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The synthesis provides information from past research on pedestrians, with a primary emphasis on pedestriansafety. The topics include characteristics of pedestrian accidents, conflict analyses and hazard formulas, pedestriansafety programs, and counterm...
This volume is part of a larger study providing information about public attitudes towards proposed highway safety countermeasures in three program areas: alcohol and drugs, unsafe driving behaviors, and pedestriansafety. Pedestriansafety countermeasure...
This study employed a multiple baseline design with a reversal to evaluate the effects of two interventions for improving pedestriansafety: (a) a pedestriansafety awareness campaign and (b) a training, feedback, and reinforcement package. Elementary school children in grades one through six were the participants. Six behaviors pertinent to pedestriansafety were targeted by this study: (a) waiting at
Purpose The safety level of a pedestrian crossing is affected by infrastructure characteristics and vehicular and pedestrian traffic\\u000a level. This paper presents a methodology that allows assessing the safety level of a pedestrian crossing, regulated or not\\u000a by traffic light, in an urban area according to the features of the crossing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A hierarchical structure representing factors influencing crossing safety has been
The administration's countermeasure focus has been on planning, design, construction and use of pedestrian facilities such as sidewalks, pathways, bridges and underpasses. Selected countermeasures include education, safety messages, model regulation, traf...
Pedestriansafety is today a matter for concern in most countries on account of the relatively high level of casualties and the difficulty in identifying worthwhile measures that have the prospect of making substantial improvements in the situation. In 19...
|This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2001; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
|This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2000; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
Pedestrian accidents are one of the main causes of traffic fatalities and injuries worldwide. New pedestriansafety regulations are being proposed in Europe and Japan to improve the protection afforded to pedestrians. Numerical simulations with biofidelic pedestrian models can be used to efficiently assess the risk to injury in pedestrian-vehicle impacts and to optimize the pedestrian protection in the early stages of the vehicle design process at relatively low costs. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a scaleable mid-size male pedestrian model. The model parameters were derived from published data and a large range of impactor tests. The biofidelity of the model has been verified using a range of full pedestrian-vehicle impact tests with a large range in body sizes (16 male, 2 female, height 160-192 cm, weight 53.5-90 kg). The simulation results were objectively correlated to the experimental data. Overall, the model predicted the measured response well. In particular the head kinematics were accurately predicted, indicated by global correlation scores over 90 %. The correlation score for the bumper forces and accelerations of various body parts was lower (47-64 %), which was largely attributed to the limited information available on the vehicle contact characteristics (stiffness, damping, deformation). Also, the effects of the large range in published leg fracture tolerances on the predicted risk to leg fracture by the pedestrian model were analyzed in detail. The validated mid-size male model was scaled to a range of body sizes, including children and females. PMID:17096258
van Hoof, Jack; de Lange, Ronald; Wismans, Jac S H M
This report addresses pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and describes mitigating measures available to improve safety along LRT alignments. It also includes recommendations to facilitate the compilation of a...
A. Clavelle D. Cleghorn H. S. Levinson J. Boone M. Masliah
|This guide contains interdisciplinary teaching materials to help administrators and teachers develop pedestriansafety programs. The materials can be easily integrated with language arts, art, and social studies courses. Objectives of the materials, which can be used in kindergarten through grade nine, include understanding pedestrians' rights…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.
A recent research project jointly sponsored by the Transit Cooperative Research Program and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program had two main objectives: (a) recommend selected engineering treatments to improve safety for pedestrians crossing...
B. Ullman K. Fitzpatrick M. Brewer P. Carlson S. Turner
Pedestrians' crossing out of crosswalks (unmarked roadway) contributed to many traffic accidents, but existing pedestrian studies mainly focus on crosswalk crossing in developed countries specifically. Field observation of 254 pedestrians at unmarked roadway in China showed that 65.7% of them did not look for vehicles after arriving at the curb. Those who did look and pay attention to the traffic did so for duration of time that followed an exponential distribution. Pedestrians preferred crossing actively in tentative ways rather than waiting passively. The waiting time at the curb, at the median, and at the roadway all followed exponential distributions. During crossing, all pedestrians looked at the oncoming vehicles. When interacting with these vehicles, 31.9% of them ran and 11.4% stepped backwards. Running pedestrians usually began running at the borderline rather than within the lanes. Pedestrians preferred safe to short paths and they crossed second half of the road with significantly higher speed. These behavioral patterns were rechecked at an additional site with 105 pedestrians and the results showed much accordance. In terms of safety, pedestrians who were middle aged, involved in bigger groups, looked at vehicles more often before crossing or interacted with buses rather than cars were safer while those running were more dangerous. Potential applications of these findings, including building accurate simulation models of pedestrians and education of drivers and pedestrians in developing countries were also discussed. PMID:21819820
A modest experiment in community action was undertaken by attempting to induce the authorities of 10 small cities to apply for state funds to create a single model pedestrian refuge in their respective communities. Our hope was that this model would later lead to more widespread improvements. The key elements of the campaign were organizing local pedestriansafety task forces, compiling local pedestrian injury statistics, and publicizing the stories of pedestrian injury victims. At the conclusion of the planning process, all 10 target communities submitted grant applications and all 10 received full grant funding. Five projects were completed as planned, two are under construction, and the plans for three were abandoned. Pedestriansafety is not an issue that captures public attention. To make progress, goals must be modest, and a dedicated constituency must be developed. "Victim advocacy" is a vital part of this process. Progress in injury control requires concerted community action.
Bergman, A; Gray, B; Moffat, J; Simpson, E; Rivara, F
The high share of pedestrian fatalities in Israel provided the impetus for this study which looked for infrastructure solutions to improve pedestriansafety. First, a detailed analysis of pedestrian accidents in 2006-2007, with an emphasis on the infrastructure characteristics involved, was performed; it found that 75% of the fatalities and 95% of the injuries occurred in urban areas, the majority of cases occurring on road sections (not at junctions). About 80% of the accidents took place when a pedestrian crossed the road, the majority of them at non-crosswalk locations or at non-signalized crosswalks. International comparisons showed that the characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Israel were similar to the average pedestrian accident in Europe in terms of accident location, time, and the demographic characteristics of the victims. A typology of pedestrian fatalities in Israel was built for the years 2003-2006; it demonstrated a high share of accidents at these locations: in Jewish or mixed-population towns-not at pedestrian crossings on urban street sections, and both at pedestrian crossings and not at pedestrian crossings at urban junctions; in Arab towns; and on dual-carriageway rural roads. Second, based on a literature study, a summary of about 60 pedestrian-safety-related measures was developed. Third, to diagnose the infrastructure characteristics and deficiencies associated with pedestrian accidents, detailed field studies were carried out at 95 urban locations. A major finding revealed that more than 80% of the sites with a high concentration of pedestrian-vehicle accidents in Israel were situated on arterial multi-lane streets belonging to city centers, where on a micro-level there were no indications of major deficiencies in the basic design elements of most sites. Finally, cross-checking of the safety problems identified and the infrastructure solutions available provided lists of measures recommended for application at various types of sites. It was concluded that in order to generate a significant change in the state of pedestrian injury in Israel, a move from spot treatment to a systemic treatment of the problem is required. A systemic inquiry and the transformation of the urban road network should be performed in order to diminish the areas of vehicle-pedestrian conflicts and to significantly reduce vehicle speeds in areas of pedestrian presence and activity. PMID:22062338
Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school,safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestriansafety behaviors. This research...
A detailed re-analysis of available pedestrian accident data was utilized to define three sets of pedestriansafety public information and education (PI&E) messages. These messages were then produced and field tested. The objectives and theoretical backgr...
This paper addresses a pedestriansafety design of front structure of Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) by two concepts; firstly by equipping a lower bumper stiffener structure under the front bumper and secondly by putting an airbag in front of the HGV front panel. In this study, HGV-pedestrian collision accident was simulated by the crash analysis solver MADYMO environment, where the HGV model with the speed of 20 km/h was collided with an adult male and with an adult female pedestrian, respectively. The bumper and lower bumper stiffener were varied their positions, while the airbag was adjusted the vent hole size and the position of airbag in front of front panel vertically. The pedestrian injuries that can be sustained during the simulation impact were limited at the critical body parts of head, chest, upper leg; an injury criteria of Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Thorax Cumulative 3ms Acceleration (C3ms) and peak loads of femur, respectively. Because of various parameters and constraints of initial conditions and injury thresholds, a multi-objective optimization design problem considered these main injury criterion is solved in order to achieve the best solution for this study. The results of optimized design parameters for each cases and conditions were obtained and the possibilities of the proposed concept were discussed.
Quieter cars such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic and, as a result, their use may have an adverse impact on pedestriansafety. In order to do...
A. Hastings B. Samiljan C. Scarpone J. K. Pollard L. Garay-Vega
Two pedestrian model regulations previously developed by NHTSA were studied to determine their potential safety benefits. One regulation was concerned with the disabled-vehicle situation and called on motorists to position themselves and their vehicles as...
The report, in two volumes, documents a project to develop and test child pedestriansafety training programs. Volume 2 provides appendices, including the content of program-user guides and descriptions/specifications of all other program materials.
In May 2009, a team of 12 transportation professionals with expertise in bicycling and walking from the United States visited five countries in Europe to identify and assess effective approaches to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility. The...
C. L. Engelhart E. J. Blais E. L. Fischer G. K. Rousseau S. M. Turner
This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestriansafety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.
Pedestrians are overrepresented in road traffic injuries and deaths in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya, yet little research has been done to provide better understanding of the characteristics of pedestrian injuries. This paper presents the data obtained from road traffic injury admissions to Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) over a 3-month period starting from 1 June to 31 August 2011. A total of 176 persons involved road traffic injuries in Nairobi were admitted to KNH during this period. Pedestrians comprised the highest (59.1 %) proportion of road traffic injury admissions, followed by motor vehicle passengers (24.4 %) and motor cyclists (9.7 %). Bicyclists and drivers accounted for 5.1 and 1.7 %, respectively. Cars (39.4 %) were the leading category of motorized four-wheeler vehicles that were involved in collisions with pedestrians, followed by matatus (35.5 %). Seventy percent of pedestrians were hit while crossing the road, 10.8 % while standing by the road, and 8.1 % while walking along the road. The highest proportion of pedestrian crashes occurred on Saturdays (25.5 %) and Sundays (16.7 %). Most of the pedestrian injuries (67.7 %) affected the limbs. The paper argues that safety of pedestrians should be a priority in road safety efforts in the city of Nairobi. Urban road safety planners should adopt existing cost-effective interventions to improve the safety of pedestrians such as area-wide traffic calming to limit the speeds of motor vehicles to 30 km/h, providing sidewalks for pedestrians, traffic calming in residential neighborhoods, people-and-not-car-oriented urban road designs, traffic education, and enforcement of traffic regulations. PMID:23430375
The increase in the older population as well as its increased frailty has led the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to conduct research initiatives examining the safety and mobility of older adults. Although older adults are struck le...
University students walk frequently, and individuals ages 18-22 have among the highest rates of pedestrian injury among any age group in the United States. These injuries are caused by a wide range of individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors, but one factor that has not been previously considered carefully is the influence of wearing a heavy backpack on pedestriansafety. Backpacks are known to slow walking speed and disrupt perception of one's environment, so it is reasonable to question whether they might also influence safe pedestrian behavior. Ninety-six college students engaged in 20 street-crossings within a virtual pedestrian environment. Half the crossings were completed while bearing a backpack weighing 12% of their body weight; the other half were completed without any burdens. Results suggest that participants walked more slowly, left less safe time to spare after crossing the virtual street, and experienced more frequent hits or close calls with traffic when crossing while carrying the backpack. They also missed fewer safe opportunities to cross while carrying the backpack. Our tests of several demographic characteristics, pedestrian behaviors, and backpack use, as covariates suggest the finding holds across all subsamples included in our study. Implications for pedestriansafety and future research are discussed. PMID:19245896
Schwebel, David C; Pitts, Danielle Dulion; Stavrinos, Despina
|The New Orleans Public Schools' Department of Planning has been concerned with school children as pedestrians for the past five years. The safety issues include the streets, the drivers, and the children. First, the streets contribute to the hazard because many major streets traverse residential areas; many streets serve as major commuter…
School bus and related pedestriansafety education is prevention-oriented so that students will learn how to avoid bus-related accidents. This manual provides lesson plans emphasizing the school bus stop, loading and unloading zones, emergency evacuation drills, and appropriate behavior on the school bus. The guide also recognizes demographic…
Intelligent speed adaption (ISA) is one type of vehicle-based intelligent transportation systems (ITS), which warns and regulates driving speed according to the speed limits of the roads. Early field studies showed that ISA could reduce general mean speed levels and their variances in different road environments. This paper studies the effects of various ISA penetration grades on pedestriansafety in a single lane road. A microscopic traffic simulation tool, TPMA, was further developed and used to implement different ISA penetration grades. Momentary spot speed and traffic flow data are first logged in the traffic simulation for later prediction of pedestriansafety. Then a hypothetical vehicle-pedestrian collision model is extended from early researches in order to estimate two safety indicators: probability of collision, and risk of death. Finally, Monte Carlo method is applied iteratively to compute those safety indices. The computational result shows that raising ISA penetration in traffic flow will reduce both the probability of mid-block collision between vehicle and pedestrian and the risk of death in the collision accidents. Furthermore, the decrease of the risk of death will be more prominent than that of the collision probability according to this method. PMID:16061189
The educational and enforcement program developed for the bicyle safety curriculum in the Temple City Unified School District is described and evaluated. As a result of the project, Temple City now meets the following standards: an effective training and ...
... your visibility at night by wearing retro-reflective clothing and carrying flashlights. Walking is good for your health, and it's good for the environment too. But before you head out on foot for a stroll, power walk, or errand, there are important safety tips ...
Research in social science has shown that mobile phone conversations distract users, presenting a significant impact to pedestriansafety; for example, a mobile phone user deep in conversation while crossing a street is generally more at risk than other pedestrians not engaged in such behavior. We propose WalkSafe, an Android smartphone application that aids people that walk and talk, improving
Tianyu Wang; Giuseppe Cardone; Antonio Corradi; Lorenzo Torresani; Andrew T. Campbell
The contract objective was to determine the extent of the pedestrian and bicyclist highway safety problem as it relates to Hispanics. The ultimate goal of this project was to provide Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and National Highway Transportatio...
This manual provides a suggested curriculum, intended for use in the natural environment, for individualized instruction on street travel skills for adults with developmental disabilities. Suggestions are given for instruction in home or classroom; the community; vocational settings; recreational settings; and special pedestrian situations (for…
Illinois State Office of the Secretary of State, Springfield.
Objectives: To evaluate an interactive multimedia (IMM) program that teaches young children safe pedestrian skills. Methods: The program uses IMM (animation and video) to teach children critical skills for crossing streets safely. A computer-delivered video assessment and a real-life street simulation were used to measure the effectiveness of the…
As use of handheld multimedia devices has exploded globally, safety experts have begun to consider the impact of distraction while talking, text-messaging, or listening to music on traffic safety. This study was designed to test how talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music may influence pedestriansafety. 138 college students crossed an interactive, semi-immersive virtual pedestrian street. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups: crossing while talking on the phone, crossing while texting, crossing while listening to a personal music device, or crossing while undistracted. Participants distracted by music or texting were more likely to be hit by a vehicle in the virtual pedestrian environment than were undistracted participants. Participants in all three distracted groups were more likely to look away from the street environment (and look toward other places, such as their telephone or music device) than were undistracted participants. Findings were maintained after controlling for demographics, walking frequency, and media use frequency. Distraction from multimedia devices has a small but meaningful impact on college students' pedestriansafety. Future research should consider the cognitive demands of pedestriansafety, and how those processes may be impacted by distraction. Policymakers might consider ways to protect distracted pedestrians from harm and to reduce the number of individuals crossing streets while distracted. PMID:22269509
Schwebel, David C; Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Davis, Tiffany; O'Neal, Elizabeth E; de Jong, Desiree
Contents: Toward Improved Safety: Road Use Perception and Behavior in Estonia; Survey of State Law Enforcement Personnel on Work Zone Enforcement Practices; Accuracy of Global Positioning System for Determining Driver Performance Parameters; Feasibility o...
This paper develops and implements the Conflict-based Assessment of PedestrianSafety (CAPS) methodology for evaluating pedestrian accessibility at complex intersections. In past years, a significant research has been done on pedestrian access to modern roundabouts and other complex intersection forms, including a significant focus on the accessibility for pedestrians who are blind. A majority of these studies have relied on actual street crossings by study participants under supervision of trained Orientation and Mobility (O&M) Specialist. These crossing studies were used to evaluate risk from a measurement of intervention events, where the O&M specialist had to physically stop the participant from crossing. While providing arguably the most accurate data for the crossing risk at a particular intersection, actual street crossings can be dangerous to the study participants, and are further very time consuming and expensive to conduct. The CAPS method presented in this paper emphasizes the use of conflict-based safety factors to quantify risk. The CAPS method relates pedestrian crossing decisions to advanced measurements of vehicle dynamics to estimate lane-by-lane conflicts. CAPS identifies the grade of conflict based on a score generated on a five-criterion rating scale. Each of these criteria or factors has different severity levels, and when combined, provides an overall risk rating of the crossing decision. The CAPS framework was applied to a study of blind pedestrian crossings at a multi-lane roundabout. The resulting risk scores were calibrated from actual O&M interventions observed during the study to give confidence in the CAPS performance. The calibrated CAPS framework correctly matched all (high risk) O&M intervention events, and further identifies other (lower risk) pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The resulting method has the potential to allow for a faster and most importantly safer evaluation of complex intersections for pedestrian access. Since all factors are measured prior to the pedestrian stepping into the roadway, this approach is compatible with crossing indicator studies, where the participants merely indicate when they would cross, rather than actually stepping into the roadway. The CAPS framework therefore allows for a more objective and consistent safety assessment of pedestrian crossings in a research context without having pedestrians physically step into the roadway.
Background Children’s active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Objectives Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examined (1) correlates of active commuting to school and (2) the relationship between active commuting to school and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements from a sample of participants (n=149) aged 9–12 years from a walk to school intervention study in Houston, Texas. The primary outcome was the weekly rate of active commuting to school. Daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, measured by accelerometers, was a secondary outcome. Child self-efficacy (alpha=0.75), parent self-efficacy (alpha=0.88), and parent outcome expectations (alpha=0.78) were independent variables. Participant characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, distance from home to school, acculturation, and BMI percentile) were independent sociodemographic variables. We used mixed-model regression analyses to account for clustering by school and a stepwise procedure with backward elimination of non-significant interactions and covariates to identify significant moderators and predictors. School-level observations of student pedestrians were assessed and compared using chi-square tests of independence. Results Among our sample, which was 61.7% Latino, the overall rate of active commuting to school was 43%. In the mixed model for active commuting to school, parent self-efficacy (std. beta = 0.18, p=0.018) and age (std. beta = 0.18, p=0.018) were positively related. Latino students had lower rates of active commuting to school than non-Latinos ( 16.5%, p=0.040). Distance from home to school was inversely related to active commuting to school (std. beta = 0.29, p<0.001). In the mixed model for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, active commuting to school was positively associated (std. beta = 0.31, p <0.001). Among the Latino subsample, child acculturation was negatively associated with active commuting to school (std. beta = ?0.23, p=0.01). With regard to school-level pedestriansafety observations, 37% of students stopped at the curb and 2.6% looked left-right-left before crossing the street. Conclusion Although still below national goals, the rate of active commuting was relatively high, while the rate of some pedestriansafety behaviors was low among this low-income, ethnic minority population. Programs and policies to encourage safe active commuting to school are warranted and should consider the influence of parents, acculturation, and ethnicity.
Mendoza, Jason A.; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Nguyen, Nga; Hanfling, Marcus J.
ObjectivesTo determine whether an advocacy package aimed at elected councillors resulted in improved pedestriansafety in deprived areas.MethodsCluster randomised controlled trial involving 617 councillors from 239 wards in England and Wales, from deprived areas with high pedestrian injury rates. The intervention group were provided with information and maps on casualty sites, numbers and effective interventions. Outcomes were measured at 3,
R A Lyons; D Kendrick; E M Towner; C Coupland; M Hayes; N Christie; R Kimberlee; S Jones; S Turner; M Brussoni; L Groom; S Macey; C Mulvaney; S E Rodgers; J Sleney; S Smith; J Stewart; Y Vinogradova
Introduction: Train-pedestrian collisions have been shown to be the leading cause of fatality in train-related accidents worldwide, yet there is remarkably little research in this area. Method: In this paper, the major types of railway transportation accident research are briefly highlighted to indicate the general context of research concerning train-pedestrian collisions, which are then reviewed. Themes emerging from the diverse
In recent years, a number of advanced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions have been developed to assist in the management of business processes and working environments. Mobile computing and wireless communication are two such technologies which have been adapted for use in hybrid systems that can monitor and manage industrial health, safety and welfare activities. Within the construction sector,
In recent years, the traffic accident occurs frequently with explosion of traffic density. Therefore, we think that the safe and comfortable transportation system to defend the pedestrian who is the traffic weak is necessary. First, we detect and recognize the pedestrian (the crossing person) by the image processing. Next, we inform all the drivers of the right or left turn that the pedestrian exists by the sound and the image and so on. By prompting a driver to do safe driving in this way, the accident to the pedestrian can decrease. In this paper, we are using a background subtraction method for the movement detection of the movement object. In the background subtraction method, the update method in the background was important, and as for the conventional way, the threshold values of the subtraction processing and background update were identical. That is, the mixing rate of the input image and the background image of the background update was a fixation value, and the fine tuning which corresponded to the environment change of the weather was difficult. Therefore, we propose the update method of the background image that the estimated mistake is difficult to be amplified. We experiment and examines in the comparison about five cases of sunshine, cloudy, evening, rain, sunlight change, except night. This technique can set separately the threshold values of the subtraction processing and background update processing which suited the environmental condition of the weather and so on. Therefore, the fine tuning becomes possible freely in the mixing rate of the input image and the background image of the background update. Because the setting of the parameter which suited an environmental condition becomes important to minimize mistaking percentage, we examine about the setting of a parameter.
... order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don't speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the road with bicycles and motorcycles, and watch for pedestrians.
Lightning Safety: When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors! What's New? September 2013 Lightning Safety Blog What You Need to Know: Tips for Safety NWS Lightning Safety Awareness Message 2013 Lightning Deaths in 2013 ...
Emerging sensor technologies accelerated the shift toward automatic pedestrian counting methods to acquire reliable long-term data for transportation design, planning, and safety studies. Although a number of commercial pedestrian sensors are available, t...
Pedestrian detection is one of the most important research contents of road safety. The crucial idea behind such pedestriansafety systems is to protect the driver and pedestrian from any accident. In this paper, a pedestrian feature extraction based on color symmetry phases is presented. By examining symmetry phases in multiple color spaces, the segmentation results are significantly improved which
J. Janta; P. Kumsawat; K. Attakitmongcol; A. Srikaew
Patient safety is one of the nation's most pressing health care challenges. A 1999 report by the Institute ... each year as the result of lapses in patient safety. There are things you can do to help ...
Text VersionPage 1. Safety Alert If you are being treated for asthma, taking a long-acting beta agonist (LABA) ... Page 2. Early Safety Alert ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
... Hand Safety Currently selected Hand Surgeons Agree: Leave Fireworks to the Professionals Keep Your Hands Safe: Follow ... Hand Safety Currently selected Hand Surgeons Agree: Leave Fireworks to the Professionals Keep Your Hands Safe: Follow ...
Safety is an important part of a science lesson or activity. This safety material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Sixteen rules reinforce common safety concerns for science classrooms. Among the safety rules are the recommendations that teachers practice demonstrations before presenting them, make proper eyewear and shields available, use customary disposal techniques, and possess a thorough knowledge of the chemical reactions being used. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve
The introduction of industrial robots in the workplace has improved safety by reducing human exposure to some of the traditional hazardous tasks and environments, yet at the same time robots have introduced new hazards in the workplace. There are currently no national consensus standards for robotic safety in the US. This report discusses the hazards associated with industrial robots and provides safety guidelines to protect workers from these hazards. In conclusion, it is the responsibility of manufacturers and users of industrial robots to develop and implement robotic safety guidelines for each application to ensure worker safety. 13 references.
An overview of the pedestrian accident problem in South Africa is given, and the engineering solutions implemented to improve pedestriansafety are discussed. The pedestrian problem accounts for part of the road safety problem in South Africa. In recent years there has been a reduction in the number of pedestrian fatalities and injuries. Research findings in the early 1980s showed
Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing.The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and
Three types of devices that have been used in conjunction with marked crosswalks in an attempt to improve pedestriansafety were evaluated: an overhead crosswalk sign in Seattle, Washington; pedestriansafety cones (which read, \\
This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.
The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into laboratory safety, and covers interacting with the lab environment and a new lab partner. Topics covered include proper dress, housekeeping, safety equipment, mixing, fire safety, and spills. When the module is completed, visitors will be able to demonstrate proper lab safety techniques.
Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.
|Intended to train fifth grade students in safe conduct on the school bus, on bicycles, in autos and in the school environment and to develop their perceptual skills as pedestrians amid traffic and under hazardous conditions at school, this curriculum provides directions and materials for approximately 130 safety learning activities. Safety…
|Directions and materials for approximately 110 fourth grade level trafic safety learning activities, intended to develop the perceptual skills of young pedestrians and to train fourth grade students in safe conduct on the school bus, on bicycles, in an auto and in the school environment, are provided. Safety concepts and skills are taught through…
An overview of the analysis which should be undertaken with regard to safety where robotic systems are used. Looks at accidents associated with these systems and the legislation covering their operation in the workplace. Outlines general guidelines for robotic system design, implementation and maintenance and the various factors which should be considered with regard to safety. Describes a proposed International
The introduction of industrial robots in the workplace has improved safety by reducing human exposure to some of the traditional hazardous tasks and environments, yet at the same time robots have introduced new hazards in the workplace. There are currently no national consensus standards for robotic safety in the US. This report discusses the hazards associated with industrial robots and
As a result of Columbine and other events, states and districts across the United States have responded with vigor to a call for a renewed focus on school safety. This paper examined one such effort undertaken by Harrison County Public Schools, located in West Virginia. The district received federal funding for surveillance equipment used to enhance safety efforts at middle
Ethan Heinen; Jaci Webb-Dempsey; Lucas Moore; Craig McClellan; Carl Friebel
|Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…
|Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies,…
Working with young children and chemicals requires attention to safety. This article details the experiences of a third-grade teacher who used a "disaster" to create a hands-on inquiry that introduces children to chemistry safety during a third-grade acid/base exploration.
The safety of non-motorized transportation systems is essential to the public acceptance and overall success of Washington State and local jurisdictions efforts to reduce congestion. The State and the jurisdictions goals to increase non-SOV travel options...
A unique database provided information on pedestrian accidents, intersection geometry and estimates of pedestrian and vehicle flows for the years 1983–1986 for approximately 300 signalized intersections in Hamilton, Ont., Canada. Pedestriansafety at semi-protected schemes, where left-turning vehicles face no opposing traffic but have potential conflicts with pedestrians, were compared with pedestriansafety at normal non-channelized signalized approaches, where right-turning
This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace safety. Topics include hazard communications, lockout/tagout, confined space entry, fall protection, PPE, firefighting and bloodborne pathogens.
The introduction of industrial robots in the workplace has improved safety by reducing human exposure to some of the traditional hazardous tasks and environments, yet at the same time robots have introduced new hazards in the workplace. There are currentl...
... until they have reached the maximum weight and height limits recommended by the manufacturer. Many parents have ... a crash. So it's essential to follow the height and weight guidelines on the child safety seat ...
... SAFETY Like other sports activities, skateboarding has risks. Vehicle traffic, trick riding, and excessive speed can lead ... t become another statistic. ? Stay clear of moving vehicles. Some of the most common and severe skateboarding ...
... have to wear special clothing to enjoy the sport of biking. But the right clothing can increase ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Getting Exercise in College Sports and Exercise Safety Choosing the Right Sport for ...
... not remove safety devices, shields, or guards on switches. Add fuel before starting the engine, not when ... mower from tipping over. Do not cut wet grass. Top of page Last reviewed: March 2012 AAOS ...
In order for students to inquire confidently, we must create safe classroom environments. Safety is not just a set of rules but a state of mind, and perhaps, most importantly, it is an attitude and a set of skills that carry over into a students' daily life. But research also shows that the space in which students inquire is vital to their safety and security. This chapter summarizes some of the important factors that contribute to safe laboratory environments.
Biehle, James T.; Motz, Lamoine L.; West, Sandra S.
With the increase of requirement for improving the safety of night driving, auto- matic pedestrian detection has received more and more attraction. This paper mainly in- troduces a pedestrian detection method in infrared images. Base on the properties of in- frared images, we present a two-step pedestrian detection method including pedestrian candidate selection and validation. The first step is localization
|Describes provisions of Children's Internet Protection Act, which school districts are required to implement on or before October 31, 2001, involving the development and public dissemination of federally mandated Internet-safety policy to prevent minors from accessing inappropriate and harmful material. Provides suggestions to protect children…
|Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…
|In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…
The 12 papers in the report deal with the following areas: some recent developments in timber pole safety by design; Pennsylvania's guide rail standards; a cost-effective change; events that produce occupant injury in longitudinal barrier accidents; low-m...
D. L. Ivey J. R. Morgan L. C. Schultz M. H. Ray J. D. Michie
Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images
Nursing and radiology staff members can have a difficult time coexisting and communicating as they strive to provide quality care for patients. Misconceptions about safe radiologic practice within the practice of perioperative nursing occur because members of these professional fields are unfamiliar with each other's knowledge and practice guidelines. This article provides an overview of radiologic practice and safety.
The safety hazards associated with handling cryogenic fluids are discussed in detail. These hazards include pressure buildup when a cryogenic fluid is heated and becomes a gas, potential damage to body tissues due to surface contact, toxic risk from breathing air altered by cryogenic fluids, dangers of air solidification, and hazards of combustible cryogens such as liquified oxygen, hydrogen, or
... chirping. What could be more perfect than a bike ride? But wait! Before you pull your bike out of the garage, let's find out how ... two wheels. Why Is Bicycle Safety So Important? Bike riding is a lot of fun, but accidents ...
|The articles in this issue dealing with school safety discusses what rural and small urban settings are doing to prevent violence and to educate young people about prosocial alternatives to violence. The research is quite clear that female, minority, and gay students are the targets of a disproportionate amount of harassment and violence, both in…
The Newsletter of the Comprehensive Center-Region VI, 1999
The mission of the American Samoa Office of Highway Safety is to reduce the traffic crashes, traffic fatalities, injuries, and property damage on the American Samoa roadways, and to create a safer environment for motorists, passengers, and pedestrians. Th...
... About CDC.gov . NIOSH Home Workplace Safety & Health Topics NIOSH NIOSH A-Z Index What's New on ... New Archive 1996-1997 Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries Safety & Prevention ...
A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.
Gunter, Larry W. (615 Sand Pit Rd., Leesville, SC 29070)
A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.
Brief reports are presented on Swissmedic's experiences with PaniFlow, a tool to monitor Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 vaccines and UMC's updates on AEFI of these vaccines; on WHO's Global Network for Post-marketing Surveillance of Prequalified Vaccines and India joining the network; the June 2010 meeting of the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. PMID:21673419
Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases,\\u000a algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae,\\u000a such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of\\u000a the last century and
Andrea Borchers; Suzanne S. Teuber; Carl L. Keen; M. Eric Gershwin
... Section Contents Menu. Drug Safety and Availability. FDA Drug Safety Newsletter. ... FDA Drug Safety Newsletter. The FDA Drug Safety ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetynewsletter
... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety - Section Contents ... Medical Product Safety Network Emergency Situations (Medical Devices) - Medical Device Safety Search the Medical Device Safety Section Medical ...
... mail Updates Welcome to AHRQ's Patient Safety Organization Web Site The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act) authorized the creation of Patient Safety Organizations (PSOs) to improve the ...
When a group of residents at a life care facility purchased motorized carts to move around the 350,000-square-foot facility, staff members were faced with the need to ensure the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. This article describes a safety assessment procedure developed for cart drivers who lived in the assisted living area of the community. Five performance criteria were
Contents: Performance Level 2 Tests on the Missouri 30-in. New Jersey Safety-Shape Bridge Rail; Full-Scale Crash Tests on a Luminaire Support 4-Bolt Slipbase Design; Aesthetically Pleasing Combination Pedestrian-Traffic Bridge Rail; Development of a Low-P...
|This traffic safety curriculum for second grade students provides directions and materials for approximately 132 activities. Intended to develop pedestrian perceptual skills and to train children in safe conduct on the school bus, in an auto and in the school environment, the curriculum features concepts and skills taught through activities from…
Horrifying stories of accidents in the science lab abound. You may think that such accidents could never happen in your lab, but accidents do happen even in the most controlled environments. So, the best thing you can do to protect yourselves and your students is to implement and document proactive safety procedures. The following actions are recommended to reduce accidents in the lab and litigation in the courtroom.
Pedestriansafety is a serious concern at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses across the nation. Although crosswalks and signs inform pedestrians where to cross, there is no standard protocol for pedestrians to signal drivers that they wish to use the crosswalks, except to stand in or at the crosswalk. We examined the effects of two pedestrian prompts, a raised hand and extended arm, on motorist yielding at uncontrolled crosswalks. The two prompts were effective at increasing yielding.
Crowley-Koch, Brian J; Van Houten, Ron; Lim, Eunyoung
Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestriansafety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding of their actual effectiveness and related risk factor avoidance must be developed to permit their useful implementation in bus fleets. PMID:23850401
Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina
The book provides information necessary for the design, implementation and monitoring of occupational safety training programs. The place of the safety training program within a company is discussed, and the practical aspects of safety and health training programs are considered. OSHA safety and health training requirements are examined, together with the role of the supervisor in safety training and means
The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.
Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the ne...
B. Bull B. Ferrell J. Lanzi J. Simpson R. Zoerner S. Santuro
... Safety Council recognizes 2013 Class of NSC Rising Stars of Safety at its Congress & Expo The Council recognizes its latest class of NSC Rising Stars of Safety, in conjunction with its 2013 NSC ...
The annual report of the nuclear safety project (PNS) describes the work of the participating institutes in the fields of 1) safety and environmental protection in nuclear power plants, 2) safety and environmental protection in reprocessing plants, and 3)...
Through role-playing and teacher presentation, students learn how to be safe around water. Students learn the three most important safety rules, ways to rescue someone from the water, boat safety, and ocean safety considerations.
In vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, the characteristics of a vehicle's frontal shape and structural stiffness have a significant influence on the kinematics and injury risk of the pedestrian's body regions. In the present study, the kinematic behaviour and injury risk of the pedestrians were investigated in collisions against vehicles with different frontal shapes. The THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) pedestrian finite
In vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, the characteristics of a vehicle's frontal shape and structural stiffness have a significant influence on the kinematics and injury risk of the pedestrian's body regions. In the present study, the kinematic behaviour and injury risk of the pedestrians were investigated in collisions against vehicles with different frontal shapes. The THUMS (Total HUman Model for Safety) pedestrian finite
Objective To describe the epidemiology of pedestrian deaths due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) between age groups in New York City (NYC), with a comparison to national data. Methods Review of MVC pedestrian deaths in NYC and the US from 1998 to 2002. Data on deaths were obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Results Almost half (48%) of all MVC deaths in NYC were among pedestrians, compared with 12% nationally. Pedestrian death rates were highest among older age groups (?65 years). NYC's older pedestrians were more likely than US older pedestrians to be killed at an intersection, during daytime and on weekdays. Conclusion Older people constitute a major proportion of MVC pedestrian deaths in NYC. Conditions (such as traffic exposure) surrounding pedestrian MVCs may differ by age group. The high burden of MVCs among older pedestrians in NYC highlights the importance of local?level analysis to guide public health planning.
The McGuffey High School Vocational Agriculture Department, Claysville, Pennsylvania uses a shop safety demerit system, similar to those used in many industries, to relate safety to the real world of work. The system (context included) has proven effective in creating safety awareness. (EA)
... Safety of Phenylpropanolamine. Food and Drug Administration Public Health Advisory Subject: Safety of Phenylpropanolamine. November 6, 2000. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
A national central repository of agricultural health, safety, and injury prevention materials for the agricultural community and especially for agricultural safety specialists. Spanish materials are included.
... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313
Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric
The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.
|This study describes the support of parents and other community members for child pedestriansafety measures, their willingness to pay in terms of volunteer time and money for efforts to make child pedestriansafety improvements in their neighborhood, and their views on how to affect child pedestriansafety improvements in their communities. In…
DeFrancesco, Susan; Gielen, Andrea Carlson; Bishai, David; Mahoney, Patricia; Ho, Shiu; Guyer, Bernard
This paper studies the influence of built environment (BE) - including land use types, road network connectivity, transit supply and demographic characteristics - on pedestrian activity and pedestrian-vehicle collision occurrence. For this purpose, a two-equation modeling framework is proposed to investigate the effect of built environment on both pedestrian activity and vehicle-pedestrian collision frequency at signalized intersections. Using accident data of ambulance services in the City of Montreal, the applicability of our framework is illustrated. Different model settings were attempted as part of a model sensitivity analysis. Among other results, it was found that the BE in the proximity of an intersection has a powerful association with pedestrian activity but a small direct effect on pedestrian-vehicle collision frequency. This suggests that the impact of BE is mainly mediated through pedestrian activity. In other words, strategies that encourage densification, mix of land uses and increase in transit supply will increase pedestrian activity and may indirectly, with no supplementary safety strategies, increase the total number of injured pedestrians. In accordance with previous research, the number of motor vehicles entering a particular intersection is the main determinant of collision frequency. Our results show that a 30% reduction in the traffic volume would reduce the total number of injured pedestrians by 35% and the average risk of pedestrian collision by 50% at the intersections under analysis. Major arterials are found to have a double negative effect on pedestriansafety. They are positively linked to traffic but negatively associated with pedestrian activity. The proposed framework is useful for the identification of effective pedestriansafety actions, the prediction of pedestrian volumes and the appropriate safety design of new urban developments that encourage walking. PMID:21658488
Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M
ProblemSafety culture relates to injuries and safety incidents in organizations, but is difficult to asses and measure. We describe a preliminary test of assessing an organization's safety culture by examining employee interpretations of organizational safety artifacts (safety signs).
Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)
Purpose – Improving hospital patient safety means an open and stimulating culture is needed. This article aims to describe a patient safety culture improvement approach in five Belgian hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Patient safety culture was measured using a validated Belgian adaptation of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire. Studies before (autumn 2005) and after (spring 2007) the
Johan Hellings; Ward Schrooten; Niek S. Klazinga; Arthur Vleugels
The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)
DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in
DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ``safety class items.`` Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in
Pedestrian detection is a vision task with many practical applications in video surveillance, road safety, autonomous driving and military. However, it is much more difficult compared to the detection of other visual objects, because of the tremendous variations in the inner region as well as the outer shape of the pedestrian pattern. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detection
Giang Hoang Nguyen; Son Lam Phung; Abdesselam Bouzerdoum
In process industry Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) and Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD) are very important for the management\\/reduction of risk. In new standards (e.g. Ref. ) on functional safety of electrical\\/electronic\\/programmable electronic safety-related systems a quantification of the achieved safety is often required. These new standards do not prescribe how to calculate the achieved safety. Only guidelines and recommendations are
Management of Nuclear Safety, Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, and Fire Protection programs, functions, and field support resources for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) has, until recently, been centralized in TWRS Safety, under the Emergency, Safety, and Quality organization. Industrial hygiene technician services were also provided to support operational needs related to safety basis compliance. Due to WHC decentralization of safety and reengineering efforts in West Tank Farms, staffing and safety responsibilities have been transferred to the facilities. Under the new structure, safety personnel for TWRS are assigned directly to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and a core Safety Group in TWRS Engineering. The Characterization Project Operations (CPO) safety organization will remain in tact as it currently exists. Personnel assigned to East Tank Farms, West Tank Farms, and CPO will perform facility-specific or project-specific duties and provide field implementation of programs. Those assigned to the core group will focus on activities having a TWRS-wide or programmatic focus. Hanford-wide activities will be the responsibility of the Safety Center of Expertise. In order to ensure an effective and consistent safety program for TWRS under the new organization program functions, goals, organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and path forward must be clearly established. The purpose of the TWRS Safety Program Plan is to define the overall safety program, responsibilities, relationships, and communication linkages for safety personnel under the new structure. In addition, issues associated with reorganization transition are addressed, including training, project ownership, records management, and dissemination of equipment. For the purpose of this document ``TWRS Safety`` refers to all safety professionals and technicians (Industrial Safety, Industrial Hygiene, Fire Protection, and Nuclear Safety) within the TWRS organization, regardless of their location in the organization.
Safety is an important character of safety-critical software system. In order to validate the safety of safety-critical software system, people will use the method of testing. The key factor of the method is to model the system safety requirements and interaction constraints among components. This paper addresses a new approach to model the safety requirements by safety behavior model and
... FDA Drug Safety Communication: Ongoing safety review of the angiotensin receptor blockers and cancer. Safety Announcement. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
...the only technology available with the ability to comply with this proposal would be a rear...involving children, persons with disabilities, the elderly, and other pedestrians...response to the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act...
This paper describes a methodology tried in field studies at three nuclear sites in a proactive step by the regulator to encourage the interest of safety culture within the industry. One objective of this project was to stimulate action by senior managers of nuclear facilities to review and enhance their safety practices and culture. The second objective was to prepare
... Pandemics; Blood Safety & Availability; Tissue Safety & Availability; Vaccine Safety & Availability; HIV Home Test Kits. ? -. Resources for You. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability
... Class; Medication Errors; FDA Drug Safety Newsletter; Drug Safety Podcasts; ... Recall Information on Twitter Exit Disclaimer; Mobile App for Recalls; ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety
... FDA's 2004 Produce Safety Action Plan is designed to target microbial food safety hazards (such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites) in or on ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood
Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)
... Hospital Bed Fires [ARCHIVED] A Guide to Bed Safety Bed Rails in Hospitals, Nursing Homes and Home Health Care: The Facts (PDF Version) (PDF - 65KB) MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program - Page Last ...
... Drugs. ... Division of Drug Information tweets every single Drug Safety Communication. ... you have questions about Drug Safety Communications, call ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals
... workers in America. Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA administers the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act. ... conditions in most private industries are regulated by OSHA or OSHA-approved state systems. Nearly every employee ...
Text VersionPage 1. DRAFT -- intended only to illustrate a discussion of format GARDASIL: Safety Alert ... MERIDIA: Early Safety Alert ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
This subscription offers publications containing safety recommendations in aviation, highway, marine, pipeline and railroad modes of transportation adopted by the National Transportation Safety Board for each month of the year 1982.
... Safety of Albumin Administration in Critically Ill Patients [ARCHIVED]; Public Workshop: Safety of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers (HBOCs ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/bloodsafety
... Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers; Index to Drug-Specific Information Drug safety and side effects; includes drugs with ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals
More than a thousand articles on biological safety in infectious disease laboratories are listed for the use of supervisors responsible for the safety of laboratory personnel. An author index is included. (Author)
... vaccine. FDA and CDC continue to monitor the safety of this vaccine, with the public's health and safety our top priority. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/vaccinesafety
This paper presents an overview of safety in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project midway through the Engineering Design Activities (EDA). We describe the safety strategy and approach used by the project. Then, we present project radiological release limits with the methodology used to determine if these release limits are met. We review the major safety functions and their implementation for ITER, previous results, and plans for upcoming safety and environmental analyses. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Petti, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Piet, S.J. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)
The purpose of this task was to support ESH-3 in providing Airborne Release Fraction and Respirable Fraction training to safety analysts at LANL who perform accident analysis, hazard analysis, safety analysis, and/or risk assessments at nuclear facilities. The task included preparation of materials for and the conduct of two 3-day training courses covering the following topics: safety analysis process; calculation model; aerosol physic concepts for safety analysis; and overview of empirically derived airborne release fractions and respirable fractions.
Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.
We will be learning about certain safety habits and how knowing and doing these safety habits can make us happy. Introduction: Learning about different types of safety is important, because it keeps us safe and protected from dangers. Throught this webquest you will see waht safety habits you should use to keep yourself and family protected. Task: You will be asked to come up with a real life situation/story where you ...
This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.
After completing this project, you should be able to pass the Shop Safety Test, allowing you to participate in the Agriscience Shop. Before you are allowed into the shop, you are required to pass a Shop Safety Test. The tools that follow will help you prepare for the test. Use the Shop Safety Chart that Mr. Creel gave you in class to take notes on important safety rules. OSHA is the "governmental ...
Integrated Safety Management (ISM) was established 10 years ago as a new approach to integrating work and safety. The concept was adopted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to enhance safety awareness, upgrade formality of operations, and improve safety pe...
Fire is one of those terrifying treat to the safety of your customers and staff and an issue that demands our utmost attention and diligence at all times. The policy of all licensed premises with respect to fire safety is to prevent fires \\/ emergency situations occurring and to evacuate all persons to a place of safety as quickly as
The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates
Human errors are considered the most important reason for maritime accidents. The international safety management code (the ISM Code) has been established to clarify the responsibilities of safety on vessels and to cut down the occurrence of human errors by creating a safety-oriented organizational culture for the maritime industry. The ISM Code came into operation in worldwide shipping in 1998.
|The Multimedia Tool Box Talk is a web-based quick reference safety guide and training tool for construction personnel. An intended outcome of this effort was to provide an efficient and effective way to locate and interpret crucial safety information while at the job site. The tool includes information from the Occupational Safety and Health…
The overall safety objective set by (EFRUG) the European Fast Reactor Utilities Group is that the EFR should be licensable in any of the countries in the EFR collaboration with a minimum of changes from the basic design to comply with the national requirements. To achieve this objective, some fundamental safety principles must be applied: (1) The safety level for
This paper substantiates that experience by formalizing safety and liveness in a way that permits the relationship between safety and invariance and between liveness and wellfoundedness to be demonstrated for a large class of properties. In so doing, we give new characterizations of safety and liveness and prove that they satisfy the formal definitions in [Alpera & Schneider 85a
The Water Safety page, available from the LaCoast web site, is part of a coloring book to teach children about water safety. The page features water safety such as, buddies, staying in the swimming area, and swimming with adult supervision.
Several aspects of school safety and protection are presented for school administrators and architects. Among those topics discussed are--(1) life safety, (2) vandalism controlled through proper design, (3) personal protective devices, and (4) fire alarm systems. Another critical factor in providing a complete school safety program is proper…
This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
The degree of safety associated with power production by different types of nuclear power plants and with the processing and storage of radioactive wastes is assessed. Nuclear power plant designs incorporate redundant and overlapping safety control systems to guard against component failures and misfunctions. Additional safety systems and special design features are included to minimize the consequences of a wide
We propose an initial set of six system safety archetypes that model common dynamic organizational behaviours that often lead to accidents. The archetypes help clarify why safety-related decisions do not always result in the desired behaviour, and how independent decisions in different pans of the organization can combine to have a negative, and often unforeseen, impact on safety. Examples from
... SAFETY 1N NUM3ERS Archive NHTSA Statement on 5-Star Safety Ratings The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration ... vehicles they are considering purchasing. The agency’s 5-Star Safety Ratings program is designed to provide consumers ...
A safety device for cooperation with the internal safety mechanism of a firearm to provide an audible signal to the shooter when the safety is off and the weapon is ready to fire. A main body member located adjacent the firearm trigger guard at the location of the conventional safety defines a chamber within which an alarm system is housed including a power source as well as signal generating means. A switch closing member is disposed so as to contact the trigger guard when the safety is off to close a signal generating circuit of the alarm. The alarm system is of modular construction for removable disposition within the main body chamber.
The rapid urbanization of the world has led to an increase in pedestrian involvement in automotive crashes, prompting some countries to establish pedestrian regulations. A promising approach to address pedestriansafety is the use of active lift devices to raise the hood upon detection of a pedestrian impact, thereby increasing the crush distance between the hood and vehicle hard points
James Otten; Jonathan Luntz; Diann Brei; Kenneth A. Strom; Alan L. Browne; Nancy L. Johnson
... size of this risk, as well as to include new safety information about patients who have taken other drugs that suppress the immune system, who may ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety
Text Version... 4 Page 5. Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Project • Established in 1990 ... 5 Page 6. Participating VSD MCOs Group Health Cooperative ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ``safety class items.`` Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the `safety function` level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ``Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,`` at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above.
The present paper focuses on safety related attitudes\\/culture and management aboard Norwegian-owned tankers. The data set used in this paper is part of a larger survey study of attitudes towards safety and risk at sea. During the summer and autumn of 2002, a questionnaire was distributed in a self-administered format to seafarers aboard 63 tankers owned by eight shipping companies.
|The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…
Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system safety,…
Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).
Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones’ immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research
Robert R. Sinclair; James E. Martin; Lindsay E. Sears
The International Atomic Energy Agency, the organization concerned with worldwide nuclear safety has produced two international conventions to provide (1) prompt notification of nuclear accidents and (2) procedures to facilitate mutual assistance during an emergency. IAEA has also expanded operational safety review team missions, enhanced information exchange on operational safety events at nuclear power plants, and planned a review of its nuclear safety standards to ensure that they include the lessons learned from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. However, there appears to be a nearly unanimous belief among IAEA members that may attempt to impose international safety standards verified by an international inspection program would infringe on national sovereignty. Although several Western European countries have proposed establishing binding safety standards and inspections, no specific plant have been made; IAEA's member states are unlikely to adopt such standards and an inspection program.
In this report presented at a California Air Resources Board (CARB) workshop by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), the relationship between mass, size, safety, and materials are examined. After describing the factors influencing vehicle safety (drivers and environment, size and weight, crashworthiness, and materials), solutions to safer vehicles are presented. It is determined to improve safety, mass should be reduced through the use of lighter high-strength materials (aluminum and steel), while also improving vehicle geometry and design to absorb impact. An example of improved safety through high strength-materials and geometry is illustrated with design changes Honda has made to the Civic (05-06 models). Also compared in this report are material and safety studies by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of pedestrian deaths due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) between age groups in New York City (NYC), with a comparison to national data.Methods: Review of MVC pedestrian deaths in NYC and the US from 1998 to 2002. Data on deaths were obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.Results: Almost half (48%) of all MVC
With increasing emphasis on hands-on inquiry activities, teachers need to be as knowledgeable as possible about safety. Unfortunately, accidents in science classrooms are no exception! As a result, the theme of this issue of The Science Teacher (TST) is Science Safety. The Field Editor highlights several articles that address this theme and announces an ongoing "Spotlight on Safety" feature that will appear in upcoming issues of TST.
The science of measuring safety is gradually maturing. Some measures of safety lend themselves to rates, while others do not.\\u000a We have described an approach for organizations to answer the question, “Are patients safer?” We also have summarized the\\u000a issues regarding measuring and improving reliability, and provided a framework for improving safety. With these measures,\\u000a we defer to the wisdom
Peter J. Pronovost; Marlene Miller; Brad Winters; Elizabeth Hunt
The emergence of a safety culture in shipping has been promoted, especially by the Secretary General of the International\\u000a Maritime Organization. However, what is really meant by a safety culture? The adoption of the International Safety Management\\u000a Code and of the amended International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, STCW\\u000a 95, together with the introduction of
... improving lettuce safety. Alert consumers early and respond rapidly in the event of an outbreak. Document observations ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood
|Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
The document takes into account the developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety.
Pedestrians are the vulnerable participants in transportation system when crashes happen. It is important to detect pedestrian efficiently and accurately in many computer vision applications, such as intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) and safety driving assistant systems (SDASs). This paper proposes a two-stage pedestrian detection method based on machine vision. In the first stage, AdaBoost algorithm and cascading method are adopted
Efficiently and accurately detecting pedestrian plays a very important role in many computer vision applications such as Intelligent Transportation System and Safety Driving Assistant. This paper puts forwards a two-stage pedestrian detection method based on machine vision. Firstly, the expanded Haar-like characteristic is selected and calculated using integral map and the pedestrian detection cascaded classifiers with high accuracy are trained
Guo Lie; Zhang Mingheng; Li Linhui; Zhao Yibing; Wang Rongben
The problem of pedestrian injury is a significant one throughout the world. In 2001, there were 4724 pedestrian fatalities in Europe and 4882 in the US. Significant advances have been made by automotive safety researchers and vehicle manufacturers to address this issue with respect to the design of vehicles, but the complex nature of pedestrian accident scenarios has resulted in
Created in 1965 by the North Carolina General Assembly, the Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC) is dedicated to improving "the safety, security, access and efficiency of all surface transportation modes through a balanced, interdisciplinary program of research, evaluation and information dissemination." Part of that information dissemination happens via this website, where visitors can find safety information, research reports, and their newsletter. New visitors should look at their "Safety Information" first. Here they will find helpful tips on bicycle safety, pedestriansafety, animal-vehicle crash information, and distracted and drowsy drivers. Moving on, the "Research Library" area contains selected full-text publications based on HSRC staff research, along with an exhaustive bibliography of previous papers from 1967 to 1990. Finally, visitors can also peruse their newsletter, which is published quarterly.
Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestriansafety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…
|Reports a survey that documented the health and safety behaviors of parents of children in Head Start programs. Nearly all parents reported using car seats, teaching handwashing and pedestriansafety, and locking away medicine and alcohol. Sixty percent reported storing guns and bullets safely, possessing working fire extinguishers, and having…
This review synthesizes the empirical literature (1976-2006) focusing on teaching personal safety skills to persons with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-six investigations were identified which provided information on six areas of instruction: (a) pedestrian/street crossing safety; (b) home accident prevention; (c) application of first aid…
|This final volume of a four-volume study considers the need for personnel for traffic control, police traffic services, pedestriansafety, school bus safety, and debris hazard control and cleanup. Training requirements to meet national objectives are discussed, in terms of curriculum, staffing, student recruitment, facilities, equipment and…
|Discusses four elements of safety programs: (1) safety training; (2) safety inspections; (3) accident investigations; and (4) protective safety equipment. Also discusses safety considerations in water/wastewater treatment facilities focusing on falls, drowning hazards, trickling filters, confined space entry, collection/distribution system…
ObjectivesRecently several concerns regarding vaccine safety have received significant media attention. Primary care physicians are the most common interface for parents with the immunization delivery system and are likely to have the greatest opportunity for exposure and experience with parental vaccine safety concerns.
Gary L Freed; Sarah J Clark; Beth F Hibbs; Jeanne M Santoli
Safety for Agricultural Educators (SAGE) is a two-sided fact sheet on agricultural hazards that has been distributed by the New York Center for Agricultural Medicine and Health (NYCAMH) to Northeastern high school agriculture educators over the past six years. It was intended to supplement and stimulate the teaching of safety principles in agricultural education classes and thus enhance the awareness
|Examines the impact of the 1981 U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission guidelines for playground safety. Although compliance with the guidelines has not stemmed the rising number of accidents, it has enhanced awareness. This article offers an action plan which all communities can use to help alleviate liability problems. (SM)|
|Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…
Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.
Unlike all other engineering disciplines, safety engineering is consensus driven, not research driven. It is almost devoid of physical laws to guide its practitioners. Instead, rules of thumb dominate the behavior of manufacturers, designers, maintenance workers, operators, legislators and code writers. Because rules of thumb presently represent the foundation of safety engineering, it is important to develop a perspective on
Ralph L. Barnett; Peter J. Poczynok; Dolores Gildin; S. Carl Uzgiris; Dennis B. Brickman; Kenneth L. d'Entremont; Michael A. Dilich; Christopher W. Ferrone; Suzanne A. Glowiak; John M. Goebelbecker; Crispin Hales; Gary M. Hutter; Brian D. King; Dror Kopernik; Woodrow Nelson; R. Kevin; Harry R. Smith; William G. Switalski; Andrew H. Tudor; James R. Wingfield; Lucinda Fuller; Betty Bellows; Marna Forbes; Maureen Gilligan; Jan A. KIng; Norene Kramer; Florence Lasky; Neil Miller; Jackie Schwartz; Peter Warner; Steven Witt; John P. Bederka; Jr. Richard Gullickson; Diane K. Moshman; James T. O'Donnell; William D. Sheridan; Audrone M. Stake; Shelley Hamilton; Jeffrey W. Abendshien; Theodore Liber
A probabilistic safety criterion for isotropic flywheel rotors is established based on the tolerated noncontainment failure rates of commercial aircraft turbojet engine rotors. A technique is developed combining reliability with fracture mechanics, and a sample calculation provided, to show the energy-storage levels that isotropic flywheel rotors could achieve within the constraints of this safety criterion.
|Safety information is discussed and outlined in this guide. Areas include: (1) general laboratory safety rules; (2) general rules and guidelines for animals in the elementary classroom; (3) general guidelines for the physical sciences; (4) general rules for using animals in investigations, with specifics on the care and handling of mammals,…
Presents a simple, 10-item quiz designed to make students aware that they must learn laboratory safety. The items include questions on acid/base accidents, several types of fire extinguishers, and safety glassses. Answers and some explanations are included. (DH)
|Describes what principals can do to protect children from food-related illness in school: Forming of food-safe school teams, developing food-safety procedures, including food safety in crises-management plans, educating staff on plans and procedures, encouraging hand washing, making sure the cafeteria works properly, and encouraging the hiring of…
|This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…
This manual is intended to help teachers, administrators, and local school boards develop and institute effective safety education as a part of all vocational instruction in the public schools of Idaho. This guide is organized in 13 sections that cover the following topics: introduction to safety education, legislation, levels of responsibility,…
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.
Problem: Governments and businesses must respond to increasing safety requirements and balance the associated costs with productivity and competing pressures. Method: A real options approach has been introduced for decision making in the private sector; this approach is adapted for regulatory decisions that can involve irreversible and uncertain safety impacts, social costs that differ from private costs, and differences in
The difference between reliability, fail safe, and safety is pointed out and a methodology for system safety studies for manned space flights is presented. The method defines undesirable events, traces their sources, and identifies links and barriers between events and sources, for each mission phase.
|This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. It is a short guide to workplace health and safety issues, laws, and regulations, especially in Massachusetts. Topics covered include the following: (1) safety issues--workplace ergonomics, the…
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
The industry's workforce is getting grayer as veteran miners approach retirement, and greener as new hires come onboard. Will the changing complexion of the industry affect future safety technology? The article discusses problems of noise, vibration, and communication faced by coal miners and reports some developments by manufacturers of mining equipment to improve health and safety. 1 fig., 4 photos.
The establishment of an independent nuclear safety regulatory body is necessary for ensuring the safety of nuclear installations and nuclear fuel. Therefore the National Nuclear Safety Administration was established by the state. The aim, purpose, organiz...
In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles,...
The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper...
A naturalistic field study was conducted to assess the effects of garment color, the amount of background material, pedestrian arm motion, scene complexity, and driver age on the daytime conspicuity of personal safety garments. Sixteen drivers drove instr...
As automobile transportation continues to increase around the world, bicyclists, pedestrians, and motorcyclists, also known as vulnerable road users (VRUs), will become more susceptible to traffic crashes, especially in countries where traffic laws are poorly enforced. Many countries, however, are employing innovative strategies to ensure that road users can more safely navigate the urban landscape. While bicyclists and motorcyclists are important road users, this paper will focus on pedestrian crash problems and solutions. Pedestrians are most at risk in urban areas due in part to the large amount of pedestrian and vehicle activity in urban areas. With this in mind, designing safe, accessible, and comprehensive facilities for pedestrians is vital to reducing pedestrian crashes. This paper will provide some insight into the magnitude of the pedestrian crash problem around the world, and will offer some lessons learned from several countries, particularly in Europe and the U.S., for improving pedestriansafety. Beginning with pedestriansafety statistics at the global, regional, and national levels, this paper will address potential countermeasures and strategies for improving pedestriansafety from an international perspective. PMID:22062330
Using a simulation game designed to teach children to obey certain traffic safety rules, an experimental study was conducted with 136 five-year-old children in four Quebec schools. Within each classroom, subjects were randomly divided into four groups: three intervention groups and one control group. Each of the experimental groups was subjected to a different intervention with outcome measured using three instruments related to attitudes, behavior, and transfer of learning of pedestrian traffic safety. Results suggest that simulation games including role-playing/group dynamics and modeling/training can change attitudes and modify behavior in the area of pedestrian traffic safety in children of this age.
In response to evidence that adverse medical events are widespread, patient safety programs have emerged and proliferated worldwide in recent years. Patient safety may be considered a new and distinct healthcare discipline. It emphasizes the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical errors that can lead to adverse healthcare events. While this is a useful generic definition, it takes on different meanings for each healthcare discipline. When patient safety programs were studied, it was found that many are generic and may be inappropriately focused and researched. In planning a patient safety program, the basis of patient safety programs for all disciplines will have similarities. But each discipline will require nuances specific to the discipline since the goals, objectives, and requirements of each are unique. Furthermore, each discipline will have its own preferred outcomes that may change over time as new data become available and service providers become more knowledgeable of ways to increase the likelihood of desired outcomes. PMID:24013250
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Network (PSNet) website contains recent news and resources to provide those studying to be in the medical profession and for those currently in the medical field. Resources include an extensive glossary as well as a vast supply of articles from various periodicals. The site also contains numerous Ã¯Â¿Â½Did You Know?Ã¯Â¿Â½ articles that include visual aids and citations. Articles can be sorted or browsed by target audience, resource type, clinical area, error type, safety target, approach to improving safety, and setting of care. Users have the ability to sign up for the weekly AHRQ Patient Safety Network and monthly AHRQ Web Morbidity and Mortality (WEBM&M) newsletters. Users may also sign up for a free account on the AHRQ Patient Safety Network website to receive e-mail alerts that match the users' interests.
The overall safety objective set by (EFRUG) the European Fast Reactor Utilities Group is that the EFR should be licensable in any of the countries in the EFR collaboration with a minimum of changes from the basic design to comply with the national requirements. To achieve this objective, some fundamental safety principles must be applied: (1) The safety level for the EFR design should be at least as good as that for a contemporaneous thermal reactor in the respective countries. (2) As a result of normal operation, appropriate dose limits to the operators and the public shall be respected and shall be as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP principle). (3) All reasonable practicable steps shall be taken to prevent accidents and to minimize the radiological consequences of accidents should they occur. This paper first describes the general safety objectives leading to the detailed safety requirements derived from these fundamental principles. Examples of how the design fulfills these objectives are then briefly described.
As the sales of surgical lasers continue to grow, the problem of laser safety in hospitals becomes increasingly more urgent. This article considers both the principles and the practice of laser safety, and indicates how safety codes should be organized within a hospital. Eye safety is of paramount importance, and the effects of different wavelengths of laser radiation on the eye are described, both for intrabeam and extended-source exposure. An account is given of the concept of Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) and how it depends upon wavelength and exposure duration. The standard laser classification is developed in relation to MPE. The use of laser protective eyewear is discussed for the surgeon, other theatre staff and the patient. Finally, the role of the Laser Protection Supervisor and of the Laser Protection Adviser are explained in the context of establishing a local laser safety code. PMID:6527370
In order to provide a level of awareness relative to liability, the NSTA Board charged a committee with the task of rewriting the NSTA Position Statement on Liability of Science Educators for Laboratory Safety. This article outlines four basic questions for teachers to consider prior to engaging in potentially dangerous science activities. They are based on the language found in the position statement.
As far as schools are concerned, there are three kinds of safety: physical, emotional, and intellectual. Excellence demands all three, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. How can parents and others determine whether a school is physically safe? It's always good to find out how many students were suspended at a particular…
The commercial nuclear industry, the US Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, and the DOE nuclear complex have used various models to operate and manage complex nuclear facilities in a safe manner. These models have focused primarily on operating parameters and design control. Using the idea of a safety envelope, the authors describe a new model that depicts the interrelationship of these
Motor vehicle crashes killed almost 5,000 pedestrians in 2005 in the United States. Pedestrian risk may be higher in areas characterized by urban sprawl. From 2000 to 2004, pedestrian fatality rates declined in the United States, but the Atlanta metropolitan statistical area did not experience the same decline. Pedestrian fatality rates for males, Hispanics, and the 15-34 and 35-54 year age groups were higher in Atlanta than in the United States overall. Pedestriansafety interventions should be targeted to high-risk populations and localized pedestrian settings. PMID:18054592
Beck, Laurie F; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Davidson, Stephen C
This paper reports that since the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986, over 70 of the International Atomic Energy Agency's 112 member states have adopted two conventions to enhance international cooperation by providing timely notification of an accident and emergency assistance. The Agency and other international organizations also developed programs to improve nuclear power plant safety and minimize dangers from radioactive contamination. Despite meaningful improvements, some of the measures have limitations, and serious nuclear safety problems remain in the design and operation of the older, Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. The Agency's ability to select reactors under its operational safety review program is limited. Also, information on the extent and seriousness of safety-related incidents at reactors in foreign countries is not publicly available. No agreements exist among nuclear power countries to make compliance with an nuclear safety standards or principles mandatory. Currently, adherence to international safety standards or principles is voluntary and nonbinding. Some states support the concept of mandatory compliance, but others, including the United States, believe that mandatory compliance infringes on national sovereignty and that the responsibility for nuclear reactor safety remains with each nation.
Background: Improving patient safety is an increasing priority for surgeons and hospitals since sentinel events can be catastrophic for patients, caregivers, and institutions. Patient safety initiatives aimed at creating a safe operating room (OR) culture are increasingly being adopted, but a reliable means of measuring their impact on front-line providers does not exist. Methods: We developed a surgery-specific safety questionnaire (SAQ) and administered it to 2769 eligible caregivers at 60 hospitals. Survey questions included the appropriateness of handling medical errors, knowledge of reporting systems, and perceptions of safety in the operating room. MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to compare safety results by hospital and by an individual's position in the OR using a composite score. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the structure of the scale at the operating room level of analysis. Results: The overall response rate was 77.1% (2135 of 2769), with a range of 57% to 100%. Factor analysis of the survey items demonstrated high face validity and internal consistency (? = 0.76). The safety climate scale was robust and internally consistent overall and across positions. Scores varied widely by hospital [MANOVA omnibus F (59, 1910) = 3.85, P < 0.001], but not position [ANOVA F (4, 1910) = 1.64, P = 0.16], surgeon (mean = 73.91), technician (mean = 70.26), anesthesiologist (mean = 71.57), CRNA (mean = 71.03), and nurse (mean = 70.40). The percent of respondents reporting good safety climate in each hospital ranged from 16.3% to 100%. Conclusions: Safety climate in surgical departments can be validly measured and varies widely among hospitals, providing the opportunity to benchmark performance. Scores on the SAQ can serve to evaluate interventions to improve patient safety.
Makary, Martin A.; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A.; Millman, E Anne; Pryor, David; Holzmueller, Christine; Pronovost, Peter J.
A complete guide to environmental, safety, and health engineering, including an overview of EPA and OSHA regulations; principles of environmental engineering, including pollution prevention, waste and wastewater treatment and disposal, environmental statistics, air emissions and abatement engineering, and hazardous waste storage and containment; principles of safety engineering, including safety management, equipment safety, fire and life safety, process and system safety, confined space safety, and construction safety; and principles of industrial hygiene/occupational health engineering including chemical hazard assessment, personal protective equipment, industrial ventilation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise, and ergonomics.
The importance of leadership for effective safety management has been the focus of research attention in industry for a number of years, especially in energy and manufacturing sectors. In contrast, very little research into leadership and safety has been carried out in medical settings. A selective review of the industrial safety literature for leadership research with possible application in health care was undertaken. Emerging findings show the importance of participative, transformational styles for safety performance at all levels of management. Transactional styles with attention to monitoring and reinforcement of workers' safety behaviours have been shown to be effective at the supervisory level. Middle managers need to be involved in safety and foster open communication, while ensuring compliance with safety systems. They should allow supervisors a degree of autonomy for safety initiatives. Senior managers have a prime influence on the organisation's safety culture. They need to continuously demonstrate a visible commitment to safety, best indicated by the time they devote to safety matters.
Text Version... BUN and creatinine when tested with a ... by the Predictive Safety Testing Consortium (PSTC). ... urinary biomarkers using the test parameters submitted ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess
... of Parents' Attitudes and Self-Reported Behaviors Concerning Sports Safety (2011) This Safe Kids Worldwide national survey ... at how and what parents believe about children’s sports-related injuries, and where the knowledge gap is. ...
This video from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center explains aerospace operational safety including contaminants and cleanliness. This three and a half minute video is one of the aerospace certification readiness courses.
... if possible. Buy medicines with child-resistant caps. Place all medications out of the reach of children. Keep cosmetics and nail polish out of reach. Put safety latches on cabinets that a child should not ...
The Children's Safety Research Project (CSRP) was a two year project funded by the Centers for Disease Control examining factors related to parental compliance with injury prevention recommendations. It examined the impact of two different interventions, ...
For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care Nail care Tips ... series Home Dermatology A to Z Health and beauty Nail care Manicure, pedicure safety Manicure and pedicure ...
A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes exp...
Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three par...
W. Y. Kato E. V. Weinstock J. F. Carew R. J. Cerbone J. G. Guppy
This document provides a set of guidelines in the preparation of criticality safety postings. Guidance is provided in word choice, word arrangement, common human factors considerations. and use of color to highlight limits, cautions, and permissives.
Using the first 30 minutes of the film Jurassic Park, the student will audit it for violations of safety rules and regulations, OSHA violations, and violations of HASP's. Access to the activity required free and quick registration with ATEEC.
Text Version... for skin graft adherence in 138 burn patients. ... this age group requiring graft adherence for burns are rare ... and safety of ARTISS in pediatric patients (1 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program. This program includes working area monitoring (WAM), personnel radiation monitoring (PRM), education for radiation protection (ERP), preparing for KMRR operation and deve...
K. W. Seo Y. S. You S. Y. Chang Y. C. Yoon S. C. Yoon
... Falls Window Safety Poisoning Carbon Monoxide Lead Poisoning Radon and Radiation Resources Up and Away Burns Choking ... prescription medicines found in the home. Carbon Monoxide , radon and lead poisoning are several of the leading ...
This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite structures. Presented October 17, 2006
... FDA Drug Safety Podcast: FDA requiring color changes to Duragesic (fentanyl) pain ... due to risk of serious psychiatric and nerve side effects, July 29 ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts
The Hermes space vehicle currently in project for the European Space Agency will open the road to European autonomous manned space missions at the beginning of the 21st century. The safety objectives are very ambitious and will require the implementation of a comprehensive safety assurance program, aimed at reducing the risks to an acceptable level. The risk acceptance is based on identification, ranking and minimization of Critical Items including all potential departures from the safety requirements. Prime contractors shall prepare a Critical Item List for their elements, and submit it to the Hermes Program Directorate for review; approval of the residual open critical items shall be obtained before launch. An independent committee (HESAC) has been set up by the ESA and the French National Space Center (CNES) Directors General to assess the adequacy of the Safety Control Program.
... until they have reached the maximum weight and height limits recommended by the manufacturer. Many parents have ... a crash. So it's essential to follow the height and weight guidelines on the child safety seat ...
Text Version... The purpose of this review is to provide the Pediatric Advisory Committee (PAC) with post- marketing safety data ... Medical Dictionary for Regulatory ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
... let health care providers, patients, and consumers ... listing of all Drug Safety Communications. ... create supplemental materials, like articles for journals ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals
This catalog provides reference information on radar tracking transponders used to support range-safety functions at the DOD and NASA test ranges and facilities. The information is taken from manufacturer supplied specifications and is provided as referen...
|An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)|
... use of the chemical; its proper handling, safe storage and first aid information. • Obtain Material Safety Data ... sure to keep a set separate from the storage area. • Have on hand and wear the personal ...
... around manure pits or storage areas. Safety Around Storage Areas In addition to all the temptations of ... and animals, farms may have a barn or storage areas separate from the house. They may seem ...
... Now, the Internet, social media, and emerging technologies allow FDA to be more ... to stay informed of the latest drug safety information and FDA's ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals
Applying safety behavior science into safety control meets the need of present, and it is the tendency of modern safety management. In this paper, the organization factors (safety climate, safety culture, and organization safety behavior) and individual factors (safety consciousness and safety skill) which affect safety behaviors of staff, the staff safety behavior's intervention methods (goal establishment, feedback and training)
This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety positively relates to both team priority of safety and psychological safety. In turn, team priority of safety and team psychological safety were, respectively, negatively and positively related with the number of treatment errors that were reported to head nurses. We further demonstrated an interaction effect between team priority of safety and psychological safety on reported errors such that the relationship between team priority of safety and the number of errors was stronger for higher levels of team psychological safety. Finally, we showed that both team priority of safety and team psychological safety mediated the relationship between leader behavioral integrity for safety and reported treatment errors. These results suggest that although adhering to safety protocols and admitting mistakes against those protocols show opposite relations to reported treatment errors, both are important to improving patient safety and both are fostered by leaders who walk their safety talk. PMID:22985115
Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Anseel, Frederik; Simons, Tony; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; McCaughey, Deirdre; Savage, Grant T; Sels, Luc
|We developed and implemented a yearlong safety program into our organic chemistry lab courses that aims to enhance student attitudes toward safety and to ensure students learn to recognize, demonstrate, and assess safe laboratory practices. This active, collaborative program involves the use of student "safety teams" and includes hands-on safety…
Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Tanner, Martha J.; Ferrenberg, Scott M.
A self-regulatory model was proposed to examine how different organisations manage safety, with particular emphasis on the human and organisational aspects. The relationships of different aspects of safety culture and safety management systems were explored through the deployment of different research measures and methods. Studies of four aircraft maintenance organisations included analysis of documentation and qualitative interviews, surveys of safety
Software has become responsible for most of the critical functions of complex systems. Software safety is the notion that software will execute within a system context without contributing to hazards. Software for safety-critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysis in order to make the system safe. Software safety is a composite of many criteria. Existing software
\\u000a It has been a decade since the Institute of Medicine raised the call to action for patient safety in their landmark report,\\u000a To Err Is Human, which brought to the public’s attention the significant problems with patient safety in our healthcare system. This call\\u000a to action has been heeded by many healthcare leaders, who are actively and vigorously addressing patient
Bradford D. Winters; Peter J. Pronovost; Marlene Miller; Elizabeth A. Hunt
Aspects of industrial safety related to the use and the production of artificial radiation sources are treated with emphasis on UV radiation. Application of artificial radiation sources, whereby the radiation is used in the working process or is present as a perturbation, are outlined. Biological action functions and radiation thresholds for industrial safety are discussed. Spectral and integral measuring methods and apparatus are presented. Examples of measurements performed at workplaces exposed to radiation are given.
Industrial safety is an important issue in Thailand, and attempts have been made to improve safety performance and accident records. This paper examines key criteria influencing safety improvement. Exploratory factor analysis confirms 9 safety criteria, including 5 "enablers" and 4 "results", with a total of 47 associated attributes. A safety assessment approach is developed, using those 9 key criteria, to measure an organization's current safety maturity level. Organizations can use the assessment approach to plan its safety improvement, and progress through to higher maturity levels by focusing on the weakest criteria shown in the assessment results with the lowest scores. PMID:22995133
The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.
The Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires that all activities be conducted in a manner that protects the safety of the public and provides a safe and healthful workplace for employees. DOE has also prescribed that all personnel be protected in any explosives operation undertaken. The level of safety provided shall be at least equivalent to that of the best industrial practice. The risk of death or serious injury shall be limited to the lowest practicable minimum. DOE and contractors shall continually review their explosives operations with the aim of achieving further refinements and improvements in safety practices and protective features. This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in explosives safety. In addition, it is essential that applicable criteria and requirements for implementing this policy be readily available and known to those responsible for conducting DOE programs. This document shall be periodically reviewed and updated to establish new requirements as appropriate. Users are requested to submit suggestions for improving the DOE Explosives Safety Manual through their appropriate Operations Office to the Office of Quality Programs.
The present paper examines safety management and safety culture as psychological research topics and intervention strategies\\u000a in the specific context of process control industries. Structured methods and techniques as well as new information technologies\\u000a are pointed out as key issues of Safety Management Systems. Safety Culture as an up-coming concept in addition to traditional\\u000a Safety Management is illustrated in terms
The safety problems of research reactors are discussed. Safety of these ; reactors depends principally from the rahin them, and the penetrating radiations ; emitted. The safety requirements for reactivity containments, control ; instruments and mechanisms, guaranteed supplies, and operations of the research ; reactors are described. The safety problems of high-flux reactors (10 to 20 Mwt) ; are discussed
Risk assessment and risk management techniques are being developed in many fields as an aid to safety investment decision making. Already these techniques are having impacts upon aspects of consumer safety which overlap with other sectors where safety is important and where these methods are being applied. Recent examples where this has happened range from public transportation to the safety
Road vehicle safety systems can be broadly classified into the two categories of passive and active systems. The aim of passive safety systems is to reduce risk of injury to the occupants of the vehicle during and after an accident like a crash or rollover. Passive safety systems include the design of safety restraints, design for crashworthiness, seat belts and
Speed humps are a common physical measure installed at pedestrian crossings to reduce vehicle speeds therefore improve the safety and mobility of pedestrians at the crossing. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in distance between speed humps and pedestrian crossings contribute differently to the safety and mobility of pedestrians and cyclists, especially children and the elderly, and if so, how. Three sites in Sweden were studied, where vehicle speed measurements and video filming at the site resulted in manually coded, road user behaviour of 1972 pedestrians and cyclists. Road user behaviour at three test sites and two comparison sites equipped with speed cushion at distances of about 5m and 10 m from the pedestrian crossing, i.e. about one or two car lengths, were studied. As vehicle speeds were somewhat lower at the pedestrian crossing when the distance between the speed cushion to the pedestrian crossing was greater, and there were positive aspects regarding the mobility of the pedestrians and cyclists, a greater distance of about 10 m or two car lengths between the hump and the pedestrian crossing is suggested. The present study only covers speed cushions, but the same distance is also regarded as important when installing other types of physical measures to reduce vehicle speed. PMID:21658513
Johansson, Charlotta; Rosander, Peter; Leden, Lars
Pedestrian-vehicle conflicts are considered as a common safety problem at signalized intersections. The threat to pedestriansafety is mainly related to the interaction with turning vehicles, especially left-turners (left-hand traffic system). This study aims to analyze the lag/gap acceptance behavior of left-turners considering pedestrian movement at signalized crosswalks. Furthermore, the severity of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts is addressed by analyzing vehicle speeds at the conflict points. User behavior at several signalized intersections in Japan is observed by using video cameras. It is assumed that pedestrian movements have their origin at either the near-side (the side of the exiting vehicular traffic) or far-side of the crosswalk. Accepted/rejected lags and gaps are extracted, classified depending on the direction of pedestrian movement, and modeled by using Cumulative Weibull distribution function. The results show that drivers tend to accept shorter lags/gaps between near-side pedestrians compared to far side pedestrians. Furthermore, drivers tend to accept short lags while being conservative about short gaps. Simultaneously vehicles clear the conflict area with significantly higher speeds when accepting lags with single pedestrians. This indicates that the conflicts that occur at low pedestrian demand levels are more severe compared to those at high demand levels. PMID:23200452
Alhajyaseen, Wael K M; Asano, Miho; Nakamura, Hideki
Crashes between pedestrians and motor vehicles are an important traffic safety concern. This paper explores the assignment of fault in such crashes, where observed factors are associated with pedestrian at fault, driver at fault, or both at fault. The analysis is based on police reported crash data for 1997 through 2000 in North Carolina, U.S.A. The results show that pedestrians are found at fault in 59% of the crashes, drivers in 32%, and both are found at fault in 9%. The results indicate drivers need to take greater notice of pedestrians when drivers are turning, merging, and backing up as these are some of the prime factors associated with the driver being found at fault in a crash. Pedestrians must apply greater caution when crossing streets, waiting to cross, and when walking along roads, as these are correlated with pedestrians being found at fault. The results suggest a need for campaigns focused on positively affecting pedestrian street-crossing behavior in combination with added jaywalking enforcement. The results also indicate that campaigns to increase the use of pedestrian visibility improvements at night can have a significant positive impact on traffic safety. Intoxication is a concern and the results show that it is not only driver intoxication that is affecting safety, but also pedestrian intoxication. The findings show in combination with other research in the field, that results from traffic safety studies are not necessarily transferable between distant geographic locations, and that location-specific safety research needs to take place. It is also important to further study the specific effects of the design of the pedestrian environment on safety, e.g. crosswalk spacing, signal timings, etc., which together may affect pedestriansafety and pedestrian behavior. PMID:20728631
Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Kim, Sungyop; Booth, Kathleen M
Objective: To study the potential of an active, a passive, and an integrated safety system (combined active and passive) in reducing pedestrian upper body loading in typical impact configurations.Methods: Finite element simulations using models of generic sedan car fronts and the Polar II pedestrian dummy were performed for three impact configurations at two impact speeds. Chest contact force, head injury
Rikard Fredriksson; Jaeho Shin; Costin D. Untaroiu
A unique database provided information on pedestrian accidents, intersection geometry and estimates of pedestrian and vehicle flows for the years 1983-1986 for approximately 300 signalized intersections in Hamilton, Ont., Canada. Pedestriansafety at semi-protected schemes, where left-turning vehicles face no opposing traffic but have potential conflicts with pedestrians, were compared with pedestriansafety at normal non-channelized signalized approaches, where right-turning vehicles have potential conflicts with pedestrians. Four different ways of estimating hourly flows for left- and right-turning vehicles were explored. Hourly flows were estimated for periods of 15 min, hours, two periods a day (a.m. and p.m.) and the 'daily' period (7 h). Parameter estimates were somewhat affected by the time period used for flow estimation. However, parameter estimates seem to be affected far more by the traffic pattern (left- or right-turning traffic), even though approaches were selected such that the situation for left- and right-turning turning traffic was similar (no opposing traffic, no advanced green or other separate phases and no channelization). Left-turning vehicles caused higher risks for pedestrians than right-turning vehicles. At low vehicular flows right turns and semi-protected left turns seemed to be equally safe for pedestrians. When risks for pedestrians were calculated as the expected number of reported pedestrian accidents per pedestrian, risk decreased with increasing pedestrian flows and increased with increasing vehicle flow. As risk decreases with increasing pedestrian flows, promoting walking will have a positive effect on pedestrian risk at signalized intersections. PMID:12067108
Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents, and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval, largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic components--the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine, and methanol--even though dietary exposure to these components is much greater than from aspartame. Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior, cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval. These findings are reviewed here. The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive. When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use. PMID:12180494
Butchko, Harriett H; Stargel, W Wayne; Comer, C Phil; Mayhew, Dale A; Benninger, Christian; Blackburn, George L; de Sonneville, Leo M J; Geha, Raif S; Hertelendy, Zsolt; Koestner, Adalbert; Leon, Arthur S; Liepa, George U; McMartin, Kenneth E; Mendenhall, Charles L; Munro, Ian C; Novotny, Edward J; Renwick, Andrew G; Schiffman, Susan S; Schomer, Donald L; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Spiers, Paul A; Tephly, Thomas R; Thomas, John A; Trefz, Friedrich K
In the past 18 months, American Ref-Fuel, a Houston-based waste-to-energy company, has had three of its plants designated as Star facilities under the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) administered by OSHA. The VPP Star participants are a select group of facilities that have designed and implemented exemplary health and safety programs. They must show performance consistent with the VPP goal of aligning labor, management and OSHA into a cooperative relationship. Having a safe work environment has always been one of the core culture issues at American Ref-Fuel. They have learned the best way to maintain excellence is to listen to how each employee is affected in daily activities by safety issues and take actions to constantly reinforce the message that safety concerns never fall on deaf ears. The VPP process encourages identification of potential safety problems before they occur. The program promotes ongoing integration of safety into all facility activities, with the overall objective of eliminating employee injuries and improving plant performance; two important considerations for plant owners and facility managers searching for new tools to improve their overall bottom line.
Intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians are sources of errors and of resilience. When they learn how to juggle many competing goals, remain vigilant, and tell safety stories--all in the context of changing technologies and demand--they can create safe settings of care. Other strategies (eg, using computerized tools and implementing safety procedures) are important, but alone they are not sufficient. An ICU needs a safety culture that is rooted in a committed leadership, the acknowledgment that error is inevitable, a reporting system, and continuous learning. The all too common norm, "no harm no foul," is an obstacle. ICU leaders can use a campaign strategy to spread the safety practices that sustain a safety culture. They should attend to the political, marketing, and military aspects of such campaigns and recognize that people's time and attention are limited and built projects from existing ongoing pilots. Pilots can compete for people's attention; it has pull when it exemplifies a moral idea, simplifies work, and gives the health care professional more control and feedback. Under these conditions, the campaign will release individuals' passions and add energy and insight to the campaign itself. PMID:15579351
Objective Prior studies have highlighted wide variation in EMS workplace safety culture across agencies. We sought to determine the association between EMS workplace safety culture scores and patient or provider safety outcomes. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to EMS workers affiliated with a convenience sample of agencies. We recruited these agencies from a national EMS management organization. We used the EMS Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (EMS-SAQ) to measure workplace safety culture and the EMS Safety Inventory (EMS-SI), a tool developed to capture self-reported safety outcomes from EMS workers. The EMS-SAQ provides reliable and valid measures of six domains: safety climate, teamwork climate, perceptions of management, perceptions of working conditions, stress recognition, and job satisfaction. A panel of medical directors, paramedics, and occupational epidemiologists developed the EMS-SI to measure self-reported injury, medical errors and adverse events, and safety-compromising behaviors. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the association between EMS-SAQ scores and EMS-SI safety outcome measures. Results Sixteen percent of all respondents reported experiencing an injury in the past 3 months, four of every 10 respondents reported an error or adverse event (AE), and 90% reported safety-compromising behaviors. Respondents reporting injury scored lower on 5 of the 6 domains of safety culture. Respondents reporting an error or AE scored lower for 4 of the 6 domains, while respondents reporting safety-compromising behavior had lower safety culture scores for 5 of 6 domains. Conclusions Individual EMS worker perceptions of workplace safety culture are associated with composite measures of patient and provider safety outcomes. This study is preliminary evidence of the association between safety culture and patient or provider safety outcomes.
Weaver, Matthew D.; Wang, Henry E.; Fairbanks, Rollin J.; Patterson, Daniel
The biological safety cabinet is the one piece of laboratory and pharmacy equipment that provides protection for personnel, the product, and the environment. Through the history of laboratory-acquired infections from the earliest published case to the emergence of hepatitis B and AIDS, the need for health care worker protection is described. A brief description with design, construction, function, and production capabilities is provided for class I and class III safety cabinets. The development of the high-efficiency particulate air filter provided the impetus for clean room technology, from which evolved the class II laminar flow biological safety cabinet. The clean room concept was advanced when the horizontal airflow clean bench was manufactured; it became popular in pharmacies for preparing intravenous solutions because the product was protected. However, as with infectious microorganisms and laboratory workers, individual sensitization to antibiotics and the advent of hazardous antineoplastic agents changed the thinking of pharmacists and nurses, and they began to use the class II safety cabinet to prevent adverse personnel reactions to the drugs. How the class II safety cabinet became the mainstay in laboratories and pharmacies is described, and insight is provided into the formulation of National Sanitation Foundation standard number 49 and its revisions. The working operations of a class II cabinet are described, as are the variations of the four types with regard to design, function, air velocity profiles, and the use of toxins. The main certification procedures are explained, with examples of improper or incorrect certifications. The required levels of containment for microorganisms are given. Instructions for decontaminating the class II biological safety cabinet of infectious agents are provided; unfortunately, there is no method for decontaminating the cabinet of antineoplastic agents. Images
... less than 30º), and end with a flat runoff. Avoid sledding in crowded areas. Snow Skiing and ... night. Stay on marked trails, away from roads, water, railroads and pedestrians. Sun Protection The sun’s rays ...
The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.
In some ways, the laboratory safety standards may seem at odds with science laboratory curriculum expectations in an environment attempting to provide for full inclusion of all students. Clearly, not all students will be able to be fully mainstreamed and may require alternative placement. Careful planning and appropriate accommodations in terms of instructional strategies and assistive technology, however, can provide for equitable access to hands-on science education for all students in a safe learning environment. This free selection includes the section, Build in Safety: OSHA Laboratory Standard , the Table of Contents, Preface, and Index.
Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant.
In this paper the authors present a careful consideration about the role of leadership, the fundamental element for the success of Behavior-Based Safety (B-BS) programs within companies. Lees and Faulkner have been training, coaching and writing about Behavior-Based Safety for the last ten years. Considerable data has been gathered during this process and the paramount factor in its success is leadership. An effective leader can create many spectacular successes. The success stories are all predicated on good leadership, without that a good product, great processes and quality people are all wasted and often find themselves on the rocks of frustration. PMID:20518204
Operating room fires are a rare but preventable danger in modern healthcare operating rooms. Optimal outcomes depend on all operating room personnel being familiar with their roles in fire prevention and fire management. Despite the recommendations of major safety institutes, this familiarity is not the current practice in many healthcare facilities. Members of the anesthesiology and the surgery departments are commonly not actively involved in fire safety programs, fire drills, and fire simulations that could lead to potential delays in prevention and management of intraoperative fires.
This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.
This paper is an introduction to a workshop on safety science and the theory of science. The paper examines a study of helicopter safety in order to identify some of the metascientific problems in safety science. It then considers the nature of safety science in more general terms. Finally, it argues that a considerable part of safety science cannot be expected to conform to orthodox falsified criteria of science. This leads to the conclusion that safety scientists should take the responsibility of proposing and justifying norms for empirical and theoretical work in the area.
Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a comprehensive Safety Analysis and Review System that satisfies Department of Energy safety analysis report requirements. This system consists of interrelated criteria for hazard classification, risk assessment, selection of Safety Class Items (SCIs), and selection of Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). The system provides input for design decisions at appropriate project milestones as required by the life cycle of a project. The criteria used for selection in hazard classification, risk assessment, Safety Class Items (SCI) identification, and Operational Safety Requirement (OSR) identification are the subject of this paper.
Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a comprehensive Safety Analysis and Review System that satisfies Department of Energy safety analysis report requirements. This system consists of interrelated criteria for hazard classification, risk assessment, selection of Safety Class Items (SCIs), and selection of Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs). The system provides input for design decisions at appropriate project milestones as required by the life cycle of a project. The criteria used for selection in hazard classification, risk assessment, Safety Class Items (SCI) identification, and Operational Safety Requirement (OSR) identification are the subject of this paper.
... FDA Drug Safety Communication: New safety requirements for long-acting inhaled asthma medications called Long-Acting Beta-Agonists (LABAs). ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
... FDA Drug Safety Communication: Ongoing safety review of high-dose Zocor (simvastatin) and increased risk of muscle injury. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.
Electron beams and X-rays might make some foods safer to eat. But is irradiation a silver bullet or an industrial-strength placebo for killer contaminants in the food chain? This paper discusses the technology and issues involved in this aspect of food safety. Even though it is highly effective at killing bugs and bacteria, irradiation is at best only a partial
The Internet has afforded hundreds of millions of people the opportunity to access thousands of sites on almost every topic imaginable, and has created a myriad of new employment opportunities, interest groups, and cybercommunities. Regrettably, not every person merging onto the information superhighway is there for such laudable reasons. Stepping into the fray of n'er-do wells is the WiredSafety website, headed by Perry Aftab, an international cyberspace privacy and security lawyer and children's advocate. Registered as a non-profit organization, WiredSafety offers help for online victims of cybercrime and harassment, educational materials about cybercrime, and assistance for law enforcement worldwide on preventing and investigating cybercrimes. A good place to start on the site is Parry's Internet Safety Guide for Parents, which offers a number of helpful tips for parents about monitoring their children's interactions with others over the Internet. WiredSafety also offers Wired-Ed, which is offered free of charge and allows users to learn more about surfing the net safely. Also featured is a wide range of other online courses.
An effective and efficient transportation system has been a top priority in this country for much of the last century. The goals are clearly defined in the U.S. Department of Transportations strategic plan. They include Safety: Promote the public health a...
Advances in safety of blood transfusion in clinical practice principally relate to preventing transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI). Epidemiological studies of TTI have resulted in the development, standardization, and implementation of an expanding array of immunoassays employed worldwide in routine screening of blood donated by voluntary blood donors. Exclusion of infected blood and their donors has remarkably reduced the risk of transmitting
Roger Dodd; W. Kurt Roth; Paul Ashford; Elizabeth M. Dax; Girish Vyas
This 10-chapter handbook (designed for science teachers and school administrators) describes known hazards associated with science teaching and provides information to develop a framework for local safety programs specifically designed to avoid or neutralize the effects of such hazards. Major areas addressed in the chapters include: (1) the nature…
Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Sciences and Elementary Administration.
This document provides a learning module on tempered safety glass. In this activity, instructors demonstrate the fracture toughness of tempered glass, thereby illustrating how the glass is toughened and introducing the concept of the fractography of glass. It can be used in classrooms from elementary to college levels.
This invention consists of an electrical safety device for use in power tools that is designed to automatically discontinue operation of the power tool upon physical contact of the tool with a concealed conductive material. A step down transformer is used...
|Describes the "Observatoire national de la securite des etablissements scolaires et d'enseignement superieur," a national agency established by the French government in 1995 to ensure safety in schools and colleges. Its annual reports, drawn up in conjunction with experts, are sent out to government, public authorities, and any stakeholders with…
The Safety Helmet Lockout System comprised of a safety helmet with a uniqely keyed system contained within its cranial webbing and chinstrap that has the ability to sense when said helmet is securely strapped upon the wearers head. The chinstrap contains a locking buckle which releases a uniqely keyed enabling key and/or a signal upon sensing that said safety helmet is securely strapped upon the wearers head. Several means of sensing are possible, but the preferred embodiment employs physio sensors located within the cranial webbing and chinstrap of said safety helmet. The locking buckle which is located on the chinstrap, releases said enabling key or signal after recieving signals from all the physio sensors, and sensing tension in the chinstrap. The released enabling key, or emitted signal, can then be used to access vehicles, sporting goods, industrial equipment, tools, passage locks, and the like. The access locks can range from simple ignition locks and passage locks, to retracting pin or keyed brake systems, keyed clutch systems, and specialty lockout systems for certain applications (such as, but not limited to, skiis, snowboards, and snowmobiles).
Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094
The Laboratory of Electrical Engineering and Health (LEEH), at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) has been actively improving the quality of teaching for its courses. This has been done, e.g., by using new WWW applications, projects and workshops, as well as case exercises. The significance of electrical safety has recently become a more important issue, due to the change in
S. Kuusiluoma; T. Keikko; T. Mannila; T. Sauramäki; P. Laitinen; L. Korpinen
Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)
The revised edition of this handbook represents a concerted effort to bring school safety to the forefront of business managers' daily and long-range planning activities. Although statistics show few fatalities on school grounds, schools appear to have a high frequency and incident rate of nonfatal injuries. According to the introduction, school…
Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.
|In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be…
|Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…
In this paper we show that a more formal treatment of 'confidence' is needed in the arguments that make up 'dependability cases'. By a dependability case here, we have in mind a generalisation of the more usual safety case - namely a formal argument, based upon appropriate evidence, that a particular system is sufficiently dependable to be acceptable for use.
The training manual serves as the text for the Coast Guard's boating safety 32-hour course and for the D-8 Qualification Code Recertification Course. The manual is designed for self-study or for use with an instructor-led course. Each chapter concludes with a quiz to be used as a review of chaper content. Opening chapters review the use of the…
In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…
The author contends that safety and accident prevention should be given primary consideration in a school system's risk management program. He argues that accidents and losses are symptoms of defects in the management system. Two classes of loss discussed are (1) accidental -- injury/loss resulting from unintended events; and (2) purposeful --…
Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…
Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.
As we complete the preparations for the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission, we note an anniversary approaching: it was 30 years ago in July that the first HST payload safety review panel meeting was held. This, in turn, was just over a ...
Recent studies have provided new insights into the ways that plants may dissipate excess photons and electrons, thereby protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against light-induced damage. These ‘safety valves’ include nonphotochemical mechanisms for quenching excited chlorophylls, as well as alternative electron acceptors such as oxygen.
How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a “safety valve” that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the
|Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)|
Only a fool perseveres in error. Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing ac...
Within a few years of the introduction of personal telecommunications, rumours began circulating about the safety of using cellular telephones. It was alleged that exposure to the radiation from the handsets and base stations was causing headaches or even brain tumours and other cancers. National and international regulatory and advisory bodies assured the public that such feats were unfounded: a
Demonstrates that the "Safe-at-Home" game manual can be effectively used by a teaching professional to teach safety skills to a small classroom of elementary school students, in the absence of special training and supervision. Extends the utility of these training methods for one-to-one to group instruction. (BJV)
Comparing the safety record of school buses to that of automobiles does not account for the nonschool time when automobiles are used. Experiences where seat belts are installed in school buses show that students use them, insurance is not a problem, and cost is slight. (MLF)
This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…
|Explains a scientific approach to accident prevention and outlines the safety aspects associated with the handling of chemicals in the secondary school. Provides a check list of unsafe acts and conditions, outlines features of good laboratory management, and gives hints for combating the effects of inflation on science budgets. (GS)|
The Water Operating Div. of the Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power has had a safety program in effect since 1955. Past progress has received attention in the JOURNAL on two previous occasions. Here is an updated report with emphasis on the effects that OSHA has had on the direction of the program.
Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.
|Explores the issues involved in conducting effective safety audits for educational facilities. Areas covered include auditing for site characteristics, access control, lighting, building exterior, door types and locking mechanisms, key control, alarm system controls, security monitors, and vision panels in the doors. (GR)|
|No community is safe until every member takes responsibility for the community's collective safety. College communities are no different from families, towns and businesses in that respect. Getting everyone to accept responsibility is a challenge and skilled communication is an important component of the solution. As part of the front line,…
Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…
This workshop covers major principles and regulations pertinent to working in laboratories with hazardous materials. It is divided into 45 minute segments dealing with: Radioactive Materials (Staiger); Toxic, Reactive, Carcinogenic, and Teratogenic Chemicals (Carlson); Infectious Agents (Laver); and Fire Safety Concepts and Physical Hazards (Arnston).
Jerry Staiger, Keith Carlson, Jim Laver, Ray Arntson (University of Minnesota;); Keith Carlson (University of Minnesota;); Jim Lauer (University of Minnesota;); Ray Amtson (University of Minnesota;)
A safety selector switch for preventing accidental energization of an electrical circuit is described. A plurality of annular discs, each having a cut-out portion in its periphery, are mounted on a shaft of an electrical component, such as a rotary switch...
California is one of the few states in which school districts have a legal responsibility for accidents involving students while they are participating in assigned school activities. This guide was prepared to help school administrators and teachers evaluate their safety instruction programs and industrial education facilities in accordance with…
Automotive Active Safety(AAS) is the main branch of intelligence automobile study and pedestrian detection is the key problem of AAS, because it is related with the casualties of most vehicle accidents. For on-board pedestrian detection algorithms, the main problem is to balance efficiency and accuracy to make the on-board system available in real scenes, so an on-board pedestrian detection and warning system with the algorithm considered the features of side pedestrian is proposed. The system includes two modules, pedestrian detecting and warning module. Haar feature and a cascade of stage classifiers trained by Adaboost are first applied, and then HOG feature and SVM classifier are used to refine false positives. To make these time-consuming algorithms available in real-time use, a divide-window method together with operator context scanning(OCS) method are applied to increase efficiency. To merge the velocity information of the automotive, the distance of the detected pedestrian is also obtained, so the system could judge if there is a potential danger for the pedestrian in the front. With a new dataset captured in urban environment with side pedestrians on zebra, the embedded system and its algorithm perform an on-board available result on side pedestrian detection.
A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 220.127.116.11, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.
In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and
The emergence of implementation and certification of structured management systems, such as the occupational health and safety management system, implies that companies should be able to measure the results and achievements from such implementation. This paper focuses on the description and comparison of the traditional indicators of health and safety performance and the use of different safety performance indicators, such
Based on the sociotechnical systems approach, an understanding of safety culture as deeply rooted assumptions about the interplay of people, technology, and organization in their relation to safety is presented. As a complement to audit methods aimed at assessing formal safety management, a questionnaire was developed which allows some indications of these assumptions to be captured by providing data on
... Drug Safety Information for Healthcare Professionals. As of January ... archived safety communications. Types of Safety Announcements. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders
This report presents findings from the first Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted this survey to collect critical information needed by the agency to develop and implement effective cou...
This study strives first to identify the deficiencies and problems in current process design practice. Three common practices to address safety have been studied: adherence to good practice, safety analyses and inherently safer design. The problems in the...
Text Version... Produce High quality data – Protect participants' rights, safety, and welfare ... Inability to verify critical efficacy and safety data ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents
... The government-wide FoodSafety.gov web site provides a widget that displays the latest recalls and food safety alerts from both FDA and USDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/importsexports
... job. This eTool * describes common hazards and potential safety solutions for teen workers and employers in the ... illustrated, interactive web-based training tools on occupational safety and health topics. As indicated in the disclaimer , ...
The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CA...
V. G. Snell J. Q. Howieson S. Alikhan G. M. Frescura F. King
... Vaccine Safety (CDC); Important Safety Information: Dosing and Administration of Rabies Immune Globulin (Human), HyperRAB™ S/D Packaged in ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability
... Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society Finding Out About Fireworks Safety KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Safe > Playing It Safe Outdoors and on the Road > Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Print A A A Text Size Isn' ...
Briefly defines the legal aspects of safety. Presents prominent safety hazards and procedures that should be followed when dealing with electricity, radioactive materials, lasers, poisons, and vacuum apparatus. (GS)
Sandia National Laboratories performs systems analysis of high risk, high consequence systems. In particular, Sandia is responsible for the engineering of nuclear weapons, exclusive of the explosive physics package. In meeting this responsibility, Sandia has developed fundamental approaches to safety and a process for evaluating safety based on modeling and simulation. These approaches provide confidence in the safety of our nuclear weapons. Similar concepts may be applied to improve the safety of other high consequence systems.
Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.
|Playgrounds, being a fundamental part of the childhood experience, should be safe havens for children. This handbook includes technical safety guidelines for designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining public playgrounds. It also includes a "Public Playground Safety Checklist" to highlight some of the most important safety issues for…
This report summarizes findings from a study concerned with Arizona school safety. The survey component highlights safety-related policy information across 300 schools; the interview component highlights school-safety perceptions of 64 staff across 16 schools. Various policies and programs that respond to internal and external threats to school…
This study has been undertaken to assess the magnitude of the school bus safety problem and to develop a plan to improve pupil transportation safety. The resulting report provides estimates of school bus population and daily usage, gives an account of injuries and fatalities that occur annually, and compares the safety records of school buses to…
|The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…
The UVM Environmental Safety site presents news, information, and services to support health and safety of laboratory personnel. While some of the site is geared toward UVM researchers, there is plenty of free information about chemical safety, biosafety, and waste disposal useful to students, educators, and researchers across the country.
Safety of residents has gained increased popularity in recent years following a report from the Institute of Medicine attributing 98,000 hospital deaths each year to errors by staff. As a result, regulatory agencies, advocates, and health care providers have shifted their focus to understanding patient safety and developing a culture that promotes safety. However, nursing homes lag behind other health
Background. Researcher safety is an important consideration in all areas of nursing social research. Risks to researchers’ safety are multidimensional and manifest differently, contingent on the context of the research encounters.Aim. To review researcher safety issues in social research with special attention to nursing.Review focus. A small number of studies are used in this article, as examples, to demonstrate the
|Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…
|Information obtained from a survey of safety and health training activities undertaken by Federal agencies is provided in the document which serves as a resource guide and directory of agency safety programs. The document, intended to help Federal managers meet their safety training needs with available government resources, is divided into four…
Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…
The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine,
The Institute of Medicine's (IOMs) report, “To Err is Human,” recently addressed patient safety in the United States, alerting the nation to the need for improved systems of health care. Seven main findings were addressed in this report, we focus on 3: (1) patient safety is a nationwide problem, (2) health care workers are not to blame, and (3) safety
Peter Pronovost; Albert W. Wu; Todd Dorman; Laura Morlock
Information obtained from a survey of safety and health training activities undertaken by Federal agencies is provided in the document which serves as a resource guide and directory of agency safety programs. The document, intended to help Federal managers meet their safety training needs with available government resources, is divided into four…
The growing concern for safety in both the workplace and in consumer products will create many new jobs through the mid-1980's--especially in private industry. The largest number of safety professionals are safety engineers; others include fire protection engineers, industrial hygienists, loss control and occupational health consultants, and…
Psychosocial factors play an important role in occupational health and safety. Stress is probably the most prevalent psychosocial problem and hence stress management ranks among the most promising health and safety promoters. This contribution deals with the stress of air traffic controllers (ATCOs) which results from workload on the one hand and the responsibility for air traffic safety on the
|This booklet presents articles completed in 1970 by the Division of Safety Education of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The 11 articles deal with the following topics: a) the problem of apathy in safety education, b) the safety aspects of archery and riflery, c) weight training for high school girls, d)…
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.
|This booklet presents articles completed in 1971 by the Division of Safety Education of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The 11 articles deal with the following topics: a) athletic training programs, b) safety considerations in winter sports, c) safety considerations in gymnastics, d) emergency care, e)…
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.
When people think of hydropower, an image of a dam often comes to mind. Indeed, at most high-hazard dams, there is a hydro plant. A North American hydro industry survey shows that dams and their safety are a priority among project owners. The survey identified several recent dam safety activities: development of safety evaluation programs; dam rehabilitation for greater stability;
|A new informal federal survey has found that for many districts, budget cuts have had a profound effect on school safety and security measures. Administrators have been forced to cut safety and security staffing and programs, reorganize security departments and find alternative sources of funding in order to maintain levels of safety and security…
Research shows that pedestrians, similar to drivers, experience reduced situation awareness, distracted attention and unsafe behavior when talking or texting on their mobile phones. The present study centered on injuries related to mobile phone use among pedestrians. It used data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission on injuries in hospital emergency rooms from 2004 through 2010. It found that mobile-phone related injuries among pedestrians increased relative to total pedestrian injuries, and paralleled the increase in injuries for drivers, and in 2010 exceeded those for drivers. Pedestrian injuries related to mobile-phone use were higher for males and for people under 31 years old. Using a mobile phone while walking puts pedestrians at risk of accident, injury or death. PMID:23644536
A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair.
Blush, S.M. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))
Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.
Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
Patient safety in the healthcare professions is a constant concern, and all practitioners want to be able to address this issue effectively and accurately. PharmSafety.org offers one way to provide that assurance, through the education and continued training of pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy assistants. Funded by an unrestricted educational grant from the McKesson Foundation, the siteÃ¯Â¿Â½s extensive CE (Continuing Education) Center is free for anyone to access; it simply requires creating a logon and password. Students, educators, practitioners and administrators can all choose their career level, occupational category and subcategories at registration, and then work through seven self-study modules personalized for their field within the study of pharmacy. The site also offers articles from practice and research journals, technical reports, conference handouts, and links to additional resources.
Precautions that need to be taken to assure safety on a manned Mars mission with nuclear thermal propulsion are briefly considered. What has been learned from the 1955 SNAP-10A operation of a nuclear reactor in space and from the Rover/NERVA project is reviewed. The ways that radiation hazards can be dealt with at various stages of a Mars mission are examined.
\\u000a Health and safety standards aim at minimizing risk to people and the environment. Often, though, there is a significant time\\u000a lag between the emergence of any new technology and the generation of sufficient risk information to allow a thorough risk\\u000a assessment and to write a traditional regulatory quantitative risk management standard . In the early twenty-first century,\\u000a this time lag
The Loctite corporation, which manufactures sealants, adhesives and coatings, has recently posted online a searchable database of materials safety information pages. Users enter keywords to retrieve listings of composition, physical properties, toxicity, and stability of compounds. Recommendations for storage and disposal, emergency first aid, and fire management are also provided. The database features Loctite products exclusively, but it does contain substantial listings that researchers and workers handling chemicals might need.
Delilah Hesling was appointed safety ombudsman at Brighton and Sussex University Hospital NHS Trust last August. Five years ago, the trust was at the centre of a scandal when nurse Margaret Haywood exposed patient neglect by filming undercover for a BBC documentary. Ms Hesling's role is to provide an independent service to foster a transparent, accountable culture that acknowledges failures and acts to prevent any recurrences. PMID:21675489
In the past 18 months, American Ref-Fuel, a Houston-based waste-to-energy company, has had three of its plants designated as Star facilities under the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) administered by OSHA. The VPP Star participants are a select group of facilities that have designed and implemented exemplary health and safety programs. They must show performance consistent with the VPP goal of
The safety characteristics of recent commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use for cellular phones. These are prismatic cells with an aluminum cell housing (can) and a 500–600 mA h capacity. They have one of two types of 4-V class cathodes, lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4). This report provides results of the
Shin-ichi Tobishima; Koji Takei; Yoji Sakurai; Jun-ichi Yamaki
This article discusses health and safety in coal mines and the primary issues in this area during 1989. Particular attention is given to the employment figures as well as the fatality statistics. According to this article, employment was up during 1989 to approximately 164,000 workers as compared to 136,000 in 1969. Attention is also given to dealing with coal mining regulations as well as a crackdown on illegal operators in the industry.
Snyder, K. (Mine Safety and Health Administration (US))
Triclosan (2,4,4?-trichloro-2?-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is a nonionic, broad spectrum, antimicrobial agent that, because of its favorable safety profile, has been incorporated into a variety of many personal care products, including deodorant soaps, underarm deodorants, shower gels, and health care personnel handwashes. Triclosan exhibits a moderate degree of substantivity to the skin, and, in many products, it imparts a remnant antimicrobial effect.
...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal...Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under its...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal...Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under its...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety fuse. 56.6502 Section 56.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety fuse. 57.6502 Section 57.6502 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...
...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety...category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety basis for the facility...DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis...
The following report presents an in-depth look at one of the most significant safety issues impacting highway safety and the success of the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's (NHTSA) mission -safety belt use. This document describes t...
This report provides findings, conclusions and recommendations regarding the National Space Transportation System (NSTS), the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP), aeronautical projects and other areas of NASA activities. The main focus of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) during 1988 has been monitoring and advising NASA and its contractors on the Space Transportation System (STS) recovery program. NASA efforts have restored the flight program with a much better management organization, safety and quality assurance organizations, and management communication system. The NASA National Space Transportation System (NSTS) organization in conjunction with its prime contractors should be encouraged to continue development and incorporation of appropriate design and operational improvements which will further reduce risk. The data from each Shuttle flight should be used to determine if affordable design and/or operational improvements could further increase safety. The review of Critical Items (CILs), Failure Mode Effects and Analyses (FMEAs) and Hazard Analyses (HAs) after the Challenger accident has given the program a massive data base with which to establish a formal program with prioritized changes.
The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.
A retrievable well safety valve in a cased well system including a tubing string, a dual packer downhole around the tubing sealing with the casing and submersible pump in the tubing string below the packer. The safety valve controls flow of pumped fluids through the tubing to surface and directs gas flow into the casing annulus above the packer. When the safety valve is landed in cooperating tubing nipples above the packer, separated central annular flow passages are formed for pumped fluids and gas respectively. A ball valve in the central flow passage controls pumped fluid flow therethrough and an annular valve coupled to the ball valve controls gas flow from below the packer through the annular flow passage around and by the ball valve. When the ball valve is in the down and open position, the valve ball member engages a lower seat, which maintains the central and annular flow passages separate and prevents comingling flow of fluids and gas. The coupled valves are held open by pressured fluid from surface and are closed automatically on loss of pressure in their control fluid circuits. When the valves close, a circuit of flow passages for recirculating pumped fluids and gas are opened below the ball valve and the pump may continue operation without overload.
Vinzant, M.B.; Hilts, R.L.; Meaders, M.; Speegle, S.C.
As part of the U.S. Department of Transportations Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) program, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is conducting R&D in vehicle safety and driver information systems. There is an increasing number of applications where pedestrian monitoring is of high importance. Visionbased pedestrian detection in outdoor scenes is still an open challenge. People dress in very different colors that sometimes blend with the background, wear hats or carry bags, and stand, walk and change directions unpredictably. The background is various, containing buildings, moving or parked cars, bicycles, street signs, signals, etc. Furthermore, existing pedestrian detection systems perform only during daytime, making it impossible to detect pedestrians at night. Under FHWA funding, we are developing a multi-pedestrian detection system using IR LED stereo camera. This system, without using any templates, detects the pedestrians through statistical pattern recognition utilizing 3D features extracted from the disparity map. A new IR LED stereo camera is being developed, which can help detect pedestrians during daytime and night time. Using the image differencing and denoising, we have also developed new methods to estimate the disparity map of pedestrians in near real time. Our system will have a hardware interface with the traffic controller through wireless communication. Once pedestrians are detected, traffic signals at the street intersections will change phases to alert the drivers of approaching vehicles. The initial test results using images collected at a street intersection show that our system can detect pedestrians in near real time.
Ling, Bo; Zeifman, Michael I.; Gibson, David R. P.
The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and Martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issue were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.
The Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem has been identified for potential applications for the Space Exploration Initiative. A qualitative safety assessment has been performed to demonstrate the overall safety adequacy of the Dynamic Isotope Power Subsystem for these applications. Mission profiles were defined for reference lunar and martian flights. Accident scenarios were qualitatively defined for all mission phases. Safety issues were then identified. The safety issues included radiation exposure, fuel containment, criticality, diversion, toxic materials, heat flux to the extravehicular mobility unit, and disposal. The design was reviewed for areas where safety might be further improved. Safety would be improved by launching the fuel separate from the rest of the subsystem on expendable launch vehicles, using a fuel handling tool during unloading of the hot fuel canister, and constructing a cage-like structure around the reversible heat removal system lithium heat pipes. The results of the safety assessment indicate that the DIPS design with minor modifications will produce a low risk concept.
This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes' - safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes - fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer. PMID:23969271
Safety is of paramount concern in todays high technology environment. Because of technological advances, there are numerous situations (high consequence operations) for which the implications of a safety failure are so severe that extreme attention to safety systems is essential. Some of those situations are: nuclear weapon detonation safety, nuclear reactor safety, dam safety, mass transit transportation safety, and hazardous materials transportation and handling safety. In each case, specific safety systems, human control, and administrative procedures have been designed to give a high level of assurance against disasters. In an overview sense, safety concepts can be divided into two broad approaches: active safety and passive safety. Active safety systems, in general, are based on the need for ``functioning`` elements (operating motors, operator action, etc.) and safety may be based in a large measure on ``reliability`` data (historical records of the operability success of components). Passive safety basically depends on non-functionality.
The world of safety analysis is filled with ambiguous words: codes and standards; consequences and risks; hazard and accident, and health and safety. These words have been subject to disparate interpretations by Safety Analysis Report (SAR) writers, readers and users. ``Principal health and safety criteria`` has been one of the most frequently misused terms; rarely is it used consistently or effectively. This paper offers an easily understood definition for ``principal health and safety criteria,`` and uses systems engineering to convert an otherwise mysterious topic into the primary means of producing an integrated SAR. This paper is based upon SARs being written for Environmental Restoration & Waste Management activities for the Department of Energy (DOE). Requirements for these SARs are prescribed in DOE Order 5480.23, ``Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports``.
This study tested the contribution of trust between leaders and subordinates to safety. It is suggested that leaders who create a relationship of trust with their subordinates are more likely to create a safe working environment, and to achieve higher and stronger safety-climate perceptions among their subordinates. Hence, trust should be negatively related to injuries and positively related to safety climate. Questionnaires distributed among 2524 soldiers in three army brigades tested for trust and safety-climate variables and were then crossed with injury rate according to medical records at the platoon level of analysis (N=105). Trust was found to be negatively related to injuries and positively related both to level and strength of safety climate. Furthermore, safety-climate level was found to mediate the relationship between trust and injury rates. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20441844
Software for safety-critical systems must deal with the hazards identified by safety analysis in order to make the system safe, risk-free, and fail-safe. Because human lives may be lost and tremendous economic costs may result if the software fails, the development of high-integrity software adopts practices that impose greater rigor on the software development processes. Software safety is a composite
The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into manufacturing safety and awareness, including identifying hazards, risk assessment, and hazard prevention or control. An assessment follows the module to gauge student understanding.
The US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory provides this site, highlighted by nuclear plants and material properties databases. The nuclear plants database can be searched by country, plant type, and operational status, as well as browsed by clickable map. Information retrieved may include location, type of reactor, controlling utility, and suppliers. The material properties database contains selected information on materials by type and property. In addition, there is a safety analysis results bibliographic database, with abstracts on literature (available in the INSC library) on Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Note that the site is a work in progress and that some areas are not open to the public.
The International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) has updated their map collection in the areas of Soviet designed reactors distributed throughout Eastern Europe and of Ukrainian nuclear power reactors. Information about each reactor is available by clicking on the maps. In addition to the maps, the digital library contains photos, graphics, presentations, and an online database of INSP related reports and information. The site also provides information about Soviet designed reactors and initiatives being undertaken by the US Department of Energy to improve conditions at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant. INSP is part of the US Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology.
The application of probabilistic risk-assessment techniques to space missions is discussed, with a focus on the International Space Station. The types of hazards likely to be caused by random events; design, operational, and management errors; and intentional intervention are examined along with their secondary effects; and the top-level safety requirements defined by NASA are considered. It is suggested that such qualitative stipulations be supplemented with more quantitative measures such as used in the nuclear-power industry; the major features of such quantitative methods are reviewed.
The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.
Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab; Liu, James C.; /SLAC; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos
Car-pedestrian accidents account for a considerable number of automobile accidents in industrialized countries. Safeguarding\\u000a of pedestrians is taking on an increasingly important role in car design. Working Group 17 (WG17) of the European Enhanced\\u000a Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) proposed four impactor models for assessing pedestrian friendliness of a vehicle. In this\\u000a study, finite element models of adult headform, child headform, upper
Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.
Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed.
The current paper uses data from two trauma registries to evaluate the significance of adult pedestrian torso injury relative to head and lower extremity injuries and to determine the relative importance of injuries to individual torso organs/structures. Analyses are conducted with and without adjusting for striking vehicle body type (car versus LTV). Although the incidence of torso injury is approximately 50% higher in pedestrians struck by LTVs than in those struck by cars, torso injury appears to be as an important contributor to the overall cost of pedestrian morbidity as is lower extremity injury. The most frequently injured torso organs/structures include the rib cage, lung & pleura, and liver. The results indicate a need for an increased focus on the prevention of torso injury in the design of pedestriansafety countermeasures.
Ivarsson, B. Johan; Henary, Basem; Crandall, Jeff R.; Longhitano, Douglas
This patent describes a subsurface well safety valve for controlling the fluid flow through a well conduit and including a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling the fluid flow through the bore, a tubular member telescopically moving in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member. The improvement in fluid actuating means for actuating the valve closure member comprising, a first piston and cylinder assembly in the housing adapted to be connected to a hydraulic control line, the first assembly connected to the tubular member, a second piston and cylinder assembly in the housing adapted to be connected to a hydraulic control line, the second assembly disconnected from the tubular member, and means for disconnecting the first assembly from the tubular member and connecting the second assembly to the tubular member. The method of operating a subsurface well safety valve for controlling the fluid flow through a well conduit in which the valve includes a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling the fluid flow through the bore.
A comprehensive safety concept is proposed for aircraft's experiencing an incident to the development of fire and smoke in the cockpit. Fire or excessive heat development caused by malfunctioning electrical appliance may produce toxic smoke, may reduce the clear vision to the instrument panel and may cause health-critical respiration conditions. Immediate reaction of the crew, safe respiration conditions and a clear undisturbed view to critical flight information data can be assumed to be the prerequisites for a safe emergency landing. The personal safety equipment of the aircraft has to be effective in supporting the crew to divert the aircraft to an alternate airport in the shortest possible amount of time. Many other elements in the cause-and-effect context of the emergence of fire, such as fire prevention, fire detection, the fire extinguishing concept, systematic redundancy, the wiring concept, the design of the power supplying system and concise emergency checklist procedures are briefly reviewed, because only a comprehensive and complete approach will avoid fatal accidents of complex aircraft in the future.
The safety of the avermectin, selamectin, was evaluated for topical use on the skin of cats of age six weeks and above, including reproducing cats and cats infected with adult heartworms. All studies used healthy cats. Acute safety was evaluated in domestic cross-bred cats. Margin of safety was evaluated in domestic-shorthaired cats, starting at six weeks of age. Reproductive, heartworm-infected,
M. J Krautmann; M. J Novotny; K De Keulenaer; C. S Godin; E. I Evans; J. W McCall; C Wang; T. G Rowan; A. D Jernigan
A typical electrical system and equipment layout is designed to conform with certain standards such as National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 70 or International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60364-1. The occupational safety and health administration also sets forth design safety standards for electrical systems under 29 CFR Subpart S 1910.302-308. These documents contain fundamental principles of safety for protection against electric
Operating-safety assurance for automatic objects (aircraft, spacecraft, and underwater vehicles) is considered in the framework of safety-automata theory and automatic-control considerations. The interaction between the operator and the safety-assurance facilities is considered. Methodological recommendations are presented on the specification of reliability requirements for the vehicles considered, as well as on automata synthesis and analysis considerations, test planning, and the analysis of test results.
Maiorov, Anatolii Vladimirovich; Moskatov, Genrikh Karlovich; Shibanov, Georgii Petrovich
...Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY...relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its...
...Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for...SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act...
...Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Cogent Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY...SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act...
... International Conference on Harmonisation - Safety. Below is a sortable list of the International Conference on Harmonisation ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances
An extensive operational nuclear safety program has been an integral part of the design, startup, and initial operating phases of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). During the design and construction of the facility, a program of independent safety overviews and analyses assured the provision of responsible safety margins within the plant, protective systems, and engineered safety features for protection of the public, operating staff, and the facility. The program is continuing through surveillance of operations to verify continued adherence to the established operating envelope and for timely identification of any trends potentially adverse to those margins.
Text Version... Pediatric Focused Safety Review: INTUNIV® (guanfacine hydrochloride XR) ... Background Drug Information (continued) INTUNIV® (guanfacine XR) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
At the start of each semester, our department begins our chemistry seminar series with a presentation on laboratory safety. All chemistry faculty, staff, graduate students, undergraduate research students, and student laboratory assistants are required to attend. Many of these individuals have sat through these seminars for several years; they feel the seminars are boring and repetitive. In order to enliven these safety presentations, I have created a cooperative online trivia game. It has been my experience that the lab safety trivia game is an effective and entertaining way to teach lab safety.
A pedestrian counter has a lot of applications like effective resource utilization, planning of service activities and ensuring safety and convenience. The design and implementation of a new intelligent pedestrian counter is presented in this paper. The counter is publicly usable, low cost, easily deployable and scalable. We used off-the-shelf components for our design and the overall cost is less
Nighttime driving is more dangerous than daytime driving-particularly for senior drivers. Three to four times as many driving-related deaths occur at night than in the daytime. To improve the safety of night driving, automatic pedestrian detection based on infrared images has drawn increased attention because pedestrians tend to stand out more against the background in infrared images than they do
Yajun Fang; Keiichi Yamada; Yoshiki Ninomiya; Berthold K. P. Horn; Ichiro Masaki
This student module on steel erection safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module identifies typical jobsite hazards encountered by steel erectors, as well as providing safe job procedures for general and specific construction activities. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text)…
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the understanding of industrial safety signs and messages by registered and non-registered safety officers in Hong Kong with ten different user factors, and examine the relationship between cognitive sign features and sign comprehensibility. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research methodology includes the survey development and appropriate statistical analyses. In total, 92 Hong
In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.
The overall objective of this study is to investigate the potentially rapid reactions between the ferrocyanide-containing salts, present in the SST's, and oxidants, such as nitrate, also present in the SST's. The objective of the energetics subtask is to investigate, on a screening basis, SST operational and compositional parameters which could affect the reaction between nickel cesium ferrocyanide, the expected form of cyanide in the SST, and nitrates and/or the nitrate radiolysis product nitrite. The objective of the large-scale explosion study is to independently confirm the results of the PNL laboratory-scale experiments and to determine the explosive behavior of a large sample of ferrocyanide and oxidant. The objective of the PNL-5441 revision subtask is to revise the complexant stability report, PNL-5441, to provide a current overview of the ferrocyanide safety issue and provide information to permit establishment of guidelines for SST management. 1 fig.
A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes experimental work conducted previously at Rocky Flats to determine decomposition reaction-rate constants for hydrogen peroxide solutions. Data from this report were used to calculate decomposition half-life times for hydrogen peroxide in solutions containing several decomposition catalysts. The information developed from this survey indicates that hydrogen peroxide will undergo both homogeneous and heterogeneous decomposition. The rate of decomposition is affected by temperature and the presence of catalytic agents. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by alkalies, strong acids, platinum group and transition metals, and dissolved salts of transition metals. Depending upon conditions, the consequence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition can range from slow evolution of oxygen gas to a vapor, phase detonation of hydrogen peroxide vapors.
This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. This module provides high level understanding of the RF generator, subsystem components, and some of the complex concepts involved in plasma technology. Some of the practice activities are designed in a game format that boosts learners' motivation to commit the purpose and function of key system components to memory. Interactive presentations demonstrate concepts such as maximum transfer of power, forward and reflected power, and impedance matching. Learners acquire knowledge, practice solving problems, and are assessed in their ability to understand and deal with safety issues associated with RF systems.
A recombinant dimer of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) 6 kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) was produced in Lactococcus lactis. Pharmacodynamic and safety studies were carried out in guinea pigs, rats, mice and dogs with intradermal (id), subcutaneous (sc) and intravenous (iv) administration of the antigen. In contrast to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) the recombinant dimer (rdESAT-6) was able to discriminate MTb infection from BCG vaccination in vivo. In guinea pigs sensitized by infection with MTb, 1 microg rdESAT-6 gave a mean delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response of 22 mm, a significantly stronger reaction than in animals sensitised by the environmental mycobacteria M. kansasii, M. szulgai and M. marinum. rdESAT-6 proved to be a safe tuberculin reagent in a dose range of 1-1000 microg with no or only minor local reactions. PMID:16352469
A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.
A multi position safety valve is disclosed retainable within an internal portion of a drill string casing (s) and responsive to the greater differential pressure in an internal fluid passage to displace a valve head relative to a valve seat (VS) from its normal partially open position to either a wide open or a closed position. The valve head is attached to a valve stem that extends through a valve chamber and slideably mounted in opposite closed ends of a valve body and returnable to and maintained in the partially open position by opposing compression springs situated between opposite ends of the valve body and one side of an intermediate abutment of the valve stem and an intervening disc on the opposite side thereof. The disc 38 is moveable into and out of seating engagement with an intermediate stop by one spring and the intermediate abutment of the valve stem respectively.
Flecainide is a class Ic antiarrhythmic agent that has an important role as part of rhythm control strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Early clinical data on the use of flecainide showed an increase in arrhythmias and mortality compared with placebo in patients with a previous myocardial infarction and asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias. These findings only apply to a specific group of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and ischaemic heart disease, but had a negative impact on the use of class Ic antiarrhythmics across all indications and patient groups. The aim of this review was to evaluate the available safety data for flecainide in the literature and to assess its current use in patients with AF. Current European guidelines now recommend the use of flecainide in carefully selected groups of patients with AF who do not have structural heart disease. This includes for the cardioversion of recent-onset AF, pretreatment prior to direct current cardioversion, out-of-hospital acute oral therapy ('pill-in-the-pocket' approach) and for the ongoing maintenance of sinus rhythm. Potential cardiac adverse effects of flecainide include proarrhythmia, conduction abnormalities and negative inotropic effects. Dizziness is the most frequent non-cardiac side effect, followed by blurred vision and difficulty focusing; these are almost all mild, transient and tolerable. Data from recent clinical trials in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias suggest that flecainide has a good tolerability profile in groups of appropriately selected patients. Caution is required when using flecainide in patients with renal dysfunction, and there are a number of drug interactions, but these are well documented and manageable. Overall, flecainide is a good choice for the pharmacological management of AF. It has a good safety record and low incidence of adverse effects, rare end-organ toxicity and a low risk of ventricular proarrhythmia. To ensure that the benefits of treatment outweigh any potential risks, careful patient selection and monitoring is required. PMID:22435343
Tamargo, Juan; Capucci, Alessandro; Mabo, Philippe
Pedestrians face problems in the winter which complicates their travel on roads and streets. Good winter maintenance or lack of it greatly affects their personal safety and comfort. Falling down on slippery walks often results in serious injury. Through c...
Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure patient safety culture in five Belgian general hospitals. Safety culture plays an important role in the approach towards greater patient safety in hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Patient Safety Culture Hospital questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in five general hospitals. It evaluates ten patient safety culture dimensions and two outcomes. The scores
Johan Hellings; Ward Schrooten; Niek Klazinga; Arthur Vleugels
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate consumer,attitudes regard- ing the safety of the food supply, relate food safety concern levels with groups of specific items, regulatory issues and prioritization of food safety funding areas, and to evaluate attitudes and behaviors toward specific food safety issues. As general level of concern with food safety increased, so did concern
This paper is essentially a case study of a safety assessment of an air traffic system. Key issues concerning safety management system essentials; safety requirements derivation and safety assurance provision are discussed. The study is based on many safety assessments of air traffic systems recently undertaken for medium-sized UK airports. The impact of the EU directive on interoperability is also reviewed.
This booklet provides guidelines for safety in the chemical laboratory. Part I, "Guides for Instructors and Administrators," includes safety rules, safety practices and facilities, preparation for emergencies, safety committees, accident reporting, fire insurance, and listings of some hazardous chemicals. Part II, "Student Guide to Safety,"…
|This booklet provides guidelines for safety in the chemical laboratory. Part I, "Guides for Instructors and Administrators," includes safety rules, safety practices and facilities, preparation for emergencies, safety committees, accident reporting, fire insurance, and listings of some hazardous chemicals. Part II, "Student Guide to Safety,"…
The human and organizational factors affecting safety were examined on 10 offshore installations using the Offshore Safety Questionnaire. The questionnaire contained scales measuring work pressure and work clarity, job communication, safety behaviour, risk perception, satisfaction with safety measures and safety attitudes. A total of 722 UK offshore workers (33% response rate) from a range of occupations completed and returned the
Kathryn Mearns; Rhona Flin; Rachale Gordon; Mark Fleming
This article reviews principles and practices for reactor safety, radiation protection, and waste management in Sweden. The legislative framework and organizational structure are briefly described. The application of safety concepts to the design and operation of nuclear facilities is examined. Operating experiences and plant modifications for improving safety are summarized. Current safety issues, including probabilistic safety studies, filtered containment venting,
Several times during the last decade consumers have been warned about different incidents concerning food safety, like, salmonella in eggs, cheese and poultry, and pesticides residues in tomatoes. The problem of food safety is still to be a largely latent concern for consumers. The main research goal of this paper is to investigate consumers' risk attitudes and risk perceptions concerning
Tatiana Novoselovaab; Miranda P. M. Meuwissen; Ivo A. C. M. van der Lans; Natalia I. Valeeva
Safety techniques in the use of engine lathes and production turret lathes are discussed. Literature is searched to identify safety problems and to learn of existing or proposed methods for reducing the risk of injury. Hazards are analyzed to identify inj...
The use of robots in medicine is increasing, leading to the call for specific safety standards. This is a challenging endeavor, however, because the patient must usually be placed in the robot's workspace and the medical staff must frequently interact with the robot. Although specific safety standards for medical robots do not yet exist, there are several medical device standards
Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This
The field of safety and health is one of growing importance and challenge, incorporating many new dimensions and responsibilities such as human factors engineering, industrial hygiene, fire prevention, the physical and behavioral sciences, product safety, and, in particular, the science of accident prevention. This book provides a comprehensive and integrated coverage of these latest multi-disciplinary developments which are pertinent and
|Suggests that a governmental agency, most likely Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) be considered in the safety design stage of any experiment. Focusing on OSHA's role, discusses such topics as occupational health hazards of toxic chemicals in laboratories, occupational exposure to benzene, and role/regulations of other…
An examination of the U.S. aviation and rail industries and the U.K. nuclear power industry provides evidence that changes associated with deregulation can be expected to create major challenges to the management of safety by the U.S. nuclear power industry and its safety regulators.
Vicki Bier; James Joosten; David Glyer; Jennifer Tracey; Michael Welsh
|This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…
This paper aims to provide an insight into the 15 year history of the TACIS Nuclear Safety Programme. It will present the\\u000a nuclear safety issues that led to the programme's beginnings and portray the various aspects of its implementation, funding,\\u000a challenges and achievements. Finally, the paper will outline the future direction of the programme.
Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.
Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…
A procedures guide for the performance of probabilistic safety assessment has been prepared for interim use in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission programs. The probabilistic safety assessment studies performed are intended to produce probabilistic predictive models that can be used and extended by the utilities and by NRC to sharpen the focus of inquiries into a range of tissues affecting reactor
I. A. Papazoglou; R. A. Bari; A. J. Buslik; R. E. Hall; D. Ilberg; P. K. Samanta; T. Teichmann; R. W. Youngblood; A. El-Bassioni; J. Fragola
The original basis for licensing power reactors in Canada was probabilistic, from which deterministic requirements were derived and developed. The AECB currently regulates in part by imposing unavailability targets on four special safety systems. In recent years, a number of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies have been performed in Canada, although a PSA is not yet formally required yet in
Four articles examine important aspects of sport safety. Topics include: (1) risks of eye injuries in racquet sports and preventive measures; (2) ways to reduce gymnastics injuries; (3) safety in training areas; and (4) risk-management strategies to avoid legal liability. Guidelines for teachers are given. (PP)
|General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…
Recommendations are presented with a view to further improving the nuclear safety and radiological protection in G.D.R. nuclear power plants by altering the requirements set out in the Labour Safety Regulation 880 for the weld quality of components of nuc...
The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static...
Elicitation of requirements for safety critical aero- engine control systems is dependent on the capture of core design intent and the systematic derivation of requirements addressing hazardous deviations from that intent. Deriva- tion of these requirements is inextricably linked to the safety assessment process. Conventional civil aerospace prac- tice (as advocated by guidelines such as ARP4754 and ARP4671) promotes the
This paper discusses the development of an Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) campaign to improve safety and reduce risk in oil and gas exploration. The essentials of ESM are summarized by the author. The paper addresses the method developed to implement ESM and how the control of process designs to control operations minimizes the risk of a major accident.
Information for patients, their families and friends, and the general public about how the rights and safety of people who take part in clinical trials are protected. Learn about informed consent, institutional review boards (IRB's), and how trials are closely monitored for safety.
A study was conducted to recommend a methodology for the seismic safety margin review of existing Canadian CANDU nuclear generating stations such as Pickering A. The purpose of the seismic safety margin review is to determine whether the nuclear plant has...
|Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…
|This is the third of three volumes of a safety guide developed to assist Kansas administrators and teachers in organizing, evaluating, and maintaining safety programs. It provides information to help them identify, assess, and correct unsafe conditions relating to equipment and facilities and ensure a safe and healthy environment for themselves…
The invention provides a safety pipette, a safety pipette insert, and a pipette adaptor which are designed so that the user is prevented from mouth pipetting fluids. In order to utilize the present technology, a user must employ a standard pipetting devic...
This paper describes the linkages between work design and patient safety. The focus is on nursing work; however, many of the concepts and methods are equally applicable to other healthcare professions. Work design relies on a large body of knowledge, including ergonomics, job stress and job\\/organizational design. First, a general framework of work design and patient safety is proposed. The
The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual...
This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in tractor and machinery safety for college freshmen. It is intended to be used for 10 hours of instruction for freshmen who are intending to work on or around machinery. Safety hazards directly and indirectly related to many types of machinery are covered in addition to tractors. The objectives of the…
|Four articles examine important aspects of sport safety. Topics include: (1) risks of eye injuries in racquet sports and preventive measures; (2) ways to reduce gymnastics injuries; (3) safety in training areas; and (4) risk-management strategies to avoid legal liability. Guidelines for teachers are given. (PP)|
Management systems for safety and environment and audits for assessing them have been a major research topic of the last few years. This attention has been fuelled by increasing emphasis in European directives on auditable safety management systems (SMS)11The concept ‘SMS’ is used throughout this paper as a shorthand term to cover the management of all unintended risks to life,
A. R. Hale; B. H. J. Heming; J. Carthey; B. Kirwan
A brief historical background of today's patient safety movement helps us to understand how the leap was made from safety in other industries to that in health care. Although comparing studies on adverse events in various countries is difficult, an attempt is made to emphasize both their scope and cost in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
|Potential safety hazards in the science classroom are surveyed. Some of the more potentially dangerous materials are described: mercury, formaldehyde, and black light radiation. The biological hazards of diseases carried by animals and of exposure to petri dish cultures are discussed. Five references on safety are included. (DT)|
|According to Jay Worona, general counsel for the New York State School Board Association, "Balancing safety and student constitutional rights is not easy. It has to be a careful balance. School officials must be prudent and not overreact. But one part of the equation has to be paramount. And safety should be the primary concern" (personal…
The inherent safety aspect of TPSS reactor blankets has been investigated. The idea is to design the blanket so safe that cost savings can be realized such as through non-nuclear grading construction. If the blanket materials are carefully selected, inherent safety is feasible for fusion reactor blankets up to 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading.
This paper focuses on safety systems used in Challis field subsea wells. It examines the design philosophy covering subsurface tubing and annulus shut-in, as well as the requirement to maintain annulus integrity with gas-lift valves (GLV's). The paper covers design, development, and testing of safety equipment, which should aid in design of completions for similar applications.
This paper explores the main safety features in Dubai International Airport (DIA) tunnel. The safety levels have been enhanced because of using centrally controlled electromechanical systems and ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) components and all operated by SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) technology. Redundancy of critical devices is ensured to maintain continuous back alternatives in case of systems defects or
Part 1 of the paper advocates a rational approach to public safety based on unbiased quantitative assessment of overall risks and benefits of any technological activity. It shows that improved safety should be attainable at less cost than is the case at p...
...Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment...Surgical Safety Institute of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005...
Patient safety is a growing priority in today's increasingly complex, highly technologic, and business-oriented health care system. This increasing emphasis is being fueled by issues such as cost containment, risk management, quality assurance, health care consumer activism, and legal accountability for practice. In such an environment, it is important that nursing be able to quantify and communicate what it does to promote and maintain patient safety. A standardized language of patient safety interventions provides nursing with the tool to do this. It provides a common language to use when dealing with patient safety issues in the practice, education, research, and administrative arenas. It also allows nurses to package and market the "product" of nursing care to health care consumers, other health care professionals, hospital administrators, and politicians, all of whom share an interest in ensuring that patient safety is maintained and promoted in the most comprehensive yet cost-efficient manner possible. PMID:1584696
During 1995, pedestrian deaths accounted for approximately 15% of all motor-vehicle-related deaths sustained by children aged 0-19 years in the United States. Because of the levels of participation in Halloween-related activities by elementary and middle school-aged children, these children might be more likely to sustain pedestrian injuries on that evening than on other evenings. To characterize the occurrence of fatal pedestrian injury among children on Halloween, CDC analyzed mortality data from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during 1975-1996. This report summarizes the results of the analysis and suggests measures to prevent Halloween-related pedestrian injuries and deaths among children. The findings indicate that the number of childhood pedestrian deaths increased fourfold among children on Halloween evenings when compared with all other evenings. PMID:9380012
This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the 221-B Canyon Building and ancillary support structures (B Plant). The document replaces BHI-010582, Documented Safety Analysis for the B-Plant Facility. The B Plant is non-operational, deactivated and undergoing long term S&M prior to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This DSA is compliant with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' The DSA was developed in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-1120-98, Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities (DOE 1998) per Table 2 of 10 CFR 830 Appendix A, DOE Richland Operation Office (RL) direction (02-ABD-0053, Fluor Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy and Criteria) for facilities in long term S&M, and RL Direction (02-ABD-0091, ''FHI Nuclear Safety Expectations for Nuclear Facilities in Surveillance and Maintenance''). A crosswalk was prepared to identify potential inconsistencies between the previous B Plant safety analysis and DOE-STD-1120-98 guidance. In general, the safety analysis met the criteria of DOE-STD-1120-98. Some format and content changes have been made, including incorporating recent facility modifications and updating the evaluation guidelines and control selection criteria in accordance with RL direction (02-ABD-0053). The facility fire hazard analysis (FHA) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) are appended to this DSA as an aid to the users, to minimize editorial redundancy, and to provide an efficient basis for update.
Autoimmune safety evaluation is an important component of post-licensure vaccine safety evaluation. Recently, we published the findings from a large observational safety study of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in females. From this study, based on two large managed care organizations, we have obtained some empirical data that may prove useful for the design of future vaccine safety studies within a managed care environment. For autoimmune conditions, a major challenge in vaccine safety study is to determine true incident cases in relation to the timing of vaccination. We found expert case review of medical records an indispensable component for autoimmune safety studies based on electronic health records. Case identification should also be expanded to include the use of laboratory test results or other relevant measures in addition to the disease specific ICD-9 diagnosis codes, when applicable. Furthermore, we recommend the parallel use of both safety signal evaluation that involves pattern evaluation for conditions that are more common, and statistical comparisons for conditions that are rather rare. Finally, we recommend an accompanying vaccine uptake study to understand the potential selection bias and confounding in a given study population that should be addressed with data collection and analytical techniques.
The current healthcare system is not designed to ensure better patient safety. In addition, healthcare is simultaneously becoming increasingly complex and increasingly fragmented. Medical knowledge and technology are expanding at an incredible rate, making it difficult for the healthcare providers to keep pace with advancing knowledge. Patients' needs are changing too: shifting from the diagnosis and treatment of a single, acute problem to the long-term management of multiple, interrelated chronic conditions. Our systems of care are not keeping up with these changes and, consequently, patients are experiencing unnecessary risk. Improving patient safety requires a transformation in how we currently care for patients. Healthcare organizations must adopt a new paradigm of care that holds patient safety as a core value and practice. To achieve this aim, healthcare organizations should build and maintain a culture of patient safety, provide leadership for patient safety that establishes a blame-free environment, proactively survey and monitor for adverse events, continually engineer patient safety into healthcare processes, and provide information and communication technologies to support patient safety. PMID:15793345
...Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis...ii) Identifies applicable nuclear criticality safety standards, and (iii...the program meets applicable nuclear criticality safety...
Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.
Planning, preparation, and submittal of safety analysis reports might be pursued in a manner similar to a quality-related procurement, where customer needs, expectations and acceptance criteria are established in advance. Then the product/service provider, the contractor, should apply various quality control processes to assure the desired characteristics of the product safety analysis documents. Improving the quality and acceptability to DOE of safety documents at first submittal should result in a more expeditious DOE review and approval process, thereby reducing costs of network and recycle through reviews.
Safety climate surveys were conducted on 13 offshore oil and gas installations in separate years (N=682 and 806, respectively), with nine installations common to both years. In addition, data on safety management practices were collected by questionnaire from senior management on eight installations in each year. The associations between management practices and climate scores with official accident statistics and self-reported
Examined frequency and characteristics of safety behaviors in television programs popular with child audiences. A sample of52 programs was coded for safety event loca- tion, demographic characteristics of safety models, social and physical contexts of safety events, and successful or unsuccessful outcomes of safety behaviors. Results indicate an overall rate of 13 safety behaviors per hour, with over half of
Richard Potts; Duane Runyan; Anne Zerger; Kenneth Marchetti
This paper uses industry wide survey data to assess employees’ perceptions of safety management and safety culture in the aviation industry. Results show that organisations, in ensuring safety, considered employees’ safety responsibilities to be more important than implementing effective safety management systems and encouraging positive safety culture. Aircraft maintenance engineers appeared to be committed to standards and operating procedures and
The Omnibus State Safety Survey is a multi-year study providing information on highway safety attitudes, perceptions, and reported behaviors of adult residents throughout the State of Michigan. The first phase of the Omnibus State Safety Survey was conduc...
A. C. Wagenaar L. J. Molnar F. M. Streff R. H. Schultz
In 1998, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) convened a steering group of bicycle safety experts and developed the National Bicycle Safety Education Curriculum. This Curriculum lists several bicycle safety education topics and target audiences - cyc...