire (BAQ) and the Attention to the Body Shape Scale (ABS) in Japanese males and females.
Masaharu Kagawa; Hayato Uchida; Kazuhiro Uenishi; Colin W. Binns; Andrew P. Hills
Lautenschlager and Flaherty (1990) unexpectedly found that more socially desirable responding occurred on a computer version of an attitude and personality questionnaire than on a paper-and-pencil version. The present study attempted to replicate and exte...
Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire) was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine AttitudeQuestionnaire (IMAQ). Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied). The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5%) of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally impact these already positive attitudes. Unlike the IMAQ, which was intended for use with physicians, the CHBQ is generic in design and content and applicable to a variety of learner types. Evaluation measures must be appropriate for specific CAM instructional outcomes.
To examine the convergent and discriminant validity of an attitudinal questionnaire measure of traditionalism-modernism in Thai exchange students, questionnaire scores were correlated with self and peer measures of traditionalism-modernism and with a measure of “culture-shock.” For the latter, it was anticipated that high scores on modernism would inversely correlate with culture-shock scores. Results indicated that the questionnaire measures were positively
Objectives: This study aimed to determine attitudinal and self reported behavioural variations between medical students in different years to scenarios involving academic misconduct. Design: A cross-sectional study where students were given an anonymous questionnaire that asked about their attitudes to 14 scenarios describing a fictitious student engaging in acts of academic misconduct and asked them to report their own potential behaviour. Setting: Dundee Medical School. Participants: Undergraduate medical students from all five years of the course. Method: Questionnaire survey. Main measurements: Differences in medical students' attitudes to the 14 scenarios and their reported potential behaviour with regards to the scenarios in each of the years. Results: For most of the scenarios there was no significant difference in the response between the years. Significant differences in the responses were found for some of the scenarios across the years, where a larger proportion of year one students regarded the scenario as wrong and would not engage in the behaviour, compared to other years. These scenarios included forging signatures, resubmitting work already completed for another part of the course, and falsifying patient information. Conclusion: Observed differences between the years for some scenarios may reflect a change in students' attitudes and behaviour as they progress though the course. The results may be influenced by the educational experience of the students, both in terms of the learning environment and assessment methods used. These differences may draw attention to the potential but unintentional pressures placed on medical students to engage in academic misconduct. The importance of developing strategies to engender appropriate attitudes and behaviours at the undergraduate level must be recognised.
This article describes a questionnaire survey of 747 students enrolled in a graduate school of education, who are currently teachers or prospective teachers. The Literacy Habits Questionnaire, developed by Applegate and Applegate, was administered in September 2006. Findings suggest a high prevalence of aliteracy, the ability to read but a…
In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at the development, psychometric evaluation, and…
de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander
Foster parents are an increasingly vulnerable population, with documented parenting difficulties. The care they provide to maltreated children plays a critical role in these children's well-being. Parenting attitudes figure largely in the quality of care any parent may provide, and may be particularly salient for foster children. The current study was designed to create and test a measure of foster
Brenda Jones Harden; Allison D'Amour Meisch; Jessica E. Vick; Lisa Pandohie-Johnson
Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd
The human and organizational factors affecting safety were examined on 10 offshore installations using the Offshore SafetyQuestionnaire. The questionnaire contained scales measuring work pressure and work clarity, job communication, safety behaviour, risk perception, satisfaction with safety measures and safetyattitudes. A total of 722 UK offshore workers (33% response rate) from a range of occupations completed and returned the
Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin; Rachale Gordon; Mark Fleming
This study describes the construction and preliminary validation of a measure of the attitudes and behaviours of convicted\\u000a men whose offences are related to Internet child ‘pornography’ (abusive images). An initial measure was constructed through\\u000a the generation of items with reference to the emerging literature on these offenders. Phase 1 involved piloting this first\\u000a version of the measure with 40
The evidence?based practice agenda in many healthcare professions has increased the importance of teaching research skills to students in these professions. However, concern exists that many healthcare educators may be reluctant to teach research. This study investigated potential barriers to their adoption of this role. A questionnaire was distributed to 111 healthcare educators within the Faculty of Health of a
Purpose – This paper aims to analyze the factors that influence urban consumers' attitudes towards food safety after the melamine scandal. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on the research about the attitudes of urban consumers in Nanjing towards the safety of milk powder after the melamine scandal in 2008, this paper adopts the ordered logit model to test which factors significantly influence
There is considerable evidence that mass media portrayals of body image contribute to body dissatisfaction, yet the assessment of perceived media influences has been examined fleetingly in highly populated, non-Western cultures, particularly among young males. This research examined the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among adolescent boys in China. In an initial exploratory factor analysis (N=719), a four factor solution emerged with components reflecting General Pressure-Internalization, Sources of Appearance Information, Pressure-Internalization of an Athletic Ideal, and Pressure to be Thin. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analyses in a new sample (n=749) assessed fits of the derived four factor model, a three factor variant, and alternatives reflecting "Western" and "Malay" SATAQ-3 solutions. The derived four factor solution had the most acceptable structure across several fit indices. Patterns of correlation with other self-report measures also provided preliminary support for the validity of the derived solution. PMID:20800561
How can a researcher engage a participant in a survey, when the subject matter may be perceived as 'challenging' or even be totally unfamiliar to the participant? The Genomethics study addressed this via the creation and delivery of a novel online questionnaire containing 10 integrated films. The films documented various ethical dilemmas raised by genomic technologies and the survey ascertained attitudes towards these. Participants were recruited into the research using social media, traditional media and email invitation. The film-survey strategy was successful: 11,336 initial hits on the survey website led to 6944 completed surveys. Participants included from those who knew nothing of the subject matter through to experts in the field of genomics (61% compliance rate), 72% of participants answered every single question. This paper summarises the survey design process and validation methods applied. The recruitment strategy and results from the survey are presented elsewhere. PMID:24468445
Background: Dental trauma is one of the main oral health problems in childhood, and can cause pain and distress. It is important to provide emergency care to combat the aftermaths of trauma. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 33 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 mothers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards their child's dental visit, dental trauma, and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Results: Mother's previous experience of dental trauma when associated with the preservation of avulsed tooth of the child, those mothers who had the experience of dental trauma reported that they would discard the tooth which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared to the mothers with no experience of trauma. The education status of the study population when associated with the knowledge variables of avulsion, it was found that most of the variables had statistically significant association with P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the mothers regarding the emergency management of dental trauma. This warrants the need of an effective communication between dental professionals and mothers for better handling of dental emergencies. PMID:25001438
Objective A survey was designed to investigate customers attitudes and knowledge toward non-prescription medicines taken on a self-medication\\u000a basis but not devoid of risks. Setting Community pharmacies in Italy. Method Forty-four pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were\\u000a made to customers buying a non-prescription medicine over a 2-month period. The questionnaire included
Determined the attitudes of federal prison employees regarding job satisfaction and personal safety. A questionnaire was sent to workers in federal correctional institutions. Results of the questionnaire generally indicate a high level of job satisfaction and relatively little concern about safety among employees who completed the questionnaire.…
Patient safety is a relatively new discipline aimed at improving the quality of care, minimising treatment errors and improving the safety of patients. Although health professions always have a specific concern for patient safety, few practitioners have a clear understanding of the broad context and not all health-care providers practice it. This might well be because of limited availability of information and materials as well as a lack of national or international laws and regulations. Thus, through member National Dental Associations (NDAs) of FDI (World Dental Federation), the present study aimed at analysing the attitudes of dental practitioners to the issues of patient safety and risk management, and the availability of materials and laws and regulations. Determination of their specific needs and demands in these fields was also attempted. For this purpose, an online questionnaire was developed for the member NDAs to respond. Questions mainly focused on the awareness regarding patient safety, availability of materials and regulations and the particular topics for which dentists needed further knowledge and information. A total of 40 responses were received. While some countries lack any documents, patient safety documents and materials were available in some countries but they were mostly limited to infection control and radiation protection and did not address other important aspects of patient safety. The NDAs clearly demanded more information. A significant number of countries also lacked national laws and/or regulations regarding patient safety. Although dentistry always has a genuine concern for patient safety, the findings of the survey suggest that yet more efforts are needed to improve the knowledge, understanding and awareness of dental practitioners regarding its broad context and the relatively 'new' patient safety culture. NDAs, dental educators, national, regional and international dental organisations and health authorities all can play significant roles to achieve these goals. PMID:24716242
Background This study evaluated the score reliability and equivalence of factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3)  in a sample of female college students from the four largest ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Participants were 1245 women who self-identified as European American/White (n = 543), African American/Black (n = 137), Asian American (n = 317), or Latina/Hispanic (n = 248). All completed the SATAQ-3 and a demographic questionnaire. To test the factor similarity and score reliability across groups, we used exploratory factor analysis and calculated Cronbach’s alphas (respectively). Results Score reliability was high for all groups. Tests of factor equivalence suggested that the four pre-established factors of the SATAQ-3 (i.e., knowledge, perceived pressure, thin-ideal internalization, athletic-ideal internalization) were similar for women of all ethnic groups. Only two items (20 and 27) did not consistently load on the previously identified scale across all four groups. When scored, African Americans reported significantly less perceived pressure and internalization than all other groups. Conclusions Results support the use of the SATAQ-3 in female college students of these four ethnicities.
The manner in which health care workers (HCWs) interact with HIV\\/AIDS patients and drug users during their work clearly influences the sustainability of harm reduction programs. To evaluate the professional attitudes of HCWs, we designed a questionnaire with four constructs – discrimination, acceptance of HIV\\/AIDS patients, acceptance of drug users, and fear – and tested its reliability and validity. Ten
Registered Dietitians' (RD) knowledge and attitudes about the safety, adequacy and health benefits of vegetarian diets were estimated. A questionnaire was developed with demographic, knowledge, and attitude questions and was completed by 182 RDs from Washington, Nebraska and Vermont. The results showed that RDs in Vermont had significantly higher attitude scores regarding vegetarian diets than RDs in Nebraska (63% vs.
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Objectives To determine current evidence-based medicine skills and practice among trainees. Design Questionnaire study. Setting Electronic survey was sent to all obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midlands South Deanery, and responses collected were anonymous. Participants All obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midland South Deanery. Main outcome measures Self-reported attitude, skills and knowledge in various components of evidence-based medicine. Results 69 trainees were included in the study of which 35 responded. Among all respondents, almost 72% of trainees use non-evidence-based methods to find answers for their clinical questions, whereas only 18% use appropriate evidence-based medicine practice for such queries. Just 35% of trainees have minimum skills of literature searching. Most of the trainees struggle to understand various components of evidence-based medicine. Nearly 80% of trainees do not have formal education or training with regard to evidence-based medicine. Conclusions This study highlights the inadequacy of evidence-based medicine skills among trainees and urges that evidence-based medicine be incorporated in formal training along with specialty study modules.
Objective: To review the knowledge of radiographers and examine the possible sociodemographic and situational contributors to this knowledge. Methods: A questionnaire survey was devised and distributed to a cohort of 120 radiographers. Each questionnaire contained two sections. In the first section, background data, including sex, age, highest academic level, grade point average (GPA), length of time from graduation, work experience as a radiographer and the status of previous refresher course(s), were collected. The second section contained 17 multiple-choice questions concerning radiographic imaging parameters and safety issues. Results: The response rate was 63.8%. In univariate analytic model, higher academic degree (p?0.001), higher GPA (r(2)?=?0.11; p?=?0.001), academic workplace (p?=?0.04) and taking previous refresher course(s) (p?=?0.01) were significantly associated with higher knowledge score. In multivariate analytic model, however, higher academic degree (B?=?1.62; p?=?0.01), higher GPA (B?=?0.50; p?=?0.01) and taking previous refresher course(s) (B?=?-1.26; p?=?0.03) were independently associated with higher level of knowledge. Age, sex, length of time from graduation and work experience were not associated with the respondents' knowledge score. Conclusion: Academic background is a robust indicator of a radiographer's professional knowledge. Refresher courses and regular knowledge assessments are highly recommended. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study in the literature that examines professional knowledge of radiographers in terms of technical and safety issues in plain radiography. Academic degree, GPA and refresher courses are independent predictors of this knowledge. Regular radiographer professional knowledge checks may be recommended. PMID:24827380
Farajollahi, A R; Fouladi, D F; Ghojazadeh, M; Movafaghi, A
Objective To determine the prevalence of food-safety education in didactic programs in dietetics (DPDs) across the United States and factors associated with the provision of this education and to explore DPD directors’ attitudes toward food safety.Subjects The population consisted of 230 DPD directors listed in The American Dietetic Association's 1998-1999 Directory of Dietetics Programs. Overall, 146 directors participated in the
Toowoomba Foundry is an iron manufacturing firm, currently employing 213 people. A major interest of this study is to examine cultural aspects that may impede the full realisation of safety program targets within the Toowoomba Foundry. This research was undertaken in response to management recognition of the need to identify cultural barriers to the successful implementation of the safety program
The highest rate of accidents and injuries in British industries has been reported by the construction industry during the past decade. Since then stakeholders have recognised that a possible solution would be to inculcate a good attitude towards health and safety risk management in undergraduate civil engineering students and construction…
The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a program addressing contemporary issues in animal agriculture had an effect on the students ' attitudes towards animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. The students in this study were participants in the Pennsylvania Governor 's School for Agricultural Sciences (PGSAS). Within the five-week PGSAS program, students completed a
Patricia A. Nordstrom; Martha J. Richards; Lowell L. Wilson; Brenda L. Coe; Marianne L. Fivek; Michele B. Brown
The need to identify the factors that influence the overall safety environment and compliance with safety procedures within airline operations is substantial. This study examines the relationships between job satisfaction, the overall perception of the safety culture, and compliance with safety rules and regulations of airline employees working in flight operations. A survey questionnaire administered via the internet gathered responses which were converted to numerical values for quantitative analysis. The results were grouped to provide indications of overall average levels in each of the three categories, satisfaction, perceptions, and compliance. Correlations between data in the three sets were tested for statistical significance using two-sample t-tests assuming equal variances. Strong statistical significance was found between job satisfaction and compliance with safety rules and between perceptions of the safety environment and safety compliance. The relationship between job satisfaction and safety perceptions did not show strong statistical significance.
The present paper reports the results of a questionnaire-based survey of night train operators’ attitudes toward management, operating procedures, and other organisational issues that potentially impact on safety. Responses were collected from all of the operators of track maintenance trains servicing the Japanese high-speed railway (Shinkansen). Two versions of the questionnaire, the TMAQ (Train Management AttitudesQuestionnaire), were developed based
Dog bites are a significant pediatric public health challenge in rural China. This study evaluated the effect of various sources of dog-safety information on children's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices with dogs. A total of 1925 children (grade 3-6) between 6 and 15 years old in four rural regions across China participated between May and September 2012. Results showed that teachers and especially parents were effective information sources for children to learn about dog safety. Learning from peers and children teaching themselves were ineffective education strategies. Multi-source learning (from both parents and teachers) did not differ from single-source learning (from parents but not teachers) but did exceed learning from teachers but not parents or no learning from adults. Older age was associated with greater safety knowledge but also riskier practices with dogs. Girls generally held more safety knowledge, less risky attitudes/beliefs and safer practices than boys. Neither age nor gender interacted with information sources on outcome measures. In conclusion, parents appear to play a major role in educating children in rural China on dog safety. Future dog safety interventions might focus on changing cognition and behavior as well as delivering basic knowledge to youth through teachers and especially parents. PMID:23792615
Shen, J; Li, S; Xiang, H; Pang, S; Xu, G; Yu, G; Schwebel, D C
Objective: The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire tool for measuring students' attitudes toward components relevant to research training programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: The paper reports the responses of 564 Saudi Arabian students from seven government universities to the questionnaire comprising 16 items on 3 conceptual subscales, which measured students' attitude to research activities in the college; students' opinion of faculty involvement in research; and infrastructural facilities in the college. The results of this study provide the final scale, with all the 16 items of the initial Likert scale, for which strong evidence was obtained. Results: Results indicated that the students' attitude toward the research (SAR) scale had three latent factors, which explained 62% of the variance: The three subscales measured includes: (i) Research activities offered in the college, (ii) students' opinion of faculty involvement in research, and (iii) infrastructural facilities offered in the college for research. The full scale including three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = 0.72 and ? = 0.77 for full scale; and ? between 0.71 and 0.79 for three subscales). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of reliability and validity of the SAR scale for the measurement of students' attitudes toward research training programs in Saudi Arabian Universities. The research findings will provide the basis for further research on health science students.
A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, p<0.01). Cyclist-drivers had better knowledge of the road rules related to cycling infrastructure than drivers; however knowledge of road rules related to bike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists. PMID:24769133
Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs.
The issue of sexuality is a major concern for parents of children with learning disability and causes them great anxiety. Due to the lack of large-scale studies examining parental attitudes towards the sexuality of people with learning disability in Greece, it was decided to develop and evaluate a culturally appropriate instrument to use with Greek parents. Thus, the Parents' Own
Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA) and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238). The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics). Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing availability of multidimensional health status and outcome measures of the patient's physical and emotional functioning, and a number of national initiatives to promote their use, little is known about the attitudes and behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) regarding their use in evaluating the effectiveness of health care. What evidence there is remains largely anecdotal but supports the view that health outcome data is currently not used in the routine management of the patient. AIM: To investigate the attitudes and behaviour of GPs and PNs regarding the use of health outcome data in the routine care of patients with diabetes. METHOD: A questionnaire comprising 20 attitudinal and behavioural statements covering the use and benefits of health outcome data in the routine care of patients with diabetes were sent to 156 GPs and 114 PNs in the Doncaster area together with a covering letter and two examples of multidimensional health outcome measures. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were received from 90 (58%) GPs and 49 (50% corrected for out of scope) nurses. Median response scores showed that both GPs and nurses expressed a positive overall attitude towards health outcome measurement giving responses favourable to it in 15 (75%) and 18 (90%) of the statements respectively. A key finding was that 48% and 46% of GPs and PNs were unclear as to how they would use health outcome data. CONCLUSION: While our findings reflect a favourable view towards the use of health outcome data for the routine management of the patient with diabetes in a general practice setting, a number of important barriers to their implementation have been identified. These include insufficient knowledge on their use, the need for easily interpretable data, and a lack of resources.
Behavioral approaches to reducing the adverse health effects of consuming fish with high contaminant levels benefit from understanding attitudes and perceptions about the relative safety of fish. Gender differences in attitudes about fish safety were investigated by interviewing 197 men and 94 women who attended a Duck Decoy show at Tuckerton, NJ. There were significant gender differences in perceptions of the safety of fish, ducks, and deer, with women generally believing that it was less safe to eat these foods than did men. Although people correctly perceived that ocean fish were safer than bay-caught fish from a chemical contaminant perspective, perceptions were less clear with respect to consuming predatory or herbivorous, or large versus small fish. Although men significantly perceived small fish as safer than large fish, women did not. However, people correctly believed that bluefish (a predaceous fish) were less safe than flounder (an herbivore). People uniformly believed it was safer to eat fish they caught themselves or bought in a fish store than those from a supermarket. These results suggest that any program to inform the public about the potential dangers from contaminated fish should take into account gender differences in perceptions. PMID:9482350
Background: Older patients (?65 years) are exposed to more harm resulting from adverse events in hospitals than younger patients. Theoretical considerations and empirical findings suggest that safety culture is the key to improving the quality of health care. Objective: To describe the development of a German-language instrument for assessing patient safety culture (PSC) and its reliability and validity; to verify
Johannes Steyrer; Markus Latzke; Katharina Pils; Elisabeth Vetter; Guido Strunk
Background Universal BCG vaccination in the UK ended in 2005. The new vaccination policy instead offers a number of different forms of selective vaccination to newborns based on risk of acquiring TB. We set out to assess the attitudes and knowledge of both parents and professionals to the new policy for neonatal BCG vaccination. Methods A short questionnaire was designed, made up of demographic and attitude questions, as well as very basic knowledge questions. The researchers handed out the questionnaire to all parents and professionals in the antenatal and postnatal areas, as well as the paediatric and neonatal units during a 6-week period. The site was the Royal Oldham hospital, a district general hospital with 3250 deliveries per year and multi-ethnic in its population mix. Results A total of 253 completed questionnaires were collected. The ethnic origin of responders was 50.6% White British, 18.2% Bangladeshi, 8.7% Indian, 4% White/Asian, the remaining 18.5% of other origins. 71.5% of responders said they had heard of BCG vaccine. When asked if they knew the new policy for its use, 33.2% answered yes. 24.5% gave the most accurate response when asked who now receives BCG. Conclusion We have found that amongst parents and professionals alike there is a lack of knowledge of the new policy. This has lead to confusion and as knowledge amongst the professionals who identify neonates for vaccination is low, uptake may be sub-optimal. We suggest that units investigate the issue and ensure that the new policy is understood and implemented correctly.
Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used and popular among patients with primary headache or low back pain (LBP). Aim of the study was to analyze attitudes of headache and LBP patients towards the use of CAM. Methods Two questionnaire-based surveys were applied comparing 432 primary headache and 194 LBP patients. Results In total, 84.75% of all patients reported use of CAM; with significantly more LBP patients. The most frequently-used CAM therapies in headache were acupuncture (71.4%), massages (56.4%), and thermotherapy (29.2%), in LBP thermotherapy (77.4%), massages (62.7%), and acupuncture (51.4%). The most frequent attitudes towards CAM use in headache vs. LBP: "leave nothing undone" (62.5% vs. 52.1%; p = 0.006), "take action against the disease" (56.8% vs. 43.2%; p = 0.006). Nearly all patients with previous experience with CAM currently use CAM in both conditions (93.6% in headache; 100% in LBP). However, the majority of the patients had no previous experience. Conclusion Understanding motivations for CAM treatment is important, because attitudes derive from wishes for non-pharmacological treatment, to be more involved in treatment and avoid side effects. Despite higher age and more permanent pain in LBP, both groups show high use of CAM with only little specific difference in preferred methods and attitudes towards CAM use. This may reflect deficits and unfulfilled goals in conventional treatment. Maybe CAM can decrease the gap between patients' expectations about pain therapy and treatment reality, considering that both conditions are often chronic diseases, causing high burdens for daily life.
Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnaires measuring perception of the
Linda LeResche; Donna Strobino; Peggy Parks; Pamela Fischer; Vincent Smeriglio
Little is known about the attitudes of physicians-in-training on patient safety, although success in error reduction strategies requires their support. We surveyed house staff and fourth-year medical students from 1 academic institution about their perceptions of adverse patient events. Three hundred twenty-one trainees (41%) completed the survey. Most believe adverse events are preventable (61%) and think improved teamwork (88%), better procedural training (74%), and improved sign-out (70%) would reduce medical mishaps. Forty-seven percent of trainees agree computerized order entry and restricted work hours would prevent adverse events. Although 60% feel malpractice fears inhibit discussion, 80% of trainees agreed physicians must disclose adverse events to patients and grow more comfortable with disclosure as training progresses (P for trend<.01). In conclusion, trainees believe adverse events are preventable and are poised to respond to many components of the patient safety movement. PMID:15851384
To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: ?(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: ?(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826
This paper describes a detailed survey of attitudes towards safety at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels in Cumbria. Focus groups were held to elicit safety-relevant beliefs, attitudes and values, and the material was incorporated into a 172-item questionnaire administered as part of the monthly team briefings, and preceded by an explanatory video. Data were collected in this survey
Objectives: To determine knowledge and attitudes regarding traffic safety devices, measures, and legislation in the general population in Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. Methods: We conducted a baseline random digit dial fixed line telephone verbal survey of Yerevan households in April 2009 with a follow-up survey in May 2010. Survey domains included restraint use, motor vehicle crash experiences, and attitudes regarding traffic safety. Results: In the initial survey, of 2137 numbers dialed, 436 persons were reached and 390 (90%) agreed to participate. Of survey respondents, 90% percent of household cars had seatbelts, while 47% had airbags. Twenty-four percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, 21% wore a belt as a passenger. 39% were unaware of child restraints. Of the 61% who were aware of child restraints, only 32% had ever used one. A follow-up survey was conducted one year later after enforcement efforts were increased. In the follow-up survey, 81% percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, and 69% wore a belt as a passenger. There was no significant increase of awareness or use of child restraints in the follow-up survey. Conclusions: Although cars in Yerevan have seat belts, the majority of drivers and passengers prior to the intervention did not use them. Knowledge and use of child restraints was poor. The follow-up survey conducted after an enforcement campaign was underway in Yerevan showed that improved enforcement greatly increased awareness and compliance with current legislation. This study provides vital baseline information for the formulation of future policy. It also highlights the need for a multi-dimensional road traffic safety initiative through public educational campaigns, enforcement of current laws, and development of novel prevention policies and regulations.
Background In Switzerland, nurses are allowed to prescribe and administer morphine in emergency situations without a doctor. Still, nurses and other health professionals are often reluctant to prescribe and administer morphine for pain management in patients. No valid French-speaking instrument is available in Switzerland to assess the attitudes of nurses and other health professionals towards the prescription and administration of morphine. In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version of the questionnaire “Attitudes towards morphine use”. Methods The instrument was derived from an Italian version. Forward and back translations of the questionnaire were performed. Item analysis and construct validity were assessed between April and December 2010 in a cross sectional study including five Swiss hospitals in a sample of 588 health professionals (533 nurses, mean age 38.3?±?10.2 years). Thirty subjects participated in test-retest reliability. Results The time to complete the instrument ranged between 12 and 15 minutes and neither floor nor ceiling effect were found. The initial 24-item instrument showed an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.73, P?0.001), and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.700. Factor analysis led to a six-component solution explaining 52.4% of the total variance. After excluding five items, the shortened version showed an ICC of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.77, P?0.001) and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.741. Factor analysis led to a five-component solution explaining 54.3% of the total variance. The five components were named “risk of addiction/dependence”; “operational reasons for not using morphine”; “risk of escalation”; “other (non-dependence) risks” and “external (non-operational) reasons”. In test-retest, the shortened instrument showed an ICC of 0.797 (95% CI, 0.630 to 0.911, P?0.001) and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.797. Conclusions The 19-item shortened instrument assessing attitudes towards the prescription and administration of morphine showed adequate content and construct validity.
Aim To evaluate the knowledge, motivation, and attitudes of Hungarian family physicians toward pandemic influenza vaccination in the 2009/10 influenza season. Method A questionnaire with 20 questions was developed and sent to 232 family physicians in 3 largest Hungarian cities: Budapest, Debrecen, and Miskolc. The study was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010. Results A hundred and ninety eight (85%) physicians answered the questionnaire adequately. Respondents believed that the influenza outbreak represented less of a threat to their practices than to Hungary or the world as a whole. They mostly agreed that vaccination was important and were frequently dissatisfied with the support from health authorities. The proportion of vaccinated patients ranged between 2% and 53%, without differences according to geographical region, age, sex, and duration of physicians’ employment in family practice. Physicians who were satisfied with the payment for procedures and underwent vaccination themselves were more active in vaccination. Conclusion Health authorities should provide clear and evidence-based professional support to family physicians and should encourage them to get vaccinated against pandemic influenza, while insurance funds have to establish appropriate reimbursement system.
Construction accidents are caused by an unsafe act (i.e., a person's behavior or activity that deviates from normal accepted safe procedure) and/or an unsafe condition (i.e., a hazard or an unsafe mechanical or physical environment). While there has been dramatic improvement in creating safer construction environments, relatively little is known regarding the elimination of construction workers' unsafe acts. To address this deficiency, this paper aims to develop a system dynamics (SD)-based model of construction workers' mental processes that can help analyze the feedback mechanisms and the resultant dynamics regarding the workers' safetyattitudes and safe behaviors. The developed model is applied to examine the effectiveness of three safety improvement policies: incentives for safe behaviors, and increased levels of communication and immersion in accidents. Application of the model verifies the strong potential of the developed model to provide a better understanding of how to eliminate unsafe acts, and to function as a robust test-bed to assess the effectiveness of safety programs or training sessions before their implementation. PMID:24268437
Shin, Mingyu; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Park, Moonseo; Moon, Myunggi; Han, Sangwon
Purpose X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. Materials and Methods The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures. Results The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices. Conclusion The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.
This article examines the link between involvement in bullying, as either a bully, victim, or bully/victim, and attitudes toward violence and perceptions of safety among 16,012 middle and high school students. Analyses indicated that 37.6% were frequently involved in bullying. Bully/victims were the most likely to report feeling unsafe and…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Sawyer, Anne L.
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
Background Executive walk rounds (EWRs) are a widely used but unstudied activity designed to improve safety culture in hospitals. Therefore, we measured the impact of EWRs on one important part of safety culture – provider attitudes about the safety climate in the institution. Methods Randomized study of EWRs for 23 clinical units in a tertiary care teaching hospital. All providers except physicians participated. EWRs were conducted at each unit by one of six hospital executives once every four weeks for three visits. Providers were asked about their concerns regarding patient safety and what could be done to improve patient safety. Suggestions were tabulated and when possible, changes were made. Provider attitudes about safety climate measured by the Safety Climate Survey before and after EWRs. We report mean scores, percent positive scores (percentage of providers who responded four or higher on a five point scale (agree slightly or agree strongly), and the odds of EWR participants agreeing with individual survey items when compared to non-participants. Results Before EWRs the mean safety climate scores for nurses were similar in the control units and EWR units (78.97 and 76.78, P = 0.458) as were percent positive scores (64.6% positive and 61.1% positive). After EWRs the mean safety climate scores were not significantly different for all providers nor for nurses in the control units and EWR units (77.93 and 78.33, P = 0.854) and (56.5% positive and 62.7% positive). However, when analyzed by exposure to EWRs, nurses in the control group who did not participate in EWRs (n = 198) had lower safety climate scores than nurses in the intervention group who did participate in an EWR session (n = 85) (74.88 versus 81.01, P = 0.02; 52.5% positive versus 72.9% positive). Compared to nurses who did not participate, nurses in the experimental group who reported participating in EWRs also responded more favorably to a majority of items on the survey. Conclusion EWRs have a positive effect on the safety climate attitudes of nurses who participate in the walk rounds sessions. EWRs are a promising tool to improve safety climate and the broader construct of safety culture.
Thomas, Eric J; Sexton, J Bryan; Neilands, Torsten B; Frankel, Allan; Helmreich, Robert L
Background: To assess the student's attitude, perception and feedback on teaching–learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty second year medical students studying at Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune, were selected. They were administered a pre-validated questionnaire containing 22 questions. Suggestions were also asked regarding the qualities of good pharmacology teachers and modification in pharmacology teaching methods. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed as percentage. Results: Majority of the students found cardiovascular system (49.25%) as the most interesting topic in pharmacology, whereas most of the students opined that cardiovascular system (60.10%), chemotherapy (54.06%) and central nervous system (44.15%) are going to be the most useful topics in internship. 48.53% students preferred clinical/patient-related pharmacology and 39.13% suggested use of audiovisual-aided lectures. Prescription writing and criticism of prescription were amongst the most useful and interesting in practical pharmacology. Students expressed interest in microteaching and problem-based learning, whereas seminars, demonstrations on manikin and museum studies were mentioned as good adjuvants to routine teaching. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) practice tests and theory viva at the end of a particular system and periodical written tests were mentioned as effective evaluation methods. Students were found to have lot of interest in gathering information on recent advances in pharmacology and suggested to include new drug information along with prototype drugs in a comparative manner. Conclusion: There is a need of conducting few microteaching sessions and more of clinical-oriented problem-based learning with MCQ-based revisions at the end of each class in the pharmacology teaching at undergraduate level.
Bhosale, Uma A.; Yegnanarayan, Radha; Yadav, Gauri E.
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) examines implicit attitudes through the measurement of response latencies. In this study, the IRAP was used to assess implicit attitudes toward "mainstream" sexual terms (e.g., Kissing) and "BDSM" terms (e.g., Bondage) among individuals reporting BDSM interests and among students who did not…
Stockwell, Fawna M. J.; Walker, Diana J.; Eshleman, John W.
Background Recent educational initiatives by both the World Health Organization and the American Association of Medical Colleges have endorsed integrating teaching of patient safety and quality improvement (QI) to medical students. Curriculum development should take into account learners’ attitudes and preferences. We surveyed students to assess preferences and attitudes about QI and patient safety education. Methods An electronic survey was developed through focus groups, literature review, and local expert opinion and distributed via email to all medical students at a single medical school in the spring of 2012. Results A greater proportion of students reported previous exposure to patient safety than to quality improvement topics (79% vs. 47%). More than 80% of students thought patient safety was of the same or greater importance than basic science or clinical skills whereas quality improvement was rated as the same or more important by about 70% of students. Students rated real life examples of quality improvement projects and participation in these projects with actual patients as potentially the most helpful (mean scores 4.2/5 and 3.9/5 respectively). For learning about patient safety, real life examples of mistakes were again rated most highly (mean scores 4.5/5 for MD presented mistakes and 4.1/5 for patient presented mistakes). Students rated QI as very important to their future career regardless of intended specialty (mean score 4.5/5). Conclusions Teaching of patient safety and quality improvement to medical students will be best received if it is integrated into clinical education rather than solely taught in pre-clinical lectures or through independent computer modules. Students recognize that these topics are important to their careers as future physicians regardless of intended specialty.
Background Outcome measurement in shoulder surgery is essential to evaluate the patient safety and treatment efficiency. Currently this is jeopardized by the fact that most patient-reported self-assessment instruments are not comparable. Hence, the aim was to develop a reliable self-assessment questionnaire which allows an easy follow-up of patients. The questionnaire also allows the calculation of 3 well established scoring systems, i.e. the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), the Constant-Murley Score (CMS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Score. The subjective and objective items of these three systems were condensed into a single 30-questions form and validated against the original questionnaires. Methods A representative collective of patients of our shoulder clinic was asked to fill in the newly designed self-assessment Munich Shoulder Questionnaire (MSQ). At the same time, the established questionnaires for self-assessment of CONSTANT, SPADI and DASH scores were handed out. The obtained results were compared by linear regression analysis. Results Fifty one patients completed all questionnaires. The correlation coefficients of the results were r?=?0.91 for the SPADI, r?=?-0.93 for the DASH and r?=?0.94 for the CMS scoring system, respectively. Conclusions We developed an instrument which allows a quantitative self-assessment of shoulder function. It provides compatible data sets for the three most popular shoulder function scoring systems by one single, short 30-item. This instrument can be used by shoulder surgeons to effectively monitor the outcome, safety and quality of their treatment and also compare the results to published data in the literature.
The Maintenance Resource Management–Technical Operations Questionnaire (MRM\\/TOQ) is a brief survey questionnaire instrument developed to measure the attitudes and intentions of participants in airline maintenance communication and safety training workshops. This present paper describes the test of the effectiveness of the MRM\\/TOQ for its intended purpose as an evaluative measure. The test included samples of both maintenance management and aviation
As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Philosophy of Glasser Questionnaire was developed. This 15-item scale measuring attitudes toward the philosophy of William Glasser had a coefficient alpha reliability of .77…
Validated and reliable instruments for measuring consumer attitudes regarding food quality certifications are lacking, but the measurement of consumer attitude could be an important tool for understanding consumer behavior. Thus the objective of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring consumer attitudes regarding private food safety certifications for commercial restaurants. To this end, the following steps were carried out: development of the interview items; complete pilot testing; item analyses (influence of social desirability and total-item correlation); reliability test (internal consistency and test-retest); and validity assessment (content and discriminative validity and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis). The subjects, all over the age of 18 and drawn from six non-probabilistic samples (n=7-350) in the city of Campinas, Brazil, were all subjected to an interview. The final scale included 24 items and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.79 and a content validation coefficient of 0.99, both within acceptable limits. The confirmatory factor analysis validated a model with five factors and the final instrument discriminated reasonably well between the groups and showed satisfactory reproducibility (r=0.955). Furthermore, the scale validity and reliability were satisfactory, suggesting it could also be applied to future studies. PMID:22185787
Reports 1978/1979 survey results which determined degree of importance Malaysian schools (n=90) and science teachers placed on laboratory safety. Results of 40-item questionnaire (included in an appendix) focusing on laboratory rules, safety precautions, equipment storage, and teacher attitudes, indicate high concern for safety, continuing…
The University of Denver (Colorado) reduced workers' compensation losses 97 percent in 1990-91 by developing a master safety plan, sponsoring safety training, managing medical costs, providing modified duty for injured employees, screening applicants, orienting new employees, investigating claims thoroughly, performing life-safety audits, and…
Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401
Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N
University and college campuses are not immune to acts of violence. Unfortunately there is limited information regarding violence in the academic setting among women employees. As such, the purpose of this exploratory research was to examine issues that female faculty and staff members have about safety on and around campus, including concerns…
A total of 283 wheelchair-seated bus riders responded to a 35-item Web-based survey investigating their experiences on public, fixed-route buses. The survey addressed the use of wheelchair tiedowns and occupant restraint systems (WTORS), the attitudes and behaviors of wheelchair users toward the use of this equipment, and the transit experience. Results indicate that consistent use of four-point tiedown and occupant restraint systems is fairly low. Only 33.2% of the participants reported always securing their wheelchair, and 62.2% reported using occupant restraints consistently. A preference for fixed-route over para-transit was related to larger city size. Implementation of transit agency policy regarding WTORS was found to be inconsistent. Easier-to-use WTORS and improved operator training in larger transit agencies would likely increase the correct use of safety equipment and improve wheelchair users' bus-riding experiences. PMID:18335706
Buning, Mary Ellen; Getchell, C A; Bertocci, Gina E; Fitzgerald, Shirley G
Purpose Safety culture may exert an important influence on the adoption and learning of patient safety practices by learners at clinical training sites. This study assessed students’ perceptions of safety culture and identified curricular gaps in patient safety training. Method A total of 170 fourth-year medical students at the University of California, San Francisco, were asked to complete a modified version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture in 2011. Students responded on the basis of either their third-year internal medicine or surgery clerkship experience. Responses were recorded on a five-point Likert scale. Percent positive responses were compared between the groups using a chi-square test. Results One hundred twenty-one students (71% response rate) rated “teamwork within units” and “organizational learning” highest among the survey domains; “communication openness” and “nonpunitive response to error” were rated lowest. A majority of students reported that they would not speak up when witnessing a possible adverse event (56%) and were afraid to ask questions if things did not seem right (55%). In addition, 48% of students reported feeling that mistakes were held against them. Overall, students reported a desire for additional patient safety training to enhance their educational experience. Conclusions Assessing student perceptions of safety culture highlighted important observations from their clinical experiences and helped identify areas for curricular development to enhance patient safety. This assessment may also be a useful tool for both clerkship directors and clinical service chiefs in their respective efforts to promote safe care.
Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace. PMID:20728666
Reported is a summary of the responses of 363 college science and engineering students to a questionnaire designed to determine their attitude towards physics. The majority of students found physics moderately interesting.
Overreliance on car transportation impacts negatively on children's health, safety and well-being. This paper presents research that investigated children's perceptions of, and attitudes towards, transport modes. Primary children completed a pictorial questionnaire (n?=?486), 119 participated in focus groups (n?=?27). The findings suggest that children learn about transport modes from different interacting sources, both through experiential and vicarious mediums. The author
As part of an international survey of drivers' attitudes to road safety, 1400 drivers in the UK were sent a questionnaire to elicit their opinions. The response rate (81%) was very good for a postal survey of this length. Overall, respondents had a pessim...
Background Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. Methods and design The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safetyattitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams. The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safetyattitudesquestionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the organization, a team-based score on video-assessed team performance and on selected clinical performance. Discussion The perspective is to provide new knowledge on contextual effects of different simulation settings. Trial registration ClincialTrials.gov NCT01792674.
The current study reports on a study examining the safety concerns of male and female staff members on a small university campus. A 160-item questionnaire was distributed to 231 staff employees (49 males and 182 females), which asked individuals questions pertaining to socio-demographic information, daily routines and campus activities, awareness…
The current study reports on a study examining the safety concerns of male and female faculty members on a small university campus. A 160-item questionnaire was distributed to 100 faculty members (58 males and 42 females; response rate was approximately 30%), which asked individuals questions pertaining to socio-demographic information, daily…
Abstract This study assessed the improvement in relationship quality, effectiveness and safety associated with vardenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The study was conducted in 1433 centres across 21 countries and comprised a baseline patient visit and up to four follow-up visits during an observational period of 1 year. Relationship quality, happiness, satisfaction with vardenafil treatment, and safety and tolerability were assessed by physician interviews and patient and partner questionnaires. Overall, 7496 patients were enrolled in the study, of which 7430 were included in the safety analyses and 6470 in the effectiveness analyses. Relationship quality, assessed by a relationship questionnaire (partnerschaftsfragebogen [PFB]), was improved at last observation carried forward, compared with baseline, in both patients and partners and satisfaction with the effectiveness of vardenafil treatment was high. Vardenafil was well tolerated and adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. These results confirm the well-established effectiveness and safety profiles of vardenafil. This study is the first to demonstrate improvements in relationship quality following vardenafil therapy, in both patients and partners, using the PFB questionnaire. PMID:24397688
Hartmann, Uwe; Hanisch, Jens Ulrich; Mattern, Andreas
ContextBureaucratic organisational culture is less favourable to quality improvement, whereas organisations with group (teamwork) culture are better aligned for quality improvement.ObjectiveTo determine if an organisational group culture shows better alignment with patient safety climate.DesignCross-sectional administration of questionnaires.Setting40 Hospital Corporation of America hospitals.Participants1406 nurses, ancillary staff, allied staff and physicians.Main outcome measuresCompeting Values Measure of Organisational Culture, SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ),
T Speroff; S Nwosu; R Greevy; M B Weinger; T R Talbot; R J Wall; J K Deshpande; D J France; E W Ely; H Burgess; J Englebright; M V Williams; R S Dittus
Background: The clients of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) have been represented from different socio-demographic backgrounds and their risk behaviour depends upon their learning skills and attitudes and its impacts on practice. Objective: The general objective of this study was to find the socio-demographic characteristics, background, knowledge, behaviour, and the attitude on STIs, HIV and AIDS of the clients of female sex workers. Material and Methods: This questionnaire based, cross sectional study was conducted on 109 clients of FSWs during the time period from January 2010 to July 2010 in Pokhara (submetropolitan city of the Kaski district), Nepal. The locations were the Baglung Bus Park, Lakeside and Mahendrapool. Result: Among the 109 respondents, the mininum and the maximum age were 18 and 50 years. According to the religion-wise distribution, 77.1% of the respondents were Hindus, 10.1% were Buddhists, 8.3% were Christians, 1% were Muslims and 3.7% were from other religions. 67.9% of the respondents were tested for HIV at least once, whereas nearly one third (32.1%) of the respondents were never tested for HIV. 49.5% of the respondents answered that there was no difference between HIV and AIDS. Among the respondents, 89.9% respondents knew how to be safe from STIs and the HIV infections and 99.1% knew about HIV and AIDS. Conclusion: HIV and AIDS is a cross cutting issue in the present situation rather than a health issue. One of the most at risk groups is the clients of female workers who frequently have risk behaviours like having sex with female sex workers. The sexual behaviour among these clients depends upon their attitude, knowledge and perception, which also influence several internal and external factors. In our study, the clients of the female sex workers had some extent of knowledge about the condom, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. They were made aware on these by different organizations who were working in the field of HIV and AIDS, but still they intended to practise unsafe sex with the female sex workers.
Rana, Manu S; Nepali, Bobin; Sathian, Brijesh; Aryal, Ram Prasad; Thapalia, Madav; Bhatta, Dharm R.
Quad bike safety represents the quintessential wicked problem. To address this wicked problem, this research explores the use of quad bikes in the northwestern region of outback Queensland, Australia, concentrating efforts on the pastoral industry. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with pastoralists, farmers, retailers, repairers, healthcare professionals, and regulators. The discussions revealed the diverse activities currently undertaken in the region's pastoral enterprises while riding a quad bike, and that attitudes toward the purchase and use of quad bikes vary and may be influenced by retailers. Perceptions of risk and safety in the use of quad bikes in occupational settings also varied. The findings from this study provide insight into the decisions of local pastoralists and agriculturalists to use quad bikes in their workplaces, and attitudes toward safety and injury prevention relating to quad bike use in these industries in northwestern outback Queensland. This study is the first step toward understanding quad bike use in this region, with the goal of reducing injury and death, and will be used in policy and legislation development regarding the use and safety of quad bikes in Australia. PMID:24804463
McBain-Rigg, K E; Franklin, R C; McDonald, G C; Knight, S M
The present study aimed to: (1) examine Chinese children's attitudes toward mental retardation, (2) investigate cross-cultural similarities or differences in these attitudes, and (3) extend the use of Western-attitudequestionnaires to Chinese samples. The present study included 489 Chinese children (265 boys and 224 girls), aged from 4 to 15 years. Results showed that Chinese children demonstrated favorable attitudes toward
Catherine So-kum Tang; Cindy Davis; Anize Wu; Christopher Oliver
The present study investigated cross?cultural differences in road traffic risk perception, risk sensitivity and risk willingness in Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. Differences in driver attitudes and driver behaviour were also examined. An additional aim was to test whether the risk constructs and driver attitudes explained the variation in risky driver behaviour in these countries. To obtain these
The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety issues among food handlers in Turkey, conducting face to face interview and administrating questionnaire. Of the 764 food handlers who responded, 9.6% were involved in touching or distributing unwrapped foods routinely and use protective gloves during their working activity. A majority of participants (47.8%) had
... tractor is involved in a high proportion of farm fatalities and severe injuries. To avoid them, follow safe management principles and implement a tractor safety program on your farm. • Develop a "safety first" attitude. Follow safe work ...
Questionnaire attempts to determine attitudes in effort to learn how students perceive danger, or lack of it, in the use of marihuana. Tabulated responses are presented, and while no conclusions are drawn several interpretations are suggested. (Author/CJ)
Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…
In order to assess the attitudes and knowledge of high school students regarding alcohol use and driving, and to determine if measurable changes have taken place in these, two rounds of surveys were conducted in six high schools in the state. Alcohol usag...
Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.
Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel
This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…
There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad AttitudeQuestionnaire…
Selected aspects of the efficacy of printed leaflets produced by a government health and safety agency and widely distributed by the enforcement bodies and other organisations to promote workplace health and safety are examined. It is based on a study of 30 small or medium-sized enterprises and examines the views of 120 employers and employees regarding the availability, attractiveness, relevance
Harold D. Harvey; Paul Fleming; Karen Cregan; Emily Latimer
Foodborne illness is a challenge in the production and service of ethnic foods. The purpose of the study described in this article was to explore variables influencing the behaviors of U.S. Chinese restaurant owners/operators regarding the provision of food safety training in their restaurants. Seventeen major Chinese cultural values were identified through individual interviews with 20 Chinese restaurant owners/operators. Most participants felt satisfied with their previous health inspections. Several expressed having difficulty, however, following the health inspectors' instructions and in understanding the health inspection report. A few participants provided food safety training to their employees due to state law. Lack of money, time, labor/energy, and a perceived need for food safety training were recognized as major challenges to providing food safety training in Chinese restaurants. Videos, case studies, and food safety training handbooks were the most preferred food safety training methods of Chinese restaurant owners/operators, and Chinese was the preferred language in which to conduct the training. PMID:23858664
With the aim to optimize surgical safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSCL) in 2008. The SSCL has been piloted in many countries worldwide and shown to improve both safetyattitudes within surgical teams and patient outcomes. In the study reported here we investigated whether implementation of the SSCL improved the teamwork and safety climate at a single university hospital in Japan. All surgical teams at the hospital implemented the SSCL in all surgical procedures with strict adherence to the SSCL implementation manual developed by WHO. Changes in safetyattitudes were evaluated using the modified operating-room version of the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ). A before and after design was used, with the questionnaire administered before and 3 months after SSCL implementation. Our analysis revealed that the mean scores on the SAQ had significantly improved 3 months after implementation of the SSCL compared to those before implementation. This finding implies that effective implementation of the SSCL could improve patient outcomes in Japan, similar to the findings of the WHO pilot study. PMID:24170220
Examines the internal consistency reliabilities for 14 previously-published computer attitude scales based on responses from preservice teachers, practicing K-12 teachers, and teacher educators. Describes the Teachers' Attitude toward Computers Questionnaire (TAC) that included 32 subscales. (LRW)
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…
Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.
Aims Medication error reporting is an important measure to prevent medication error incidents in a healthcare system and can serve\\u000a as an important tool for improving patient safety. This study aimed to investigate attitudes of healthcare professionals (doctors,\\u000a nurses, and pharmacists) in reporting medication errors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Fifty-six healthcare professionals working at a 900-bed tertiary referral hospital were surveyed. A questionnaire using two
The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies. PMID:24286820
Background Patient safety culture is an important measure in assessing the quality of health care. There is a growing recognition of the need to establish a culture of hospital focused on patient safety. This study explores the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for health care workers in China by using a Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) questionnaire and comparing it with the psychometric properties of an adapted translation of the HSPSC in Chinese hospitals with that of the US. Method We used the modified HSPSC questionnaire to measure 10 dimensions of patient safety culture from 32 hospitals in 15 cities all across China. The questionnaire included 1160 Chinese health-care workers who consisted of predominately internal physicians and nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 to conduct the statistical analysis on survey data including descriptive statistics and validity and reliability of survey. All data was input and checked by two investigators independently. Result A total of 1500 questionnaires were distributed of which 1160 were responded validly (response rate 77%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 36% to 89%. The positive response rate on 5 dimensions (Teamwork Within Units, Organization Learning-Continuous Improvement, Communication Openness, Non-punitive Response and Teamwork Across Units) was higher than that of AHRQ data (P?0.05). There was a statistical difference on the perception of patient safety culture in groups of different work units, positions and qualification levels. The internal consistency of the total survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach’s ??=?0.84). Conclusion The results show that amongst the health care workers surveyed in China there was a positive attitude towards the patient safety culture within their organizations. The differences between China and the US in patient safety culture suggests that cultural uniqueness should be taken into consideration whenever safety culture measurement tools are applied in different culture settings.
The Body Attitude Test (BAT) questionnaire was specifically developed for the assessment of patients with eating disorders. To test its usefulness, the BAT was administered together with other self-report measures (Body Shape Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Body AttitudeQuestionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) in 69 anorectic, 26 bulimic patients and 165 female university students. The results indicate that the negative body attitude expressed on the BAT is related to other signs of negative body experience. The BAT differentiates between clinical and non-clinical subjects and between anorectics and bulimics. PMID:14655849
Police attitudes are important in facilitating a sense of safety and comfort in women seeking justice-system support for protection from partner violence. This study examined police attitudes toward sanctions and treatment for domestic violence offenders compared with other violent and nonviolent offenders. In addition, police attitudes toward…
Introduction: Many internal and external risk factors in health care organizations make safety important and it has caused the management to consider safety in their mission statement. One of the most important tools is to establish the appropriate organizational structure and safety culture. The goal: The goal of this research is to inform managers and staff about current safety culture status in hospitals in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health services. Methods: This is a descriptive-survey research. The research population was selected hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Research tool was a questionnaire (Cronbach alpha 0.75). The questionnaire including 93 questions (Likert scale) classified in 12 categories: Demographic questions, Individual attitude, management attitude, Safety Training, Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, Consultation and participation, Communications, Monitoring and control, work environment, Reporting, safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that distributed among 45 technicians, 208 Nurses and 62 Physicians. All data collected from the serve was analysis with statistical package of social science (SPSS). In this survey Friedman test, Spearman correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis have been used for data analyzing. Results: The score of safety culture dimensions was 2.90 for Individual attitude, 3.12 for management attitude, 3.32 for Safety Training, 3.14 for Induced stress, pressure and emotional conditions during work, 3.31 for Consultation and participation, 2.93 for Communications, 3.28 for Monitoring and control, 3.19 for work environment, 3.36 for Reporting, 3.59 safety Rules, procedures and work instructions that Communication and individual attitude were in bad condition. Safety culture among different hospitals: governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental and different functional groups (physicians, nurses, diagnostic) of studied hospitals showed no significant differences. There was no relationship between safety culture and demographic data. Conclusion: It was concluded that is no different among governmental and educational, governmental and non-educational and non-governmental in level of safety culture, all of them were on intermediate level so it is essential to attention to the safety culture in hospitals and planning to improve it.
Raeisi, Ahmed Reza; Nazari, Maryam; Bahmanziari, Najme
Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stigmatizing attitudes toward these three mental disorders were evaluated in 325 senior students from medical, commercial, and grammar high schools in Croatia using a 45-item questionnaire. Results indicated that stigmatizing attitudes toward PTSD were at the same level as attitudes toward depression and were less stigmatizing than were attitudes toward schizophrenia. Negative attitudes were the lowest among medical students. Gender differences existed only for attitudes toward depression. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PTSD were not as high as expected. All of the students believed mental disorders are different from other disorders. Specific knowledge of psychiatry has been shown to reduce stigma. The nonaddictive nature of psychotropic medications should receive greater emphasis when teaching psychiatry. PMID:18416274
An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…
The pervasive involvement of information and communication technologies and computers in our daily lives influences changes of attitude toward computers. We focused on finding these ecological effects in the differences in computer attitudes as a function of gender and age. A questionnaire with 34 Likert-type items was used in our research. The…
Kubiatko, Milan; Halakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Sona; Nagy, Tibor
The ability of the theory of reasoned action to predict computer-related attitudes and behavior was demonstrated through two studies: a questionnaire on computer behaviors and attitudes; and word processing training involving various levels of persuasive communication based on belief statements identified in the first study. (22 references) (MES)
Contemporary social psychology takes a simplistic approach to the conceptualization and measurement of intergroup attitudes. Most definitions involve only the affective component of attitudes, and most measurement devices are restricted self-report, paper and pencil questionnaires. A broader and more flexible approach is required to adequately…
Addresses the issue of English in South America through the investigation of attitudes toward English by a group of MBA students in Argentina. A survey questionnaire was administered and its analysis and the relationship between attitudes and the sociopolitical environment are explored. Concludes with a cal for more conscientious inclusion of…
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
Aim: To explore factors associated with students' attitudes towards their peers with disabilities. Method: All 7th grade students (aged 12-13y) from 12 schools in the Toulouse area were invited to participate (n = 1509). Attitudes were measured using the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes Towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) questionnaire (affective,…
This paper describes the development and validation of a new 40-item Internet Attitude Scale (IAS), a one-dimensional inventory for measuring the Internet attitudes. The first experiment initiated a generic Internet attitudequestionnaire, ensured construct validity, and examined factorial validity and reliability. The second experiment further…
The study explored the relationship between schizotypal personality traits and attitude of Hindus towards their faith. A total of 309 Balinese Hindus responded to the Santosh–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, and a number of external indicators and religious practices. Attitude towards Hinduism, frequency of prayer, and temple attendance had a rather weak positive relationship
This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…
Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.
Nudging people to make good investments is necessary because of low financial literacy. One type of advice concerns allocation to risky vs. safe investments. Financial advisors generally assume that people differ in their risk attitudes, and they sometimes try to assess these attitudes with questionnaires about risks. But attitudes toward risks are influenced by many factors that are irrelevant to
Nudging people to make good investments is necessary because of low financial literacy. One type of advice concerns allocation to risky vs. safe investments. Financial advisors generally assume that people differ in their risk attitudes, and they sometimes try to assess these attitudes with questionnaires about risks. But attitudes toward risks are influenced by many factors that are irrelevant to
This study investigated attitude toward statistical graphs among a large sample of Singapore secondary school students (n = 907) in 2003. Attitude toward Statistical Graphs (ASG) was defined in terms of five aspects: enjoyment, confidence, usefulness, critical views and learning preferences. These students (13 to 15 years old) completed a Questionnaire of Attitude toward Statistical Graphs (QASG). In general, boys
Examines how an open classroom climate relates to effective global education. Looks at gender and race differences, and identifies attributes of open classrooms. Administers questionnaires to 202 students enrolled in an international studies program. Finds a moderate positive correlation between classroom climate and student political attitudes.…
This study aims to explore students' attitudes toward teacher feedback. The study used a triangulation of participants and methods in which the practice of feedback was seen from the perspectives of students and teachers collected from the quantitative data (questionnaires) and qualitative data (open-ended items in questionnaires and interviews).…
Presents results of a survey of high school journalists which consisted of 2 parts: 13 questions from R. F. Antonak's Attitude toward Disablement Scale (ATD), and a questionnaire regarding student attitudes toward disabilities in a news situation. Concludes that those with progressive attitudes toward disabilities did not have that attitude in…
The NHIS CCS is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment. The NHIS CCS covers a variety of topics, including diet and nutrition.
A description of self-report health behavior and attitudes of American youths based on questionnaire responses of a national probability sample of noninstitutionalized youths 12 through 17 years of age. Topics include behavior and attitudes relating to ge...
Introduction Workplace attitude, beliefs and culture may impact the safety of patient care. This study characterized perceptions of safety culture in a nationwide sample of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 61 Advanced Life Support EMS agencies in North America. We administered a modified version of the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ), a survey instrument measuring dimensions of workplace safety culture (Safety Climate, Teamwork Climate, Perceptions of Management, Job Satisfaction, Working Conditions, and Stress Recognition). We included full-time and part-time paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians. We determined the variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies. Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM), we determined associations between safety culture scores and individual and EMS agency characteristics. Results We received 1,715 completed surveys from 61 EMS agencies (mean agency response rate 47%; 95% CI 10%, 83%). There was wide variation in safety culture scores across EMS agencies [mean (min, max)]: Safety Climate 74.5 (Min 49.9, Max 89.7), Teamwork Climate 71.2 (Min 45.1, Max 90.1), Perceptions of Management 67.2 (Min 31.1, Max 92.2), Job Satisfaction 75.4 (Min 47.5, Max 93.8), Working Conditions 66.9 (Min 36.6, Max 91.4), Stress Recognition 55.1 (Min 31.3, Max 70.6). Air medical EMS agencies tended to score higher across all safety culture domains. Lower safety culture scores were associated with increased annual patient contacts. Safety climate domain scores were not associated with other individual or EMS agency characteristics. Conclusion In this sample, workplace safety culture varies between EMS agencies.
Patterson, P. Daniel; Huang, David T.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Simeone, Scott; Weaver, Matthew; Wang, Henry E.
In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.
Biehle, James T.; Motz, Lamoine L.; West, Sandra S.
An investigation was conducted by students in a linguistics seminar which had two parts, a matched-guise questionnaire and a semantic differential questionnaire. The content and results of the latter are presented here. The objective of this part of the study was to determine what attitudes French-speaking Swiss students had toward languages they…
Four telephone surveys were conducted for the Fairfax ASAP in June and December of 1975 and 1976. During each, 500 ASAP area residents randomly selected from the Northern Virginia phone book were called and were interviewed using standard questionnaires. ...
Whether developing questions for questionnaires or interviews or focus groups, there are certain guidelines that help to ensure that respondents provide information that is useful and can later be analyzed. This resource offers advice on developing questions for interviews or focus groups. It contains basics conducting the interviews, providing directions to respondents as well as guidelines for composing the content and wording of the questionnaire. This resource is aimed for use in workshops/conferences and is intended for novice evaluators.
A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed
Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco
Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.
A study was conducted to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments, and to examine associations between these factors and students' attitudes. A measure of students' environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument was influenced by the four…
Guidelines for using questionnaires/findings provided through the Student-Outcomes Information Service (SOIS) are presented. SOIS provides institutional decision-makers with information on student characteristics, backgrounds, attitudes, reasons for making various educational choices, activities, educational plans, occupational choices, and…
This report presents the results of a study that was undertaken to identify student attitudes toward the Pass-Fail (P-F) option at the University of Washington. A questionnaire designed to assess student opinions toward and possible behavioral changes resulting from P-F courses was sent to a random sample of sophomores, juniors and seniors…
Washington Univ., Seattle. Educational Assessment Center.
Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and decision making on nuclear energy in the current society. Eighty-nine students attended the instruction and participated in pre and post questionnaires to understand their understandings of nuclear energy. In this study, science knowledge was categorized into content and contextual knowledge, attitude consisted of images, safety, risk, potential, benefits and future roles, and decision making section included preference and alternative about lifetime extension of nuclear power plant. The results of questionnaires were analyzed by correlation, cross-tabulation and regression. As a result, while students' understandings of science knowledge were significantly improved throughout the instruction, they maintained similar attitude and decision making on the issue. Regarding the relationship of the three domains, attitude showed some degree of connection to decision making whereas science knowledge did not show a significant relationship to decision making. This finding challenges SSI teaching in content-based science curriculum and classroom. Reflection and implications on the way of teaching SSI in the classroom were discussed further in this paper.
To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitudequestionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…
A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…
Objective To investigate the range of knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents regarding baby walkers.Design A qualitative study using a focus group approach.Setting Three focus groups were held in community mother and toddler drop-in centres, and one in a hospital antenatal clinic.Methods Four focus groups were held over a two-month period in 2000. Parents from areas with differing levels of
Rhydian Hapgood; Amanda Woods; Jane Dyas; Elaine Bentley; Denise Kendrick
A survey of physicians in the 11 counties represented by the Rochester (New York) Regional Hospital Council, undertaken in the summer of 1964 to explore the attitudes of the physicians toward small community practice, is documented. Questionnaires were se...
Soldiers' and food service personnel's perceptions and attitudes toward the Nutrition Initiatives, as well as their nutrition awareness of knowledge, were assessed via questionnaires and interviews at the Ft. Riley NCO Academy civilian-contractor operatio...
An Alcohol Experiences Questionnaire was administered to 2,045 Navy recruits to determine usage patterns, attitudes, and incidence of self-reported drinking problems for the period before their entry into the Navy. Comparisons were made between this incom...
To construct a questionnaire, a set tau of permissible questions is drawn up, i.e. questions which can be realized in practice and each of which makes sense in relationship to set E of events or a certain subset of this set. If under the fixed conditions ...
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Diet History Questionnaire Today's date: MONTH DAY YEAR |___|___| 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 01 Jan 02 Feb 03 Mar 04 Apr 05 May 06 Jun 07 Jul 08 Aug 09 Sep 10 Oct 11 Nov 12
This article describes the development of the Gay Identity Questionnaire (GIQ) which was derived from tenets of the Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) model proposed by Cass in 1979. The GIQ is a brief measure that may be used by clinicians and researchers for identifying gay males in the various stages of homosexual identity formation. The test construction procedures included the
Background. There are few theoretically derived questionnaires of physical activity determinants among youth, and the existing questionnaires have not been subjected to tests of factorial validity and invariance. The present study employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factorial validity and invariance of questionnaires designed to be unidimensional measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy about
R. W. Motl; R. K. Dishman; S. G. Trost; R. P. Saunders; M. Dowda; G. Felton; D. S. Ward; R. R. Pate
Questionnaires were sent to 500 members of the National Council on Learning Disabilities and 500 members of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Findings revealed a difference in attitude toward mathematics in the two groups and in attitudes toward learning disabled (LD) students in mathematics. LD teachers were more positive toward LD…
This is a two-phase study on attitudes of medical students toward Alcoholics Anonymous. The first phase compares views of addiction faculty to third-year medical students on the importance of spirituality in addiction treatment. We administered a questionnaire to assess attitudes toward spiritual, biological, and psychosocial approaches to addiction treatment. The faculty viewed spirituality as relatively more important in addiction treatment
Lydia Fazzio; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis; Petros Levounis
This is a two?phase study on attitudes of medical students toward Alcoholics Anonymous. The first phase compares views of addiction faculty to third?year medical students on the importance of spirituality in addiction treatment. We administered a questionnaire to assess attitudes toward spiritual, biological, and psychosocial approaches to addiction treatment. The faculty viewed spirituality as relatively more important in addiction treatment
Lydia Fazzio; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis; Petros Levounis
An attitude dimension questionnaire was administered to a random sample of Mexican-American college students and to a random sample of Spanish-surnamed professionals in the Rio Grande Valley (Table 1). Attitudes toward use of Spanish varied by age, sex, generation, and occupational status. Tabular results in Appendix. (Author/LMO)
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate of baby walker use, parental attitudes, and associated injuries. DESIGN: Parents of babies attending clinics for developmental assessment were surveyed by self administered questionnaire about their use, attitudes, and history of injuries associated with walkers. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland. SUBJECTS: Parents of 158 babies. RESULTS: Fifty five per cent of the sample used a walker. The
Correlation of questionnaire results from a sample of 1326 students with hypnotic susceptibility scores of 340 of these later hypnotized showed (a) that those volunteering for hypnosis were more favorable in attitude than those who did not volunteer, (b) attitudes toward hypnosis were predictive of susceptibility for females, not for males, and (c) self-predictions yielded significant low positive correlations with
Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…
Attitudes of pharmacists and pharmacy students were measured by a 73-item questionnaire. Responses were obtained from 56 graduating seniors and 112 recent graduates of the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The two sets of responses enable comparison of the attitudes of graduating seniors after completion of a…
This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…
A study was conducted to compare the attitudes of teachers toward the professionalization of teaching with the attitudes of state and local educational association leadership personnel. A questionnaire based on resolutions acted upon by the New York State Teachers Association House of Delegates examined opinions of both groups on programs designed…
Objectives: This study examined the attitudes of senior residents in psychiatry toward persons with intellectual disabilities. Examining residents' attitudes will highlight areas of training that could be enhanced to better prepare psychiatrists to work with individuals with intellectual disabilities. Method: A questionnaire was distributed to senior psychiatry residents at a Canada-wide prepara- tory session for the Royal College of Physicians
Hélène Ouellette-Kunt; Philip Burge; David B Henry; Elspeth A Bradley; Pierre Leichner
In response to numerous calls for a clarification of conceptual and methodological issues related to organizational commitment, the authors propose using advances in the conceptualization of attitudes. In applying this approach, we asked employees to complete semantic differential scales measuring organizational commitment as a global attitude toward the organization and to complete the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). With a sample
Harriette S. McCaul; Verlin B. Hinsz; Kevin D. McCaul
Pre- and post-travel questionnaires mailed to American tourists visiting the Soviet Union record attitude change and serve as the basis for this eight-chapter research project report. Most of the report considers the relation of various factors to attitude change, including education, level of information, language ability, sex, age, occupation,…
Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…
Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitudequestionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)
Background Environmental perceptions appear to play a role in determining behaviour in children, although their influence on active commuting remains unclear. This study examines whether attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions are associated with active commuting behaviour in school children and whether these associations are moderated by the distance to school. Methods Data were collected as part of the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people), a cross-sectional study of 2012 children from schools in Norfolk, England. Data regarding the usual mode of travel to school, attitudes towards and social support for active commuting, perceptions of the neighbourhood and route to school were assessed using questionnaires completed by the children and their parents. Distance to school was estimated using a Geographic Information System and this was used to compare associations between personal and environmental factors and active travel, across different distance categories. Results 40% of children reported usually walking to school, with 9% cycling and the remainder using motorised travel. Parental attitudes and safety concerns, the presence of social support from parents and friends, and parent reported neighbourhood walkability were all found to be predictors of active commuting, with children receiving peer and family support and living in supportive environments being more likely to walk or cycle. There was some evidence of a moderating effect of distance whereby attitudes were more important for short distances and safety concerns long. Conclusion Both attitudinal and environmental perceptions are associated with children’s active commuting behaviours. Given the difficulty in modifying attitudes directly, the effect on them of interventions to provide more supportive environments should be evaluated.
Panter, Jenna R.; Jones, Andrew P; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Griffin, Simon J
A sample of 947 subjects completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and beliefs towards the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. A section of the questionnaire was aimed at assessing the role of trust on perception of risks and benefits associated with pesticides on foods. The subjects tended to hold positive attitudes towards eating fruits and vegetables produced by organic agriculture.
This study collected data on the attitudes that white students have toward blacks and the relation between interracial contact and racial attitudes. A questionnaire was administered to students attending six predominantly white high schools in suburban and suburban-type school districts in Jackson County, Missouri. One hundred questionnaires were…
Background Medical residents are key figures in delivering health care and an important target group for patient safety education. Reporting incidents is an important patient safety domain, as awareness of vulnerabilities could be a starting point for improvements. This study examined effects of patient safety education for residents on knowledge, skills, attitudes, intentions and behavior concerning incident reporting. Methods A controlled study with follow-up measurements was conducted. In 2007 and 2008 two patient safety courses for residents were organized. Residents from a comparable hospital acted as external controls. Data were collected in three ways: 1] questionnaires distributed before, immediately after and three months after the course, 2] incident reporting cards filled out by course participants during the course, and 3] residents' reporting data gathered from hospital incident reporting systems. Results Forty-four residents attended the course and 32 were external controls. Positive changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes were found after the course. Residents' intentions to report incidents were positive at all measurements. Participants filled out 165 incident reporting cards, demonstrating the skills to notice incidents. Residents who had reported incidents before, reported more incidents after the course. However, the number of residents reporting incidents did not increase. An increase in reported incidents was registered by the reporting system of the intervention hospital. Conclusions Patient safety education can have immediate and long-term positive effects on knowledge, skills and attitudes, and modestly influence the reporting behavior of residents.
The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of direct care workers (DCWs) in group homes towards PWDs. This study also investigated DCWs' demographic and other variables on their attitudes towards PWDs. The scale of attitudes towards disabled persons (SADP) questionnaire was administered to a purposive sample of 108 direct care workers…
Modern biotechnology will have a large impact on society and requires informed decision-making and critical attitudes toward biotechnology among the public. This study aims to explore these attitudes in secondary education. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed according to the general tripartite theory of attitudes. A total of 574…
The study investigated whether perceived antenatal social support and attitudes to emotional expression are associated with postnatal distress in new parents and whether attitudes to emotional expression are themselves linked with perceptions of social support. Eighty?six women and 66 men expecting their first baby completed the DUKE?UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ) and the Attitudes Towards Emotional Expression (AEE) both
The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudesquestionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…
Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott
A questionnaire of 500 pupils (ages 16-17)in Zimbabwe investigated their attitudes toward being integrated with students with disabilities. Results showed the students had more positive attitudes towards integration of students with disabilities than negative ones. No significant differences were found in attitudes of female and male students.…
A study was conducted to examine the influence of parents' attitudes toward and use of media on their college-age children's media use and attitudes. Telephone interviews were conducted with 400 university students in the Northeast, and a questionnaire was sent to their parents. Both instruments measured media use variables, attitudes toward the…
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on Aids or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of Aids, attitudes toward Aids, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight.
This article is based on the author's previous studies on people's reactions to organ donation, including both questionnaire surveys and qualitative interviews. A model was developed where six anti-donation factors and two pro-donation factors influence the attitude toward organ donation. This model can be applied also to other procedures with the dead body such as autopsy, anatomical dissection, and burial.
Obesity stereotypes and anti fat attitudes influence the social behavior of middle school students according to a study presented last June at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Using a series of questionnaires and fat and thin silhouette figures, the researchers quizzed 176 boys and 141 girls between the ages of…
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPERD), 2005
Reports a study to assess teachers attitudes toward death-related issues. A questionnaire was given to 61 teachers in a graduate education course. It was found that the teachers tended to favor liberal abortion laws (67 percent), euthanasia (83 percent), and the majority (65 percent) believed in life after death. (SLH)
This study examined graduate student attitudes towards letter and pass/fail grading systems in the Law School and the School of Education in a selective university in the United States. Fifty-four students completed a questionnaire on goal orientations (ability comparison vs. mastery), amount of effort and stress in each of the two grading…
This study examined, using social exchange theory, a range of variables involved in determining resident attitudes toward tourism development and the adoption of sustainable tourism. After a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of residents in tourism development, and of the use of social exchange theory, 430 completed questionnaires obtained in a Texas town involved in tourism were
Researchers have typically overlooked the possibility that responses to job attitude items might be produced "on the spot" using information that is temporally accessible to participants. In the current study, the authors test this possibility by examining context effects that occur when questionnaire content influences responses to subsequent…
Analyzed the responses of 481 US Marine Corps recruits to items in a Marine Corps Opinion Questionnaire. 5 orthogonal factors were identified and labeled as attitudes toward the toughness of Marines, the spirit among Marines, affiliation with the Marine Corps, and authority and consideration in the Marine Corps. Scales developed to provide scores on these factors are considered reliable, and
A questionnaire to measure attitudes toward gifted programs was given to 113 teachers, 23 administrators, and 91 parents. Seven areas were investigated: definition, characteristics, identification, educational needs, funding priority, teacher characteristics, and current provisions. Among findings were the following: parents, as a group, were less…
In 1979, a sample of 2,149 pupils aged 8?16 was selected from schools in Belfast and a questionnaire administered which included Peatling's instrument ‘Thinking about the Bible’ and Francis’ ‘Religious Attitude Scale’. Pupils had an increasing preference for abstract thinking and a decreasing preference for concrete thinking as they got older. Grammar school pupils were more inclined to prefer abstract
Presented are the findings of questionnaires mailed to the directors of 160 nature centers which provided environmental education programs for elementary school children in thirty-four states. The figures indicate that specific environmental attitude objectives need to be developed by the staffs of these centers. (BT)
University students (n=166) representing English-speaking North American culture and several other cultures completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward four speech disorders (cleft palate, dysfluency, hearing impairment, and misarticulations). Results showed significant group differences in beliefs about the emotional health of persons…
Questionnaires were distributed to 641 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to elicit opinions concerning various forms of premarital sexual behavior. Hypotheses were developed to determine whether there were differences between the attitudes of males and females. Significant differences were found between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when the couple is casually acquainted, and attitudes toward extramarital sex, oral-genital sex, and anal sex. However, significant differences were not found between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when the couple is in love, attitudes toward premarital sex when the couple is engaged, and attitudes toward masturbation, homosexuality, and sexual fantasizing. Males' attitudes toward various forms of sexual behavior were more liberal than those of females. PMID:2264511
An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
The safety education program for Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools was prepared as a simplified guide for teachers to use in grades 1-12. Safety programs in schools should develop knowledge, habits, and attitudes in order to eliminate, as far as possible, the dangers of accidental death or injury to children. It should inform these future…
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the US and Canada.
Applied Research Program (ARP) staff use a variety of methods to develop and test questionnaires, including established Questionnaire Design Principles, empirical methods such as Cognitive Testing and psychometric methods such as Item Response Theory Modeling.
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This package contains a copy of the software acquisition process maturity questionnaire. It is intended for those interested in performing and learning about software acquisition process appraisals. This questionnaire is not an appraisal method itself; ra...
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
Criteria for evaluating occupational safety in industrial organisations have been developed and tested. These criteria were designed for use in safety diagnoses, i.e. planned and systematic investigations of the organisation and the administrative procedures to control safety. The safety criteria were derived from previous performed safety management analyses and safety audit tools. A questionnaire survey was carried out in order
Background To develop a healthcare environment that is congruent with diversity among care providers and care recipients and to eliminate ethnic discrimination, it’s important to map out and assess caregivers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity. Because of a lack of standardized questionnaires in the Swedish context, this study designed and standardized a questionnaire: the Assessment of Awareness and Acceptance of Diversity in Healthcare Institutions (AAAD, for short). Method The questionnaire was developed in four phases: a comprehensive literature review, face and content validity, construct validity by factor analysis, and a reliability test by internal consistency and stability assessments. Results Results of different validity and reliability analyses suggest high face, content, and construct validity as well as good reliability in internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.68 to 0.8) and stability (test-retest: Spearman rank correlation coefficient: 0.60 to 0.76). The result of the factor analysis identified six dimensions in the questionnaire: 1) Attitude toward discrimination, 2) Interaction between staff, 3) Stereotypic attitude toward working with a person with a Swedish background, 4) Attitude toward working with a patient with a different background, 5) Attitude toward communication with persons with different backgrounds, 6) Attitude toward interaction between patients and staff. Conclusion This study introduces a newly developed questionnaire with good reliability and validity values that can assess healthcare workers’ awareness and acceptance of diversity in the healthcare environment and healthcare delivery.
Objective To explore the attitudes and perceptions of patient safety culture for pharmacy workers in China by using a Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), and to assess the psychometric properties of the translated Chinese language version of the PSOPSC. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Data were obtained from 20 hospital pharmacies in the southwest part of China. Methods We performed ?2 test to explore the differences on pharmacy staff in different hospital and qualification levels and countries towards patient safety culture. We also computed descriptive statistics, internal consistency coefficients and intersubscale correlation analysis, and then conducted an exploratory factor analysis. A test–retest was performed to assess reproducibility of the items. Results A total of 630 questionnaires were distributed of which 527 were responded to validly (response rate 84%). The positive response rate for each item ranged from 37% to 90%. The positive response rate on three dimensions (‘Teamwork’, ‘Staff Training and Skills’ and ‘Staffing, Work Pressure and Pace’) was higher than that of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) data (p<0.05). There was a statistical difference in the perception of patient safety culture at different hospital and qualification levels. The internal consistency of the total survey was comparatively satisfied (Cronbach's ?=0.89). Conclusions The results demonstrated that among the pharmacy staffs surveyed in China, there was a positive attitude towards patient safety culture in their organisations. Identifying perspectives of patient safety culture from pharmacists in different hospital and qualification levels are important, since this can help support decisions about action to improve safety culture in pharmacy settings. The Chinese translation of the PSOPSC questionnaire (V.2012) applied in our study is acceptable.
Jia, P L; Zhang, L H; Zhang, M M; Zhang, L L; Zhang, C; Qin, S F; Li, X L; Liu, K X
Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…
The report investigates current professional opportunities in safety. The data were gathered through the ditribution of 435 questionnaires to a nationwide sample of industries. Of the 135 usable returns, 26.6% felt that their companies could use a masters...
Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329
Objective: The authors examined the effect of supervision on internal medicine residents' attitudes toward and management of depression. Method: Internal medicine residents completed a survey during preclinical conferences. The survey included a published, validated questionnaire, the Depression AttitudeQuestionnaire, and items developed by the…
Milone, Jennifer M.; Gottumukkala, Aruna; Ward, Christopher P.; York, Kaki M.
Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers. PMID:23326680
The present study is concerned with the human factors that contribute to violations in aviation maintenance. Much of our previous research in this area has been based on safety climate surveys and the analysis of relations among core dimensions of climate. In this study, we tap into mainstream psychological theory to help clarify the mechanisms underlying the links between climate and behavior. Specifically, we demonstrate the usefulness of Ajzen's (1991, 2001) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to understanding violation behaviors in aircraft maintenance. A questionnaire was administered to 307 aircraft maintenance workers. Constructs measured by the survey included perceptions of management attitudes to safety, own attitudes to violations, intention to violate, group norms, workplace pressures, and violations. A model based on the TPB illustrated hypothetical connections among these variables. Path analyses using AMOS suggested some theoretically justifiable modifications to the model. Fit statistics of the revised model were excellent with intentions, group norms, and personal attitudes combining to explain 50% of the variance in self-reported violations. The model highlighted the importance of management attitudes and group norms as direct and indirect predictors of violation behavior. We conclude that the TPB is a useful tool for understanding the psychological background to the procedural violations so often associated with incidents and accidents. PMID:20538101
The project aimed to assess stigmatized attitudes among health professionals directed towards patients with mental health problems. The Attitude to Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess participants' attitudes towards fictitious patients from a secure forensic hospital and patients with schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Participants were health professionals from acute and mental health settings. In total, 108 completed questionnaires were received. Participants had highly stigmatized attitudes towards patients from a forensic hospital and those with active substance use disorders. Attitudes were less stigmatized to people with substance use disorders who were recovering in remission. This suggested that health professionals have stigmatized attitudes towards an illness such as schizophrenia and this is worse towards patients from a secure hospital. The manner in which patients with substance use disorder are presented can have a significant effect on stigmatized attitudes by health professionals. PMID:19291157
The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…
Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration conducted its second national survey of distracted driving to monitor the public's attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior about cell phones, texting, and driver choices. The first distracted dri...
A primary care led NHS, driven by evidence based practice, needs to build on a firm foundation of research in primary care. As researchers are making increasing use of questionnaire surveys to assess general practitioners' views and attitudes, so response rates to questionnaire surveys among general practitioners are dropping. The reasons include lack of perceived relevance of the research and lack of information and feedback about it, and researchers need to be more aware of the realities of everyday practice. Approaches that might reverse this trend include monitoring all research activities going on in an area to ensure that practices are not overused, giving general practitioners incentives to participate, and improving the relevance of research and the quality of questionnaires.
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Background Demographic development is accompanied by an increasingly aging society. Concerning medical education, the treatment of older people as well as the scientific research and exploration of ageing aspects in the coming years need to be considered. Aim of the study was to ascertain medical students’ knowledge, interest, and attitudes regarding older patients and geriatric medicine. Methods Each participant completed a self-designed questionnaire. This questionnaire was based on three validated internationally recognised questionnaires (“Facts on Aging Quiz – FAQ”, “Expectations Regarding Aging – ERA” and the “Aging Semantic Differential – ASD”). The inquiry and survey were performed at the beginning of the summer term in 2012 at the University of Regensburg Medical School. Results A total of n?=?184/253 (72.7%) students participated in this survey. The results of the FAQ 25+ showed that respondents were able to answer an average of M?=?20.4 of 36 questions (56.7%) correctly (Median, Md?=?21; SD ±6.1). The personal attitudes and expectations of ageing averaged M?=?41.2 points on the Likert-scale that ranged from 0 to 100 (Md?=?40.4; SD ±13.7). Respondents’ attitudes towards the elderly (ASD 24) averaged M?=?3.5 points on the Likert-scale (range 1–7, Md 3.6, SD ±0.8). Conclusions In our investigation, medical students’ knowledge of ageing was comparable to previous surveys. Attitudes and expectations of ageing were more positive compared to previous studies. Overall, medical students expect markedly high cognitive capacities towards older people that can actively prevent cognitive impairment. However, medical students’ personal interest in medicine of ageing and older people seems to be rather slight.
Focuses on the validation of a writing strategies questionnaire and presents the various stages in the validation process. The questionnaire was validated using a qualitative and quantitative method with two groups of participants from the target population--advanced nonnative speakers of English. (VWL)
The Environmental (2-MEV) Scale questionnaire was developed in Europe to measure adolescents' attitudes and gauge the effectiveness of educational programs. It also formed the basis for the Theory of Ecological Attitudes. In the present four-year study, the 2-MEV Scale was modified for use with 9-12-year-old children in the United States. Initial…
Objective:Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast.Design:A pilot study was used to select questionnaire items and assess test–retest reliability. The questionnaire was then administered to a larger sample of children together with a dietary recall questionnaire. Randomly selected subsets of these children also completed a dietary recall interview or their parents were asked to complete
K Tapper; S Murphy; R Lynch; R Clark; G F Moore; L Moore
Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…
SummaryWe report a survey in the UK of potential whole-body donors for dissection. 218 people (age range 19-97 years) answered a postal questionnaire, giving information about themselves, their reasons for donation, attitudes towards the dead body, funeral preferences and medical giving and receiving. In addition to altruism, motives included the wish to avoid funeral ceremonies, to avoid waste, and in
Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.
Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J
This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that h...
The purpose of this study was to survey the attitudes of scientists and engineers toward federal government employee unions and to compare those findings to a similar study conducted two years previously. A questionnaire consisting of 39 demographic-type ...
This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)
background Variation in health care delivery and outcomes in NICUs may be partly explained by differences in safety culture. objective To describe NICU caregiver assessments of safety culture, explore the variability within and between NICUs on safety culture domains, and test for association with caregiver characteristics. methods We surveyed NICU caregivers in a convenience sample of 12 hospitals from a single health care system, using the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ). The six scales of the SAQ include teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition, perception of management, and working conditions. For each NICU we calculated scale means, standard deviations and percent positives (percent agreement). results We found substantial variation in safety culture domains among participating NICUs. A composite mean score across the six safety culture domains ranged from 56.3 to 77.8 on a 100-point scale and NICUs in the top four NICUs were significantly different from the bottom four (p < .001). Across the six domains, respondent assessments varied widely, but were least positive on perceptions of management (3–80% positive; mean 33.3%) and stress recognition (18–61% positive; mean 41.3%). Comparisons of SAQ scale scores between NICUs and a previously published cohort of adult ICUs generally revealed higher scores for NICUs. Physicians composite scores were 8.2 (p = .04) and 9.5 (p =.02) points higher than nurses and ancillary personnel. conclusion Significant variation and scope for improvement in safety culture exists among this sample of NICUs. The NICU variation was similar to variation in adult ICUs, but NICU scores were generally higher than adult ICU scores. Future studies should validate whether safety culture as measured with the SAQ correlates with clinical and operational outcomes in the NICU setting.
Profit, Jochen; Etchegaray, Jason; Petersen, Laura A; Sexton, J Bryan; Hysong, Sylvia J; Mei, Minghua; Thomas, Eric J
Proponents of the disease concept of alcoholism have argued that its dissemination among the general public will promote humanitarian attitudes toward alcoholics. This claim was subjected to empirical scrutiny. A quota sample of 200 members of the general public completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs about alcoholism and attitudes toward alcoholics. As predicted, the majority of respondents endorsed a disease formulation. However, examination of the data using correlational and factor analytic techniques indicated that two humanitarian views--expressing sympathetic attitudes toward alcoholics and regarding them as deserving of public funds--were largely independent of endorsing a disease view. PMID:3429071
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).
The report is from a USAC series produced by the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories designed to explore IMIS impacts on city administrative organization and behavior. The Key Person Questionnaire, which forms the basis for this report, examines basi...
The Brunel Lifestyle Physical Activity Questionnaire a4 If you add together each session of pre-planned physical activity that you engage in during a normal week, how much time would you estimate that you spend in total?
The data needs questionnaire is an element in the project design study for the Michigan Resource Inventory Act and is aimed at gathering information on what inventory information is required by land use planners throughout the state. Analysis of questionnaire responses is discussed. Some information on current use categories was tabulated. The respondents selected a broad range of categories at all levels of detail. Those most frequently indicated were urban categories.
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
A questionnaire and an offer of free carrier testing was mailed to 173 relatives of individuals with CF. The questionnaire addressed their knowledge of clinical and genetic aspects of CF, as well as their attitudes toward carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis, and pregnancy termination for CF. Eighty-one individuals returned the questionnaire (47%) and 50 elected carrier testing (29%). Most respondents underestimated
DeeDee Lafayette; Dianne Abuelo; Mary Ann Passero; Umadevi Tantravahi
Attitudes of a random sample of students at a large university toward foreign students and international programs were surveyed before and after the seizure of U.S. hostages in Iran. A newly developed "International Issues Questionnaire" covered attitudes toward foreign students as teaching assistants, funding exchange programs with student fees,…
This paper is based on the findings of research into the attitudes towards business ethics of a group of business students in Western Australia. The questionnaire upon which the research was based was originally used by Preble and Reichel (1988) in an investigation they undertook into the attitudes towards business ethics held by two similar groups of United States and
Explored changes in preservice teachers' multicultural attitudes and knowledge, as well as factors that contributed positively to those changes. Student teachers were followed throughout their preparation program. Data from questionnaires and interviews indicated that respondents' multicultural attitudes and knowledge change in a positive…
Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square
J. X. Chen; T. M. Zhang; F. L. Lim; H. C. Wu; T. F. Lei; P. K. Yeong; S. J. Xia
The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (AAPPQ) was used to evaluate the attitudes of nurses toward alcoholic patients. In addition, relationships between therapeutic attitude toward alcoholic patients and various independent variables (including experience in specialty, education related to alcohol and alcoholic problems, the degree of support received from co-workers, and self-esteem of individuals) were analyzed. Six hundred nursing staff,
Global wild animal resources are declining due to various pressures, which will greatly affect local biodiversity and ecosystem services. Understanding local people's attitudes towards wild animal conservation in high biodiversity areas is of major importance for conservation efforts. Sampling and questionnaire survey methods were employed to examine people's attitudes toward wild animal conservation in a comparative case study of two
The main question investigated by this study was whether future teachers' attitudes toward women were significantly different from the attitudes of other college students. The subjects of this research were college students divided into two groups--education majors and majors in other subjects. A Likert-type scale questionnaire was administered…
The introduction of a team term project into a Korean psychometrics class is described. Students developed an item pool of attitude statements regarding the reunification of South Korea and North Korea. Then teams of students used the item pool to develop attitudequestionnaires, survey other students, analyze the results, and recommend which…
The purposes of this study were to determine the attitudes of selected public school district board members toward inter-school-district cooperation and the extent to which selected variables were related to board member attitudes. Data from questionnaires that sought demographic data, local-cosmopolitan orientation, and other information relevant…
This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
A self-report instrument comprising twenty visual analogue scale statements about attitudes towards depression was sent to all 110 general practitioners working in primary health care centres in the city of Campinas, Brazil. The statements of the Depression AttitudeQuestionnaire (DAQ) cover three main areas: nature of depression, treatment preferences and professional reactions regarding depressed patients. Seventy-eight (71%) doctors returned the
Social workers in the United States were queried on their attitudes toward transracial adoption (TRA), defined here as African American children being adopted by White parents. An analysis of 363 questionnaires found that optimism about the future of race relations was the most powerful predictor of TRA attitudes. For both African American and…
This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…
There are still controversial attitudes regarding oocyte donation (OD) programs. The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the opinions of Christians and Muslims regarding an OD program in Iran. 200 adults were randomly assigned to fill out the questionnaires. Part I contained demographic information, and Part II contained 20 questions to reveal their knowledge and attitudes about OD.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…
Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.
Discusses findings from a survey of 534 British university students' attitudes towards technology, and outlines relationships between the consistency of past science orientation and present attitudes. Highlights include gender differences, a description of the questionnaire (which included Likert scales), and an analysis of the results.…
The research reported in this article examined attitudes toward the care of the elderly between and among medical students and residents in training. Data were collected with a 16-item attitudequestionnaire. Participants were medical students in their introduction period (prior to clinical experience) and residents of the Department of Internal…
This study examined attitudes toward physical fitness of parents who home school their children, noting the relationship with children's physical activity levels. Questionnaires (11% returned) indicated parents felt positively about fitness, but children were not physically active. A low correlation existed between mothers' attitudes and…
An Attitude Toward Blindness Questionnaire (ATBQ) was developed to assess individual progress through a Veterans Administration blind rehabilitation program. The instrument is also meant to measure attitudes toward blindness for blind persons, rehabilitation workers, and a "naive" group without contact with the blind. A method of assessing model…
This study critically examined the factors influencing public attitudes toward teacher education in Nigeria. It analysed a series of nationwide surveys of negative public attitude toward the teaching profession using parents and prospective university students as respondents. A questionnaire made up of 12 items was used to gather data on public…
Describes and analyzes attitudes of two Portuguese elementary teachers toward mathematics, mathematics teaching, and use of computers in instruction. Semistructured interviews and questionnaires, before and after an inservice LOGO computer course, showed that both teachers changed their attitude, but only one implemented her ideas in teaching. (20…
The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational AttitudesQuestionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…
This study investigated teachers' attitudes towards proofs in the secondary school mathematics curriculum. The study was motivated by a desire to fill a gap existing in the literature in relation to teachers' attitudes towards proofs. Thirty-four secondary school mathematics teachers' responses to a Likert type questionnaire and interviews were…
This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitude measures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…
Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.
One hundred and twenty counseling students representing 10 programs across the United States were administered the Purdue Master Attitude Scale, the Defining Issues Test, the Index of Homophobia and a demographic questionnaire in an effort to identify attitudes of students to ward minority groups. A demographic profile of these counselors in traning presents a picture of the ‘typical’ American. They
Objective: The Attitudes to Psychiatry Scale (APS) is a tool used to assess medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry. This study sought to examine the internal validity of the APS in order to identify dimensions within the questionnaire. Method: Using data collected from 549 medical students from India and Ghana, the authors analyzed 28…
Objectives: The authors aim to determine the attitudes of University of Nairobi, Kenya, medical students toward psychiatry. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. Self-administered sociodemographic and the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry-30 items (ATP-30) questionnaires were distributed sequentially to every third medical student in his or her…
Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca; Kuria, Mary; Mutiso, Victoria; Syanda, Judy; Kokonya, Donald
A "Social AttitudeQuestionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…
Pre-service teachers responded to two questionnaires regarding school violence, the Teachers' Attitudes about Bullying, and Trainee Teachers' Bullying Attitudes. Results suggest that teachers across all academic divisions view bullying as a serious concern important to their role within the profession. There were considerable differences regarding…
Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along
Undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory biology course for nonmajors during the fall semester of 2007 were administered the Biology Attitude Scale (Russell and Hollander 1975), a constructed Mathematics Attitude Scale, and a portion of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich and Smith 1993). Together, the…
Partin, Matthew L.; Haney, Jodi J.; Worch, Eric A.; Underwood, Eileen M.; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie A.; Scheuermann, Amy; Midden, W. Robert
Studies the attitudes and achievements of immigrants from the Soviet Union studying at the tertiary level at Haifa University in Israel. A series of questionnaires probing the students' language use and attitudes were administered in order to provide a general description of their linguistic profile in first, second, and third languages. (15…
The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number
The present study set out to explore influences on help-seeking attitudes among adolescents. The roles of attachment style, ethnicity and symptomatology were examined, as previous research (predominantly from outside the UK) has shown they have an influence on help-seeking. A self-report questionnaire survey of help-seeking attitudes was carried…
The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker's attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision…
Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.
Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…
The attitudes of child molesters often are considered to contribute to their offenses, and the accurate identification of these cognitive distortions can be important to assessment and treatment. Through the administration of a newly created questionnaire, the attitudes of 50 male incest offenders were compared with those of 25 male batterers and 25 men not seeking treatment. Compared to the
I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and AttitudesQuestionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death
We explore the dimensionality of attitudes towards the welfare state among university students in eight countries representing four worlds of welfare: liberal, radical, conservative and social democratic. We use new data from cross-nationally comparable 25-item questionnaires to derive a two-level bi-factorial hierarchical model that specifies six different attitude facets. These facets are clustered into two distinct sets of attitudes: the
This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.
Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)
A longitudinal study was conducted in which the pre- and post-telemedicine encounter attitudes of healthcare providers were compared in order to ascertain whether and how experience with telemedicine changes their attitudes toward telemedicine. Attitudinal changes of providers who had used telemedicine previously were compared to those experiencing telemedicine for the first time. Data were gathered from the providers in two telemedicine programs located in Georgia and Nebraska. Both used real-time videoconferencing and peripheral devices to conduct telemedicine consultations. A total of 87 providers completed questionnaires just prior to and immediately after each telemedicine encounter in their respective programs. The questions focused on the expected impact of telemedicine on their productivity and ability to prescribe treatment. A 3-point scale was used to measure the responses. More than three quarters (79.3%) of the providers did not change their attitudes subsequent to the use of telemedicine. There was no significant difference between first-time users and those who had experience (p = 0.392). The shift in attitude in the minority (n = 18) of providers who did change their minds after the telemedicine encounter was more positive among those who used telemedicine for the first time as compared to those with experience. Contrariwise, those with experience became more negative (p = 0.025). This finding suggests that experience with telemedicine results in more positive attitudes that may not be realized in subsequent interactions with the technology. PMID:19199846
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of implicit attitudes toward 5 social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across 4 studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2-4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants' predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. Altogether, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24294868
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M; Hirsh, Holen K; Blair, Irene V
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes.
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.
The College Student Questionnaire (CSQ) has been used in numerous studies to analyze and explore attitudes, expectation, and backgrounds of students classified according to their academic performance or program. Many studies are mentioned, most briefly, with little or no description of methods or procedures. Significant results are reported with a…
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments and to examine the associations between these factors and students' attitudes towards science. A measure of students' environment, namely, the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument…
This booklet is a series of 10 unit-organized questionnaires to stimulate discussion on a variety of topics in the area of marriage and family life. These values clarification activities can help 11th and 12th grade students confirm or reevaluate personal attitudes. The units included in this activity are: Love and Marriage; Male and Female…
BACKGROUND: Negative experiences of first childbirth increase risks for maternal postpartum depression and may negatively affect mothers' attitudes toward future pregnancies and choice of delivery method. Postpartum questionnaires assessing mothers' childbirth experiences are needed to aid in identifying mothers in need of support and counselling and in isolating areas of labour and birth management and care potentially in need of
Anna Dencker; Charles Taft; Liselotte Bergqvist; Håkan Lilja; Marie Berg
Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. This study examined the amount, content and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the USA. Parents of 308 infants aged 6-18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and…
Presents implications of the Occupational Safety and Health Act for science teachers both as workers and as they encourage, in students, the development of positive safetyattitudes for future occupations. (PEB)
Students coming into science labs need initial and ongoing training about safety standards and best practices. They also need to develop good attitudes about their work and the health and safety of their teachers and fellow students. The School Chemis
Objective It is believed that in order to reduce the number of adverse events, hospitals have to stimulate a more open culture and reflective attitude towards errors and patient safety. The objective is to examine similarities and differences in hospital patient safety culture in three countries: the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. Design This is a cross-sectional survey study across three countries. A questionnaire, the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS), was disseminated nationwide in the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. Setting The study was conducted in 45 hospitals in the Netherlands, 622 in the USA and 74 in Taiwan. Participants A total of 3779 professionals from the participating hospitals in the Netherlands, 196 462 from the USA and 10 146 from Taiwan participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures of the study were 12 dimensions of patient safety culture, e.g. Teamwork, Organizational learning, Communication openness. Results Most hospitals in all three countries have high scores on teamwork within units. The area with a high potential for improvement in all three countries is Handoffs and transitions. Differences between countries exist on the following dimensions: Non-punitive response to error, Feedback and communication about error, Communication openness, Management support for patient safety and Organizational learning—continuous improvement. On the whole, US respondents were more positive about the safety culture in their hospitals than Dutch and Taiwanese respondents. Nevertheless, there are even larger differences between hospitals within a country. Conclusions Comparison of patient safety culture data has shown similarities and differences within and between countries. All three countries can improve areas of their patient safety culture. Countries can identify and share best practices and learn from each other.
Objective To examine consumers’ confidence in their own, and also in other people's, over-the-counter (OTC) skills and to describe their attitude towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Moreover we examined the association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes. Design Cross-sectional survey. Mixed methods (postal and electronic) self-administered questionnaire. Participants Members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel. Main outcome measures Consumers’ confidence in their own, and in other people's, OTC skills was examined. Confidence was measured by three questions regarding obtaining information on, choosing and using OTC medication. Consumers’ attitudes towards availability were assessed using six safety profiles, by asking which channel consumers prefer for each profile. Results The response rate was 68% (n=972). Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills (mean 3.74; 95% CI 3.69 to 3.79, on a 5-point Likert scale), but have less confidence in OTC skills of others (mean 2.92; 95% CI 2.88 to 2.96). Consumers are conservative in their attitudes towards the availability of OTC painkillers. Most consumers prefer painkillers to be available exclusively in pharmacies (41–71% per profile indicated pharmacy only). Moreover, there is an association between confidence in OTC skills and attitudes (p=0.005; ?=?0.114). Consumers who are more confident about their own OTC skills prefer OTC painkillers to be more generally available. Conclusions Consumers feel confident about their own OTC skills. However, they would prefer painkillers with safety profiles resembling those currently available OTC, to be available as OTC in pharmacies exclusively. Consumers’ confidence in the OTC skills of others is more consistent with their attitudes towards availability of OTC painkillers. Until consumers themselves realise that they are also one of the others, they may overestimate their own OTC skills, which may entail health risks.
Brabers, A E M; Van Dijk, L; Bouvy, M L; De Jong, J D
Students coming into science labs need initial and ongoing training about safety standards and best practices. They also need to develop good attitudes about their work and the health and safety of their teachers and fellow students. The "School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide" is a resource for science teachers and school administrators to help…
Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…
To investigate the beliefs and attitudes of black South African students regarding condoms structured questionnaires were completed anonymously by 1986 students. Most highly endorsed problems were the large number needed for many rounds of sex, partner's feelings of distrust, unpleasantness of purchasing condoms, and that condoms injure the vagina. Encouragement of use should be responsive to local practices. PMID:9923163
The purposes of this study were to develop and verify a model that contributes to our understanding of the attitudes toward technology held by students in junior high school, as well as to explore relationships among the factors in this model. We distributed questionnaires to research participants selected on the basis of stratified random…
This study assesses medical students' use of and attitudes towards club drugs, classified as “Generation I” (i.e., cocaine and lysergic acid diethylamide), and “Generation II” (ie, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA], ketamine, gamma hydroxybutyrate, methamphetamine, rohypnol, dextromethorphan) club drugs based on their initial widespread use in club settings. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 340 medical students. The prevalence of any club drug
Alex Horowitz; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis; John Franklin
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of gender upon the relation between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective career success, in today's dynamic and changing organizational context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire conducted on 150 graduate and post-graduate distance learning students. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings
Mihaela Enache; Jose M. Sallan; Pep Simo; Vicenç Fernandez
Questionnaires were mailed to 64 students who had completed one or more regularly scheduled Industrial Technology Education courses via the Indiana Higher Education Telecommunications System (IHETS) to determine their attitudes toward IHETS (T.V.). The IHETS system provides an alternative for delivering distance education classes, providing…
Analyzes the impact of a wide reaching educational reform program on the attitudes and world outlook of a current generation of anglophone and francophone undergraduates in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, drawn from summaries of questionnaires and personal interviews in the students' mother tongue. (Author)
This study investigated the relationships between demographic characteristics, motives and attitudes to studying, self-reported study behaviour and measures of outcome. Students taking courses by distance learning received a postal survey containing a short form of the Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Revised…
This study investigated social beliefs about gender-appropriate reactions to trauma. Ninety-three men and 179 women completed vignette measures of attitudes toward victims, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and the Trauma History Questionnaire. Participants evaluated male victims less favorably than female victims. Women responded more positively toward all victims than men. Participants regarded female crime victims more positively than their male
At a southwestern public university, 242 students responded to a questionnaire about their credit-card use and attitudes. The results revealed that about 70 percent of the students held one or more credit cards, and about 10 percent had five or more credit cards. Twenty-two percent never kept copies of their charge slips, and only 49 percent paid…
A study was conducted to determine the influence on parents of televised warnings about content unsuitable for children and to determine parents' attitudes toward such warnings. Researchers conducted interviews in 422 homes and distributed questionnaires with Likert-type and frequency scale items. While parents recognized and observed the…
Homophobia and heterosexism in women's athletics have been studied extensively using a qualitative approach. Limited research from a quantitative approach has been conducted in the area and none with a sport-specific instrument. The purpose of the current study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure heterosexist attitudes in…
This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet
This paper reports on research concerning Greek in-service Primary teachers' perceptions about environmental issues and attitudes towards Education for Sustainable Development. A questionnaire with multiple-choice and open-ended questions was used in order to gain more comprehensive understanding of their thoughts. The analysis of data revealed…
A study demonstrating how religious ideology influences Hutterian attitudes toward farming and the agricultural environment. The Hutterian Brethren are Anabaptist pacifists who live mostly on communal farms in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta, Canada. The responses of both Hutterian and non-Hutterian farmers to an attitudinal questionnaire were…
We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…
Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)
During the spring of 1971, the political attitudes of middle-class Mexican Americans in the El Paso (Texas) area were surveyed. An 86-item questionnaire was administered to 187 people in six area Councils of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), four posts of the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), and one area Council of the Knights…
A latent trait model for rating scales is used to ana lyze responses to an attitude-to-school questionnaire as part of an evaluation of projects operating in 10 West ern Australian schools under the Australian Priority Schools Program. The invariance of item parameter estimates over the 10 schools is examined, and varia tions in item estimates from school to school are
The dimensionality of a new multidimensional benefits satisfaction questionnaire called the Attitudes Toward Benefits Scale was examined using a principal components analysis with an orthogonal rotation, and the parallel analysis criterion was used to determine the number of components to retain. It was found that the items loaded on three separate components, as had been hypothesized, and that only one
Eighty-four students at a regional southeastern university completed an anonymous 24-item questionnaire which was developed and designed to assess attitudes and general reasons that students enrolled in summer school at the university. The data showed where students learned about summer school, why they enrolled, if they would enroll in the future…
Results are presented of a survey questionnaire based on the 1984 Gallup Poll of Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Public Schools but adapted to solicit the opinions of K-12 public school teachers in South Dakota about South Dakota public schools. Responses were received from 60 percent of the 500 teachers surveyed. Question topics included: (1)…
Northern Ireland (NI) has one of the lowest rates of breast-feeding initiation and duration in both the UK and the industrialized world. This study therefore aimed to explore the relationship between infant-feeding attitudes and feeding intention and outcome in expectant mothers within NI. Expectant mothers (n 5 200) were recruited from hospital antenatal booking clinics. Each completed a demographic questionnaire
Julie Sittlington; Barbara Stewart-Knox; Marion Wright; Ian Bradbury; Jane A Scott
Objectives: To assess the attitude, knowledge, and expectations of Asian pregnant women toward cesarean and vaginal deliveries. Methods: Written questionnaires were given to pregnant women attending the National University Hospital antenatal clinics, and 160 responses were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The participation rate was 65% and 50% of the respondents were Chinese, 20% Indian, 21% Malay, 2%
OBJECTIVES: To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. SETTING: Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. SURVEY SAMPLE:
A F Mobeireek; F A al-Kassimi; S A al-Majid; A al-Shimemry
The attitudes and perceptions of practicing nurses, student nurses, and nurse educators toward computerization of health care were assessed using questionnaires sent to two general hospitals and five nursing education programs. The sample consisted of 83 first-year nursing students, 84 second-year nursing students, 52 practicing nurses, and 26…
This study examined whether human sexuality and general health courses were negatively affecting college students'"moral fiber," hypothesizing that there would be no differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors before and after taking the courses. Questionnaires indicated the only change was that students had more positive safer sex behaviors…
Gynecologists' attitudes toward an examination gown found in previous studies to reduce patients' distress during examination were investigated. Twenty-six gynecologists in four cities volunteered to use the new examination gown and complete a questionnaire evaluating the gown for adequacy of design and perceived patient comfort. Participants rated the gown positively overall. Favorability ratings were highly correlated with ratings of the
Janice G. Williams; Lauretta I. Park; Judith Kline
To help minority group Americans become integrated into our industrial system, organizations need information on differences in job attitudes of white and black male employees, particularly how they perceive and react to supervisors. A pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of the questionnaire method for the target sample and illuminated the…
Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…
In this study, we examined whether the constructs of usefulness, motivation, likeness, confidence, and anxiety influence the student's attitude towards statistics. Two hundred ninety eight students enrolled in the private university were surveyed by using the questionnaire proposed by Auzmendi (1992). Data analysis was done by structural…
Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Venegas-Martínez, Francisco
This sample of an Attitudes toward Reading questionnaire for Grades 4 and 6 contains 45 items, each of which is to be answered by indicating one of the following statements: Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, Strongly Disagree. (For related documents, see TM 002 296-298.) (DB)
This article describes the development and field test of an instrument, the Views on Science and Education Questionnaire, designed to measure participants' concepts of the nature of science (NOS) and relevant teaching attitudes. The questionnaire includes 15 questions, each followed by several items representing different philosophical positions. Participants rank each item on a five-point scale. The items were empirically based
This study examined the relationship between college students' gender roles and attitudes toward rape. Subjects were 145 male and 374 female college students with a mean age of 20.1 years. The institution has a 12.5% minority population. Subjects received a questionnaire packet containing the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), an acquaintance or stranger rape scenario, a questionnaire designed to assess
Lynda A. Szymanski; Ann Sloan Devlin; Joan C. Chrisler; Stuart A. Vyse
Expressed emotion (EE) is traditionally measured with the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), but the CFI requires considerable time for both execution and evaluation. As an alternative, we investigated the validity of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS), a questionnaire developed for the measurement of EE. The CFI, the FAS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) were
The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese (PAQ-EJ) 1 Over 7 typical days, how often did you take a walk or ride a bicycle on errands such as going to or from a store or taking children to school?
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Investigations of the learned helplessness model of depression have been hampered by the modest reliability of measures of explanatory style: the habitual tendency to explain bad events with internal, stable, and global causes. We describe a new measure of explanatory style, the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire, and its use in a preliminary study with 140 college students. Individual dimensions of
A recent project in higher education in which evidence of falsification was found is described along with two other projects that demonstrate the possibility for falsification. An advantage of standardized questionnaires and machine techniques for scoring and reporting is the low cost, but the need to detect and prevent falsification raises…
Background Research on root cause analysis (RCA), a pivotal component of many patient safety improvement programmes, is limited. Objective To study a cohort of health professionals who conducted RCAs after completing the NSW Safety Improvement Program (SIP). Hypothesis Participants in RCAs would: (1) differ in demographic profile from non?participants, (2) encounter problems conducting RCAs as a result of insufficient system support, (3) encounter more problems if they had conducted fewer RCAs and (4) have positive attitudes regarding RCA and safety. Design, setting and participants Anonymous questionnaire survey of 252 health professionals, drawn from a larger sample, who attended 2?day SIP courses across New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Demographic variables, experiences conducting RCAs, attitudes and safety skills acquired. Results No demographic variables differentiated RCA participants from non?participants. The difficulties experienced while conducting RCAs were lack of time (75.0%), resources (45.0%) and feedback (38.3%), and difficulties with colleagues (44.5%), RCA teams (34.2%), other professions (26.9%) and management (16.7%). Respondents reported benefits from RCAs, including improved patient safety (87.9%) and communication about patient care (79.8%). SIP courses had given participants skills to conduct RCAs (92.8%) and improve their safety practices (79.6%). Benefits from the SIP were thought to justify the investment by New South Wales Health (74.6%) and committing staff resources (72.6%). Most (84.8%) of the participants wanted additional RCA training. Conclusions RCA participants reported improved skills and commitment to safety, but greater support from the workplace and health system are necessary to maintain momentum.
Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Mary T; Mallock, Nadine A; Travaglia, Joanne F
This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. PMID:23339521
Rational: Research suggests that increased consumption of herbal drugs is raising important public health concerns such as safety issues that may involve adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of Pharmacists in herbal drug information dissemination. Method: We investigated the demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding herbal drug information and regulatory laws among Pharmacists living in the six (6) States that constitute the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. A total of 300 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to Pharmacists aged 21 years and above. Findings: About half of the respondents (48.72 %) were Hospital based Pharmacists. Knowledge of herbal drugs was 46.33 % while 64 .0 % showed positive attitude towards its use. Most of the information on herbal drugs were sourced from the internet (23.08 %) while 53.48 % were aware of the laws and regulations controlling herbal drugs in Nigeria. 88.64 % were in favour of the establishment of a National Herbal Drug Research and Development Agency and 55.68 % strongly agreeing to the setting up of a Herbal Drug Information Centre. Conclusion: The availability of herbal drug information services will not only enhance the performance of the Pharmacists, but will also add value to the life of the patients.
In order to increase safety in Swedish farming an intervention methodology to influence attitudes and behaviour was tested. Eighty eight farmers and farm workers in nine groups gathered on seven occasions during 1 year. The basic concept was to create socially supportive networks and encourage discussions and reflection, focusing on risk manageability. Six of the groups made structured incident/accident analyses. Three of the latter groups also received information on risks and accident consequences. Effects were evaluated in a pre-post questionnaire using six-graded scales. A significant increase in safety activity and significant reduction in stress and risk acceptance was observed in the total sample. Risk perception and perceived risk manageability did not change. Analysing incidents/accidents, but not receiving information, showed a more positive outcome. Qualitative data indicated good feasibility and that the long duration of the intervention was perceived as necessary. The socially supportive network was reported as beneficial for the change process. PMID:16765313
Iran is a young country, and sexual behavior is shaped in this period. This research aimed to provide an assessment tool to evaluate Iranian youth reproductive health. This multistage research was conducted to design a valid questionnaire in the domains of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the youth in order to evaluate behavior change programs. For this reason, after conducting a careful literature review and a qualitative research, the questionnaire was prepared. Forward and backward translations were performed. Professionals and students were used to make sure of qualitative and quantitative content and face validity. After conducting the pilot study on 100 students and eliminating defects in performance, reliability was evaluated by test-retest and Cronbach's alpha was calculated. In this study, out of 268 questions, 198 were retained after face and content validity. Self-efficacy of communication with father and mother, self-efficacy of condom use, and self-efficacy of abstinence had the highest Cronbach's alpha. Moreover, communication with parents regarding reproductive health issues and attitude to abstinence had a high Cronbach's alpha, as well. It seems to be a good instrument for assessment of Iranian reproductive health, and we are going to assess youth reproductive health in the future.
Mousavi, Abbas; Keramat, Afsaneh; Vakilian, Katayon; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali
Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1) positive beliefs about CAM; 2) environmental influence; and 3) psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79) and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research.
The focus of this study was to qualitatively evaluate worker’s attitudes about clinical supervision. It is believed that poor attitudes toward clinical supervision can create barriers during supervision sessions. Fifty-one participants within a social services organization completed an open-ended questionnaire regarding their clinical supervision experiences. Results suggest four key areas which appear to be strong factors in workers’ experiences and attitudes regarding group supervision: a. facilitator’s skill level; b. creativity; c. utilization of technology; and d. applicability. For organizations interested in overcoming potential barriers to adopting best practices, effectively addressing workers’ negative attitudes toward group supervision would be a worthy endeavor.
Brooks, Charles T.; Patterson, David A.; McKiernan, Patrick M.
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on AIDS or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of AIDS, attitudes toward AIDS, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight. In particular, there was little effect on social attitudes. The showing of one educational movie on AIDS (particularly the movie that was used in this experiment) appears to be insufficient to educate students on this issue. PMID:2723257
Objective To explore the relation between dispositional traits and pharmacy students’ attitudes toward cheating in a university setting. Methods A questionnaire was administered primarily to pharmacy students at a comprehensive university in the southeastern United States to assess self-esteem, self-efficacy, idealism, relativism, student attitudes toward cheating, tolerance for peer cheating, detachment from the university, Machiavellian behavior, and demographic information. Results Gender, degree of idealism, relativism, and Machiavellian traits were found to influence student attitudes toward cheating, while age, grade-point average (GPA), race, income, and marital status did not. Conclusions Considered collectively, these data support the study model prediction that the major determinants of student attitudes toward cheating are based on the degree of idealism and relativism evident in the students’ dispositional trait. Idealism was found to be inversely related to the likelihood of a student engaging in cheating or tolerating peer cheating.
Saulsbury, Marilyn D.; Brown,, Ulysses J.; Heyliger, Simone O.
BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.
Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of variables from the Health Belief Model and the Protection Motivation Theory. A written questionnaire was completed by 1129 Dutch mothers of pre-school children. Most safety measures were explained (rather) well by the same set of determinants. Main determinants for adopting or not adopting a safety measure were the mother's belief in the necessity of the safety measure according to the child's age, her belief about her partner's opinion on the necessity and her belief about the success of taking the measure. Subsequent important determinants were the mother's belief about the inconvenience and instrumentality of the safety measure; the perceived susceptibility had a minor or moderate influence on most measures. This study did not indicate that more highly educated mothers were more knowledgeable about safety-related subjects. The theoretical implications of this study are discussed. PMID:7481601
Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…
Reports the results of a random sample survey of 737 college students' attitudes toward computers. Less than 7% had never used computers, and those who used them most were most positive in their attitudes. Data were factor analyzed, and instruments are included. (JDH)
This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…
The principles governing the development of simple algorithms for calibrating attitude and velocity sensors without the need for reference point identification and without using information on the orientation of the moving object are examined. The approach proposed here makes it possible to calibrate attitude and velocity sensors by using an on-board computer.
In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…
Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.
The purpose of this research study was to present an objective examination of the attitudes of seven key respondent groups towards the major issues surrounding television advertising and children. A mail questionnaire was used as the major research instru...
Clinical symptoms of 32 stutterers--schoolchildren of 14-year average age were evaluated according to the questionnaire containing 45 complaints of tetanic syndrome. We found headache, fatigue, anxiety, paresthesias and hypothermia of limbs in 30 per cent of this group. More than 80 per cent of the patients had positive Chvostek sign and 60 per cent had positive ischemic and hyperventilation tests. PMID:1838877
The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.
Objective Safety culture may influence patient outcomes, but evidence is limited. We sought to determine if intensive care unit (ICU) safety culture is independently associated with outcomes. Design Cohort study combining safety culture survey data with the Project IMPACT Critical Care Medicine (PICCM) clinical database. Setting Thirty ICUs participating in the PICCM database. Participants A total of 65 978 patients admitted January 2001–March 2005. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). Methods From December 2003 to April 2004, we surveyed study ICUs using the SafetyAttitudesQuestionnaire-ICU version, a validated instrument that assesses safety culture across six factors. We calculated factor mean and percent-positive scores (% respondents with mean score ?75 on a 0–100 scale) for each ICU, and generated case-mix adjusted, patient-level, ICU-clustered regression analyses to determine the independent association of safety culture and outcome. Results We achieved a 47.9% response (2103 of 4373 ICU personnel). Culture scores were mostly low to moderate and varied across ICUs (range: 13–88, percent-positive scores). After adjustment for patient, hospital and ICU characteristics, for every 10% decrease in ICU perceptions of management percent-positive score, the odds ratio for hospital mortality was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.44; P = 0.005). For every 10% decrease in ICU safety climate percent-positive score, LOS increased 15% (95% CI: 1?30%; P = 0.03). Sensitivity analyses for non-response bias consistently associated safety climate with outcome, but also yielded some counterintuitive results. Conclusion In a multicenter study conducted in the USA, perceptions of management and safety climate were moderately associated with outcomes. Future work should further develop methods of assessing safety culture and association with outcomes.
Huang, David T.; Clermont, Gilles; Kong, Lan; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Sexton, J. Bryan; Rowan, Kathy M.; Angus, Derek C.
Background: Pharmacovigilance is a useful to assure the safety of medicines and protect consumers from their harmful effects. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as part of their professional obligation and participate in the existent pharmacovigilance programs in their countries. In India, the National PV Program was re-launched in July 2010. Objectives: This survey was conducted in order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Indian pharmacists with the aim of exploring the pharmacists’ participation in ADR reporting system, identifying the reasons of under reporting and determining the steps that could be adopted to increase reporting rates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the pharmacists in India using a pretested questionnaire with 33 questions (10 questions on knowledge, 6 on attitude, 7 on practice, 7 on future of ADR reporting in India and 3 on benefits of reporting ADRs.). The study was conducted, over a period of 3 months from May 2012 to July 2012. Results: Out of the 600 participants to whom the survey was administered, a total of 400 were filled. The response rate of the survey was 67%. 95% responders were knowledgeable about ADRs. 90% participants had a positive attitude towards making ADRs reporting mandatory for practicing pharmacists. 87.5% participants were interested in participating in the National Pharmacovigilance program, in India. 47.5% respondents had observed ADRs in their practice, and 37% had reported it to the national pharmacovigilance center. 92% pharmacists believed reporting ADRs immensely helped in providing quality care to patients. Conclusion: The Indian pharmacists have poor knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. Pharmacists with higher qualifications such as the pharmacists with a PharmD have better KAP. With additional training on Pharmacovigilance, the Indian Pharmacists working in different sectors can become part of ADR reporting system.
Ahmad, Akram; Patel, Isha; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Mohanta, G. P.; Manna, P. K.
Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding employees through efforts influencing managerial attitude. PMID:22542265
This study compares the attitudes of preschool teachers and students between the Netherlands and Germany towards typical play activities in preschool. The data were responses to short video clips of preschool children's play and elicited the respondents' attitudes through questionnaires. The data were analysed by classifying the written responses…
van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Prakke, Bette; Konig, Anke; Goorhuis, Suzanne
Background: There is an increasing population of German origin living in the South East of Spain. Objective: To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation in this population subgroup. Methods: A sample of German residents in the South East of Spain was taken randomly (n = 250) (November 2005–April 2006). Attitude was evaluated using a validated questionnaire. The survey was
Antonio Ríos; Laura Martínez-Alarcón; José Sánchez; Nicholas Jarvis; Dolores Guzmán; Pascual Parrilla; Pablo Ramírez
Aims: To explore the attitudes of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) and nurses to secondary alcohol prevention (early identification of, and intervention for, alcohol-related problems) and compare it to their attitudes to other important lifestyle behaviours such as smoking, stress, exercise, and overweight. Methods: An adjusted version of The WHO Collaborative Study Questionnaire for General Practitioners was posted to all GPs
This research investigated 68 secondary school students' perceptions of their computer-mediated project-based learning environment and their attitudes towards Project Work (PW) using two instruments--Project Work Classroom Learning Environment Questionnaire (PWCLEQ) and Project Work Related Attitudes Instrument (PWRAI). In this project-based…
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
To assess the attitude and knowledge of physicians and patients towards psychiatry, we asked 115 referring doctors and 188 referred patients to complete questionnaires. We examined the results along with the referral rates to try to identify factors that may affect a consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Generally, knowledge was poor and attitudes towards psychiatry negative in both groups. This negatively influenced
A. M. Alhamad; M. H. Al-Sawaf; A. A. Osman; I. S. Ibrahim
This article presents a quantitative study on attitudes toward the usage of Information Technology related tools and applications. The study was conducted at a private university, Turkey, with 97 female and 113 male students involved as participants. They were each presented with a questionnaire to relate their attitudes toward IT and after…
Black women and White reentry students completed a questionnaire that assessed educational goals, career goals, sex-role attitudes, and demographic traits. The results indicate that religious upbringing, mothers' educational attainment, and birth order significantly predict students' sex-role related goals and attitudes. (Author)
Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…
Four studies are reported on the derivation and assessment of a hypermasculinity scale. In Study 1, a questionnaire measure of hypermasculine values was derived from an initial 122 items, rated on a seven-point scale by 600 men from eight categories, based on occupation or sport interest. Factor analysis and item reduction produced 26- and 16- item scales (Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire, HVQ and Short Hypermasculine Values Questionnaire) with high internal consistencies. There were substantial differences between categories, consistent with predictions based on their gender-stereotypic connotations. Study 2 involved the scales being administered to another similarly composed sample: again high internal consistency and unidimensionality (in a confirmatory factor analysis) were found, and a similar association with category membership. Test-retest reliability was high. In Study 3, the concurrent and discriminative validity of the HVQ was studied, by comparing it with an existing measure of hypermasculinity, male role norms, attitudes to women's rights, gender-related traits, and trait aggression. Associations were found with other gender scales, and there was a moderate association with trait physical aggression. The range of associations reflected the items on the scale, which involve toughness, the need to avoid femininity, and control of women's sexuality, themes familiar from ethnographic accounts of masculinity. Study 4 showed that the HVQ was associated with hostile but not benevolent sexism, and replicated its association with trait aggression. PMID:19793409
BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. METHODS: A sample of undergraduate students (n=160) completed the Relationships Structures Questionnaire, which provides global ratings of adult attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance) by assessing attachment across four relationship targets (friend, mother, father and romantic partner). Attitudes regarding the acceptability of pain behaviour were assessed using male and female versions of the Appropriate Pain Behaviour Questionnaire (APBQ). RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, attachment avoidance was negatively correlated with both APBQ-Female and APBQ-Male scores. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the attachment scales and the APBQ scales while statistically adjusting for sex and testing for interaction effects. The findings revealed complex relationships involving interaction effects that provided further support for the hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provided support for the hypothesis that attachment avoidance is associated with less accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour. Additional research regarding the role of attachment and attitudes on responses to pain behaviour is warranted.
McWilliams, Lachlan A; Murphy, Paul DJ; Bailey, S Jeffrey
This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ? 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age. PMID:23082920
Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…
An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.
Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.
Young people are open to traffic accidents because of their age, their attitude, their lack of experience, and their tendency for risk-taking. This study sought an answer to the question of what are the perceptions, attitudes, feelings, and self-reported behaviors of young people that lead to traffic safety problems and/or interfere with their…
Evaluating sexist attitudes with university students: First psychometric data of Spanish versions of the Double Standard Scale (DSS) and the Rape Supportive Attitude Scale (RSAS). First psychometric data of two questionnaires assessing sexist attittudes on Spanish samples are introduced in this paper: Double Standard Scale (DSS) and Rape Supportive Attitude Scale (RSAS). Both scales, along with the Sexual Opinion Survey
Juan Carlos Sierra; Antonio Rojas; Virgilio Ortega; Juan Domingo Martín Ortiz
Background Safe drug prescribing and administration are essential elements within undergraduate healthcare curricula, but medication errors, especially in paediatric practice, continue to compromise patient safety. In this area of clinical care, collective responsibility, team working and communication between health professionals have been identified as key elements in safe clinical practice. To date, there is limited research evidence as to how best to deliver teaching and learning of these competencies to practitioners of the future. Methods An interprofessional workshop to facilitate learning of knowledge, core competencies, communication and team working skills in paediatric drug prescribing and administration at undergraduate level was developed and evaluated. The practical, ward-based workshop was delivered to 4th year medical and 3rd year nursing students and evaluated using a pre and post workshop questionnaire with open-ended response questions. Results Following the workshop, students reported an increase in their knowledge and awareness of paediatric medication safety and the causes of medication errors (p < 0.001), with the greatest increase noted among medical students. Highly significant changes in students' attitudes to shared learning were observed, indicating that safe medication practice is learnt more effectively with students from other healthcare disciplines. Qualitative data revealed that students' participation in the workshop improved communication and teamworking skills, and led to greater awareness of the role of other healthcare professionals. Conclusion This study has helped bridge the knowledge-skills gap, demonstrating how an interprofessional approach to drug prescribing and administration has the potential to improve quality and safety within healthcare.
BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence of cancer has increased markedly in recent decades in most countries. Studies have shown that diseases such as cancer affect the individuals’ quality of life. METHODS: The sample of study consisted of 384 patients selected through non-random convenient sampling procedure from three general hospitals and outpatient clinics in Isfahan and Tehran. The measures used in the study included a demographic questionnaire, the Iranian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the Cancer Coping Questionnaire, and the Religious AttitudeQuestionnaire. RESULTS: The results revealed significant correlation between patients’ scores on the total scale of the Cancer Coping Questionnaire and their scores on the Global health status/Quality of Life. Significant correlations were also found between patients’ scores on the Religious AttitudeQuestionnaire and various scales of the Quality of Life Questionnaire. However, no significant correlations were found between Cancer Coping and Religious Attitude measures in any type of cancer except for the prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Religious attitude was a significant and important factor in coping with cancer. In addition, patients’ quality of life correlated significantly with religious attitude as well as cancer coping measures. However, the results did not show any significant relationship between religious attitude and cancer coping measures except in patients with prostate cancer. The findings of this study are consistent with other studies that have shown significant correlations between religiosity and spirituality and quality of life in patients with life threatening diseases.
Atef-vahid, Mohammad-Kazem; Nasr-Esfahani, Mehdi; Esfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi; Naji-Isfahani, Homayoon; Shojaei, Mohammad Reza; Masoumeh, Yasavoli M; Goushegir, S. Ashrafodin
This final technical report describes the research performed by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research for the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on GPS Based Attitude Determination for spacecraft over the period 01 September 1993 - 31 August 1995. T...
The objective of effort carried out on this program was to fabricate a two-axis Ring Laser Gyro Attitude System complete with electronics which would be usable as instrumentation on a 100 g rocket sled.
The Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) measures 20 vocational needs of the individual. The reliability of the MIQ, consisting of a self-administering, 210-item pair comparison questionnaire, was demonstrated in tests involving 5,358 individuals. MIQ...
The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered\\u000a in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input\\/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based\\u000a on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds\\u000a of the uncertainties. Using the input\\/output feedback
This comprehensive guide leads the user step-by-step through questionnaire creation. Topics include preliminary considerations, writing the questionnaire items, issues that may come up when giving the questionnaire, statistical considerations, and references for further reading. This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.
Background The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes. Methods This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among staff nurses working at one public hospital (Kenyatta National Hospital, (KNH) and one private hospital (Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH). A convenience sample of 200 nurses filled the questionnaires. Data was collected using the modified Nurses’ Attitudes Towards Computerisation (NATC) questionnaire. Results Nurses had a favorable attitude towards computerisation. Non-users had a significantly higher attitude score compared to the users (p?=?0.0274). Statistically significant associations were observed with age (p?=?0.039), level of education (p?=?0.025), duration of exposure to computers (p?=?0.025) and attitudes towards computerisation. Conclusion Generally, nurses have positive attitudes towards computerisation. This information is important for the planning and implementation of computerisation in the hospital as suggested in other studies.
The Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) is a 2-part instrument that measures long-term care staff knowledge, and beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about palliative and end-of-life care for persons with advanced dementia. Factor analyses of the Knowledge Test (coefficient ? = .81) produced 3 factors: Anticipating Needs, Preventing Negative Outcomes, and Insight and Intuition (coefficient ? = .75, .73, and .58, respectively), explaining 67% of the total variance. Factor analyses of the Attitude Scale (coefficient ? = .83) produced 3 factors: Job Satisfaction, Perceptions and Beliefs, and Work Setting Support of Families (coefficient ? = .90, .64, and .67, respectively), explaining 68% of the total variance. These initial findings hold promise for an instrument that measures both knowledge and attitudes of long-term care staff in the care of persons with advanced dementia. PMID:23002199
Long, Carol O; Sowell, Evelyn J; Hess, Robert K; Alonzo, Tena R
In Iran, road traffic injuries are the first cause of burden of disease and motorcyclists are the most vulnerable road users. Elliot and colleagues developed the “Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire” (MRBQ), on the basis of Reason’s “Driver Behavior Questionnaire” (DBQ) in 2007. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Persian version of MRBQ. The 43-item MRBQ was adapted to Persian according to translation-back translation method. The questionnaire was significantly revised after assessment of content validity. In the revised version, 10 items of original MRBQ were deleted and 15 new items were added. The revised MRBQ was used in a survey of 518 motorcyclists. To assess the construct validity of MRBQ, we used Buss-Perry Aggression questionnaire concurrently on all of the subjects. After three weeks, we carried out the retest study on 119 out of 518 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 32.5 years (SD=8.8). All of the participants were male with mean of 9.3 years of motorcycle riding experience (SD=7.3). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed six subscales: “Speed Violations”, “Traffic Errors”, “Safety Violations”, “Traffic Violations”, “Stunts” and “Control Errors”, which accounted for 36.44% of total variance together. For each of these subscales, Cronbach’s Alpha was between 0.79 to 0.91. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for six subscales and total questionnaire were from 0.73 to 0.91. There were significant correlations between MRBQ subscales and subscales of Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that the 48-item Persian version of MRBQ is a suitable measure for studying motorcyclists’ behavior.
Summary: Based on the questionnaire surveys to 1000 consumers from 12 supermarkets in Beijing, China, 2004, this paper revealed consumers' attitudes on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM foods. The results show that 64.9% interviewees are not acquaintance to GMOs and GM products, while only 2.3% of respondents have a good understanding. With respect to GMOs labeling, 45.3% of interviewees
An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.
Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.
Concerns about bicycle-related deaths and injuries have led to extensive injury prevention efforts in the United States, yet these concerns are not universal. For instance, in France attitudes toward bicycle safety are quite different. To understand more about variation in urban bicycle safety behavior, we observed passing bicyclists in Paris and Boston. In addition to helmet use, we looked at
J. Scott Osberg; Sarah C Stiles; Ohene Kwaku Asare
The report presents the results of a survey of consumer attitudes toward product safety. In general, American consumers are not optimistic about the safety of the products they buy: foods, medicines, and cosmetics. More specifically, some two-thirds of al...
Since the major causes of accidents are carelessness and a negative or apathetic attitude towards safety, this guide was developed to facilitate safe, stimulating science laboratory activities by providing both general and specific safety information presented in 12 sections. Subject areas considered in these sections include: 1)…
A 24-item questionnaire--Attitudes Toward the Teaching of English--was administered to 34 cooperating teachers and their 34 student teachers from the University of Kentucky. The questionnaire was administered to both groups as a pretest and to student teachers as a posttest. This study investigated the influence of cooperating teachers toward the…
Teachers from schools across the United Arab Emirates were asked to complete two questionnaires. The first questionnaire sought data from the teachers on their experience, qualifications, classes taught and attitudes in relation to inclusion. Information was also sought on the advantages and disadvantages of inclusion, the most difficult…
Trainees in a Title XX project were taught skills in working with parents. To measure training effectiveness, a questionnaire measuring parent attitudes toward the center and the caregivers was given to parents of center children, before and after the training. The parents indicated on the second questionnaire that they were less satisfied with…
In this study, we examined Chinese nursing students' attitudes toward and use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Survey questionnaires were distributed to 439 nursing students, 263 of whom (60%) returned them. Of the respondents, 92% had used TCM, while 48% had used TCM at least once during the previous year. Forty-five percent of respondents reported positive attitudes toward TCM use, 52% had neutral attitudes, and only 3% reported negative attitudes. The majority of respondents (76%) reported no change in their attitude toward TCM after studying nursing. Mean scores related to the adequacy of the current curriculum in TCM training and the state of respondents' TCM knowledge were generally low. Of the respondents who had used TCM during the past year, the most common use was for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common type of TCM used by respondents was herbal tea or soup. Final-year nursing students were more likely to have used TCM during the previous year, report they would like more courses on TCM, and consult Western medicine physicians before using TCM; they were also less likely to develop more negative attitudes toward TCM after studying nursing. PMID:16722501
Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Twinn, Sheila F; Leung, Ting F; Thompson, David R; Wong, Yin; Fok, Tai F
A safety program will generally have as its base a comprehensive written document made available for everyone in the organization. The document should indicate a positive commitment to safety by management. It should not be a "how to" guide, but rather a broad outline to establish responsibilities, goals, and methods. The safety manager is appointed in writing and answers to the highest level of management. As opposed to a "doer," the safety manager acts as a director and administrator of the safety program. This is accomplished through the advisory capacity of the safety program for solicited and unsolicited problems. The focus of the safety manager is on the system and how it contributes to safety problems, rather than individual problems. Management has the ultimate responsibility for safety. Their efforts should reflect a proactive attitude to correct problems in the system. In order to identify areas of interest, technically competent input from the safety manager should be required. The support of the safety program by top management determines the success of the program. Without a clear and firm commitment by the organization, safety will receive no more than lip service from the employees. The benefits of a proactive approach will be realized in the organization's ability to manage safety issues, rather than reacting to them. PMID:10113760
China passed a landmark health care reform in 2009, aimed at improving health care for all citizens by strengthening the primary care system, largely through improvements to infrastructure. However, research has shown that the work attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) can greatly affect the stability of the overall workforce and the quality and delivery of health care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between reported work attitudes of PCPs and their personal, work, and educational characteristics. A multi-stage, complex sampling design was employed to select a sample of 434 PCPs practicing in urban and rural primary care settings, and a survey questionnaire was administered by researchers with sponsorship from the Ministry of Health. Four outcome measures describing work attitudes were used, as well as a number of personal-, work-, and practice-related factors. Findings showed that although most PCPs considered their work as important, a substantial number also reported large workloads, job pressure, and turnover intentions. Findings suggest that policymakers should focus on training and educational opportunities for PCPs and consider ways to ease workload pressures and improve salaries. These policy improvements must accompany reform efforts that are already underway before positive changes in reduced disparities and improved health outcomes can be realized in China. PMID:23527460
The portable hydrazine attitude propulsion module is described that was designed and developed to support the attitude control pitch axis simulation tests performed on an air bearing table for the thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft program. The propulsion module was a self-contained, liquid hydrazine propulsion system from which the exhausted gases were generated within the catalyst bed of either of two nominal 0.22-N opposing thrusters. The module, which was designed for convenient assembly onto and removal from an air bearing table, was tested to establish its operational safety. This test history and the very conservative design of the module enabled it to be man-rated for operation in the presence of personnel. The report briefly summarizes the system operations during air bearing table tests, presents a detailed description of the propulsion module hardware, and discussing the system evolution.
The Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program effectiveness. This survey was a manual process first administered in the fall...
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development and testing of the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ) and to discuss several issues that have arisen in recent use of the instrument. The NSSQ is a self-administered questionnaire that measures multiple dimensions of social support. Three functional properties--affect, affirmation, and aid--from Kahn's (1979) definition of social support are measured. The network properties of size, stability (duration of relationships), and accessibility (frequency of contact) are also measured, as well as changes in the convoy or support system due to losses of relationships. Nine categories are used to determine sources of support. Graduate students of nursing (N = 130) were used as subjects for several studies to test reliability and validity, and employed adults (N = 136) were used for additional validity testing and to provide normative data. Reliability was established through analysis of internal consistency and test-retest measures taken a week apart. Very high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found for the functional and network properties, and medium levels for the loss items. At a 7-month retesting, medium levels of stability were found, and the instrument was sensitive to changes in the network composition over time. Although the network composition changed, the overall level of functional support remained stable. Validity of the NSSQ was tested in relation to response bias and concurrent, construct, and predictive validity. The results indicated that the instrument is free from the response bias of social desirability. Medium levels of concurrent validity were shown with two other social support instruments. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant associations between NSSQ measures and two interpersonal constructs expected to be related to social support, while no significant relationships were found between the NSSQ measures and an unrelated interpersonal construct. Predictive validity was tested by examining the hypothesis that social support serves as a buffer for life stress. Among the functional properties, the interaction of aid and life stress accounted for 13.2% of the variance in negative mood. Of the network properties, duration of relationships had significant main and interaction effects, accounting together for 19.3% of the variance in negative mood. Normative data from a sample of employed adults provide means and standard deviations for each subscale and variable of the NSSQ, as well as descriptive data about sources of support.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6536338
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify and compare the attitudes of patients and health care professionals towards advance directives. Advance directives promote recognition of the patient's autonomy, letting the individual exercise a certain measure of control over life-sustaining care and treatment in the eventuality of becoming incompetent. DESIGN: Attitudes to advance directives were evaluated using a 44-item self-reported questionnaire.
D Blondeau; P Valois; E W Keyserlingk; M Hébert; M Lavoie
The present study describes how adolescents perceive their mood disorders (MD; e.g., acute vs. chronic) and their attitudes\\u000a toward mental health services. The study also explores the relationships between demographics, clinical characteristics, perceptions\\u000a of illness and attitudes. Finally, we examine the psychometric properties of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised\\u000a (Moss-Morris et al. in Psychology & Health 17(1):1–16, 2002). Seventy adolescents were
Michelle R. Munson; Jerry E. Floersch; Lisa Townsend
The objective of the study was to explore sexual dysfunction in adults with enduring mental health problem treated with psychotropic medications, focusing on associations between drug-induced sexual dysfunction and attitude to prescribed medications. Participants were invited to complete an anonymous self-administered survey questionnaire, which comprised of the 10-Item Drug Attitude Inventory and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). In addition,
Tunde Apantaku-Olajide; Pat Gibbons; Agnes Higgins
Attitudes towards suicide among medical students in Madras (India) and Vienna (Austria) were compared using the SUIATT questionnaire\\u000a by Diekstra and Kerkhof (1989). Results show a very restrictive attitude in Madras, rejecting the right to commit suicide,\\u000a nearly always judging suicide as a cowardly act, and rejecting the idea of assisted suicide. On the other hand, in Vienna\\u000a a more
E. Etzersdorfer; L. Vijayakumar; W. Schöny; A. Grausgruber; G. Sonneck
In this research we propose that certain individuals display a cognitive vulnerability to depression, centering around their dysfunctional attitudes for evaluating self-worth. In Study 1, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and the Self-Consciousness Questionnaire. Participants also indicated which adjectives, in a set of depressed and nondepressed content adjectives, were self-descriptive. Depressed individuals, relative
Nicholas A. Kuiper; L. Joan Olinger; Stephen R. Swallow
Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate
LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND
Gallup and Beckstead's (1988) commentary in the American Psychologist reported an assessment of college student's attitudes toward animal research. Among many findings, one main conclusion reached by the authors was that the participants in their study were generally concerned about the welfare of animals used in research, but that they also appreciated and valued the need for animal experimentation. Given the declining support for animal research from the general population over the past few decades, the present study administered the same questionnaire to a contemporary sample of university students to determine whether any patterns would emerge in a current sample's responses to these items. While the results suggest that respondents still demonstrate significant concern for animal welfare, importantly, the present sample of participants showed significantly less agreement with items that stressed the importance and value of conducting animal research. Educating college students about the importance of animal research and its valuable contributions to science as an enduring component of instructional practice in neuroscience and other courses may be an important step toward reversing these trends. PMID:24693263
This paper discusses attitudes and practices of antenatal care in Saudi Arabia, based on the results of the maternal and child health survey of 1991. The survey covered a cluster random sample of 6306 households, with 6294 ever-married Saudi women 15-49 years of age out of whom 1050 were pregnant. The interview questionnaire included maternal care data on current pregnancies and births in the sample, totaling 4777 children less than 5 years old. Coverage of antenatal care and frequency of visits among pregnancies identified, by whom and where, and reasons for not attending antenatal services by age, urban-rural, geographical, and educational differentials. Proportions pregnant at the time of the survey were 17 per cent; antenatal care attendance for the whole sample reached 86 per cent; frequencies of one or two visits were 37 per cent; and three or four visits 25 per cent; those checked by a physician were 85 per cent, while 88 per cent attended governmental facilities. Those with timely attendance were 85 per cent. However, almost one-third of non-attenders (30 per cent) believed they did not need antenatal care. Though utilization of antenatal care services is already high, it has to be further increased through health education and publicity, emphasizing the couples role. PMID:8568947
Baldo, M H; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Farag, M K; Aziz, K M; Khan, M U
The article presents the theoretical contextand the elements that underlie the developmentof the community well-being questionnaire. Italso discusses the reliability and validity ofthe questionnaire's scales by presentingresults from two studies carried out in urbanareas in the U.K., Ireland and Greece. Thescales assess satisfaction with the builtenvironment, environmental quality and services and facilities. They also measure personal safety, informal interaction,community spirit,
Sophia Christakopoulou; Jon Dawson; Aikaterini Gari
This paper provides a consolidated overview of public and healthcare professionals' attitudes towards vaccination in Europe by bringing together for the first time evidence across various vaccines, countries and populations. The paper relies on an extensive review of empirical literature published in English after 2009, as well as an analysis of unpublished market research data from member companies of Vaccines Europe. Our synthesis suggests that hesitant attitudes to vaccination are prevalent and may be increasing since the influenza pandemic of 2009. We define hesitancy as an expression of concern or doubt about the value or safety of vaccination. This means that hesitant attitudes are not confined only to those who refuse vaccination or those who encourage others to refuse vaccination. For many people, vaccination attitudes are shaped not just by healthcare professionals but also by an array of other information sources, including online and social media sources. We find that healthcare professionals report increasing challenges to building a trustful relationship with patients, through which they might otherwise allay concerns and reassure hesitant patients. We also find a range of reasons for vaccination attitudes, only some of which can be characterised as being related to lack of awareness or misinformation. Reasons that relate to issues of mistrust are cited more commonly in the literature than reasons that relate to information deficit. The importance of trust in the institutions involved with vaccination is discussed in terms of implications for researchers and policy-makers; we suggest that rebuilding this trust is a multi-stakeholder problem requiring a co-ordinated strategy. PMID:24788111
This is a two-phase study on attitudes of medical students toward Alcoholics Anonymous. The first phase compares views of addiction faculty to third-year medical students on the importance of spirituality in addiction treatment. We administered a questionnaire to assess attitudes toward spiritual, biological, and psychosocial approaches to addiction treatment. The faculty viewed spirituality as relatively more important in addiction treatment than did the students. The second phase was designed to assess whether medical student attitudes toward spiritually based treatments changed over the course of a psychiatry clerkship. At the beginning of the clerkship, students rated a spiritually oriented approach as important in addiction treatment as a biological approach, whereas, at the end of the clerkship, they rated the biological approach as more important. It may be important to educate medical students about the spiritual dimensions of recovery so they can integrate this into their treatment of addiction. PMID:12913366
This study assesses medical students' use of and attitudes towards club drugs, classified as "Generation I" (i.e., cocaine and lysergic acid diethylamide), and "Generation II" (i.e., methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA], ketamine, gamma hydroxybutyrate, methamphetamine, rohypnol, dextromethorphan) club drugs based on their initial widespread use in club settings. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 340 medical students. The prevalence of any club drug use was 16.8%, with MDMA (11.8%) and cocaine (5.9%) the most commonly used. Results discussed also include the relationship of age and gender to having ever used club drugs and to their attitudes regarding use. Additionally, the study identifies differences in patterns of use and attitudes toward Generation I versus Generation II club drugs based on age, gender, and participants' prior club drug use. Findings are compared to those of earlier studies about medical students and those in a similar age group in the general population. PMID:19042589
Horowitz, Alex; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Franklin, John
Euthanasia is not a new concept. However, there is a growing trend to legalize voluntary active euthanasia. The purpose of this study was to explore oncology nurses' attitudes toward voluntary active euthanasia. The population consisted of 200 registered nurses who were members of the Oncology Nurses' Society and who resided in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri. I developed a questionnaire using a Likert-type scale to measure the attitudes. A one-way analysis of variance was used for data analysis. Relationships among religious beliefs, personal experience, educational preparation, and years of practice as an oncology nurse were investigated. Religious belief was the only variable that was significant in the formation of attitudes toward voluntary active euthanasia. PMID:7954382
The feasibility of identification of personality-based population clusters was investigated along with the relationships of these subpopulations to relevant attitude and performance measures. The results of instrumental and expressive personality tests, using the Personal Characteristics Inventory (PCI) test battery and the Cockpit Management AttitudesQuestionnaire, suggest that theoretically meaningful subpopulations exist among aviators, and that these groupings are useful in understanding of personality factors acting as moderator variables in the determination of aviator attitudes and performance. Out of the three clusters most easily described in terms of their relative elevations on the PCI subscales ('the right stuff', the 'wrong stuff', and the 'no stuff'), the members of the right stuff cluster tended to have more desirable patterns of responses along relevant attitudinal dimensions.
Gregorich, Steve; Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.; Chidester, Thomas